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INTRODUCTION

A structure relocation is the process of moving a structure from one location to another. There are two main ways for a structure to be moved: disassembling and then reassembling it at the required destination, or transporting it whole. For the latter, the building may be pushed on temporary rails or dollies if the distance is short. Otherwise, wheels, such as flatbed trucks, are used. These moves can be complicated and require the removal of protruding parts of the building, such as the chimney, as well as obstacles along the journey, such as overhead cables and trees.

Reasons for moving a building range from commercial reasons such as scenery, to preserving an important or historic building. Moves may also be made simply at the whim of the owner, or to separate a building from the plot of land that it stands on.
EQUIPMENT Elevating a whole structure is typically done by attaching a temporary steel framework under the structure to replace and improve upon the structure's foundation. A network of hydraulic jacks placed under the framework, controlled by a unified jacking system, elevates the structure off the foundation. Large wood beams called cribs, stacked into piles, are used to inexpensively support the structure as the hydraulic jacks are repositioned higher on the crib piles to elevate the structure the next increment. Once the structure is at a sufficient height, a flat bed truck or hydraulic dollies are placed under the steel framework to support moves to the final destination. After the move across geography, to a newly prepared foundation, the structure is lowered reversing the steps just applied.

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The article deals with the following topics: REASONS FOR MOVING A STRUCTURE HISTORICAL PRESERVATION

MOTIVATION/PROBLEM STATEMENT: Reasons for moving a building range from commercial reasons such as scenery, to preserving an important or historic building. Moves may also be made simply at the whim of the owner, or to separate a building from the plot of land that it stands on. BACKGROUND: In 1925, Thomas C. Williams Jr. bought a Tudor Revival manor house, Agecroft Hall which stood by the River Irwell in Pendlebury, England. The hall was dismantled, crated and transported to Richmond, Virginia where it was rebuilt as the centrepiece of a Tudor estate on the banks of the James River. This was the first structure to be relocated dating back to almost a century. I shall explore the progress with the latest technology and techniques in this intriguing process. PURPOSE: In order to save a single tree, Mustafa Kemal Atatrk moved the Yalova Kk 4 meters to the east in the summer of 1936. London's famous monument Marble Arch was originally the entrance to the newly rebuilt Buckingham Palace but it was found to be too narrow for the state coach. It was moved to its present location of Hyde Park in 1851 SO ON AND SO FORTH.

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We have a multitude of instances in the history to justify the cause for moving a structure. This article shall explore the continuing fad of moving structures either for convenience or some other reason. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: Outline the advantages and disadvantages of structure relocation as compared demolition. Describe the procedure for structure relocation. List common errors that occur in structure relocation. Discuss the basic requirements for structural relocation. Explain the implications of structural relocation.

There are 3 basic questions before relocation: (i) Where is the building going to go? (ii)What is its end use going to be? (iii) What obstacles, visible and invisible, might be in the path of the relocation or its next use? Most building relocations today are merely moving the structure back on its current landscape away from things like a highway widening but major cross highway relocations needs to review overhead utilities wires and hanging traffic signals. Going over and under bridges has to be considered from the standpoint of height and weight. Weight limits on some streets could be a factor. Once any site comes under consideration for relocation a good first stop is the local municipal planning or zoning agency. Their cooperation in a major relocation will be critical to the success of its outcome. WHY BUILD?! For some people, transporting a house to a new location is an attractive option. We look at the pros and cons, explain the process, and outline what consents are required.

INSURANCE
When the house is in transit from the old site to the new location, you will need to organise insurance for the move. This will provide cover for any damage during the move, for example, if the house falls off the truck. If this happens, you will only get back what you paid for the house. It is unlikely to cover consequential loss, for example, recompense for the cost of the new foundations which are no longer able to be used if the house is destroyed in transit. If this happens you will have to look at your contract with the house removers to see if it is covered. Failing that you might have to look at legal remedies.
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The other insurance you should find out about is insurance for the renovation work. The builder should have cover for:

Accidental damage to the building (builders all-risk policy or contract works insurance). Accidental damage to adjoining property, and in some cases, for personal injury (public liability).

