Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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1. Verification of Forward and Reverse bias characteristics of a PN junction diode. 2. Verification of Zener diode characteristics and calculation of its dynamic resistance. 3. Design of an RC Low Pass filter circuit & RC High Pass filter circuit and observing its response to sinusoidal and square wave inputs 4. Measurement of ripple factor with and without filter for Half wave and Full wave rectifier circuits. 5. Observation of output waveforms of Diode Clipper and Clamper Circuits. 6. Obtaining the frequency response of CE transistor amplifier and measurement of its bandwidth. 7. Measurement of the h-parameters hie and hfe of a CE transistor amplifier. 8. Verification of the transfer characteristics of JFET and measurement of its voltage gain. 9. Obtaining the frequency response and measurement of Bandwidth of an inverting OP-AMP. (Using IC 741). 10. Obtaining the frequency response and measurement of Bandwidth of non inverting OP-AMP. (Using IC 741).

11. Design of an RC Phase Shift Oscillator (Using IC 741 OP AMP) and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. 12. Design of a R-2R ladder network for conversion of a 4-bit digital signal to an analog equivalent signal.

OPTIONAL EXPERIMENTS:

13. Design of a voltage follower (using IC 741 OP-AMP) & plotting of its frequency response. 14. Design of a Differentiator circuit (using IC 741 OP-AMP) and observation of its output waveforms for various input waveforms (Sine wave, Square wave & Triangular wave). 15. Design of an Integrator circuit (using IC 741 OP-AMP) and observation of its output waveform for various input waveforms (Sine wave, Square wave & Triangular wave). 16. Measurement of the input impedances for inverting and non-inverting amplifiers with same voltage gain (using IC 741 OP-AMP). 17. Design of a voltage follower (using IC 741 OP AMP) and plotting of its frequency response curve. 18. Design of an adder circuit and a subtracter circuit (using IC 741 OP-AMP). 19. Measurement of the phase angle between two signals of the same frequency using CRO. 20. Measurement of unknown frequencies using Lissajous patterns.

21. Obtaining the frequency response of an emitter follower circuit and calculation of its gain-bandwidth product . 22. Design of a Wein Bridge Oscillator (Using IC 741 OP AMP) and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. 23. Design of a Hartley Oscillator and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. 24. Design of Relaxation Oscillator (Using UJT 2N2646) and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. 25. Design of analog-to-digital Comparator circuit for conversion of an analog signal to 8-bit digital signal.

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON VERIFICATION OF FORWARD AND REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERISTICS OF PN JUNCTION DIODE

MESRA, RANCHI

AIM: Verification of forward and reverse bias characteristics of a PN junction diode APPARATUS:

1. Diodes 2. Millimeter 3. Micro ammeter 4. Voltmeter 5. Resistance (220 , 560 ) 6.power supply 7. Connecting wires and breadboard.

THEORY

A p-n junction is formed by combining N-type and P-type semiconductor together in very close contact. A p-n junction is formed by combining N- type and P-type semiconductor together in very close contact. At the junction of a p-type and an n-type semiconductor there forms a region called the depletion region, which have been depleted of the mobile charges. Since the electrons or holes have left the depletion region, due to diffusion in the process of formation of p-n junction, this depletion region is electrically charged. The p-type depletion regions are negatively charged (due to uncompensated acceptor ions) and n-type depletion regions are positively charged (due to uncompensated donor ions). The potential difference exists across the depletion region known as contact potential. The act of applying a voltage across a p-n junction is known as biasing. There are two ways in which a p-n junction can be biased. One is known as forward biasing. The other is known as reverse biasing. In forward biasing, the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-side and negative terminal of the battery is connected to n- side of the diode. In this set up the conduction across p-n junction takes place due to the migration of the majority charge carriers. This means electrons migrate from n- side to p- side and the holes migrate from p- side to n- side. In forward biasing the size of the depletion layer becomes smaller and the resistance of the p-n junction diode becomes low. In reverse biasing, the positive terminal of the battery is connected to n- side and the negative terminal of the battery is connected to p- side of the p-n junction. In the arrangement, the size of the depletion region becomes large and the resistance of the diode becomes high. The graph of voltage applied across the diode (V) versus the current (I) flowing thru it is called its V-I characteristic. A typical V-I characteristic of a p-n junction diode is as shown.

