Science Readings | Inquiry Based Learning | Scientific Method

Online Science Readings Chapter 1: What is Science Inquiry?

Chapter 1: What is Science Inquiry? Inquiry based science means active participation in learning about the the world around you. It can range from simple observations to more formal investigations Read: Science Inquiry It is an ongoing cycle of "Explore" and Explain" Often it is based on the scientific method which formalizes the inquiry process. Remember that a hypothesis is an educated guess based on an observation. In a more formal investigation the manipulated (or independent) variable is the one that is changed and the responding (or dependent) variable is the one that is measured. Anything that stays the same is a constant (or controlled) variable . Read: 5 E's of Science Read: What is the scientific method? Elementary science generally is broken into three main areas: Life Science, Earth & Space Science, and Physical Science. The process in learning about these areas includes a balance of text-based readings and active investigation. Reading are often in the form of a science textbook covering these three sections with domain vocabulary. Inquiry can range from actively observing all the way to using the scientific method to investigate. The best textbook series include a good balance of both. Getting equipment and replacing consumables (i.e., vinegar, salt) are an ongoing consideration active science instruction. Storage can be a difficulty to overcome as well. Watching students discovering science is well worth the effort.

Differentiated Instruction for Science

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Science Inquiry: The Link to Accessing the General Education Curriculum

What is inquiry? Inquiry is an interactive process that actively engages students in learning in meaningful ways. The process of inquiry is characterized by interactive, student-centered activities focused on questioning, exploring, and posing explanations. The goal of inquiry is to help students gain a better understanding of the world around them through active engagement in real-life experiences. How does inquiry compare with the scientific method? While inquiry can be incorporated into all content areas, it is most commonly implemented in science classrooms. Why is inquiry important in science classrooms? The process of inquiry not only enhances students’ understanding of natural phenomena, but also develops students’ science process skills. It is a nonlinear variation of the scientific method. Composed of the same basic components, both the scientific method and the inquiry process require students to conduct research investigations by formulating a question, developing a hypothesis, conducting an experiment, recording data, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions (see Table 1 below). Table 1 Scientific Method and Inquiry Process
Scientific Method Question or problem Hypothesis Experiment Record Data analysis Conclusion Inquiry Process Inquiry phase (inquiry or problem) Data gathering phase I (hypothesis) Data gathering phase II (data collection & analysis) Implementation phase (conclusion & explanations)

The major difference between the scientific method and the inquiry process is that the inquiry process provides more opportunities to move within and among the phases of the inquiry (problem-solving process). Students can enter the inquiry process at any of the four phases. Generally, students new to this process begin at the inquiry phase (see Figure 1). They use teacher-guided questions and investigation protocols to develop their questions and inquiries. Students more familiar with the process are able to extend learning by beginning their inquiry at other phases. For example, these students may begin the process by reviewing data (data gathering phase I)—for example, a bar chart on weather patterns or population genetics—and then, based on the data, identifying a research question or inquiry for further investigation (inquiry phase). The inquiry process has multiple points of entry (as shown in Figure 1). Eventually, however, students will go through each phase in order to conduct a thorough investigation. At that point, the inquiry process and scientific method converge.

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Differentiated Instruction for Science

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Figure 1. Phases of Inquiry

Science teachers generally like the inquiry process because it targets the eight science process skills that all students are expected to master in science classrooms. These skills include: (a) make observations; (b) conduct experiments; (c) collaborate with others about investigations; (d) take measurements; (e) sort and classify (i.e., organisms, types of substances, etc.); (f) compare and contrast; (g) record findings; (h) analyze findings; and (i) share their results with others (see Table 2). To ensure that students develop these skills, science lessons often focus on a specific science process skill. For instance, students may spend an entire class period learning to classify different types of rocks. Another science lesson may require students to analyze a graph depicting monarch butterfly migratory patterns. Table 2 Science Process Skills
Science Process Skills Observe Experiment Collaborate Measure Sort/Classify Compare Record Analyze & Share

Although each science process skill is often taught separately, students should also be offered opportunities to learn and apply more than one process skill at a time. The inquiry process provides opportunities for students to develop and enhance all of their science process skills through a single research investigation. What does inquiry look like in science classrooms? Students in inquiry-based classrooms are provided hands-on opportunities to engage in science investigations using a more holistic variation of the scientific method. With teachers serving as “facilitators of learning,” inquiry-based science often consists of team projects, collaboration, student-led investigations, and outdoor explorations. Students raise questions, pose hypotheses, research and experiment, analyze their data, and provide plausible (evidencebased) explanations.