You need to arrange normal cover for your home and contents once the house is on its new site, and make sure your insurance company is aware of the renovation work and extends cover for damage resulting from that work. Damage to the pavement and kerbYou may be liable for any damage to the pavement or kerb when the house is being moved. It pays to contact the councils vehicle crossing supervisor for a condition inspection of the kerb, footpath and berm before the removal and immediately after so that any damage can be accurately assessed. We explain the building consent requirements for removing and relocating an existing house. In some cases, you will also need resource consent. We also explain bonds which are a requirement of some local councils. CONSENTS REQUIRED When you relocate a house you will have to apply for:

Building consents to uplift the house from its current site and to re-establish it on the new site. A Project Information Memorandum (PIM) for both the origin and destination. Resource consent, in most cases.

Talk to your building consent authority before you start, and ask for details of their application requirements. It is best to apply for the building and resource consents at the same time so that building and environmental factors can be considered together. BUILDING CONSENTS At the place of origin you will need building consents for:

Lifting the building off its foundations and separating it from the services. Any necessary temporary strengthening or separation of the building into parts for transportation. Loading the building onto its transport vehicles.

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Any necessary demolition of the existing foundations, services and subsequent work to restore the site.

At the new site you will need building consents for:


Constructing foundations and services. Unloading the building and connecting it to those foundations and services. Re-connecting any parts of the building which were separated for transportation, and fixing any damage done during transportation. Doing any renovation work on the house.

If the place of origin and the new site are in different local council areas, you may need to apply to more than one building consent authority. For details about what is needed to apply for building consent, see below. A code compliance certificate must be issued for each building consent after the building consent authority does the final inspection and is satisfied that the work to which the consent relates has been completed and complies with the building consent. BUILDING CONSENT FOR REMOVAL FROM THE OLD SITE Building consent needed to remove a house from the old site is often called demolition consent, and it is your responsibility to organise (not the responsibility of the previous owner or the building removal company). Note that buildings purchased directly from a recognised house remover's yard will not require building consent. The demolition consent removes any reference to the house from the files on that property (if it is going to a different councils area). It also requires inspection of the services that were connected to the house. The building consent authority may do an assessment to see if the house is structurally sound enough to be relocated as part of the removal consent. And the building consent authority may require the building to be upgraded. Note this is no guarantee that a building consent authority in the other council's jurisdiction at the new location will allow the house onto a new site. BUILDING CONSENT FOR PLACEMENT ON THE NEW SITE You need to get a building consent and a Project Information Memorandum (PIM) for when the house is relocated onto its new site. Each building consent authority may have different requirements, but generally you will have to provide copies of:

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A full site plan. Pile layout and cross-section detailing anchor piles. Floor plan. Sub-floor bracing calculations. Proposed drainage plan. Stormwater disposal details. Method of potable water supply. Elevation plans showing heights from original and proposed groundlines. If the building is to be moved in sections, details of how it will be rejoined at the new site. Any proposed internal or external building alterations. Engineering reports where applicable. Sewage and water system where public sewage or reticulated water service is not available. A plan for vehicle access and parking. Bracing information where the building is coming from a lower wind zone or earthquake area. Previous inspection records and the code compliance certificate for houses built since 1 July 1993. Drawings and specifications for any new work to be done such as alterations, additions, decks, etc.

You can draw your own plans but they must meet the standards required for a building consent to be granted. Building consent fees vary between building consent authorities check with a building consent authority that deals with the area where the house is to be located. The application should be processed within 20 working days, assuming all information has been provided and is correct. CHANGE OF USE If you intend changing the use of a relocated building - for example, moving and converting an old church into a home - it may require special work to bring it in to line with the Building Code which includes requirements like toilet and bathroom facilities, etc. Change of use must be notified to your council. BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR A NEW HOUSE If the house is new, it will have to meet all the relevant Building Code requirements when it is being built, i.e. it requires building consent, inspections during and at the end of construction, and a code compliance certificate. Because the destination is probably not known when they are being built, these homes should be built to worst case scenario standard, i.e. for location in the worst earthquake and wind zones.