VR

VB VF 0.7V

Breakdown Region

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 1. 2. Bring the variable voltage of the DC source to zero. The current through milliammeter should also be zero. 3. Increase the variable voltage of the DC source slowly and in steps. Corresponding to each setting, note down the voltmeter and milliammeter readings. 4. Do not exceed the current beyond the current rating of the diode. This completes the observation for V-I characteristics of the forward biased diode 5. Plot Current (I) Voltage (V) by choosing proper scales 6. Make the connections as shown in figure 2. 7. Repeat the steps 2 and 3. This completes observation for V-I characteristics of reverse biased diode. 8. Plot Current (I) Voltage (V) by choosing proper scales 0-10 V VF

+ IF 0 10 mA

R=100

. VR 0 10 V

+ 0 500 A A

Fig.2. Circuit for reverse biasing of the diode OBSERVATIONS: Table I Readings for Forward Bias of the diode. Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. Table II Readings for Reverse bias of the diode. Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. VR (volt) IR (A) VF (volt) IF (mA)

RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:

R=100

VERIFICATION OF ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AND CALCULATION OF ITS DYNAMIC RESISTANCE.

resistance.

APPARATUS:

1. Power supply. 2. DC voltmeter. 3. DC ammeter.

COMPONENTS:

1. Resistors 470, 1.5K, 2.2K, 3.3K, 5.6K, 12K. 2. Zener EC 3Z 12A.

THEORY:

If the reverse voltage across a Zener diode reaches a level called breakdown voltage, it starts conducting heavily. Before this reverse voltage is reached it does not conduct, however a small reverse current does flow (few A). To prevent high current through the Zener (for it may be damaged), a series resistor is included. After breakdown the voltage across the zener remains constant even if the input voltage varies or the load current changes.

PROCEDURE:

A. For Characteristic of Zener diode and measuring the Breakdown Voltage: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Connect the circuit as shown. Fix the load resistance to 2.2 K Vary V and note the values of I1, I2 and Vi and Vdc. Tabulate the readings in table given below: Draw V-I characteristics for the zener. Find out the Breakdown Voltage (Vz) of the Zener diode Ii (mA) Iz (mA) Vdc (volts)

Vi (volts)

B. For Study Voltage regulation Characteristic of Zener diode: 1. Keep Vi > Vz (fixed) 2. Vary load (By connecting different load resistances) and measure I1 , Iz and Vdc. 3. Tabulate the readings in table given below: RL (k) 1.5 2.2 3.3 5.6 12 I1 (mA) Iz (mA) Vdc (volts)

RESULT: PRECAUTIONS:

Ii

R1 470ohm D1 5V Vin (0-30V) + R4 R6 3.3kohm 5.6kohm R5 + 12kohm 00.000 V + 00.000 A

R2 1.5kohm

R3 2.2kohm

Iz

00.000 A

Vz

DESIGN OF AN RC LOW PASS FILTER & HIHG PASS FILTER CIRCUIT & OBSERVING ITS RESPONSE TO SINUSOIDAL AND SQUARE WAVE INPUTS.

