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PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG

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Name: RHIDDHIJIT GHOSH Class: B.C.E.- IV Sec: B2 Roll No. : 000910401092 Guided by Prof. S. N. Chakrabarty

Introduction

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The term Smog was coined by Dr. Henry Antoine Des Voeux in 1952 to describe the combination of smoke and fog that had been plaguing London. Smog is generally identified by the problems of visibility and irritation in eyes caused by the pollutants present in it. Smog can be classified as follows: Click to edit Master subtitleSMOG style Reducing Oxidising Smog Smog (also known as (also known Los Angeles as LondonSmog, Vehicular type Smog, Smog, Industrial Photochemical Smog and Smog)

Composition and Chemistry of Photochemical Smog

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The following atmospheric pollutants are identified in photochemical smog: Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) Tropospheric Ozone Acrolein etc. Ozone (O3) of nitrogen abundant When oxides is the subtitle style of the Click to edit Mastermost(NOx), photochemical oxidants. Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCs)
and sunlight come together, they can initiate a complex set of reactions that produce the above In very simplest of terms, we can mentioned secondary pollutants. express the formation of photochemical smog as: VOCs + NOx + Sunlight Photochemical

Development of Photochemical smog


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Conditions: Presence of NOx and VOCs in sufficient concentrations. Time of the day.

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Time of the day

Meteorological factors: Precipitation Wind Blow Temperature inversion Topographical factors: Communities situated in valleys

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Effects of Photochemical Smog


Photochemical smog is known to cause annoying respiratory effects, eye irritations, reduced visibility and affects plants as well.

OZONE

The primary constituent is Causes burning known to cause and watering of permanent eyes. Presence in scarring of lung high Click to edit of lung subtitle style Master tissue, loss concentration function and may result in reduced lung burning of nose elasticity. Also and throat and causes cracking of difficulty in rubber products breathing. and damage to vegetation.

FORMALDEHY DE

PEROXYACET YL NITRATE (PAN)


At very low concentrations it causes eye and respiratory irritations. It is known to cause emphysema, impaired breathing and acute pulmonary edema. Affects

Management of Photochemical Photochemical smog is also called Vehicular smog as it is Smog produced from the emissions (NOx and hydrocarbons) of a
vehicle. Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels results in the unwanted emissions.

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Lesser use of fossil fuels and greater use of solar, wind, hydro-electric, Click to edit Master subtitle style geothermal and nuclear sources.

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Fluidised Bed Combustion


This is a Combustion control method. Boilers are made to operate at about 8000C by receiving conducted heatis well Temperature from fluidised particles. below 14000C, hence thermal NOx is not Click to edit Master subtitle style formed. First unit had gone into operation in 1986. Known for its fuel flexibility advantages and inherent control of emissions. In 2005, most boiler manufacturers offered them as a standard package.

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Exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR )


This is a post-combustion control method. A widely adopted route to reduce NOx emissions. Substitution of burnt gas for oxygen rich air (by taking back the exhaust)reduces the Click to editof the cylinder proportion Master subtitle style contents. The gas to This causesbe re-circulated is often passed through an EGR cooler which helps correspondingly lower peakreducing the charge temperature. cylinder temperature and On a the formation of reducesdiesel engine the re-circulated fraction may be as high as 50% . NOx.

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conclusion
Photochemical smog has become a serious problem in the daily life of people living in urban areas since it comes from sources which are hard to avoid in modern days. The most common symptom of the presence of photochemical smog is eye irritation. Use of alternative subtitle style Click to edit Master sources of fossil fuel has become essential. Introduction of mechanisms to vehicles( e.g. EGR) that help reducing the emission of unwanted pollutants. Prefer walking and cycling for short distance journeys. Prefer using public transports instead of private

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references
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Introduction to Environmental engineering and science (3rd Edition) by Gilbert M Masters and Wendell. [PHI Publishers] date: date: date: date:

www.wikipedia.org 26/07/2012 Click to edit Master subtitle style 1. www.epa.sa.gov.au 26/07/2012


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www.chemwiki.com 26/07/2012 www.cancer.gov

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Thank You
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