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As with old homes, when the house is sold for relocation a new Project Information Memorandum (PIM) and building consent are required for the re-siting, foundations and drainage. RESOURCE CONSENT Resource consent may be required if locating the house on the new site is likely to impact on the environment in some way. For example, there may be rules in the district plan about the age, style, or size of the house allowed in some new subdivisions. Or you may need permission to remove native trees. This needs to be applied for at the same time, or before, you apply for a building consent. When applying for resource consent you will have to provide some or all of the following, depending on council requirements:

A completed application form giving details of the new site. The address where the building can be inspected. A dimensioned site plan of the new site showing where the house will go. Elevation plans showing the height of the building relative to the ground. Photos of the elevations of the building to be relocated. A statement of the proposed exterior work such as painting, additions and alterations intended to bring the building up to an acceptable standard. A recent copy of the certificate of title. Details of trees that require removal to get the building off its existing site or onto its new one. A pegging certificate from a registered surveyor. A statement of the work proposed on the house after relocation.

The council will assess the application on the following grounds:


The proposed appearance of the house and its compatibility with other houses in the vicinity. The condition and quality of the exterior materials. The period required for the restoration work. Whether to impose a bond to ensure completion of the restoration work to an acceptable standard. The structural integrity, soundness and fitness of the proposed use of the house being relocated.

If the council is of the opinion that the proposal would have a more than minor effect on the environment, then the application will be publicly notified. If the application does not need to be publicly notified, and if you have submitted all necessary information, a decision should be given within 20 working days of the date of application.
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We take you through the steps of transporting an older house to a new location, including likely costs and objections from neighbours. WHAT WILL IT COST? The cost of buying an old house for removal can range from a few thousand dollars for a tworoom bach, to over $100,000 for a large home. The cost of moving the house will depend mainly on the time it takes, which depends in turn on the route to be travelled, the size of the house and the degree of difficulty. It can range from a few thousand dollars to move a single-piece house, with the price increasing for the number of pieces, location and difficulty. The house moving company will generally be responsible for the moving permits, i.e. the costs of moving the house over public roads, but the homeowner is responsible for building and resource consents. The cost of placing the house on the new site, the foundations, connections to services, repairs, alterations and renovations will be a large part of your total budget. Note that some house moving companies can have the foundations built for you at the new site. OBJECTIONS TO THE REMOVAL OF SOME HOUSES If you see an old house for sale for removal, there is always a chance the neighbors will object to it moving away from the neighborhood. Conversely, neighbours may have objections to an old house moving into a newer development. In this case resource consent will be required. STEPS TO MOVING OLD HOUSES These are the steps in a house moving project: 1. Choose the house it may be on an existing site or for sale in a building removal companys yard. 2. Check the house - have the house checked by a plumber, electrician and builder. It pays to take care when choosing an old house for relocation. While it might seem cheap, the cost of restoring it could negate any savings you make and cost you far more than buying or building new. 3. Choose the building removal company - talk to people who have done it before and find out who they would recommend. Choose a firm with a good reputation. You can find building removal companies in the Yellow Pages. 4. Contact the building consent authority - find out what you need in the way of building and resource consents.
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5. Organize insurance youll need cover for the house while it is being moved and while the renovation work is being done. 6. Moving the house - the building removal company moves it from its yard or its existing site onto the new site and places it onto the foundations. 7. Connecting to services and upgrading the house - you will have to organise for services to be connected, i.e. telephone, electrical, and plumbing. Then you can begin the necessary alterations, renovations and decorating, making sure you obtain the right consents from the council and your building consent authority. Getting ready for removal Talk with the removal company and consider the following:

What is needed to get the house off the existing section - trees and other structures may have to be removed. If you havent already done so, have the building structurally assessed before it is moved to ensure it can be safely transported. An Overdimension Permit will be needed to transport the house by road. These are issued by the Land Transport Safety Authority (LTSA). The permit will normally be taken care of by the building removal company, but make sure this has been done.