AIM: Design of an RC Low Pass filter circuit & High Pass Filter and observing its response to sinusoidal and square wave inputs. APPARATUS: 1. Function Generator 2. AC Millivoltmeter 3. CRO 4. Breadboard COMPONENTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. Resistor Wish board Connecting wires Capacitor

THEORY: Low Pass Filter: Passive RC circuit acts as Low Pass filter if output is taken across capacitor. It also acts as integrator for high time constant. For sinusoidal signal voltage Gain is given by 1 A= jf 1+ f0

Where f0 is critical frequency given by 1 f0 = 2 C R

For square wave input it acts as integrator if time constant RC is high with respect to swing time of input wave and under this condition output voltage is given by approximately 1 V0 = Vi dt RC

Passive RC circuit acts as High Pass filter if output is taken across resistor. It also acts as differentiator for low time constant. For sinusoidal signal voltage Gain is given by 1 A= jf 1 0 f Where f0 is critical frequency given by 1 f0 = 2 C R For square wave input it acts as differentiator if time constant RC is small with respect to swing time of input wave and under this condition output voltage is given by approximately dV V0 = R C i dt

PROCEDURE: Low Pass Filter: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Apply ac sinusoidal input voltage of 25 milivolt from function generator. 2. 3. Connect ac Millivoltmeter across capacitor 4. Vary frequency of ac input and measure output voltage. 5. Instead of sinusoidal signal apply square wave input and study output waveform by CRO. High Pass Filter: 6. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. 7. Apply ac sinusoidal input voltage of 25 milivolt from function generator. 8. Connect ac Millivoltmeter across resister 9. Vary frequency of ac input and measure output voltage. 10. Instead of sinusoidal signal apply square wave input and study output waveform by CRO.

Sl. No.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

RESULT

PRECAUTION:

1. The breadboard should be handled carefully. 2. The base portions of wires and connection shouldnt touch during the experiment, as it would result distortion at output.

R1 10kOhm_5% C1 1.6nF

C1 1.6nF R1 10.0kOhm_1%

MEASUREMENT OF RIPPLE FACTOR WITH AND WITHOUT FILTER FOR HALF WAVE AND FULL WAVE RECTIFIER CIRCUITS

AIM: Measurement of ripple factor with and without filter for half wave and full wave

rectifier Circuits

APPARATUS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CRO. DC voltmeter. AC voltmeter. Half wave and Full wave Rectifier circuits Circuit board.

THEORY:

Half-Wave rectifier rectifies the positive half cycles of the ac input. Full-Wave rectifier rectifies both the positive and negative half cycles of the ac input. Ripple factor (r) = rms value of the ac component / dc value of the rectifier wave. i.e. r = Vrms/Vdc

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect a dc voltmeter, an ac voltmeter and a CRO across the output. 2. Connect the circuit as a half wave rectifier (by close K3 and open K1, K2 and K4) and measure the dc and ac voltages with and without filter in each type 3. Plug in the input. 4. Measure Vrms, Vdc and observe waveform on CRO. 5. Tabulate the readings. 6. Calculate r from the readings. 7. Calculate r theoretically. 8. Connect the circuit as C-filter, L-filter, LC-filter and -filter (By Closing suitable key K2, K3 and K4.) and note the readings of dc voltmeter and ac voltmeter in each case. Tabulate the readings. 9. Now connect the circuit as a center tapped full wave rectifier (by close K1, K3 and open K2 and K4) and measure the dc and ac voltages with and without filter (By Closing suitable key K2, K3 and K4.) in each type. 10. Calculate r from measured value and theoretically.

OBSERVATIONS:

(a) For Full Wave Rectifier:

HW rectifier K1 open Parameter Without filter Vdc Vac r With C1 With LC With CLC

FW rectifier - K1 closed Parameter Without filter Vdc Vac r With C1 With LC With CLC

RESULT: PRECAUTIONS:

k3

D1 T1 230V,50C/S Vin D2

k1

L1 1mH k2 k4 R1 1kohm

C1 1uF

C2 1uF

Vout

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON OBSERVATION OF OUTPUT WAVEFORMS OF DIODE CLIPPER AND CLAMPER CIRCUITS

AIM: Observation of output waveforms of Diode Clippers and Clampers Circuits APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4. Wish board D.C. Power Supply Function Generator Or Trainer Kit (Microlab-II) C.R.O

CIRCUIT COMPONENTS:

1. Diode (IN 4007) 2. Capacitors 3. Resistors

THEORY

PROCEDURE:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram-1. Connect the C.R.O. probe across the output terminal and ground. Observe the output waveform. Trace the waveform on the tracing paper. Measure the Amplitude of Sine wave and clipping/clamping Voltage. Repeat the above procedure for circuit diagram- 2,3,4,5 and 6.

RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:

R 1.2kohm

R2

--+ Vo ---

1.2kohm

--+ Vo ---

1N4001

1N4001

R1 1.2kohm

Fig. (c)

1uF C1

--+ Vo ---

1uF

C2

--+ Vo

Fig. (d)

Fig. (e)

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON OBTAINING THE FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF CE TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER AND MEASUREMENT OF ITS BANDWIDTH

its bandwidth

APPARATUS:

1. 2. 3. 4. Power supply Function generator A. C. mill voltmeter Common emitter transistor amplifier circuit

THEORY: PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the power supply to the circuits as shown. Set the voltage to 12 Volts with respect to common terminal. 2. Connect a function generator to the input terminal and set it to 25 mV, 10 Hz. 3. Connect an a.c millivoltmeter to the output terminal. 4. Read the output and note down. 5. Keeping Vin fixed at 25 mV, go on increasing the frequency at regular intervals and measuring the output voltage. 6. Tabulate the readings. 5. Plot Gain against frequency on semilogrethmic graph sheet. 6. Find 3dB point frequencies and Bandwidth. Note: Try to take the reading until gain will drop from its constant gain upto the value, which is approximately equal to the gain value for first reading

OBSERVATIONS:

Input Voltage (fixed) = 25 mV. Frequency (Hz) 30 50 70 90 100 200 300 500

RESULT: PRECAUTIONS:

V2 12V

R2 8.2kohm

R3 1.5kohm C2

R1 1kohm

C1 Q1 50uF

50uF

Vin

R4 1kohm

R5 470ohm

R6 1kohm C3 250uF

Vout

MEASUREMENT OF THE h-PARAMETERS, hie AND hfe OF A TRANSISTOR

AIM: Measurement of the h-Parameters hie and hfe of a CE transistor amplifier APPARATUS:

1. 2. 3. 4. Function generator. VTVM/AC Mill voltmeter DC milliammeter. Dual DC Power Supply

THEORY:

hie =Vbe / Ib = Input impedance in CE configuration. hfe =Ic / Ib = Forward current gain in CE configuration

PROCEDURE:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Connect the circuit as shown in fig. Apply Vin as 25mV and 1KHz from function generator. Fix collector voltage Vcc at 6 V. Vary ICQ by varying VEE . Measure Vbe, Vce and Vcr for various collector currents (IC). Tabulate the readings and calculate hie and hfe. Plot hie vs. ICQ and hfe vs. ICQ.

OBSERVATIONS:

ICQ (mA) Vbe (mV ) Vce (mv) Vcr Ib (mV) = (Vin-Vbe)/10K (A) Ic = (Vce Vcr)/ 10 (mA) Hie =Vbe/Ib (K) Hfe =Ic/Ib

RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:

R3 10ohm 50uF SK100 10kohm 1mH 50uF Vin 25mV 0-3V 100kohm Vcc 6V

+ -

00.000

Icq

VERIFICATION OF THE TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS OF JFET AND MEASUREMENT OF ITS VOLTAGE GAIN

AIM: Verification of the transfer characteristics of JFET and measurement of its voltage

gain.

EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Bread board, 2. Transistor 3. Power Supply 4. Milliammeter 5.Electronic Multimeter.

impedance is very high. A field effect transistor can be either a JFET or MOSFET. A JFET, MOSFET both can be either have N-channel or Pchannel. An N-channel JFET has an N-type Semiconductor bar, the two ends of which make the drain and source terminals. On the other two sides of this N-type Semiconductor bar, two P type regions are made. These P-regions form gates. Usually, these two Gates are connected together to form a single gate. The gate is given a negative bias with respect to the source. The drain is given positive potential with respect to the source. In case of a P-channel JFET, the terminals of all the batteries are reversed.

