You are on page 1of 31

PAD. DR.

D Y PATIL COLLEGE OF NURSING

Seminar On staffing

General objective:
At the end of the seminar the group will be able to gain in depth knowledge regarding staffing. and will efficiently use it in clinical practices and educational services.

Specific objective:
At the end of the seminar, the group will be able to :1. Meaning of staffing 2. Define the staffing 3. Describe Philosophy of staffing in nursing 4. Discuss Objective of staffing 5. Explain Types of staff 6. Discuss Elements of staffing 7. Explain the Staffing formula 8. Discuss the Staffing in hospital and community setting 9. Explain the Factors affecting staffing 10. Discuss about the Function of staffing 11. Describe Processing of the staffing 12. Define of recruitment 13. Explain the Sources of recruitment 14. Discuss the Importance of recruitment 15. Describe the Techniques of recruitment 16. Explain the recruitment Process 17. Briefly discuss about credentialing 18. Discuss the stages of Selection procedure 19. Explain about Placement and Promotion 20. Briefly discuss about Retention 21. Define Policy 22. Explain the Types of policy 23. Explain the Difference between management policies and personal policies 24. Define personal policies 25. Classify the personal policies 26. Explain the Steps of personal policies 27. Discuss about the Role and function of staffing

OUTLINE Staffing o Meaning o Definition

o Philosophy o Objective o Types General Technical Auxiliary o Elements o Staffing formula o Staffing in hospital and community setting o Factors affecting staffing The client to be served The hospital Policies and composition of medical staff Use of nursing skills Supportive services Administrative policies Presence / absence of clerical assistance Factors inherent in the nursing staff Allocation of personnel o Function of staffing o Process Planning Recruitment Selection Training Development Performance operation o Recruitment o definition o sources Internal External o Importance o techniques o recruitment process o Credentialing Licensure Registration Certification Accreditation

o Stages of selection procedure o Placement o Promotion Principles Merits and demerits of promotion o Retention Importance Employee retention strategies

MEANING OF STAFFING

Staffing is a logical operation that consists of several interdependent actions as given below1. Identification the type and amount of service by agency client. 2. Determining the personnel categories 3. Predicting the number of personnel in each job category that will be needed. 4. btaining budgeted positions. 5. Recruiting personnel to fill available positions. 6. Selecting and appointing personnel from suitable applicants. 7. Combining personnel into desired configurations by unit and shift. 8. Orienting personnel. 9. Assigning responsibilities.

DEFINITION OF STAFFING The process involved in identifying, assessing, placing, evaluating & directing individuals at work. (S. Benjamin)

PHILOSOPHY OF STAFFING IN NURSING 1. Nurse administers believes that it is possible to match employees knowledge and skills to patient care needs. 2. Nurse administer believes that technical and humanistic care needs of critically ill patients. 3. Nurse administers believes that the health teaching and rehabilitation needs of chronically ill patients are complex. 4. Nurse administers believes that assessment, work qualification and job analysis should be used. 5. Nurse administers believes that a master staffing plan and policies to implemented. 6. Nurse administers believes the staffing plan should be administered at the unit level by the head nurse.

OBJECTIVES OF STAFFING IN NURSING 1. Provide an all professional nurse staff in critical care units, operating room, labour and delivery unit & emergency room. 2. Provide sufficient staff to permit a 1:1 nurse patient ratio. 3. Staff the general medical, surgical, obstetrics & gynecology, paediatrics & psychiatric units to achieve a 2:1 professional practical nurse ratio 4. Provide sufficient nursing staff 5. Involve the heads of the nursing staff & all nursing personnel in designing the departments overall staffing program. 6. Design the staff plan 7. Hold each head nurse responsible for translating the departments master staffing plan to sequential eight week time schedules for personnel assigned to her/his unit. 8. Post time schedules for all personnel atleast eight weeks advance. 9. Empower the head nurse to adjust work schedules for unit nursing personnel. 10. Inform each nursing employee that requests for specific vacation or holiday time will be honored within the limits. 11. Rewards employees for long term service.