Issues with older homes Some of the issues associated with older houses, which will come up when they are to be transported, include:

The bearers are often undersized and inconsistent for floor layout, usually because older homes have had many alterations done over the years without any attention given to the bearers. Brick claddings will have to be removed for relocation and new claddings installed - this is an opportunity to install insulation. Foundations dont always match up with whats on the plan. Plumbing and wiring will often require replacement.

SHOULD YOU MOVE AN OLD HOUSE OR A NEW HOUSE? AND WILL IT SUIT THE SITE? Reasons for transporting a house Transporting a house to a new site happens when:

A new house is built off-site by a building company that either specializes in building removable homes, or is selling a show home.

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A house is built in the contractors yard and later moved to a new site. An old house is bought, either from a building removal companys sale-yard, or from an existing section, and transported to a new site for restoration and renovation. A house is moved to a better position on the same site to allow for a subdivision or better use of the section.

Old homes for relocation People choose to recycle an old house rather than building new because:

They can acquire a character home which they can renovate. They like the native timbers used in a lot of older homes and which are now becoming harder to obtain. It can work out cheaper than building new.

Will it suit the section? The location and topography of the new site is important when you plan to move a house onto it. Houses can usually be placed on a hill section provided it is not too steep. They can be placed on poles to raise them up and/or to build a basement beneath. You have to know whether the house you are moving is built for the wind zone in the new location. Access is important as the truck has to be able to drive in, although in some cases a crane can be used. Also be conscious of whether the house you are moving will suit the neighbourhood. A small colonial cottage may look odd in a new subdivision of large, new Mediterranean-style homes. And there may be council planning restrictions on the types of homes that can be built in certain areas.

LESSONS OF THE RELOCATION OF THE HISTORIC KING OF PRUSSIA INN MOVING, MANAGING AND PAYING FOR THE RELOCATION OF OLD BUILDINGS This interview was conducted with Albert Paschall, president of the King Of Prussia Chamber Of Commerce at Valley Forge. Paschall led a campaign from 1997 to 2001 to relocate and restore the historic King Of Prussia Inn, a building on the National Register of Historic Places. The building had been isolated on an island at the critical junction where Route 202, 422, The Schuylkill Expressway and the Pennsylvania Turnpike converged in southeastern Pennsylvania, a short distance from Philadelphia. Protected by the National Register the buildings relocation was forced by a $300 million highway improvement project. The King Of Prussia Chamber Of Commerce and the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation are co-recipients of the American Association of State Highway Officials 2004 National Legacy Award for the successful relocation and restoration of the historic King Of Prussia Inn.

