“SEMINAR ON CONTEMPORARY MANAGEMENT ISSUE” “GREEN MARKETING”

Submitted to

Pacific Institute of Management, Udaipur
In partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of Master of Business Administration 2011-2012

Submitted to :-

Submitted By :1

Dr. Urvashi Sisodia MBA Pt-I Sem.II Pacific Inst. of Mgt

2

STUDENT DECLARATION

I, student of MBA semester II pacific institute of management declare that I have compiled the contents of this management report on contemporary issue titled GREEN MARKETING myself. I have collected data from various sources which are acknowledged in the bibliography. This is my own work and I have not submitted it elsewhere for any other purpose.

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which incorporates survey and comparative analysis.PREFACE The MBA curriculum is designed in such a way that student can grasp maximum knowledge and can get practical exposure to the corporate world in minimum possible time.A 4 . It gives the learner an opportunity to relate the theory with the practice. II Semester M. The report is necessary for the partial fulfillment of MBA curriculum and it provides an opportunity to the students in understanding the industry with special emphasis on the development of skills in analyzing and interpreting practical problems through the application of management theories and techniques. It is a new platform of learning through practical experience.B. to test the validity and applicability of his classroom learning against real life business situations. Business schools of today realize the importance of practical knowledge over the theoretical base.

5 . It is the only debt that is difficult to reply through gratitude. SHARMA. I also owe my heartiest thanks to the other faculty member for their cooperation & support. Last but not the least I would like to thanks all those who could not find a separate name but has help me directly or indirectly.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is always acknowledged so precious a debt as that of learning.P. I also want to thank my friends who extended their cooperation and were patient at all stages of our work. It is my deepest sense of gratitude that I wish place on record my sincere thanks to DR. URVASHI SISODIA for extending her support and encouragement. It is indeed a great opportunity for me to pen down a few lines about people to whom my acknowledgement is due. (DIRECTOR OF PACIFIC INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT) for providing me this opportunity to make this project. I express my gratitude to DR. B.

Some cases 7. Strengths and Problems of Green Marketing 6. Conclusion 6 . Evolution of Green Marketing 3. The Four P’s of Green Marketing 5. Introduction 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Need of Green Marketing 4.

7 .8. Reference INTRODUCTION 'I'll go out for a breath of fresh air' is an often-heard phrase. But how many of us realize that this has become irrelevant in today's world. because the quality of air in our cities is anything but fresh.

rapid economic development. Terms like "Green Marketing" and "Environmental marketing" appear frequently in the popular press. Every Govt. Many governments around the world have become so concerned about green marketing activities that they have attempted to regulate them . 8 . air pollution continues to be a serious local and worldwide problem.For example. Air pollution is aggravated because of four developments: increasing traffic. less-than-desirable substances have been vented into the air. in the United States (US) the Federal Trade Commission and the National Association of Attorneys-General have developed extensive documents examining green marketing issues. The Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 19th century saw the beginning of air pollution. One business area where environmental issues have received a great deal of discussion in the popular and professional press is marketing. which has gradually become a global problem. Air pollution is nothing new. car. and speeding cars causing dust to rise from the roads. But regardless of the efforts. fly ash generated by thermal power plants. growing cities. smoke billowing from a factory chimney. is trying to minimize this problem. Ever since the discovery of fire. or a scooter. a cloud of smoke from the exhaust of a bus.The moment you step out of the house and are on the road you can actually see the air getting polluted. as we know it today. and industrialization. Natural phenomena such as the eruption of a volcano and even someone smoking a cigarette can also cause air pollution.

The American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on "Ecological Marketing" in 1975. changes to the production process. such that the satisfaction of these needs and wants occurs. as well as modifying advertising. Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing. including product modification. Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task. which encompasses all major components of other definitions. as well as modifying advertising. packaging changes. including product modification.What Exactly Is Green Marketing According to American Marketing Association Green Marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. is: "Green or Environmental Marketing consists of all activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants. packaging changes. The proceedings of this workshop resulted in one of the first books on green marketing entitled "Ecological Marketing" Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities. Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task. The term green marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Indeed the terminology used in this area has varied. Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing. with minimal detrimental impact on the natural environment. changes to the production process. So the definition. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities." This definition incorporates much of the traditional components of the marketing definition that is "All activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants" 9 . it includes: Green Marketing.

