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Tokyo Polytechnic University The 21st Century Center of Excellence Program Yukio Tamura

Background

Building Standard Law of Japan (BSLJ) --- Minimum building design requirements - completely revised in 2000 - Performance Based Design (PBD) AIJ Recommendations for Loads on Buildings (AIJ-RLB) 1993 - to be revised in 2004

Major Revisions

Introduction of the wind directionality factor (8 wind directions); Explicit introduction of wind load combinations; Correction and addition of topographic effects; Substantial fulfillment of aerodynamic shape factors

Buildings and Structures

High-rise HighLow-rise LowMediumSmall Size Medium-rise Rigid Particularly Slender Flexible Wind Sensitive

- Crosswind Detailed Method Simplified - Along-wind - Roof Along- Torsion Method - Cladding - Quasi-steady - Size Reduction Effects Quasi- Quasi-static - Resonance Effects Quasi-

U H = U 0 K D E H k rW

U0 : Basic wind speed KD : Wind directionality factor EH : Wind speed profile factor krW : Return period conversion factor

Meteorological Standard Condition - 10min mean - 10m above ground - Open flat terrain - 100-year-recurrence Typhoon Winds : Monte-Carlo Simulation Synoptic Winds : Meteorological Data Combined probability

34 32 3234 30 Lower Limit: 30m/s 30

32 32 36 30 32 32 38 30

B = 20m, D = 40m, H = 40m Maximum Acceleration Maximum Displacement

63%

100%

50%

100%

Davenport (1969) Holmes (1981) Cook (1983) Melbourne (1984, 1990) AS 1170.2 (1989) AS/NZS 1170.2 (2002) Simiu & Heckert (1998)

ASCE 7-98 - Buildings: 0.85 for all directions Chimneys: 0.9 or 0.95 for all directions Except for hurricane-prone regions AS/NZS1170.2(2002) - Tropical-cyclone-prone regions: 0.95 or 1.0 for all directions - Non-tropical-cyclone-prone regions: Wind Direction Multiplier for 8 sectors

Difficulty in tropical-cyclone-prone regions Meteorological records in Japan: - 75 years of reliable records at most - Approx. 3 landfalls/year of typhoons - Very few typhoon data in each sector divided into 8 or 16 sectors of azimuth for a given site Large sampling error

Direction of Movement

10m/s

Northern Hemisphere

Dangerous Semicircle

Hybrid use of meteorological data during typhoon passage and Typhoon Simulation technique Reflecting effects of large-scale topography and terrain roughness - Correlations between observed wind speed and simulated friction free wind speed - Correlations between observed wind direction and simulated friction free wind direction

Simulated Friction Free Wind (FFW) Correlations - Wind Speed UFF - Wind Direction DFF p1 Typhoon Path p3 p p2 p4 pi Pressure Records at Meteorological Stations Meteorological Records - Wind Speed UME - Wind Direction DME

Calculation of Correlations Correlations Between Evaluated FFW (UFF, DFF) and Observed Wind Records (UME, DME) Using All Available Typhoon Records (U Typhoon Simulations (5,000 years) Monte-Carlo Simulation Monteat Meteorological Stations Stations - Wind Speed USFF - Wind Direction DSFF (FFW) Virtual Meteorological Wind Data (5,000 years) Probabilistic Conversion of Simulated FFW (USFF, DSFF) FFW (U to Virtual Meteorological Wind Data (Uvir, Dvir) (U

Evaluation of Directional R-year Recurrence Wind Speed in Tropical Cyclone Prone Region

Virtual Long-term Meteorological Data

Wind Directionality

(Tokyo, 100-year Recurrence)

Corresponding to an annual exceedence probability of load effects (base shear, base moment, etc.) corresponding to 100-year recurrence Under different conditions: - load effects - building shape - orientation - geographic location - design target (structural frames, components and cladding)

Annual probability of exceedence of a wind load effect = 1/100 (100-year Recurrence) Calculation of 100-year recurrence wind load effect (e.g. internal force, peak pressure) based on the actual wind climate at a given site Site, Building Shape, Orientation, Load Effect, etc.

1.

QX,100

2.

Calculation of equivalent return period causing the same 100-year recurrence wind load effect in the most unfavorable case 150 200 years

QX,100

10

2.

Calculation of equivalent return period causing the same 100-year recurrence wind load effect in the most unfavorable case Calculation of average directional wind speeds UD based on the equivalent return period for various cases at each meteorological site

3.