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Whats the importance of having an end use before you even move the building? Infrastructure planning. If a building has historic status its future use may be dictated by the original codicils that placed it on that register, covenants if you will. If the building is what I call a second tier of antiquity, old and perhaps significant to a community but lacking an historic designation then there may be more flexibility in its use. To that end determining what is going to be done with it will dictate how much the overall project will cost. Many people who call me are well intentioned and truly want to save a second tier building with the intention of it being a library, museum or other form of community use. Generally that kind of public utilization will require a different level of restoration, often using different standards than if the building is going to be used as a residence. Costs will vary significantly. In the case of the King Of Prussia Inn it is a semi-public use and that required us to install a fire suppression (sprinkler) system. It was quite expensive and difficult to install and requires ongoing maintenance. Youve mentioned "invisible" obstacles, what does that mean? Environmental issues and underground utilities. In our case because of changes in the landscape just weeks before the relocation, we were required to install a storm water retention basin. Originally we considered the cost to be outrageous; however it has turned into a blessing in disguise. Good engineering plays a key role here. There needs to be scientific determinations that utilities, water, electricity, gas and sewer services can be brought to the site cost efficiently. Sometimes underground utilities are moved over the years and the local planning agencies arent alerted and the maps arent up to date. If, like us, you are a couple of years behind schedule the surrounding landscape may change. In our case that required extending our sewer lateral from the original plan of roughly 30 yards long to around 170 yards long. Not only was that costly but there was a scary couple of weeks when there was a concern that we might not be able to achieve the necessary fall in the line over that long a distance to have the sewer lateral function correctly. We worked it out but we have to maintain constant maintenance of the line. Once the underground utilities are factored into the project then a foundation design can be considered. Why is foundation design a part of the project so early on? There are questions about the height of the building in relation to underground utilities as well as structural support, moving equipment and future maintenance. In our case I had to over rule several contractors who strongly felt the building should be on a concrete pad foundation. However all of the engineers felt that the project required the massive 15 foot deep, twin concrete and steel basements that we have today. It was probably the most expensive decision made but when factored into the later considerations with changes in underground utility access it was worth it. Again this is a question of good, solid experienced engineering. Why such an emphasis on engineering? Because on almost every call I receive the person on the other end has talked to or met with an
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architect and has a glowing report on how the building could be restored. In almost every case its beautiful fluff. The engineers are going to determine what kind of support bracing the building will need to make sure it gets to its new location in one piece, give the actual mover guidelines on how to make that happen and be sure that the path to the new location and the new location are ready for the building. Those are generally going to be the big costs. Ive had to disappoint more people who had looked at the restoration first, as I did, and then went to the engineers and found out there wasnt enough funding to get the project accomplished. While we had a magnificent architect for the restoration it was the equally magnificent engineers who made the project possible.