TYPES OF STAFF General staff Technical staff The auxiliary staff General Staff : The general staff is the staff which helps the chief or other highly placed executive in his administrative work generally, by advice, collection of information, and research Technical staff :The technical staff consist of technical officer who are qualified in their own field, like enginners, doctors, nurses and experts etc.

Auxillary nurse: The auxillary staff consist of officers or units which perform certain duties and functions common to the various departments but which are incidental in character,i.e. not directly a part of those departmental main activities. ELEMENTS OF STAFFING 1. Effective recruitment & selection. 2. Proper classification of personnel and pay fixed for them. 3. Proper placement. 4. Adequate and appropriate training. 5. Satisfactory and fair transfer and promotion. 6. Sound relationship between management and workers. 7. Adequate provision for retirement.

STAFFING FORMULA ONE METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE NURSING STAFF OF A HOSPITAL:

Example: - analysis of how the days are used; Days in the year Days off 1 day/ week Casual leave Privilege leave 1 Saturday/ month Public holidays Sick leave Total number working days Total working days per year 365 52 12 30 12 18 8 132 233

1. The average number of sick/ maternity leave days taken can be obtained from administrative records. Example: to show the amount of nursing time available in a hospital with 20 nurses and 100 patients i.e. ratio of 1:5 1 nurse = 233 working days per year 20 nurse = 233 x 20 = 4660 working days per year To complete the number of nurses available per day, divided 4660 by the number of days in the year. 4660/365=12.8 rounded off to 13. If the 13 nurses, each work an eight-hour day, they may be assigned as follows. Day shift 6

Evening shift 4 Night shift 3 13

STAFFING IN HOSPITAL AND COMMUNITY SETTING: Staffing is of deep concerned to the nurse managers in the hospital or community to provide standard patient care to carry out all the functions allocated to the nursing personnel. Factors affecting staffing in hospital and community 1. Quality and quantity of nursing personnel This factor depends upon appropriate education or training provided to the nursing personnel for the kind of service they are being prepared for, i.e. professional, skill, routine or ancilliary work. The nurse has to perform direct care, supervisiory, teaching and administrative functions. 2. Utilization Utilization means that the nursing personnel must be assigned work in such a way that his/her knowledge and skill learnt are best used for the purpose he/she was educatedor trained. In addttion the nurse has to maintain a positive attitude towards nursing work and the people he/she serves. Many studies revealed that nurses are onerloaded with work, lack in supportive, stimulative, challenging or cncouraging environment to work in. 3. Patients condition Acutely ill :- where the life saving is the priority or bed ridden is the condition which might require 8-10 hours per patient (HPD), the nurse patient ratio may be 1:1, 2:1, 3:1.

Moderately ill :- requires to be assisted in meeting his human needs conducive to faster recovery and rehabilitation. The nurse patient ratio may be 1:3, 1;5 Mild ill :- patient has minimum dependency as he is able to take care of himself for the most of biological needs. The nurse patient ratio may be 1:6, 1:10. 4. Fluctuation of workload The workload is never constant and varies on day to day. 5. Number of medical staff Staffing of nurses still become complicated with increase of medical staff especially consultants, more of eounds, diagnostic investigations, orders of the doctors and personality difference. Staffing in hospital a) Chief Nursing Officer 1 per 500 beds. b) Nursing Superintendent 1 per 400 beds. c) Deputy nursing superintendent 1:200 beds. d) Assistant Nursing Superintendent. 1:100 e) Ward Supervisor: 1:25 beds. e) Staff nurses for wards: 1:3. f) For nurses OPD and Emergency etc. 1: 100 patients. g) For Intensive Care Unit 1:1. h) For operation Theatre, Labour room 1:25. According to Levine 3.5 hours nursing are is required in 24 hrs(hours per patient per day HPD). HPD can be 8-10 hrs for acutely ill patients or it can be as low as 1-2 hours for ambulatory patients. e.g. in a mixed ward of 30 patients, then the no. of nursing personnels required are 30 patients X 3.5 hrs = 105 hrs If each nurse give 8 hrs of care daily then 105 hrs 8 = 13 nurses Staffing in community a) 1 ANM for 2500 population. b) 1 ANM for 1500 population for hilly areas. c) 1 Health Supervisor for 7500 population. d) 1 Public Health Nurse For 1 PHC. e) 1 Public Health Nursing Officer for 1CHC. f) District Public Health Nursing Officers-2 for each district