Ave. (m/s)

11

Chiba

KD = Basic Wind Speed U0

If you have aerodynamic shape factors for all wind directions, KD can be used directly. If you use aerodynamic shape factors Cf specified in the AIJ-RLB, there is a limitation. Structural Frames : Specified method Cladding/Components : KD = 1

Equivalent Directional Design Wind Speed

12

E = Er E g

Er : Exposure factor for flat terrains E g : Topography factor for mean

wind speed

Z 1.7 ZG Er = 1.7 Z b Z G

Zb < Z ZG Z Zb

ZG Zb

13

700m

V IV

600 500

Category V IV III II I

III II

0.5

1.5

Er

Topography Factor Eg

S

Escarpments HS XS HS XS

S

Ridges

14

Topography Factor Eg

A series of wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations U+U

U U

Eg=(U+U)/U

Topography Factor Eg

Z E g = (C1 1)C2 H C3 + 1 S Z exp C2 H C3 + 1 1 S

C1 , C2 and C3 : Constants depending

on slope angle and distance from upper edge

15

Topography Factor Eg

0

Eg

Proposed Formula Eg

1

-3 -3 --2 2 -1 -1 0 0 1 1

2 XS 2 Xs/Hs HS

1

3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6

U = U 500 U 0

U 500: 500-year-recurrence wind speed U0

for the meteorological standard conditions : Basic wind speed (100-year-recurrence)

16

38 36 3638 34 36 36 Lower Limit: 34m/s 34 34 36 36 38 42 34 42 40 38 38 38 36 34 38 46 4436 36 3436 34 40 40 40 34 34 36 44 42 36 48 40 48 40 44 36 36 34 44 48 4240 3842 40 44 48 40 Okinawa: 58m/s 44 46 48 40

I Z = I rZ E gI

I rZ

: Turbulence Intensity for flat terrains

Topography factor for fluctuation wind speed u

EI EgI = Eg

Topography factor for mean wind speed U

17

I rZ

Z 0.1 ZG = 0.1 Z b Z G

0.05

0.05

Zb < Z ZG Z Zb

18

For Main Frames - Horizontal Along-wind Load Ccrosswind Load Torsional Load - Roof Wind Load For Cladding / Components - Peak Cladding Load

WD = q H C D G D A

: Velocity pressure at reference height H CD : Aerodynamic shape factor GD : Gust loading factor A : Projected area GLF based on Base Bending Moment (Zhou & Kareem, 2001)

qH

19

GD = 1 + g D

' Cg

Cg

1 + D 2 RD

D

RD

coefficients for alongwind OTM : Correction factor depending on mode shape : Resonance factor

WR = qH CRGR AR

qH CR GR AR

: Velocity pressure at reference height H = C pe C pi : Aerodynamic shape factor : Gust loading factor : Subjected area for roof beam

20

GR = 1

2 12.3rRe (1 + R Re ) + 0.3rc 2

1 rc

C pi = 0.4, CR 0

2 G R = 1 12.3rRe (1 + R Re ) + 0.3rc

C pi = 0

WD = qZ C DGD AF

qZ CD GD A

: Velocity pressure at height Z : Aerodynamic shape factor : Gust loading factor : Projected area

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GD = 1 + g D

Cg Cg

D 1 + RD

D

RD

coefficients for alongwind OTM : Correction factor depending on mode shape : Resonance factor

Slender and flexible buildings to satisfy following condition:

H 3 BD

UH

H D B

22

Z 2 W L = 3q H C L A g L 1 + L R L H

CL = 0.0082(D B ) 0.071(D B ) + 0.22(D B )

3 2

g L : Peak factor

RL

WT = 1.8qH CT AB

gT : Peak factor

Z gT 1 + T 2 RT H

RT

23

Ordinary buildings

D =

1 0.4 ln M 2+ MD

Along-wind loads Along 1

Z = H

Mode shape

Lattice Towers

D =

M 5M D

Particularly wind-sensitive U buildings to satisfy following H H conditions: Non-dimensional NonH B 4 onset velocity D BD UH UH * * 0.83U Lcr or 0.83U Tcr and f BD f T BD L f L , f T : Fundamental natural frequencies of crosswind vibration and torsional vibration