Managing the move: What are the first steps in managing the relocation of a building for a novice? If you control a strictly privately funded move on private property then its merely a question of choosing the right building relocation specialist. Have your engineers design a Request for Proposal and hold a pre-bid conference. An important function of this conference is for you to tell the movers that are bidding that you would welcome their suggestions on the move and any additional costs involved. For most engineers a building relocation is an abstract notion. Theyve never actually done it. During the course of the Inns relocation we received advice from International Chimneys experienced staff that ultimately saved us thousands of dollars. These were practical suggestions based on their years of experience. If the relocation involves a building with historic status and a collaborative effort with government agencies the first thing that needs to be done is to establish lines of management. The course of the Inns history was changed when a man who had coordinated the relocation of a historic boat in Washington state came to visit me in 1999. He gave me one piece of advice: "while the building is where it is, the governments will control it, when it moves you will be in control." It was good advice. At the height of preparation for the King Of Prussia Inn relocation we had 22 government agencies, utilities and collective bargaining units involved in the project. There were no clear lines of control. My failure to create them led to a lot of chaos and 2 years lost in the process. The first thing that I would have done differently is to establish clearly the role that the Pennsylvania Historic and Museum Commission would play in the process. Under National Register guidelines the state historic preservation organization (SHPO) has the primary authority over a building on the national register. During our early years we had great difficulty managing the agencys demands. Later Dr. Brent Glass, at that time Executive Director of PHMC stepped in and made the project work. Had I been clear on the case management early on all of this could have been avoided. Orchestrating the rest of the process requires flexibility, patience and a sense of humor. The one thing to keep in mind is that the process of government can be infuriating to somebody accustomed to private sector standards of performance and urgency.
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The job may be to try and change that later, for now your job is getting this relocation accomplished. You will be caught in one primary trap. That is: you are raising and spending other peoples money and they are asking where it is going. The governments work their own schedule and know that tomorrow always comes in terms of funding. Always stay in a position where you can walk away from the project forcing the government agencies to start over again. It may be the only leverage that you have to keep things going. Political contacts do not hurt. During the course of our project Senator Richard Tilghman and State Representative Connie Williams were extraordinarily invaluable in its success. They helped keep it moving when the various state and local agencies didnt agree. Dont hesitate to be the free lance agent in the game. Go where you need to go to get done what needs to be done. A senior government bureaucrat generally cant call the president of a utility union whose strike might delay the time table but you can. A city council member or township commissioner probably has other priorities with the state highway department, so you will be the person who has to go in the faces of the departments from time to time to get the job done. Collaborative relocations are not successfully managed by shy people. The last shall be first. Be wary of so-called preservation experts. Be sure that any government RFPs for participation are completely clear on the expert credentials required for participation and any "expert" studies or designs that you have to pay for. Because somebody says they are historically qualified does not mean that they are or that they can make any worthwhile contribution to the process. In most cases local architects and engineers can do the job just as well. If you need some qualified references call your local Chamber of Commerce. Conduct a thorough investigation of any files on the building that are held by the state historic preservation agency, local historic societies, libraries and municipalities. Have an attorney review any claims to the propertys deed. Be sure at the outset there is a clear, written understanding by all parties as to what every partys responsibilities are in the process, especially as it relates to the condition of the building and the new site when the governmental agencies are finished. This was suggested to us by our architect Gregory Philips and confirmed by our engineers Greg Nave and Steve Newel. The government representatives agreed to it and it was an invaluable instrument in avoiding any disputes in a process of conclusion that could have been a disastrous dispute. In 1999 you requested and received a unanimous resolution of the Upper Merion Township Board of Supervisors for a phased relocation of the Inn, what did that mean? That instrument was actually a political bluff to bring matters to a head and it worked. When we talk about phased relocation it meant taking the building apart and putting it back together. In the Inns case it was quite possible and very cost effective. People talk about numbering the stones and putting them back in place like some giant jigsaw puzzle. I couldnt find a case where that had been done. But we commissioned an estimate from a veteran stone mason and his formula was simple. Each section of a wall would be taken
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apart and segregated and that section would be numbered. I think at the time there were 12 sections of wall considered. All four directions as well upstairs, downstairs, in sections. Then a new frame was to be constructed. A stone mason will have a unique signature to his work. The idea was when the stone was to be replaced on the new frame the crew would work on sections and be rotated every couple of hours. The variances in the individual masons signature would create the same affect as the Colonial era when there werent advanced tools and adhesives to work with. It was quite feasible though impossible on the Inn because we would have lost historic status forcing the state to re-open the bidding however for a second tier building I would certainly suggest that this idea be evaluated. Managing the restoration: For the novice relocation project manager what is your best advice about the restoration? Kick back and enjoy. If the building has been successfully relocated let the restoration plan take over. Try and let the process work on its own and only force a decision if the circumstances dictate that otherwise youll be at an impasse if any dispute isnt resolved. Remember the best crafts people are proud of their work and if the budget is project based rather than openended let them take their time. On the other hand always keep that whip in your back pocket you are probably going to need it a couple of times. Look for any resources that might help with donations in kind. The King Of Prussia Inn had window panes painted by volunteers from the Lockheed-Martin Company, electrical service courtesy of Independent Local of Electrical Workers Union 380, phone wiring by members of the Communications Workers of America and grading and landscaping from the Gambone Brothers Development Company with a wonderful sewer lateral by American Infrastructure. Volunteers also hung pictures, cleaned floors and cut grass. Every one of them saving the project thousands of dollars that we ended up needing. On that note, in the restoration of an old building we put a generous 25% reserve in the restoration budget. Too bad we needed closer to 40%. Keep that in mind and good luck.

HOW MUCH DOES IT COST TO MOVE A HOUSE? Each individual house or structure is different with its own degree of cost and difficulty. Most bids are priced by the square foot, though a house mover may choose to charge by the mile. The majority of a house mover's bid is estimating the cost of getting the structure prepared, out of where it is, and into where it is going. Variables that may affect a house mover's bid are as follows: Distance - long distance moves can be more expensive, depending on the structure. Moving Costs - Ever-increasing costs of insurance, permit and other requirements, i.e., tools, fuel, power line assistance, labor etc.