Second phase was "Environmental" green marketing and the focus shifted on clean technology that involved designing of innovative new products. Why Green Marketing? As resources are limited and human wants are unlimited. and during this period all marketing activities were concerned to help environment problems and provide remedies for environmental problems.EVOLUTION OF GREEN MARKETING The green marketing has evolved over a period of time. According to Peattie (2001). the evolution of green marketing has three phases. 10 . So green marketing is inevitable. Third phase was "Sustainable" green marketing. First phase was termed as "Ecological" green marketing. which take care of pollution and waste issues. it is important for the marketers to utilize the resources efficiently without waste as well as to achieve the organization's objective. It came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000.

Worldwide evidence indicates people are concerned about the environment and are changing their behavior. For example. For example the cost of installing solar energy is an investment in future energy cost savings. While modification of business or production processes may involve start-up costs. changes to the production process. Recyclable. packaging changes. facilities that "specialize" in experiencing nature or operating in a fashion that minimizes their environmental impact. as well as modifying advertising. Ozone Friendly. green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities. in general green marketing is a much broader concept. Terms like Phosphate Free. it includes: Green Marketing.e. Unfortunately. As a result of this.. While green marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s. around the world there are resorts that are beginning to promote themselves as "ecotourism" facilities. i. including product modification. Indeed the terminology used in this area has varied. While these terms are green marketing claims. a majority of people believes that green marketing refers solely to the promotion or advertising of products with environmental characteristics. Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task. one that can be applied to consumer goods. Thus. Benefits of Green Marketing Green marketing offers business bottom line incentives and top line growth possibilities. Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing. 11 . it will save money in the long term. green marketing has emerged which speaks for growing market for sustainable and socially responsible products and services. and Environmentally Friendly are some of the things consumers most often associate with green marketing. Refillable. industrial goods and even services. it was first discussed much earlier..There is growing interest among the consumers all over the world regarding protection of environment.

A further 80% of this sample indicated that they had modified their behavior. Adoption of Green Marketing There are basically five reasons for which a marketer should go for the adoption of green marketing. other than Singapore.Companies that develop new and improved products and services with environmental impacts in mind give themselves access to new markets. including their purchasing behavior.As demands change. substantially increase profits and enjoy competitive advantages over those marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. 12 . due to environmental reasons .A 1994 study in Australia found that 84. more than 50% of consumers in each country. indicated they were concerned about the environment . They are  Opportunities or competitive advantage  Corporate social responsibilities (CSR)  Government pressure  Competitive pressure  Cost or profit issues OPPORTUNITIES OR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE In a 1992 study of 16 countries. many firms see these changes as an opportunity to be exploited.6% of the sample believed all individuals had a responsibility to care for the environment.

fuel efficiency. for instance. it's likely the most successful "green" product in the US. It provides consumers with all they seek in a sedan and more—attractive styling. it can be assumed that firms marketing goods with environmental characteristics will have a competitive advantage over firms marketing nonenvironmentally responsible alternatives. The car's dashboard comes with an unusual feature: a screen that lets the driver know which of the two engines is in use and how efficiently fuel is being used at any given moment. Prius owners try to beat their previous record each time they drive! 13 . since the car doesn't idle at stoplights. the ability to drive for an unlimited amount of miles only stopping for fill-ups (versus. * Tuna manufacturers Modified their fishing techniques because of the increased concern over driftnet fishing. having to stop for a 12-hour recharge if the engine were only electric). and the resulting death of dolphins. * Xerox Introduced a "high quality" recycled photocopier paper in an attempt to satisfy the demands of firms for less environmentally harmful products. * McDonald's Replaced its clamshell packaging with waxed paper because of increased consumer concern relating to polystyrene production and Ozone depletion. in an attempt to better satisfy their consumer needs. * Toyota Prius For lots of good reasons. and because of the hybrid engine. There are numerous examples of firms who have strived to become more environmentally responsible.Given these figures. according to anecdotes. a quiet ride.