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According to the NSES (National Academy Press. inquiry-based classrooms should include: A multifaceted activity that involves making observations. use of critical and logical thinking. Students must determine the outcome. Structured inquiry could be described as the most traditional approach to inquiry. materials. teachers use three types of inquiry in science: structured. and land without becoming disassembled. fly a certain distance. The teacher provides fairly structured procedures for the inquiry activity. (p. Students often work in groups and plan all phases of the investigations. Students have to determine the process and outcome.asp 8/24/2012 . Teacher gives students the problem or question and materials. guiding students through the inquiry process. and communicating the results.Differentiated Instruction for Science Page 3 of 10 Because of the importance of the inquiry process. Table 3 Types of Inquiry Used in Science Classrooms Type of Inquiry Structured Description Teacher gives students problems to investigate during hands-on activities. Structured inquiry is the most teacher-centered of the three types of inquiry. This is the purest form of inquiry conducted in science classrooms (see Table 3). This type of inquiry is commonly seen in science classrooms in the form of laboratory exercises. and open (see Table 3). Students are given several minutes to explore the garden. The teacher provides the problem and materials and the students develop the rocket using their own scientific process or procedure. For example. and students carry out the investigations. investigation. students must identify a Open Students determine the problem. What is the role of science teachers in inquiry-based classrooms? Teachers serve as “facilitators of learning” in inquiry-based classrooms. guided.org/training_resources/ScienceInquiry_accesscurriculum. procedure. and outcome. Guided Students are given a hard-boiled egg and paper supplies. proposing answers. 1996). examining books and other sources of information to see what is already known. Working with a partner. To foster this type of learning environment. Inquiry requires identification of assumptions. guided. and predictions. using tools to gather. or open) can be useful to students when taught appropriately and well. http://www. a science teacher gives her seventh grade middle school students materials to create a rocket but no instructions for designing the rocket. explanations. posing questions. This approach is commonly used when students are asked to make tools or develop a process that results in a desired outcome. This type of inquiry requires the least amount of teacher intervention and is student led.k8accesscenter. physically and intellectually. Example Laboratory activities with procedures. than traditional science classrooms. Students are asked to create a device using the supplies that will protect the egg when it is dropped from a five-story building. Guided inquiry falls in the middle of the inquiry instructional spectrum. The students must use their own knowledge and creativity to design the rocket so that it will launch properly. inquiry-based classrooms are generally more active. as well as procedures and materials. 23) Because they are student driven and interactive. There is debate as to which type of inquiry is best. and questions specified. On the far side of the spectrum is open inquiry. planning investigations. analyze. Students take a field trip to a vegetable garden. and consideration of alternative explanations. and interpret data. The general consensus is that any form of inquiry (structured. the National Science Education Standards (NSES) recognizes ”science as inquiry” as a critical content standard all students must master before they graduate from high school. reviewing what is already known in light of experimental evidence.

Washington Virtual Classroom. keep the following in mind: ■ Ask open-ended questions ■ Allow wait time after asking questions ■ Avoid telling students what to do ■ Avoid rejecting and/or discouraging student ideas or behaviors ■ Encourage students to find solutions on their own ■ Encourage collaboration among students ■ Maintain high standards and order ■ Develop and use inquiry-based assessments to monitor students’ progress ■ Know that inquiry can be challenging for some students and be prepared to provide more guidance to those students when signs of frustration appear (Institute for Inquiry. They play an active role in their learning rather than the passive role commonly seen in traditional science classrooms. Moving gradually from structured classrooms to open-inquiry classroom environments is often less overwhelming. guided. They learn discrete science concepts and skills. students use the inquiry process to develop explanations from their observations (evidence) by integrating what they already know with what they have learned. students doing inquiry-based science: ■ View themselves as scientists in the process of learning ■ Accept an “invitation to learn” and readily engage in the exploration process http://www. Radical changes can be frustrating and upsetting to some students. What are some considerations for implementing inquiry in science? Teachers can foster better experiences with inquiry in various ways and ultimately positively affect students’ science process skills and understanding of science. Incorporating inquiry into science classrooms empowers students. 1995. Like scientists.org/training_resources/ScienceInquiry_accesscurriculum. which vegetables grow best in shade? Teachers and classrooms new to inquiry often begin with structured inquiry activities and transition to more open inquiry activities.k8accesscenter. Students in inquiry-based settings are more actively involved in their discovery and subsequently more responsible for their learning. For example. by taking on the roles of scientists. and how to solve problems using practical approaches—the goal of science education. these suggestions can help alleviate students’ fears about doing inquiry and build their science process skills. as well as help them learn science concepts. Whether the inquiry activity is structured. This self-empowerment positively affects students’ perceptions about science. particularly because inquirybased classrooms are typically more student centered. Teachers and students may need practice to get comfortable with learning experiences that require less guidance and fewer teacher interventions.asp 8/24/2012 . Teachers using inquiry-based instruction play more of a “facilitator of learning” role than teachers in traditional settings. or open. When implementing inquiry in science.Differentiated Instruction for Science Page 4 of 10 researchable problem and conduct an investigation based on their observations. 2005) Why is inquiry important for teaching and learning science? Inquiry allows students to learn and experience science firsthand. According to the Institute for Inquiry (2005).