FORMULAE USED:

1. 2. 3. 4. Amplification factor = VDS/VGSID=constant Tran conductance gm= ID/VGS |VDS=constant Drain Resistance rd = VDS/Id |VGS=constant = rd * gm

PROCEDURE:

(a) To plot the output characteristics 1. Assemble the circuit as shown in fig. 2. First, fix VGS at some value say 0 V. Increase the drain voltage VDS slowly in steps say (0-10 V). Note drain current ID for each step. 3. Now, change VGS to another value and repeat the above for VGS=1V to 3V. 4. Plot the drain characteristics (graph between ID and VDS for fixed value of VGS). (b) To plot the transfer characteristics 1. Adjust VDS to any value say 2V and keep it constant throughout the observations. 2. Vary VGS in small steps and note ID for each value. 3. Plot the Transfer characteristics (graph between ID and VGS for fixed value of VDD).

OBSERVATIONS:

(a) Maxm drain current reading = . mA (b) Maxm drain voltage reading =mA (c) Drain characteristics S. NO. VDS in (V) Drain Current ID(mA) VGS =0V VGS =-1V VGS =-2V

VGS =-3V

RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:

Fig. Circuit Diagram for measurement of Output and Transfer Characteristics of JFET

OBTAINING THE FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND MEASUREMENT OF BANDWIDTH OF AN INVERTING OP-AMP (USING IC 741)

AIM: Obtaining the frequency response and measurement of Bandwidth of an inverting OP-AMP. (Using IC 741). APPARATUS:

1. 2.

MICROLAB-II AC MILLIVOLTMETER

COMPONENTS:

1. 2.

The 741 is the godfather of all operational amplifiers (amplifiers on a chip). Although most up-to-date designs beat it for speed, low noise, etc, it still works well as a general purpose device. One of its advantages is that it is compensated (its frequency response is tailored) to ensure that under most curcumstances it won't produce unwanted spurious oscillations. This means it is easy to use, but the down-side of this is the poor speed/gain performance compared to more modern op-amps.

The 741 is usually supplied in an 8-pin DIL (Dual In Line) or DIP (Dual Inline Package, or sometimes Dual Inline Plastic) package with a pinout shown above. This has proved so popular that many other competing op-amps have adoped the same package/pinout. Hence for many applications the various op-amps are drop in replacements or upgrades for one another. These days there is a large family of 741 type devices, made by various manufacturers. Sometimes one manufacturer will make different versions, which work better than others in some respect. Each has a slightly different part number, but it generally has 741 in it somewhere!

The values given below are typical for an ordinary 741, better versions (more expensive) may give better results...

Typical values of Basic Parameters: Rail voltages : +/- 15V dc (+/- 5V min, +/- 18V max) Input impedance: Around 2MegOhms Low Frequency voltage gain: approx 200,000 Input bias current: 80nA Slew rate: 0.5V per microsecond Maximum output current: 20mA Recommended output load: not less than 2kilOhms

Note that, due to the frequency compensation, the 741's voltage gain falls rapidly with increasing signal frequency. Typically down to 1000 at 1kHz, 100 at 10kHz, and unity at about 1MHz. To make this easy to remember we can say that the 741 has a gainbandwidth product of around one million (i.e. 1 MHz as the units of frequency are Hz).

THEORY: PROCEDURE:

Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Keep Rf = 470K ,R1=47K Keep Vin = 100mV (fixed) each time. Vary the frequency from 20Hz to 200KHz and note down the output reading at each time keeping Vin =100mV (fixed) and tabulate the readings in to observation table. 5. Replace R1=4.7K and repeat the procedure as above (Vin=10mV). 6. Plot Gain against frequency on semilogrethmic graph sheet. 7. Find 3dB point frequencies and Bandwidth. Note: Try to take the reading until gain will drop from its constant gain upto the value, which is approximately equal to the gain value for first reading

OBSERVATIONS: SL. No. Frequency (Hz) Vin (mv) Vout (mv) Gain Av=Vout/Vin Gain [20 log10 Vout/Vin)] (dB)

1. 2. 3. 4.