FUNTIONS OF STAFFING

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

Manpower planning Development Fixing the Employment Standards Selection and Placement Training Other functions

PROCESSING OF THE STAFFING 1) Planning 2) Recruitment 3) Selection 4) Training 5) Development 6) Performance Operation

RECRUITMENT
DEFINITION OF RECRUITMENT :

According to Flippo, Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. OR

According to Dr White, The word recruitment is limited to specific steps taken to attract suitable candidates to apply for examination OR
According to Prof. Zinc, Recruitment is the most important part of public administration because without employees ,all other things like training, supervision, service classification ,research etc are good for nothing.

SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT

The sources of recruitment may be termed as internal and externalEvery organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organization itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of recruitment. 1.Internal sources These include personnel already on the pay roll of an organization i.e. its present working force. Whenever any vacancy occurs ,somebody from within the organization is transferred promoted or sometimes demoted 1. Transfer-It involves shifting of an employee from one job to another .At the time of transfer it is ensured that the employees to be transferred to the new job is capable of performing it 2. Promotion-It leads to shifting an employee to a higher position carrying higher responsibilities, facilities, status and pay. Many organizations follow the practice of filling the higher jobs by promoting employees who are considered fit for such position. 2.External sources These sources lie outside the organization a) New entrants to the labour force mostly inexperienced potential employees that is the college students b) The unemployed with a wide range of skills and abilities c) Retired experienced persons such as mechanics, jewelers, accountants External sources 1. Direct recruitmentAn important source of recruitment is the direct recruitment by placing a notice on the notice board of the enterprise specifying the details of the jobs available. The Practice of direct recruitment is generally followed for filling casual vacancies requiring unskilled workers .Such workers are known as casual or badly workers and they are paid remuneration on daily wage basis

2.Unsolicited applications-

Many qualified persons apply for employment for reputed companies on their own initiative ,by applications.They serve as a good source of manpower .A proper record may be kept of such applications and the candidates may be called for interview whenever the need arises 3.AdvertisementsAdvertising the job has become a fashion of the day with the large scale enterprise, particularly when the vacancy is for a higher post or when there are a large number of vacancies. The necessary information about the company, job descriptions and job specifications may be given in the advertisement. This increases the cost of selection of the employees. Therefore an advertisement copy should be drafted in such a way that only the suitable candidates are tempted to apply 4.Employment agenciesEmployment agencies run by the government are good source of recruitment for unskilled ,semiskilled operative, jobs, employmnet exchanges and selected private agencies provide a nationwide service in attempting to match personnel.They bring job givers in contact with the job seekers 5.Educational institutionsRecruitment from educational institutions is a well known and established practice of thousands of business and other organizations .Organizations ,which require a large number of clerks or which seek applicants for apprenticeship programmes,usually from offering vocational courses 6. Labour contractors In this workers are recruited through labour contractors who are themselves employees of the organization.The disadvantage of this system is that if the contractor himself decides to leave the organization ,all the workers employed through him will follow suit.This system of recruitment is losing popularity these days .It has been abolished in the public sector enterprises. 7. Recommendations Applicants introduced by friends and relatives may prove to be a good source of recruitment Many employees prefer to take such persons because something abour their background is known. The nurse administrations should be delegated responsibilities to determine the requirements for maintaining an optimum level of nursing care.

IMPORTANCE OF RECRUITMENT

1. Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization. 2. Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization. 3. Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities 4. Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees. 5. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.

6. Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. 7. Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time. 8. Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce. 9. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. 10. Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants
TECHNIQUES OF RECRUITMENT 1.