specifically performance related to science process skills. positive research findings have provided further reasons for implementing inquiry into science classrooms. Table 4 helps to make these connections by providing http://www. reading comprehension. the student-centered nature of inquiry allows teachers the flexibility to tailor instruction to meet the diverse learning needs that students with LD bring to the classroom.asp 8/24/2012 . rather than through a textbook-based approach. Hart. Results also indicated that students with learning disabilities who received discovery instruction outperformed students with learning disabilities who received direct instruction. 1998. writing. Mastropieri. & Deaktor. How can Inquiry be Applied for Students with Learning Disabilities? A learning disability (LD) is usually associated with students who do not develop skills in a way that is commensurate with their potential (Lyon et al.. laboratory skills. students learn the challenges and pitfalls of investigations. Researchers have examined the characteristics of students with learning disabilities.. and data interpretation. Evidence also exists suggesting that this approach leads to higher achievement for students with learning disabilities than an activity-based approach alone (Dalton & Morocco. In addition. A study by Scruggs. LD can affect a student’s experience in a science classroom that uses an inquiry approach. Specifically. and written expression (Lyon et al. and apply reading. The researchers found that students’ retention after 2 weeks was higher for those who received discovery instruction. basic reading.k8accesscenter. Staver. Another study found that inquiry-based science instruction can be effective in promoting scientific literacy and a better understanding of science processes in students from diverse backgrounds (Cuevas. 1997). and connections can be made between these characteristics and strategies that may help students access an inquiry-based curriculum.Differentiated Instruction for Science Page 5 of 10 ■ Plan and carry out investigations ■ Communicate using a variety of methods ■ Propose explanations and solutions and build a store of concepts ■ Raise questions ■ Use observations ■ Critique their science practices Opportunities to think and behave as scientists provide relevancy and credibility to students’ understanding of science. White & Fredericksen. mathematic reasoning. There is a small body of research on students with LD in an inquiry classroom. but is a general category of disability composed of disabilities in any combination of the following skills: listening. LD is not a specific disability itself. 2001). Lastly. Mattheis and Nakayama (1988) found that inquiry-based programs at the middle school grades have been found to generally enhance student performance. 2001). speaking. Numerous other research studies indicate positive outcomes for inquiry-based science (Krajcik et al. generating and implementing solutions. and Brigham (1993) suggests that students with LD who learn through an inquiry-oriented approach.org/training_resources/ScienceInquiry_accesscurriculum. where students were actively engaged in gathering data. 1998). graphing skills. Disabilities in the skills mentioned above can affect performance in the science classroom where students are required to listen. and mathematics skills.. speak. Bryan. and observing their consequences with the science achievement of students with mild disabilities and students without disabilities. In addition. Bakken. Ruffin (2003) found increases in science interest and improvements in the science process skills among middle school students doing inquiry-based science in a technology-supported learning environment. and Hale (1992) compared the effectiveness of direct instruction and discovery teaching. perform better on unit tests. arithmetic calculation. Lee. They learn that it is appropriate to ask questions and seek answers. 2005). Bay.