1 2 3 4 5 RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:

Rf 470kohm

-10V

R1 4.7kohm 2 3 7 1 5 Vin 4 741 U1

Vout

OBTAINING THE FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND MEASUREMENT OF BANDWIDTH OF A NON- INVERTING OP-AMP (USING IC 741)

AIM: Obtaining the frequency response and measurement of Bandwidth of a noninverting OP-AMP. (Using IC 741). APPARATUS:

1. 2. 3.

COMPONENTS:

1. 2.

The 741 is the godfather of all operational amplifiers (amplifiers on a chip). Although most up-to-date designs beat it for speed, low noise, etc, it still works well as a general purpose device. One of its advantages is that it is compensated (its frequency response is tailored) to ensure that under most curcumstances it won't produce unwanted spurious oscillations. This means it is easy to use, but the down-side of this is the poor speed/gain performance compared to more modern op-amps.

The 741 is usually supplied in an 8-pin DIL (Dual In Line) or DIP (Dual Inline Package, or sometimes Dual Inline Plastic) package with a pinout shown above. This has proved so popular that many other competing op-amps have adoped the same package/pinout. Hence for many applications the various op-amps are drop in replacements or upgrades for one another. These days there is a large family of 741 type devices, made by various manufacturers. Sometimes one manufacturer will make different versions, which work better than others in some respect. Each has a slightly

different

part

number,

but

it

generally

has

741

in

it

somewhere!

The values given below are typical for an ordinary 741, better versions (more expensive) may give better results...

Typical values of Basic Parameters: Rail voltages : +/- 15V dc (+/- 5V min, +/- 18V max) Input impedance: Around 2MegOhms Low Frequency voltage gain: approx 200,000 Input bias current: 80nA Slew rate: 0.5V per microsecond Maximum output current: 20mA Recommended output load: not less than 2kilOhms

Note that, due to the frequency compensation, the 741's voltage gain falls rapidly with increasing signal frequency. Typically down to 1000 at 1kHz, 100 at 10kHz, and unity at about 1MHz. To make this easy to remember we can say that the 741 has a gainbandwidth product of around one million (i.e. 1 MHz as the units of frequency are Hz).

THEORY: PROCEDURE:

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Keep Rf = 470 k,R1= 47 k Vary the frequency from 20Hz to 200 KHz and note down the output reading each time, keeping Vin=10 mV (fixed) and tabulate the reading in to observation table. Repeat R1= 4.7K and repeat the procedure as above. Plot Gain against frequency on semilogrethmic graph sheet. Find 3dB point frequencies and Bandwidth.

OBSERVATIONS: SL. No. Frequency (Hz) Vin (mv) Vout (mv) Gain Av=Vout/Vin Gain [20 log10 Vout/Vin)] (dB)

1 2 3 4 5 RESULT:

PRECAUTIONS:

Rf 470kohm

-10V

R1 47kohm 2 3 7 1 5 V1 4 741 U1

Vout

DEPARTMENT

DESIGN OF AN RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR (USING IC 741 OP AMP) AND CALCULATION OF ITS FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATION.

AIM: Design of an RC Phase Shift Oscillator (Using IC 741 OP AMP) and calculation of

its frequency of oscillation.