Employee Referrals:

Present employees are well aware of the qualifications, attitudes, experience and emotions of their friends and relatives. They are also aware of the job requirements and organizational culture of their company. As such they can make preliminary judgment regarding the match between the job and their friends and relatives. 2. Campus Recruitment: These candidates are directly recruited by the Co; from their college/educational institution. They are inexperienced as far as work experience is concerned. 3. Private Employment Agencies/Consultants: Public employment agencies or consultants like ABC Consultants in India perform recruitment functions on behalf of a client company by charging fees. Line managers are relieved from recruitment functions and can concentrate on operational activities. 4. Public Employment Exchanges:

The Government set up Public Employment Exchanges in the country to provide information about vacancies to the candidates and to help the organization in finding out suitable candidates. As per the Employment Exchange act 1959, makes it obligatory for public sector and private sector enterprises in India to fill certain types of vacancies through public employment exchanges. 5. Professional Organizations: Professional organizations or associations maintain complete bio-data of their members and provide the same to various organizations on requisition. They act as an exchange between their members and recruiting firm. 6. Data Banks: The management can collect the bio-data of the candidates from different sources like Employment Exchange, Educational Training Institutes, candidates etc and feed them in the computer. It will become another source and the co can get the particulars as and when required. 7. Casual Applicants: Depending on the image of the organization its prompt response participation of the organization in the local activities, level of unemployment, candidates apply casually for jobs through mail or handover the application in the Personnel dept. This would be a suitable source for temporary and lower level jobs. 8. Similar Organizations: Generally experienced candidates are available in organizations producing similar products or are engaged in similar business. The Management can get potential candidates from this source 9. Trade Unions: Generally unemployed or underemployed persons or employees seeking change in employment put a word to the trade union leaders with a view to getting suitable employment due to latter rapport with the management. 10. Walk In: The busy organization and rapid changing companies do not find time to perform various functions of recruitment. Therefore they advise the potential candidates to attend for an interview directly and without a prior application on a specified date, time and at a specified place. 11. Consult In:

The busy and dynamic companies encourage the potential job seekers to approach them personally and consult them regarding the jobs. The companies select the suitable candidates and advise the company regarding the filling up of the positions. Head hunters are also called search consultants. 12. Body Shopping: Professional organizations and the hi-tech training develop the pool of human resource for the possible employment. The prospective employers contact these organizations to recruit the candidates. Otherwise the organizations themselves approach the prospective employers to place their human resources. These professional and training institutions are called body shoppers and these activities are known as body shopping. The body shopping is used mostly for computer professionals. Body shopping is also known as employee leasing activity. 13. Mergers and Acquisitions: Business alliances like acquisitions, mergers and take over help in getting human resources. In addition the companies do also alliances in sharing their human resource on adhoc basis. 14. E-recruitment: The technological revolution in telecommunications helped the organizations to use internet as a source of recruitment. Organizations advertise the job vacancies through the world wide wed (www). The job seekers send their applications through e-mail using the internet. 15. Outsourcing: Some organizations recently started developing human resource pool by employing the candidates for them. These organizations do not utilize the human resources; instead they supply HRs to various companies based on their needs on temporary or ad-hoc basis.

RECRUITMENT PROCESS

The recruitment process begins when you know you need someone new in the Department, either because an existing staff member has left, or because there is new work to be done. It doesn't finish until after the appointment has been made.

The main stages are identified in the below flow chart

Identify Vacancy | Prepare Job Description and person Specification | Advertise | Managing the Response | Short-listing | References | Arrange Interviews | Conduct The Interview | Decision Making | Convey The Decision | Appointment Action

Pre-Interview
1. 2.

Preparation of recruitment /selection document for the position Advertising

o o o 3.

Preparing advertisement Media selection Positioning

Response handling
o o o o o

Initial interview online or telephone Short-listing for interviews Interview arrangement Sending emails or calling short listed candidates Interview details to the short listed candidates

4.

During Interview
o o o o o

HR interview Technical interview Conducting tests [Aptitude / Mathematical / Analytical etc.] Initial final list of candidates. Reference check (if required)

Post-Interview
1. 2. 3. 4.