and questioning.4 which can lead to better comprehension of science topics. Teaching students cognitive strategies. may help them organize data. can help students learn vocabulary. and share a jointly developed hypothesis. which can provide support for students as they collect and record data and may help them express their working hypothesis. used in a laboratory setting. can help students with LD see the connection among ideas and draw conclusions that will help them pose questions.8 http://www. implementing. they may have difficulty expressing ideas in written form. Students with LD should be taught new skills in a systematic manner that involves continued practice and teacher guidance11 so that instruction is Strategies to Support Students with LD Mnemonics improves memory by linking new information to current knowledge through visual and verbal cues. and to organize initial data collection.2 which may affect their ability to articulate questions or inquiries about a topic. Use a “think-pair-share” strategy allowing students to come up with their own hypothesis. Data Gathering Phase I (Verification /Hypothesis) Requires students to conduct initial stages of research and exploration and to propose a working hypothesis Students with LD may have difficulty with logical reasoning which can impact their ability to predict.7 which may affect their ability to see the “big picture” when proposing hypotheses. Use graphic organizers to help students with LD organize steps during initial stages of research. Table 4 Strategies to Support Students With Learning Disabilities During Phases of Inquiry Phase of Inquiry Inquiry Phase Requires student to consider the topic at hand and to pose questions Implications for Access for Students With LD Students with LD may have difficulty linking new concepts and vocabulary to familiar ideas.5 Data Gathering Phase II (Experimentation/ Data Analysis) Requires students to engage in Students with LD may have difficulty selecting. Graphic organizers can also make abstract concepts more concrete for students.asp 8/24/2012 . compare their hypothesis with those of peers. Mnemonics. Teachers can model and teach metacognitive skills and demonstrate how to think through a problem.1 which can affect their ability to understand a new topic and therefore pose questions about it. If students have an LD in written language. outlining.Differentiated Instruction for Science Page 6 of 10 implications for access to inquiry for students with LD at each phase of inquiry. as well as strategies to support these students in an inquiry-based classroom. Peer tutoring can lead to improved academic achievement in content areas. Allow students to visually represent the problem and hypothesis.k8accesscenter. helping to connect ideas so that a hypothesis can be formed. Ask students questions that activate prior background knowledge and allow them to make new connections to concepts that are already familiar.org/training_resources/ScienceInquiry_accesscurriculum. such as notetaking. Graphic organizers. and adjusting strategies for problem solving. Grouping strategies can provide appropriate academic models and support from other students. Consider the use of assistive technology (AT). Students with LD may have difficulty with expressive language. Abstract concepts may need to be made more concrete3 for students with LD. which provide a pictorial representation of concepts. Many of the strategies listed are linked to a resource or Web site that can provide more information.6 Selective attention difficulties in some students with LD can lead them to focus on only one part of a problem.

AT and the use of computer programs can assist students with organizing and analyzing data and may also help students who have difficulty with selective attention. and to analyze the data. engaging. to study the data. 17 Conclusion Incorporating inquiry into science classes takes time and effort. Graphic organizers can help students organize data and provide a visual representation of connections among ideas. however. and formulate explanations. which may in turn help them with constructing inferences. Teach students to independently check work. but the rewards are numerous.16 which may help students feel more confident about drawing their own conclusions.12 These skills should be directly taught and modeled for students with LD. Schedule data collection in several shorter time blocks rather than one longer time block. The inquiry process is active. 1996). Eventually students will move to creating their own predictions.13 Students with LD may have a tendency toward becoming over-reliant on the opinions of others and reluctant to use their own judgment. Students with LD who have comprehension difficulties may also have difficulties constructing inferences.asp 8/24/2012 . 9 scaffolded. Students with LD may have difficulty with logical reasoning. and transferable. identifying all variables and keeping all but the tested variable unchanged). Asking students questions that activate related background knowledge may assist students with comprehension tasks. Selective attention difficulties may impact a student with LD’s ability to control variables during an investigation (for example.k8accesscenter. leading to increased confidence in their own ability. This will give students time to process what they have already done and allow them to maintain focus on the task. and a guided process that allows them to transfer what they have learned.15 14 Using hands-on activities during inquiry lessons can provide positive experiences for students with LD. Teach students note-taking strategies. that these students are provided with direct instruction. which might lead to errors while looking at data. classroom supports. which can affect their ability to draw their own conclusions. as clarifying questions. A variety of research-based instructional strategies can http://www. Offer students a variety of options for their predictions and conclusions so that they can begin learning the process by selecting the best choice. Students with LD can be active participants in and benefit from instruction in an inquiry-based classroom as well. Students with LD may have difficulty focusing on a task over a sustained period of time. Students with LD may have difficulty with visual perception and discrimination. Teachers can model thinking processes for students to show them how they use data to draw conclusions. It is essential. ask for help. Studies have found that not only are students learning more science content through inquiry. or redo work if necessary. draw conclusions.org/training_resources/ScienceInquiry_accesscurriculum.Differentiated Instruction for Science Page 7 of 10 intense research and data collection (observing. that provide ways to record data. which can impact their ability to infer and problem solve. but they are also developing the ability to “study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence derived from their work” through inquiry (NAP. Implementation Phase (Conclusion/ Closure/ Extension) Requires the student to organize data and analysis. This can affect their ability to complete an inquiry investigation during an extended block of time. particularly in group work situations. such as twocolumned notes. Allow students to speak their data collection notes into a tape recorder rather than writing them down.10 Students with an LD in mathematics may needsupport with data analysis and interpretation. measuring). Students may need additional time to examine data several times and revisit previous ideas or concepts before drawing conclusions.