24

Terrain Category Side Ratio

Mass-Damping Parameter L

Onset Velocity

I & II

All L 0.2 0.2<L 0.8 L > 0.8 L 0.4 L > 0.4 All

III, IV &V

U*Lcr 16L 11 1.2L +7.3 2.3 12 15 L 3.7 Not occur 4.5L +6.7 0.7L +8.8 11

Side Ratio

D/B D/B1.5

T 0.05 0.05 <T 0.1 T > 0.1 T 0.05 0.05 <T 0.15 T > 0.15 T 0.05 T > 0.05

Mass-Damping Parameter T

Onset Velocity

25

Buildings with a circular plan to satisfy following conditions:

H UH 7 and 4.2 Dm f L Dm

fL

UH Dm H

Z 2 Wr = 0.8U r C r A H

Cr fL

UH H Z Dm

(m/s) : Equivalent aerodynamic shape factor for vortex resonance - tabulated in AIJ-RLB : Fundamental natural frequency of crosswind vibration

26

Displacement

Bending Moment

Load Conditions

ALL : FD FL FT MD ML MT Along-wind FD only Crosswind FL only Torsional Moment MT only ALL Along-wind FD only

130%

115%

Ensemble averaged values of 12 samples The worst case was a 75% increase in tensile stress.

27

Low- and medium-rise buildings - Y. Tamura, H. Kikuchi and K. Hibi (2002) - H. Kikuchi, Y. Tamura and K. Hibi (2002) Peak normal stresses in columns High-rise buildings - Asami (2000, 2002) Combination methods considering correlations of along-wind, crosswind and torsional responses

WD

WLC = WD

Combination Factor

28

Combination Factor

Column Normal Stress by All Wind Force Components Column Normal Stress by Along-wind Force only Along-

(Kikuchi, Tamura & Hibi, 2002) Hibi,

Combination Factor

Building Height

29

(Kikuchi, Tamura & Hibi, 2002) Hibi,

1.5 B 1

WL= WD WD D

0.5

(H = 40m)

(Kikuchi, Tamura & Hibi, 2002) Hibi,

Combination Factor

1.5 B 1

WL= WD WD D

0.5

= 0.35 (D/B)

1 2 3 Side Ratio D/B (H = 80m)

30

my m y ,max

2 + 2 1

mx m x ,max

= M x + m x ,max

1 2 2

0 (M x , M y ) 1

Combination

Along-wind Load

Crosswind Load

Torsional Load

WD

0.4 WL

WL

0.4 WT

( 2+2 1)W

LT

( 2+2 1)W

LT

WT

31

- tabulated in AIJ-RLB - depends upon D/B f / fL f1B/UH

The smaller of f and fL

It is recommended to simply superimpose the horizontal wind load and roof wind load. - Y. Tamura, H. Kikuchi and K. Hibi (2003) The vertical component of the wind force acting on medium-rise buildings tended to become largest when one of the horizontal wind force components reached its maximum value .

32

WC = q H C C AC

C C = C pe C * pi C : Peak external pressure coefficient

pe * pi

: Coefficient accounting for the effect of the internal pressure Equivalent internal fluctuation pressure coefficient : Tributary area

External wind pressure coefficients C pe for structural frames:

- Buildings with rectangular sections (H>45m) - Buildings with rectangular sections with flat, shed, or gable roofs (H45m) - Circular arc roofs (H45m) - Dome roofs

- Buildings without dominant openings

C pi

33

External wind force coefficients for structural frames: CD , C X

- Buildings with circular sections - Pitched free roofs with a rectangular plan - Lattice structures - Fences - Members with various sections - Nettings

, CY

- Buildings with rectangular sections (H>45m) - Buildings with rectangular sections with flat, shed, or gable roofs (H45m) - Buildings with circular sections - Circular arc roofs (H45m) - Dome roofs

Coefficients accounting for the effect of the internal pressure fluctuation for C * pi cladding and components

- Buildings without dominant openings

34

- Pitched free roofs with a rectangular plan

AIJ Guidelines for the Evaluation of Habitability to Building Vibration (1991)

(Its revised version will be published in 2004)

35

20

20 20

20

15

20 15 15 20

20

20

20

Miscellaneous

Evaluation formulae for along-wind, crosswind and torsional acceleration responses Interference effects of neighboring buildings Uncertainty and dispersion of parameters included in AIJ-RLB-2004 - to achieve reliability based design

36

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