Email or Telephone call to unsuccessful candidates Technical Manager approval for a start up date. Email or Telephone call to successful candidates HRM prepares a letter of appointment

CREDENTIALING Credentialing is the process of determining and maintaining competence in nursing practice. The credentialing is one way in which the nursing profession maintains standards of practice and accountability for the educational preparation of its members. Credentialing includes licensure, registration, certification, and accreditation. 1. LICENSURE: Licensure is the mechanism by which a state establishes and verifies compliance with (nursing) standards (OKeefe, 2001).

Licensure are the legal permits a government agency grants to individuals to engage in the practice of a profession and to use a particular jurisdiction or area is covered by the license. For a profession or occupation to obtain the right to license its members, it generally must meet three criteria: 1. There is a need to protect the publics safety or welfare. 2. The occupation is clearly delineated as a separate, distinct area of work. 3. There is a proper authority to assume the obligations of the licensing process, e.g., in nursing, state and provincial boards of nursing. The act regulates nursing through the BNE, which oversees the nurses compliance with the nursing standards and grants licensure. 2. REGISTRATION: Registration is the listing of an individuals name and other information on the official roster of governmental or non- governmental agency. Nurses who are registered are permitted to use the title Registered Nurse. There are two types of licensure and registration: mandatory & permissive. Under mandatory licensure /registration anyone who practices nursing must be licensed or registered. Under permissive licensure /registration the title RN is reserved for licensed, registered practitioners but the practice of nursing is not prohibited to others who are not licensed or registered. In each state the province there is a mechanism by which licenses can be revoked for just cause (e.g., incompetent nursing practice, professional misconduct, conviction of a crime such as using illegal drugs or selling illegally). In each situation, all the facts are generally reviewed by a committee at a hearing, either the nurse can appeal the decision to a court of law or, in some states, an agency is designated to review the decision before any court action is initiated. 3. CERTIFICATION Certification is the voluntary practice of validating that an individual nurse has met minimum standards of nursing competence in specialty areas, such as maternal-child health, pediatrics, mental health, gerontology, and school nursing. National certification may be required in order to become licensed as an advanced practice nurse. Certification programs are conducted by the ANA and by the specialty nursing organizations. 4. ACCREDITATION / approval of Basic Nursing Educational Programs:

Accreditation is a process by which a private organization, such as the National League for Nursing (NLN), or governmental agency, such as the state board of nursing, appraises and grants accredited status to institutions, programs, or services that meet predetermined structure, process and outcome criteria. Minimum standards for basic nursing education programs are established in each state. State accreditation or provincial approval is granted to schools of nursing meeting the minimum criteria .

SELECTION The process of selection leads to employment of persons having the ability and qualifications to perform the jobs which have fallen vacant in an organization.It divides the candidate for employment into 2 categories ,namely ,those who will be offered employment and those who will not be. This process could be called rejection since more candidates may be turned away and are dired.That is why ,selection is frequently described as a negative process in contrast with the positive process of recruitment.The basic purpose of selction process is in choosing right type of candidates on various positions in the organizations . Stages of selection procedure 1. Receiving applications 2. Screening of applications 3. Employment tests 4. Interviews 5. Background investigation 6. Medical Examination 7. Final selection

PLACEMENT Placement means,

1. the act of placing or the state of being placed 2. arrangement or position 3. the process or business of finding employment The candidates selected for appointment are to be preferred specific jobs .There must be matching between the requirements of the job and qualities of the employee concerned .Only then effective placement will take place.Generally the candidate is appointed on a probation period of 6 or 1 year .During this period ,he is tried on different jobs.If his performance is satisfactory ,he will be offered a permanent post and placed on the job for which he is the most suitable .He may require training needs which must also be identified during the probation period. If during this probation period, an employee is not found suitable ,then the management may transfer him to some other job to which he may be expected to do better justice. But if management cannot offer him a job which he can do well ,it may sack him or give him time and training to improve himself to do the job better.