ads focused on superior performance evidenced by a quiet ride. it is reported. In other cases firms have jumped on the green bandwagon without considering the accuracy of their behavior. or the effectiveness of their products. the Prius is now being marketed for its superior fuel efficiency.When the car was introduced. This lack of consideration of the true "greenness" of activities may result in firms making false or misleading green marketing claims. even buy the car for what is being called "Conspicuous Conservation"—letting all know that they are environmentally astute. their claims. In some cases firms have misled consumers in an attempt to gain market share. and supplemental ads touted its environmental bona fides. Some owners. 14 . and a PR machine fuels effort to link the car to environmentally conscious celebrities and causes. With energy prices on the rise. This is not to imply that all firms who have undertaken environmental marketing activities actually improve their behavior.

as well as having modified their packaging to minimize its environmental impact. Says David North. There are examples of firms adopting both strategies. rather than simply being a competitive tool. This results in environmental issues being integrated into the firm's corporate culture. While being concerned about the environment. Fund managers and corporate developers too. They have invested large sums of money in various recycling activities. Another firm who is very environmentally responsible but does not promote this fact. Thus many consumers may not realize that Coke is a very environmentally committed organization.CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Many firms are beginning to realize that they are members of the wider community and therefore must behave in an environmentally responsible fashion. 15 . WDW has an extensive waste management program and infrastructure in place. This philosophy is directly tied to the overall corporate culture. is Walt Disney World (WDW). the firm was established specifically to offer consumers environmentally responsible alternatives to conventional cosmetic products. Organizations like the Body Shop heavily promote the fact that they are environmentally responsible. at least outside the organization. Coke has not used this concern as a marketing tool. Tesco’s community director. An example of a firm that does not promote its environmental initiatives is Coca-Cola. While this behavior is a competitive advantage. This translates into firms that believe they must achieve environmental objectives as well as profit related objectives." our customers have told us that they decide where they shop based on whether the business is a good neighbor”. are taking into account the environmental viability of the company they invest in Venture Capitalists are investing in green business because they believe it's a growth opportunity. yet these facilities are not highlighted in their general tourist promotional activities. Britain based HSBC became the world's first bank to go carbon neutral late last year and is now turning its 11000 buildings in 76 countries worldwide into models of energy efficiency.

of Frankfurt. the first such coalition in country's history. the India's capital was getting polluted gradually at a very fast pace till Supreme Court of India forced a change of fuel on it. In some cases governments try to "induce" final consumers to become more responsible. Many by-products of production are controlled through the issuing of various environmental licenses. California's Republican Gov. a directive was issued to completely adopt CNG in all public transport systems to curb pollution. He also wants to reduce his state's greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050.Governmental Pressure As with all marketing related activities. thus modifying organizational behavior. Arnold Schwarzenegger met with British Labor Prime Minister Tony Blair to promote the idea of transatlantic carbon emissions market. making it easier for consumers to act responsibly New Delhi. or 3) ensure that all types of consumers have the ability to evaluate the environmental composition of goods. 2) modify consumer and industry's use and/or consumption of harmful goods. For example. some governments have introduced voluntary curbside recycling programs. this protection has significant green marketing implications. governments want to "protect" consumers and society. Governments establish regulations designed to control the amount of hazardous wastes produced by firms. 1) reduce production of harmful goods or by-products. 16 . In Germany the Greens and the conservatives recently agreed to join forces to run the city govt. Governmental regulations relating to environmental marketing are designed to protect consumers in several ways. In 2002.

For example. When attempting to minimize waste. such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated oil are becoming increasingly costly and in some cases difficult. but reduce the need for some raw materials. This serves as a double cost savings. In another example when one tuna manufacture stopped using driftnets the others followed suit Cost Or Profit Issues Firms may also use green marketing in an attempt to address cost or profit related issues. In addition to these guidelines many States in the US have introduced legislation to control various environmental marketing activities. In many cases firms observe competitors promoting their environmental behaviors and attempt to emulate this behavior. These regulations include the Australian Trade Practices Commission's (TPC) "Environmental Claims in Marketing .These regulations are all designed to ensure consumers have the appropriate information which would enable them to evaluate firm's environmental claims. firms are often forced to re-examine their production processes. since both waste and raw material are reduced. Therefore firms that can reduce harmful wastes may incur substantial cost savings. * Philips Light's CFL 17 .One of the more recent publicized environmental regulations undertaken by governments has been the establishment of guidelines designed to "control" green marketing claims.A Guideline. Competitive Pressure Another major force in the environmental marketing area has been firms' desire to maintain their competitive position. it could be argued that Xerox's "Revive 100% Recycled paper" was introduced a few years ago in an attempt to address the introduction of recycled photocopier paper by other manufacturers. Disposing of environmentally harmful by-products. In some instances this competitive pressure has caused an entire industry to modify and thus reduce its detrimental environmental behavior. the US Federal Trade Commission's (FTC) "Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims" and the regulations suggested by the National Association of Attorneys-General . In these cases they often develop more effective production processes that not only reduce waste.