Institute for Inquiry. & Schumaker. Baker..k8accesscenter. Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta-analysis of findings. (1992). Learning Disabilities Research. 2005 from http://www. Cohen.. Mastropieri. Journal of Special Education. E. okansan. E.. Maruyama... 19(2). (1985). 42(3). T. Inquiry in project-based science classrooms: initial attempts by middle school students. J. Rethinking special education for a new century. B. & Scruggs. Jr. References American Association for the Advancement of Science. S. D. (ED 307148) National Academy Press. American Educational Research Journal. D. Effects of cooperative. P. Shaywitz. 237–248. (2002).... (1996). 19. R. (2001).. M. A. J. Hardman.. A. The Access Center’s Strategies to Provide Access to the General Education Curriculum provides an in-depth look at research-based strategies that can help support students with disabilities. J.. J. Lee. E... Psychological Bulletin. Blumenfeld. R. B. D. (1993). Rotherman. R.. E. (1988). 27–35. & Skon..org/training_resources/ScienceInquiry_accesscurriculum. competitive. 29. In C... G. Deaktor. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 313–350.C. Fordham Foundation.. (Eds. Finn. 62(4). D.. P. Support for Learning. (1999). R. O. Adapting language arts. Making science inclusive: Providing effective learning opportunities for children with learning difficulties. 13. Staver. 8(4). 555–570.asp 8/24/2012 . Lyon. F. G. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Kulik. & Hale. 17(4). Topics in Learning & Learning Disabilities.html Johnson. P. Science for students with disabilities. A. 146-150. Inquiry based science: What does it look like? Connect Magazine.. & Beverton. Bryan.edu/ifi/resources/classroom/inquiry_based. Reston. Scruggs. Billingsley.. A. and science materials for the inclusive classroom: Volume 3: Grades six through eight.. & Kulik. Marx. C.. Hart. National science education standards. Effects of a laboratory-centered inquiry program on laboratory skills. Mastropieri.. A. (1995. Cook. science process skills. C. Krajcik. Improving science inquiry with elementary students of diverse backgrounds.exploratorium. T. Schulte. 4.). 36–44. (1982). The effects of prereading activities on the comprehension monitoring of learning disabled adolescents. Fredricks. Bay. T. J. J. M. T. Johnson. J.. Torgesen. J. B. 47–62. VA: Council for Exceptional Children. and individualistic goal structures on achievement: A meta-analysis. E. S. (1993). A. 337–357. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Shaywitz. K. Washington. http://www. Handicapped students as tutors. & Olson. Cuevas. L. (1998).. K. Retrieved August 19. G. An evaluation of the role of metacognitive deficits in learning disabilities. F. social studies. & Casto. & Soloway.: National Academy Press. (2005).. W. M. (1992). S. & Wildman. K. along with those highlighted in this brief. Washington. M.. A. Fletcher. 7(3/4). 377–411. Rethinking learning disabilities. (1981). and understanding of science knowledge in middle grade students.. B. Benchmark for science literacy. can help foster success for students with disabilities in an inquiry-based classroom. Mattheis. L. Lenz.Differentiated Instruction for Science Page 8 of 10 be used to support the learning needs of students with LD. March–April). 89. & Nakayama. Nelson. 483–492. Bass. (1982). DC: The Thomas P. R. (1988). Journal of the Learning Sciences. J. G. J. B. Support for Learning. Co-operative group work and the development of metadiscoursal skills. Science instruction for the mildly handicapped: Direct instruction versus discovery teaching. F. R. 2. These strategies. Review of Educational Research. 156-161. Wood.. A.. Bell. & C. C.