PROMOTION A promotion is an increase in rank which may also be accompanied by a raise in pay, benefits, and responsibility. Most people view promotions positively, as they indicate that the individual being promoted is successful, valuable, and useful. In many workplaces, people actively work towards promotion and its accompanied benefits. The term is also sometimes used to refer to a general change in status such as a graduation, which is why you may find yourself attending a fifth grade promotion instead of a fifth grade graduation. Typically, someone is rewarded with a promotion when he or she performs exemplary work, or shows aptitude for a position with more responsibility. This is usually a cause for celebration, as it indicates that the employee has a potential for development and long employment within the company. A promotion may include supervision responsibilities, as the promoted employee becomes responsible for administrative assistants and other staff. These responsibilities should not be taken lightly, as most employees look to their supervisors for guidance and examples of appropriate workplace behavior

DEFINITION

According to Flippo, Promotion involves a change from one job to another that is better in terms of status and responsibilities According to Prof Pigor and Myres,Promotion is the advancement of an employee to better in terms of greater responsibilities ,more prestige,or status,greater skill and specially increased rate of pay or salary. Appointment to a position requiring higher qualifications such as greater skill or longer experience and involving a higher level of responsibility, a higher rate of pay, and a title change is considered a promotion and will be classified as such in all personnel documents. Promotions will be made without regard to the race, color, sex, religion, age, ethnic origin,or disability of the employee. Eligibility :-To be eligible for promotion, an employee must be employed with the University for a minimum of six months.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR PROMOTION

Promotion is the term to be used for all grades. There is an annual promotion round. For all Non-Clinical staff, promotion is effective from 1 January of the subsequent year. For Clinical Academic staff, promotion is effective from 1 October of the year the application is considered. Promotion is based on merit, irrespective of source of funding. All staff should be considered for promotion, regardless of their source of funding. All costs associated with promotion are borne centrally and departmental budgets are uplifted to absorb this cost. Departments are asked to identify funding/contribute to any costs for externally funded staff. University-wide criteria are used. Process is transparent and consistent and administered centrally. Assessment is fair and consistent and may require a visit or an interview. Due consideration is taken to equality and diversity in procedure and process. Promotion is retrospective, with cases based on evidence of work at the appropriate level. Cases are normally submitted by the Head of Department.

All cases include a Head of Department statement. Appeal/self-submission is available at all levels. An individual should not be put in the position of being both advocate and juror. There is cross-University moderation. The position of Lecturer (Grade 8) cannot normally be achieved as a result of promotion. Outcomes are monitored against diversity factors and University structural groupings. Feedback is provided for all candidates throughout the process.

PRINCIPLES OF PROMOTION 1. Principle of seniorityThis principle is widely prevalent in government services.It is also a method of promotion in most of the countries .In India this method is used. According to seniority of job,employees are promoted to higher ranks. Merits of principle of seniority 1. Senior man is more experienced 2. Everyone in the organization gets an opportunity for promotion 3. It is objective because it is very easy to find the seniority of the employees 4. Less political interference 5. Morale of the employees is expected to high 6. The principle of seniority gives certainty of promotion to the employees ,Thus competent persons are attracted 7. High turnover. Demerits of principle of seniority 1. There is no guarantee that a senior employee is more competent 2. Unskilled and incompetent gets opportunity 3. Low morale of competent employees 4. It will lead to low productivity 5. Inefficiency will take place 2. The principle of meritPromotions are given to competent ,skilled persons Merits of principle of merit

1.Only competent employees get promotion 2.Enhance morale of the junior and competent employees 3.Increase in productibility 4.Retaining of junior employees. 5.Recognition of organization 6.Good quality achieved Methods of testing merit 1.Promotional examinationPromotion examination to check the ability of employees is done by open competition ,limited competition and by pass examinations 2.Efficiency ratings or service records This is done through rating scales .The main rating scale are:Graphic rating scales,descriptive rating scales and numerical rating scales.It includes production records and personality inventory system. Merits of promotion 1.Employees are motivated to improve their performance 2.Morale of the employees is increased 3.Industrial peace prevails in the enterprise 4.Filling of jobs internally is cheaper as compared to getting candidates from external sources Demerits of promotions 1.When vacancies are filled through internal promotions ,the scope for fresh talents is reduced 2.The employees may become lethargic if they are not sure of time bound promotions 3.The spirit of competition among the employees may be hampered 4.Frequent transfers may reduce the overall productivity of the organization