EQUIPMENTS:

1. DUAL DC POWER SUPPLY 2. CRO 3. BREADBOARD.

COMPONENTS:

1. IC 741 2. RESISTOR 1M, 10K, 33K. 3. Capacitor 0.1f.

ABOUT OP-AMP IC 741:

The 741 is the godfather of all operational amplifiers (amplifiers on a chip). Although most up-to-date designs beat it for speed, low noise, etc, it still works well as a general purpose device. One of its advantages is that it is compensated (its frequency response is tailored) to ensure that under most curcumstances it won't produce unwanted spurious oscillations. This means it is easy to use, but the down-side of this is the poor speed/gain performance compared to more modern op-amps.

The 741 is usually supplied in an 8-pin DIL (Dual In Line) or DIP (Dual Inline Package, or sometimes Dual Inline Plastic) package with a pinout shown above. This has proved so popular that many other competing op-amps have adoped the same package/pinout. Hence for many applications the various op-amps are drop in replacements or upgrades for one another. These days there is a large family of 741 type devices, made by various manufacturers. Sometimes one manufacturer will make

different versions, which work better than others in some respect. Each has a slightly different part number, but it generally has 741 in it somewhere! The values given below are typical for an ordinary 741, better versions (more expensive) may give better results...

Typical values of Basic Parameters: Rail voltages : +/- 15V dc (+/- 5V min, +/- 18V max) Input impedance: Around 2MegOhms Low Frequency voltage gain: approx 200,000 Input bias current: 80nA Slew rate: 0.5V per microsecond Maximum output current: 20mA Recommended output load: not less than 2kilOhms

Note that, due to the frequency compensation, the 741's voltage gain falls rapidly with increasing signal frequency. Typically down to 1000 at 1kHz, 100 at 10kHz, and unity at about 1MHz. To make this easy to remember we can say that the 741 has a gainbandwidth product of around one million (i.e. 1 MHz as the units of frequency are Hz).

THEORY:

The RC phase shift oscillator consists of an op-amp as amplifier and 3 RC cascade networks as the feedback circuit. The op-amp is used in the inverting mode, so output signal will be 180 out of phase. The feedback RC network provides the exactly 180 phase shift. So the total phase shift is 0. The gain of the amplifier is also kept large to produce oscillation. The frequency of oscillation is given by F= 0.065/RC.

PROCEDURE:

1. 2. 3. 4. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit 1. Observe the sinusoidal output on CRO. Measure the time period of the sinusoidal wave and calculate its frequency. Compare the measured frequency with F= 0.065/RC.

RESULT: PRECAUTION:

R1 30kohm

Rf 1Mohm

-10V

4 2 3 R2 30kohm 7 1 5 741 U1

Vout

+10V

0.01uF 0.01uF 0.01uF

10kohm

10kohm

10kohm

DEPARTMENT

DESIGN OF A R-2R LADDER NETWORK FOR CONVERSION OF A 4-BIT DIGITAL SIGNAL TO AN ANALOG EQUIVALENT SIGNAL.

AIM: Convert four bits Digital signal to an Analog equivalent signal using R-2R ladder Network

APPARATUS:

COMPONENTS:

1. Op-Amp. IC 741 1 No. 2. Resistor 10K - 22 No.s 3. LED with limiting resistors 4. Wish board 5. Connecting wires (3 & 4 are Operational, if Trainer board not provided)

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Apply the input bit combinations as per observation table and note down the output voltage. 3. Repeat step-2 for all entries mentioned in observations table. 4. At the end, compare the output voltage observed with theoretically calculated output voltage. 5. calculate the errors of conversion.

OBSERVATIONS:

Sl. No. Decimal Equivalent of Binary I/Ps Input (V) B3 B2 B1 B0 O/P Voltage Theoretically (V) O/P Voltage (Analog value) Practically (V)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5

0 0 5 5 0 0 5 5 0 0 5 5 0 0 5 5

0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 5

RESULT: PRECAUTION:

R

10kohm 20kohm

R

10kohm

R

10kohm

RF

20kohm

2R

2R

20kohm

2R

20kohm

2R

20kohm

2R

20kohm

-15v

4 2 741 3 7 1 5

U1

Vout +15v

5V

RL

10kohm

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