S. 1985.A. The Access Center: Improving Outcomes for All Students K-8 The Access Center is a cooperative agreement (H326K020003) funded by the U. and metacognition: Making science accessible to all students. 3–118. M. Reading versus doing: The relative effects of textbook-based and inquiry-oriented approaches to science learning in special education classrooms. Wise. Washington.org/training_resources/ScienceInquiry_accesscurriculum. L. B. (2002). & Snyder. Bakken.forks. (2000). & D. Mastropieri. M.. (1997). 27. 1993 Rock et. Office of Special Education Programs. B. 1999 Bell. (Eds. J. Cognition & Instruction. A. University of Missouri. http://www.asp 8/24/2012 . Johnson. Cook. Mastropieri. In R. 2002 Wise & Snyder..wednet. P. Maruyama..htm White. E. Department of Education. Bradley. 245-263. al.. Inquiry. Scruggs. NW. The Journal of Special Education. Washington Virtual Classroom. 2005.org. Johnson. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Bell. & Brigham. Clinical judgment in identifying and teaching children with language-base reading difficulties. 1982.Differentiated Instruction for Science Page 9 of 10 National Academy Press.E. M. modeling.edu/wvc/cadre/WaterQuality/scienceInq.k8accesscenter. Science inquiry—What is it and how do you do it? Retrieved August 19. T. J. J. (1998).C. Danielson.. D. & Casto. 2003). from http://www. P. 1993 Torgesen. please contact The Access Center at center@air.. W. 1997 Lenz & Schumaker. Journal of Learning Disabilities 30(3). 1981 Bell. 2002 Hardman et al. 1992 Cohen. 1–15. The Acquisition of inquiry skills and computer skills by 8th grade urban middle school students in a technology-supported environment (Doctoral Dissertation. 2002 Bell. 2002 Bell. 2002 Hardman et al. (2003). The concomitance of learning disabilities and emotional/behavioral disabilities: A conceptual model. Inquiry and the national science education standards: A guide for teaching and learning. E. (1993).). Ruffin. Rock. 2002 Rock & Fessler. Hallahan. 16(1). awarded to the American Institutes for Research 1000 Thomas Jefferson St. Kulik & Kulik. F. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Scruggs. 1994 Bell.. 1997 > Lenz & Schumaker. Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practices. & Fessler. Mahwah.: National Academy Press. L. 1999 Mastropieri & Scruggs. & Fredericksen. Nelson & Skon. 1988 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 For additional information on this or other topics. 2002 Billingsley & Wildman.

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As we begin to investigate new ideas we can put together bits and pieces of prior explorations that seem to fit our understanding of the phenomena under present investigation. http://www.org/ph/lpintro5e. They are presented to be taught either in sequence or independently. or attempting to understand something familiar in greater depth. we've noticed. we can create a rainbow by spraying a water hose in sunlight. Scholars such as Jean Piaget. Much has been researched and written by many eminent leaders in the fields of learning theory and cognition. we may realize that if we position ourselves properly. We bring to each learning experience our developmental level. our personal story and our personal style. our curiosity about a science topic is stirred. Sometimes when the pieces don't fit together. is not a linear process. In our rainbow example. probe. called the "Five Es". as we are stimulated by some intriguing phenomena. we must break down old ideas and reconstruct them. (Following a rainbow to find a pot of gold doesn't work easily!) We extend our conceptual understanding through discussions and creative efforts. In the case of the rainbow. We validate our theories as we solve problems. The structure of the learning environment should promote opportunities and events that encourage and support the building of understanding. Briefly. we may realize that there is an association between sunlight and water vapor.Miami Museum of Science-The pH Factor/Constructivism and the Five E's Page 1 of 4 Constructivism and the Five E's [ Constructivism | Engage | Explore | Elaborate | Evaluate | Navigate ] Constructivism. The clarity we've gained in understanding a concept gives us the ability to apply this understanding to new situations and new mysteries. Initially. inquire about and explore this phenomena until it becomes less mysterious. for example. such as a rainbow. It is up to the teacher to facilitate the constructivistic learning process. this learning approach as it relates to science can be summarized as follows: Learning something new.miamisci. at the teacher's discretion. that proposes learners need to build their own understanding of new ideas. has been labeled constructivism. We poke. We have used an adaptation of BSCS's model to introduce the pH factor. Our instructional model is called the "Seven Es". Eleanor Duckworth. In trying to make sense of things we use both our prior experience and the first-hand knowledge gained from new explorations. and Howard Gardener have explored these ideas in-depth. Investigations and activities are included under the headings of each E. Each investigation is designed to stand on its own and be introduced when deemed appropriate. In this models the process is explained by employing five "E"'s. It is a continuous and a very individual process. George Hein. Piece by piece we build knowledge. The Biological Science Curriculum Study (BSCS). a team whose Principal Investigator is Roger Bybee developed an instructional model for constructivism. A convenient format to view constructivism has been defined by Biological Science Curriculum Study (BSCS). The philosophy about learning.html 8/24/2012 .