RETENTION Employee Retention involves taking measures to encourage employees to remain in the organization for the maximum period of time. Corporate is facing a lot of problems in employee retention these days. Hiring knowledgeable people for the job is essential for an employer. But retention is even more important than hiring. There is no dearth of opportunities for a talented person. There are

many organizations which are looking for such employees. If a person is not satisfied by the job hes doing, he may switch over to some other more suitable job. In todays environment it becomes very important for organizations to retain their employees The top organizations are on the top because they value their employees and they know how to keep them glued to the organization. Employees stay and leave organizations for some reasons. The reason may be personal or professional. These reasons should be understood by the employer and should be taken care of. The organizations are becoming aware of these reasons and adopting many strategies for employee retention. In this section we are going to study about various topics related to employee retention, why is it needed, basic practices, myths, etc. in detail.

IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYEE RETENTION

Now that so much is being done by organizations to retain its employees, why is retention so important? Is it just to reduce the turnover costs? Well, the answer is a definite no. Its not only the cost incurred by a company that emphasizes the need of retaining employees but also the need to retain talented employees from getting poached The process of employee retention will benefit an organization in the following way 1. The Cost of Turnover: The cost of employee turnover adds hundreds of thousands of money to a company's expenses. While it is difficult to fully calculate the cost of turnover (including hiring costs, training costs and productivity loss), industry experts often quote 25% of the average employee salary as a conservative estimate 2. Loss of Company Knowledge: When an employee leaves, he takes with him valuable knowledge about the company, customers, current projects and past history (sometimes to competitors). Often much time and money has been spent on the employee in expectation of a future return. When the employee leaves, the investment is not realized

3. Interruption of Customer Service: Customers and clients do business with a company in part because of the people. Relationships are developed that encourage continued sponsorship of the business. When an

employee leaves, the relationships that employee built for the company are severed, which could lead to potential customer loss. 4.Turnover leads to more turnovers: When an employee terminates, the effect is felt throughout the organization. Co-workers are often required to pick up the slack. The unspoken negativity often intensifies for the remaining staff. 5.Goodwill of the company: The goodwill of a company is maintained when the attrition rates are low. Higher retention rates motivate potential employees to join the organization. 6.Regaining efficiency: If an employee resigns, then good amount of time is lost in hiring a new employee and then training him/her and this goes to the loss of the company directly which many a times goes unnoticed. And even after this you cannot assure us of the same efficiency from the new employee

EMPLOYEE RETENTION STRATEGIES

The basic practises which should be kept in mind in th eemployee retention strategies are 1.Hire the right people in the right place 2.Empower the employees ,give the employees the authority to get things done 3.Make employees realize that they are the most valuable asset of the organization 4.Have faith in them ,trust them and respect them 5.Provide them information and knowledge 6. Keep providing them feedback on their performance. 7. Recognize and appreciate their achievements 8. Keep their morale high. 9. Create an environment where the employees want to work and have fun.

These practices can be categorized in 3 levels: Low, medium and high level.

POLICY
DEFINITION OF 'POLICY': A 'Policy' is a man made rule or predetermined course of action that is established to guide the performance of work towards the organization objectives TYPES OF POLICIES. (1) Management policies (2) Personnel policies. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND PERSONNEL POLICIES

Management policy 1.developed by working organizations 2.are directed towards the achievements of the organizational objectives. 3.serve as guidelines to give consistency and continuity to total operation of the organization 4. provide a base for management by principle as contrasted with management by expediency".

Personal policy 1.developed by the individuals 2.to keep them on track towards their personnel objectives 3.provide guidelines for a wide variety of employment relationships in the organization 4.serve as the road map for the manager.