" underscoring its new "super long life" positioning and promise of saving $26 in energy costs over its five-year lifetime. Fundamental Issues for Discussion One of the biggest problems with the green marketing area is that there has been little attempt to academically examine environmental or green marketing. One Australian example of this is a firm who produces acidic wastewater as a by-product of production and sells it to a firm involved in neutralizing base materials. sales climbed 12 percent in an otherwise flat market In other cases firms attempt to find end-of-pipe solutions. The 4 P's of green marketing are that of a conventional marketing but the challenge before marketers is to use 4 P's in an innovative manner. where one firm's waste becomes another firm's input of production. with the U. 18 . instead of minimizing waste. The product had difficulty climbing out of its deep green niche. The company re-launched the product as "Marathon.Philips Lighting's first shot at marketing a standalone compact fluroscent light (CFL) bulb was Earth Light. In these situations firms try to find markets or uses for their waste materials. EPA's Energy Star label to add credibility as well as new sensitivity to rising utility costs and electricity shortages. Some have 4 P's and some have 7 P's of marketing mix. it comes from divergent perspectives.Finally. at $15 each versus 75 cents for incandescent bulbs.S. While some literature does exist. Green Marketing Mix Every company has its own favorite marketing mix.

1. 19 . green marketers must address the 'four Ps' in innovative ways. Product.THE FOUR P’S OF GREEN MARKETING Like conventional marketers.

it is vital to ensure that products meet or exceed the quality expectations of customers and is thoroughly tested.. Organic products — many consumers are prepared to pay a premium for organic products. energy or gasoline. Product Entrepreneurs wanting to exploit emerging green markets will either: • Identify customers' environmental needs and develop products to address these needs. changed their packaging from polystyrene clamshells to paper. 4. 3. which offer promise of qualityA service that rents or loans products – such as toy libraries. • The increasingly wide varieties of products on the market that support sustainable development and are good for the triple bottom line include: • Products made from recycled goods. McDonalds. 20 . 1. as long as they offer substantiation. Place. Products that can be recycled or reused. which meet or exceed environmentally responsible criteria. Products with green labels. Price. Products with environmentally responsible packaging. which save water. or Develop environmentally responsible products to have less impact than competitors. save money and reduce environmental impact. Whatever the product or service. Efficient products. Promotion. • • • • • • Certified products.2. such as Quik'N Tuff housing materials made from recycled broccoli boxes. for example.

in most cases. water-efficient printing and non-hazardous products. The location must differentiate you from your competitors 4. Place The choice of where and when to make a product available will have significant impact on the customers you attract. Very few customers will go out of their way to buy green products merely for the sake of it. however. position them broadly in the market place so they are not just appealing to a small green niche market. Marketers looking to successfully introduce new green products should. for example fuel-efficient vehicles. Price Pricing is a critical element of the marketing mix. sales promotions. 3. Most customers will only be prepared to pay a premium if there is a perception of additional product value. function. Promotion Promoting products and services to target markets includes paid advertising. 21 . direct marketing and on-site promotions. are often less expensive when product life cycle costs are taken into consideration. design. Environmentally responsible products. visual appeal or taste. public relations.2. The location must also be consistent with the image you want to project and allow you to project your own image rather than being dominated or compromised by the image of the venue. This value may be improved performance. Environmental benefits are usually an added bonus but will often be the deciding factor between products of equal value and quality.