through her exploration. This observation can lead to further inquiry as to possible connections between the shadow's changing location and the changes in direction of the light source. may state they have noticed that a magnet has a tendency to "stick" to a certain metallic object. Common language enhances the sharing and communication between facilitator and students. In the Exploration stage the students have the opportunity to get directly involved with phenomena and materials. progress and growth. is the point at which the learner begins to put the abstract experience through which she/he has gone /into a communicable form. Applications to http://www. Elaborate. They may be unaware of a need. As they work together in teams. might at this stage introduce terminology referring to "an attracting force". the facilitator. The teacher acts as a facilitator. and apply their understandings to the world around them. learners support each other's understanding as they articulate their observations. questions and hypotheses. Communication occurs between peers. Introducing labels. These labels. Asking a question. Explain. Elaborate and Evaluate. Explanations from the facilitator can provide names that correspond to historical and standard language. In the stage Engage. defining a problem. providing materials and guiding the students' focus. the Sun. Elaborate.html 8/24/2012 . is far more meaningful than before that experience. at first we need to grab the customer's attention. ideas. For example a child. the students expand on the concepts they have learned.Miami Museum of Science-The pH Factor/Constructivism and the Five E's Page 2 of 4 They are: Engage. make connections to other related concepts. or within the learner himself. in her discussion with the child. and in this case we are motivated to create a need. students build a base of common experience which assists them in the process of sharing and communicating. Language provides motivation for sequencing events into a logical format. Examining a lamp post. For example. In stage four. video. applied to elements of abstract exploration. give the learner a means of sharing these explorations. The experiential base she has built offers the student an attachment place for the label. The third stage. Involving themselves in these activities they develop a grounding of experience with the phenomenon. If we were to make an analogy to the world of marketing a product. while exploring light phenomena. Created works such as writing. Explore. Language provides a tool of communicable labels. lay the organizational ground work for the activities ahead and stimulate their involvement in the anticipation of these activities. The students' inquiry process drives the instruction during an exploration. for student findings and events. Engage. The facilitator.miamisci. a learner constructs an understanding of the path light travels through space. drawing. Working in groups. Explain. she may notice that the shadow of the post changes its location as the day grows later. We won't have their attention unless they have a need to buy the product. Explore. Explain. The facilitator can determine levels of understanding and possible misconceptions. after the child has had a direct experience. the students first encounter and identify the instructional task. Here they make connections between past and present learning experiences. or tape recordings are communications that provide recorded evidence of the learner's development. showing a surprising event and acting out a problematic situation are all ways to engage the students and focus them on the instructional tasks.org/ph/lpintro5e.

project and problem-based learning products. parents and administrators. Evaluate. These connections often lead to further inquiry and new understandings. For example. and can become jumping off points for further enrichment of the students' education.Miami Museum of Science-The pH Factor/Constructivism and the Five E's Page 3 of 4 real world events. if a teacher perceives clear evidence of misconception. Some of the tools that assist in this diagnostic process are: rubrics (quantified and prioritized outcome expectations) determined hand-in-hand with the lesson design. Displays of attainment and progress enhance understanding for all parties involved in the educational process. There is an on going loop where questions lead to answers but more questions and instruction is driven by both predetermined lesson design and the inquiry process. such as where to plant flowers so that they receive sunlight most of the day. teachers. http://www. If the students show profound interest in a branching direction of inquiry.html 8/24/2012 . teacher observation structured by checklists.org/ph/lpintro5e. [ Classroom Use | Why the Seven E's | Constructivism and the Five E's ] CLICK on one of the Seven E's below to learn more about the rationale behind it. the teacher can consider refocusing the investigation to take advantage of this high level of interest. These evidences of learning serve to guide the teacher in further lesson planning and may signal the need for modification and change of direction. is an on-going diagnostic process that allows the teacher to determine if the learner has attained understanding of concepts and knowledge. Concrete evidence of the learning proceed is most valuable in communications between students. or how to prop up a beach umbrella for shade from the Sun. then he/she can revisit the concept to enhance clearer understanding. the fifth "E". and embedded assessments. student interviews. portfolios designed with specific purposes. The learning process is open-ended and open to change. Evaluate.miamisci. are both extensions and applications of the concept that light travels in a straight path. Viewing the evaluation process as a continuous one gives the constructivistic philosophy a kind of cyclical structure. Evaluation and assessment can occur at all points along the continuum of the instructional process.

Visit our online store for more information! http://www.Miami Museum of Science-The pH Factor/Constructivism and the Five E's Page 4 of 4 pH Factor Home Teacher's Guide Expand Excite Extend Explore Exchange Explain Examine Museum Menu ©2001 Miami Museum of Science Questions or comments about the site? Write to the Webmaster.html 8/24/2012 . You can buy this resource on CD-ROM for use on computers without internet access.miamisci.org/ph/lpintro5e.