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Scheduling -Certain moves are permitted only at certain times of night or day. House moving can be seasonal in some areas. With this in mind, certain times of the year are very busy for house movers, depending on the weather. Structure size - Typically speaking, the bigger the structure, the bigger the price. Cuts - The structure that must be cut (a cut often means an individual move for each section) is generally more expensive. Thus, more permits, trucks, time etc. Structure Type affecting labor - For example, a brick structure may require the removal of its brick exterior. A log cabin may need to be braced and banded with a branding machine. The slab house, the metal frame house etc. may require more labor and time. Inner City Moves - Among many other variables, the mover may travel 10 miles to move a structure 2 city blocks. Structure Height - Typically speaking, the taller the structure, the higher the price. Chimneys and fireplaces - It is likely that masonry will need to be removed before the structure can be moved, thus increasing the labor cost.

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MOVABLE HOMES:MODERN, MODULAR, RELOCATABLE RESIDENCES: What if you could just pack your house onto the back of a truck or lift it with a helicopter and move it to an entirely new place, whenever you wanted, without making a negative impact on your temporary home site? Portable modular living spaces go places that other forms of mobile housing cant - like remote mountain ridges and easily disassemble. Portable Prefab Paco Unit

You may not imagine that a house measuring just 9 feet square would contain all the necessities of life, but somehow, the Paco prefab unit by Jo Nagasaka and Schemata Architecture Office manages to do just that. The unit has an opening roof to allow sunshine and fresh air into the home and contains a kitchen unit with a sink, a dining table for two, a hammock for sleeping and even a toilet hidden in the floor, which transforms into a shower with the help of a shower curtain hooked to the ceiling. An extra compartment on the exterior
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allows a guest to stay overnight in a sleeping bag, and can also be used for storage. Port-a-Bach Shipping Container Home

This portable home, named for the New Zealand word referring to small, modest vacation houses, was made using a 20 shipping container. One side of the container folds down, opening the interior to the outdoors; it includes a double bed, bunk beds, a dressing room, a kitchen and a bathroom, all of which can be separated from the main space using fabric screens. Of course, since its made from a shipping container, its super easy to move, so owners can simply pack up their lodgings and bring them to their holiday destination.

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CONCLUSION
Any type of structure can be moved, including lighthouses, hotels, office buildings, movie theatres, airport terminals, barges, ships, bridges, grain elevators, silos, houses, cottages, barns, libraries, transformers, draglines, bleachers, and viaducts. In fact, structure relocation is the worlds oldest and largest form of recycling. The services provided by structural movers:

Creates and Saves Jobs Preserves Historic Structures Prevents Wasteful Demolition Reduces Landfill Material Provides Increased Opportunities for Affordable Housing The cost of relocating an average sized brick home is approximately 60% of the cost of construction of a similar replacement home. The cost of relocating an average sized stone home is approximately 35% of the cost of construction of a new stone home. Relocating an average home can usually be achieved in less than a month, which is far less than the time taken to construct a new home. Raising a masonry home and building underneath is more cost effective than building a new masonry storey above the existing building. Moving extremely large or heavy pre-assembled equipment to a worksite can result in significant labour saving costs. As the original building is not demolished, hazardous materials such as asbestos, arsenic and lead based paints are not exposed. Moving instead of demolishing result in a significant reduction in landfill, with consequent environmental benefits. Did you know that relocating one homes saves approximately 45 tons of trash from being piled in a landfill? Multiply that by all the structures moved a year and youre looking at tens of thousands of tons of debris saved and recycled each year.

References: Monster Moves: discovery network Reports and Manuals for IASM Members IEEE xplore library http://www.bbc.co.uk/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structure_relocation archi/building_relocation.htm http://realestate.msn.com/

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www.experthousemovers.com http://www.devooghthousemovers.com/.htm http://www.mammothmovers.com/

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