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Basic Telephony and Cellular

Basic Telephone System

SWITCH / EXCHANGE

1. 2.

Off Hook Dial Tone Dialing Digits Conversation

1. 2. 3.

Ring Off Hook Conversation

Wireless Telephone System


MSC

RBS BSC

RBS

Mobile Subscriber...

What is Cellular Telephony?


The Cell
A cell is a certain area that can be reached with one transceiver
RBS
Actual Cell Shape

The hexagonal-shaped communication cells are artificial & are generated to simplify the planning & design of a cellular network.

What is Cellular Telephony?


Contd

MICRO Cells
Below Rooftop ~ Railway Platforms, Airports ~ Busy Shopping Bazaar etc. Low Tx Power ~ 2 Watt max. Limited Coverage ~ 200m - 500m
Macro Cell

Micro Cell

What is Cellular Telephony?


Contd

PICO Cells
Inside offices, Buildings Very Low Tx Power ~ Less than 1 Watt
Macro Cell

Limited Coverage ~ 50 -100m

Pico Cell

GSM Network Elements

GSM Network Elements


NMC EC VLR

PSTN

HLR

AUC OMS OMC MSC EIR

IWF

NSS ME XCDR
--

BSC

SIM MS BTS BSS

GSM Network Elements


Base Station System (BSS)
Three main components

NSS BSC (Base Site Controller) BTS (Base Transceiver Station) XCDR (Transcoder)

XCDR

BSS

BSC BTS

GSM Network Elements


Base Station System (BSS) BSC (Base Site Controller)
Controls up to 40 BTS Conveys information to & from BTS Connects terrestrial circuits & Air Interface channels Controls handovers between BTSs under BTS (Base Transceiver Station) itself Contains RF Hardware Limited control functionality Provides connectivity b/w MSC & BTS BSS

XCDR

BSC

1 - 6 carriers in a BTS Cabinet 7 - 48 simultaneous calls per BTS

BTS

GSM Network Elements


Transcoder (XCDR)
64kbps each

30 Channel PCM
1234

64kbps each

120 GSM TCH

MSC

XCDR 1 2 3 4
16 kbps each

BSS

Transcoder Information from FOUR calls (4x16 KBPS put into ONE 64 KBPS timeslot

GSM Network Elements


BSS Configuration
Collocated BTS

Remote BTS

GSM Network Elements


BSS Configuration
Star Configuration

All BTS on 1 E1

GSM Network Elements


BSS Configuration Loop Configuration

All BTS on 1 E1

GSM Network Elements

Network Switching System (NSS)


MSC (Mobile Switching Centre) HLR (Home Location Register) VLR (Visitor Location Register) EIR (Equipment Identity Register)
EC VLR HLR

AUC (Authentication Centre) IWF (Interworking Function) EC (Echo Canceller)


IWF

AUC MSC

NSS

EIR

GSM Network Elements


MSC

Network Switching System (NSS)

Call Switching Operation & Management Support Collects call billing data
EC VLR HLR

Gateway MSC
Provides interface between PSTN & GSM Network.
IWF

AUC MSC

NSS

EIR

GSM Network Elements


HLR
Reference database for the Subscriber profiles

Network Switching System (NSS)

Subscriber ID (IMSI & MSISDN) Current VLR Address Supplementary Service Information (e.g current forwarding address)
EC VLR HLR

Subscriber Status (Registered/deregistered) Authentication Key and AUC functionality TMSI MSRN
IWF NSS MS C

AUC

EIR

GSM Network Elements


VLR

Network Switching System (NSS)

Temporary Data, which exists as long as the subscriber is active in a particular Coverage area, and contains the following

Mobile Status (Busy/ Free/ No Answer/etc.)


