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PROJECTILES

Objects which are projected with a certain initial velocity and then controlled only by gravity are known as projectiles. During projectile motion, acceleration of the body remains constant and is equal to acceleration due to gravity at the location. Consider a body projected with a velocity u at angle with horizontal from O (where x = 0, y = 0) Resolving v into rectangular components uCos responsible for horizontal displacement and uSin responsible for vertical motion as shown.

Path of a Projectile
Let the body reach the point P(x,y) in time t. For vertical motion from O to P Initial vertical velocity = uSin Vertical acceleration = -g Vertical displacement = y Using equation of motion Y = uSin.t - gt2 ------- (1) For Horizontal motion Horizontal displacement = x Horizontal velocity = vCos X = vCos . t From 1 & 2 t= y = tan . x --------(2)

As this equation is similar to equation of a parabola y = ax + bx 2, We can conclude that the trajectory of a projectile is Parabolic.

Maximum Height (H)


Consider vertical motion from O to A Initial vertical velocity = uSin Vertical acceleration = -g Final vertical velocity = 0 Vertical displacement = H Using equation of motion 0 - u2 sin2 = -2gH H=

Time of Flight (T)


Consider vertical motion from O to B Initial vertical velocity = uSin Vertical acceleration = -g Vertical displacement = 0 Time taken = T Using equation of motion 0 = u.Sin.T gT2 T=

Horizontal Range (R)


Consider horizontal motion from O to B Horizontal velocity = uCos Horizontal displacement = R Time taken = T R = uCos. T = uCos. R= Note : To attain maximum horizontal range should be maximum, i.e = 45o

=1

2 = 90

UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION


When an object follows a circular path at a constant speed, the motion of the object is called uniform circular motion. The word uniform refers to the speed, which is uniform (constant) throughout the motion. Suppose an object is moving with uniform speed v in a circle of radius r as shown. Since the velocity of the object is changing continuously in direction, the object undergoes acceleration and is always directed towards the centre. This acceleration is called centripetal acceleration.

Consider a body moves from A to B along a circular path of radius r with a uniform speed v so that the radial segment sweeps through an angle in time t, then is known as angular displacement. From the diagram we can conclude, Linear displacement s = r. ......... (1) Rate of angular displacement is known as angular velocity () = From eqn. (1) = r. i.e. v = r . .......... (2)

Rate of change of angular velocity is known as angular acceleration () = From equation (2) = r. i.e. a = r.

Expression for centripetal acceleration


Consider a body moving in a circular path of radius r with a uniform speed v. Let a body moves from A to B through a S in a time t. Let 1 be the velocity at A and 2 be the velocity at B so that I 1I = I 2I = v Using triangle law of vector addition = i.e. From the diagram, = = i.e. a = i.e. = + = -