Strategies for Green Marketing The marketing strategies for green marketing include:  Marketing Audit (including internal and external situation analysis)  Develop a marketing plan outlining strategies with regard to 4 P's  Implement marketing strategies  Plan results evaluation Why Are Firms Using Green Marketing? When looking through the literature. under the banner of the Go Green Environment Fund. for example those produced by Land care Australia. Organizations perceive environmental marketing to be an opportunity that can be used to achieve its objectives 22 . are recognizing the value of alliances with other companies. there are several suggested reasons for firms increased use of Green Marketing. for example. and printed materials can be produced using recycled materials and efficient processes. environmental groups and research organizations when promoting their environmental commitment. To reduce the use of plastic bags and promote their green commitment. Clean up Australia and Planet Ark. For example. such as waterless printing. Retailers. Five possible reasons cited are: 1. E marketing is rapidly replacing more traditional marketing methods. . many companies in the financial industry are providing electronic statements by email. some retailers sell shopping bags.Smart green marketers will be able to reinforce environmental credibility by using sustainable marketing and communications tools and practices.

Cost factors associated with waste disposal. $30 mn is what Goldman Sachs invested in Canadian alternative-fuels company Logen. • 23 . • Renewable Energy Corp.2. Competitors' environmental activities pressure firms to change their environmental marketing activities 5. a Norwegian Solar energy company. Governmental bodies are forcing firms to become more responsible 4. US Treasury secy. or reductions in material usage forces firms to modify their behavior STRENGTHS AND PROBLEMS OF GREEN MARKETING Green Marketing Does Lead To Success …… Green marketing is not a theoretical concept only.In addition to building 80 new eco stores across Britain over the next year –the greenest of which will be constructed of recycled materials and will burn food waste for electricity-they are also making small changes that could have big results. A few examples are• Telco is pumping $200mn into environmental technologies to reduce the amount of energy they use by 50% compared with 2000 levels. had the world's largest ever-renewable energy IPO in may. It was one of the several green ventures for ex-Goldman and Nature Conservancy head Henry Paulson. by 2010. A lot of firms are using this concept to consolidate their market positions.. They are paying customers not to use plastic bags that they expect would cut consumption by 25% in two years. Organizations believe they have a moral obligation to be more socially responsible 3.

• The World's two largest insurance cos.1 bn in 2005 as compared with $6. Goldman Sachs' ESG (Environmental. World's largest wind turbine energy firm. Chinese Solar Company Suntech power raised $ 400mn in December. 1. Vinod khosla. India’s Suzlon Energy was 28 times oversubscribed when it launched for $340 mn at the end of last year. annually publish reports explaining how they plan to cut carbon emissions and make their products and factories greener. • Venture capital investment in renewable energy cos. the silicon valley venture capitalist who got big and early with Google and Amazon. Similarly In Japan about 800 cos. 24 • • • • . Social and Governance) Index now ranks the world's largest cos. is now betting $50mn of his dot com cash on next generation ethanol. • Some of the Venture Capitalists who bankrolled the dot com boom of 1990s now see alternative forms of energy as next big thing. • GE signed a deal of $10 bn with British Petroleum to develop hydrogen power plants that will capture carbon and bury it underground so it doesn't lead to global warming. partly by selling low emissions products ranging from power plants to fluorescent light bulbs have raked in $10. was up 36 % last year to a record $739mn. including biofuels • Markets are also beginning to recognize that cos. which raised $ 400 mn in October. Largest venture capital backed IPO in Europe last year was of German renewable energy company Q-cells.2 bn in 2004. based on how environmentally friendly their operations are. Swiss Re and Munich Re are now taking cos.GE's ECOIMAGINATION campaign to cut carbon emissions. The wilder Hill Clean Energy Index that charts 40 alternative energy firms has risen 485 since its 2004 debut. policies on climate change into consideration when determining risks. Goldman Sachs has invested more than $ 1bn in renewable energy sources. that do not do right by Mother Nature may have more volatile stock prices.

* Ensure comparative differences are justified. However. For example marketers in the US must ensure their green marketing claims can meet the following set of criteria. * Clearly state environmental benefits. 25 . in order to comply with the FTC's guidelines. The Body Shop. and do not breach any of the regulations or laws dealing with environmental marketing. * Explain environmental characteristics. Oriental Princess. an attempt has been made in this paper to analyze the green marketing strategies of these companies and their impact on consumer attitudes and brand loyalty. * Explain how benefits are achieved. green marketing of these products is rather recent. The research shows that that the two companies have made honest attempts to adopt green marketing strategies. One of the main problems is that firms using green marketing must ensure that their activities are not misleading to consumers or industry. Thai customers consider non-green attributes more important in making their purchase decisions. have employed green marketing strategies to build their customer base in the Thai market. several global and local companies have entered Thailand. and a local company. Using case research method and questionnairebased surveys. Encouraged by the growing environmental consciousness on the part of citizens and a growing market for cosmetics and toiletries. Green marketing claims must.• Green marketing of cosmetics and toiletries in Thailand Use of traditional cosmetics and toiletries manufactured from herbs and plant extracts has been popular in many Asian countries. The two case companies have been able to create favorable attitudes and enjoy a high degree of brand loyalty Some Problems With Going Green No matter why a firm uses green marketing there are a number of potential problems that they must overcome. An international company. However.