POLICIES Definition: Personnel policies are statement of intention indicating an agreement to a general course of action and indicating specifically the organizational view points and values which dominate the organization's action. Classification of Personnel Policies : 1) Employment policies 2) Promotion policies 3) Development policy 4) Relations policies

Steps of formulating policy : 1.Fact finding 2.Reporting of proposed policy 3.Writing the proposed policy 4.Discussing the proposed policy 5. Adopting and launching policy 6. Communicating policy 7. Appraising the policy Staffing policies: The policy has a greater significance in the organization for giving a direction to the activities in the fields of finanance, marketing, production, personnel.

ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF ADMINISTRATOR IN STAFFING Pre-Employment Role 1. Plans for future staffing needs proactively. 2. Predicts the future by being knowledgable regarding current and historical staffing events. 3. Identifies and recruit the gifted individuals to the organization. 4. Serves as a model for recruitment. 5. Self aware regarding personnel biases during the pre-employment process. 6. Uses the interview process as a means to promote the organizations image.

7. Assign new personnel to position that facilitates success. Pre- employment function 1. Ensures that that there is an adequate skill work force to meet the goals of the organization. 2. Shares responsibility for the recruitment of staff. 3. Plans and structures appropriate interview activity 4. Uses technique that increases the validity and reliability of the interview process. 5. Applies knowledge of the legal requirement of interviewing and selection to ensure that the organization is not unfair in its hiring practices. 6. Develops, establish criteria for selection 7. Uses the knowledge for of organizational needs and employs strength to make placement decision.

ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF ADMINISTRATOR IN STAFFING SCHEDULE Role 1. Identify creative and flexible staffing methods to meet the needs of patients. 2. Is knowledge able regarding contemporary method of scheduling. 3. Assume a responsibility towards staffing it builds trust and team approach 4. Periodically examines the unit standard of productivity. 5. Extraneous factors that has impact on staffing. 6. Ethically accountable for clients and employees Function 1. Provide adequate staffing to meet patient care needs according to the philosophy of the organization. 2. Uses organozational goals and patient classification tools to minimize under staffing and overstaffing as patient census and fluctuate. 3. Schedules staff in fiscals responsible manner. 4. Develops fair and uniform scheduling policy.

5. Scheduling policy are not in violation of local and national labour laws, organizaztional policy or union contracts. 6. Evaluates scheduling and staffing procedure and policies on regular basis

Conclusion Staffing should reflect that the planning has taken all the local factors affecting in relation to the quality and quantity of personnel. Optimum utilization of available nursing personnels needs high level of wisdom, problem solving and human relation skill and above all a cooll mind.

REFERENCES:1. Basavanthappa BT. Nursing administration.1st edition. Jaypee brothers. New delhi: 2007; Pp292 321, 511- 22. 2. Chadhuri KK. Personnel management for executives. 1st edition. Himalaya publication; 1998: Pp 1 18 3. Claire Blinman An article on how To Create An Effective Induction TrainingProgram http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Claire_Blinman 4. Erika, Does journal club membership empower practice, Nursing management the journal of excellence in nursing leadership, May 2011. 5. Joseph z. Pinczink, Health care financial management for nurse manager 2006, Pp.19 6. Journal of In-service Education (ISSN 1367-4587). Volume 24, 1998, 7. Kathrym p. ,Improving the environment of care ,what every nurse manager can do, Nursing management the journal of excellence in nursing leadership, Jan 2011. 8. Neeraja KP. Text book of nursing education.. jaypee brother. New delhi; 2007: Pp 386 88. 9. Parket & creasia, Conceptual foundations of professional nursing practice, Mosby publication,1991, Pp.79. 10. Pozgar D. George, Legal aspect of health care administration, edition 9 th, Jones and bartlet publication, Pp.499-500. 11. Safaya RN. Current problem in Indian education.1st edition. Dhanpat rai publication. New delhi. 2005; Pp238 46. 12. Sharma RK, Shashi KG. Principles of management. 1st edition.. 1996. Pp 211 21. 13. Swansburg. C. Russell, Swansburg J. Richard, Nursing staff development , A competent of resource development, Jones and Barlett publishers 2002, Pp:149-16