EC

VLR

HLR

Location Area Identity (LAI) TMSI MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number) IWF
NSS AUC MS C

EIR

GSM Network Elements


EIR
Contains Database for validating IMEI

Network Switching System (NSS)

White List (valid ME) Black List (Stolen ME) Grey List (Faulty ME)
IWF NSS EC VLR HLR

AUC MSC

EIR

GSM Network Elements


IWF

Network Switching System (NSS)


Provides function to enable the GSM System to interface with Public/Private Data Networks. The basic feature of the IWF are
~ ~

Rate Conversion Protocol adaptation


EC

VLR

HLR

AUC MSC

IWF NSS

EIR

GSM Network Elements


Echo Canceller

Network Switching System (NSS)

Echo is apparent only in Mobile - Land conversation & is generated at the 2 wire to 4 wire interface.To avoid it, Echo Canceller (EC) is VLR HLR used. EC
AUC MSC

IWF NSS

EIR

Mobile End

GSM Network Elements


Echo Canceller Contd

Network Switching System (NSS)

Echo is irritating to MS Subscriber Total Round Trip delay of 180 ms in the GSM system
EC VLR HLR

EC is placed on the PSTN side of the


MSC

AUC

Switch
IWF NSS EIR

GSM Network Elements


Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC)
The OMC has access to the (G)MSC, BSC Event & Alarm Management Fault Management Performance Management Configuration Management Security Management

Operation and Maintenance System (OMS)

NMC

OMC OMS

GSM Network Elements


Network Management Centre (NMC)

Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC)

Offers Hierarchical Regionalized Network Management of a complete GSM system.


Monitors Nodes on the Network Monitors Network Element Statistics Enables Long Term Planning for entire Network Monitors OMC regions & provides information to OMC staff

GSM Terrestrial Interfaces


Standard Interfaces
2 Mbps Trunks (E1) Signaling System No. 7 ( C7) X.25 (Packet Switched Mode)

GSM Terrestrial Interfaces


Standard Interfaces
2 Mbps Trunks (E1) Signaling System No. 7 ( C7) X.25 (Packet Switched Mode)

GSM Terrestrial Interfaces


Standard Interfaces
2 Mbps Trunks (E1) Signaling System No. 7 ( C7) X.25 (Packet Switched Mode)

GSM Terrestrial Interfaces


GSM Interfaces

Um MS A B C D E F G H

to BTS

Abis BTS to BSC BSC to MSC MSC to VLR MSC to HLR VLR to HLR MSC to MSC MSC to EIR VLR to VLR HLR to AUC

GSM Supplementary Services


Voice Mail Friends & Family Favorite Area (Not used) Multiparty (Conference Calling) Info Services SMS (Text or picture Messaging) Chat line (141) International Roaming for Postpaid subscribers Fax, Data for Postpaid as well as for Prepaid Call Waiting and Call Hold CLI Call Forwarding

Work Station

Work Station

TRAKKER

EMI UCP over TCP/IP ROUTER At Trakker end Antenna

Radio Modem 64Kbps

SERVE R WITH LAID=40 0

DTU

Radio Link

Vehicle with SIM

Lease Line

Antenna
Radio Modem 64Kbps

DTU

GSM Air Interface

ROUTER at SMSC

LAID=400

BSS

MSC 2 KHI
8 x C7 links

SMSC

MOBILINK

SMSC Connectivity
BTS

C7 LINKS USED FOR SMS COMMUNICATION WITH MSC

SMSC

MSC
C7 LINKS

BSS

Voice Mail Connectivity


BTS
Mail box for subscribers where voice messages are stored

BSS
Voice Mail Platform
C7 LINKS+ PCM Links

MSC

Mobile Switching Center (Siemens D-900)


Coordination Processor Switching Network Message Buffer Digital Line Unit Line Trunk Group Digital Distribution Frame Common Channel Signaling Processor

Base Station Subsystem (Motorola)

Base Station Controllers Base Transceiver Station Transcoders (XCDR)

Transmission equipment

High capacity (SDH)

Altium (DMC) 155 mbits/s, 63 x E1 XP-4 (DMC) 16x E1 Alcatel 16 x E1

Low capacity (PDH)


Power supply equipment

Siemens 48 volt DC, 660 Amp Lorain 48 volts DC, 300 Amp Backup batteries

Song messaging service


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