When firms attempt to become socially responsible.. which has switched from CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) to HFCs (hydro fluorocarbons) only to be told HFCs are also a greenhouse gas. which is more environmentally friendly.* Ensure negative factors are taken into consideration. and * only use meaningful terms and pictures. like Coca-Cola and Walt Disney World. If this is the case McDonald's bowed to consumer pressure." A costly example of this was the Mobil Corporation who followed the competition and introduced "biodegradable" plastic garbage bags. if it is determined they made the wrong decision in the past. This may explain why some firms. i. which may also harm the ozone layer. Some firms now use DME (dimethyl ether) as an aerosol propellant. yet has chosen the more environmentally harmful option. Another problem a firm faces is that those who modify their products due to increased consumer concern must contend with the fact that consumers' perceptions are sometimes not correct. There is ongoing scientific debate. are becoming socially responsible without publicizing the point. While governmental regulation is designed to give consumers the opportunity to make better decisions or to motivate them to be more environmentally responsible. For example. guidelines developed to control environmental marketing address only a very narrow set of issues. the conditions under which they were disposed did not allow 26 .e. Some scientific evidence suggests that when taking a cradle-to-grave approach. there is difficulty in establishing policies that will address all environmental issues. they may face the risk that the environmentally responsible action of today will be found to be harmful in the future. They may be protecting themselves from potential future negative backlash. Take for example the McDonald's case where it has replaced its clamshells with plastic coated paper. While technically these bags were biodegradable. Given the limited scientific knowledge at any point in time. polystyrene is less environmentally harmful. it may be impossible for a firm to be certain they have made the correct environmental decision. Take for example the aerosol industry. the truthfulness of environmental marketing claims Reacting to competitive pressures can cause all "followers" to make the same mistake as the "leader.

 Majority of the people are not aware of green products and their uses. Ultimately most waste produced will enter the waste stream. Mobil was sued by several US states for using misleading advertising claims. which is costly. The push to reduce costs or increase profits may not force firms to address the important issue of environmental degradation.  Requires a technology. Thus blindly following the competition can have costly ramifications.  Majority of the consumers are not willing to pay a premium for green products. Challenges Ahead: Green products require renewable and recyclable material. though it may minimize its short-term affects. 27 . therefore to be environmentally responsible organizations should attempt to minimize their waste. which requires huge investment in R & D. End-of-pipe solutions may not actually reduce the waste but rather shift it around.  Water treatment technology. which is too costly. While this may be beneficial.biodegradation to occur. rather than find "appropriate" uses for it. it does not necessarily address the larger environmental problem.

which saved 68 million pound/year.SOME CASES  McDonald's restaurant's napkins. 28 . bags are made of recycled paper.  Coca-Cola pumped syrup directly from tank instead of plastic.  Barauni refinery of IOC is taken steps for restricting air and water pollutants.  Badarpur Thermal Power station of NTPC in Delhi is devising ways to utilize coal-ash that has been a major source of air and water pollution.

Marketers need to understand the implications of green marketing. think again. You must find an opportunity to enhance you product's performance and strengthen your customer's loyalty and command a higher price. 29 .CONCLUSION Green marketing should not neglect the economic aspect of marketing. If you think customers are not concerned about environmental issues or will not pay a premium for products that are more eco-responsible. Green marketing is still in its infancy and a lot of research is to be done on green marketing to fully explore its potential.

greenmarketing.wmin.au/sustainable_ industries www.gov.ac.uk/marketingresearch/marketing/greenmix.qld.epa.REFERENCES Web links: • • • www.html 30 .html www.net/stratergic.

indianmba. 31 .com/knowledgezone. www.com/knowledgezone/marketing/greenmarketing opportunities and challenges.• • www.coolavenues.

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