execute. construct a hypothesis. • While scientists study how nature works. In other words. and evaluate your experiment.org/engineering-designprocess/engineering-design-compare-scientific-method. and experiences.shtml).org/engineering-design-process/engineering-design-processsteps. • The steps of the scientific method are to: ◦ Ask a Question ◦ Do Background Research ◦ Construct a Hypothesis ◦ Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment ◦ Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion ◦ Communicate Your Results • It is important for your experiment to be a fair test.shtml). environments. such as products. the scientific method will help you to focus your science fair project question.sciencebuddies.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method. Just as it does for a professional scientist. they design an experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to vary in a predictable way. engineers create new things. Overview of the Scientific Method The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used to explore observations and answer questions. design.Steps of the Scientific Method Page 1 of 4 Steps of the Scientific Method Key Info • The scientific method is a way to ask and answer scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments. A "fair test" occurs when you change only one factor (variable) and keep all other conditions the same. Scientists use the scientific method to search for cause and effect relationships in nature. websites.sciencebuddies.shtml 8/24/2012 . your project might better fit the steps of the Engineering Design Process (http://www. http://www. ◦ If you are not sure if your project is a scientific or engineering project. you should read Comparing the Engineering Design Process and the Scientific Method (http://www. ◦ If your project involves creating or inventing something new.

sciencebuddies. When. Which.org/science-fairprojects/project_question.sciencebuddies. you want to be a savvy scientist using library and Internet research to help you find the best way to do things and insure that you don't repeat mistakes from the past.Steps of the Scientific Method Page 2 of 4 Steps of the Scientific Method Detailed Help for Each Step Ask a Question: The scientific method starts when you ask a question about something that you observe: How. or Where? And.sciencebuddies. Background Research Plan (http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method. What.org/science-fairprojects/project_research_paper.sciencebuddies.org/science-fairprojects/project_bibliography.shtml) Bibliography (http://www. Who.shtml 8/24/2012 .org/science-fairprojects/project_finding_information. Your Question (http://www.shtml) http://www.org/science-fairprojects/project_background_research_plan.shtml) Research Paper (http://www.shtml) Do Background Research: Rather than starting from scratch in putting together a plan for answering your question. Why.sciencebuddies.shtml) Finding Information (http://www. in order for the scientific method to answer the question it must be about something that you can measure. preferably with a number.

shtml) (http://www. Even if they find that their hypothesis was true. (http://www.org/science-fairprojects/project_final_report.shtml) Conducting an Experiment (http://www.sciencebuddies. It is important for your experiment to be a fair test. your hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help you answer your original question.sciencebuddies.org/science-fairprojects/project_materials_list.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method.shtml) Experimental Procedure Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment: Your experiment tests whether your hypothesis is true or false.org/science-fairprojects/project_variables. You should also repeat your experiments several times to make sure that the first results weren't just an accident.sciencebuddies.sciencebuddies.shtml) Hypothesis (http://www. projects/project_experimental_procedure.shtml 8/24/2012 .sciencebuddies.sciencebuddies.Steps of the Scientific Method Page 3 of 4 Variables Construct a Hypothesis: A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work: "If _____[I do this] _____.org/science-fairprojects/project_hypothesis.sciencebuddies. then _____[this]_____ will happen.sciencebuddies. Scientists often find that their hypothesis was false. You conduct a fair test by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same. Data Analysis & Graphs (http://www. and of course.sciencebuddies.sciencebuddies. and in such cases they will construct a new hypothesis starting the entire process of the scientific method over again.shtml) Conclusions (http://www. they may want to test it again in a new way.shtml) http://www. you collect your measurements and analyze them to see if your hypothesis is true or false.org/science-fairprojects/project_display_board.sciencebuddies." You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure.shtml) Abstract (http://www. Professional scientists do almost exactly the same thing by publishing their final report in a scientific journal or by presenting their results on a poster at a scientific meeting.org/science-fairprojects/project_experiment_fair_test.shtml) Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion: Once your experiment is complete.shtml) Display Board (http://www.org/science-fairprojects/project_abstract.sciencebuddies.org/science-fairprojects/project_experiment.shtml) Variables for Beginners (http://www.org/science-fairprojects/project_conclusions.org/science-fair- Materials List (http://www.shtml) Communicate Your Results: To complete your science fair project you will communicate your results to others in a final report and/or a display board. Final Report (http://www.org/science-fairprojects/project_data_analysis.

Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms and Conditions of Fair Use (http://www. Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. keep in mind that new information or thinking might cause a scientist to back up and repeat steps at any point during the process. Copyright © 2002 . http://www.org/ You may print and distribute up to 200 copies of this document annually. at no charge.Steps of the Scientific Method Page 4 of 4 Science Fair Judging (http://www.sciencebuddies.sciencebuddies. please contact Science Buddies.pdf ). for personal and classroom educational use.shtml).sciencebuddies. You can find this page online at: http://www. Throughout the process of doing your science fair project.2012 Science Buddies.shtml) Even though we show the scientific method as a series of steps. This journal is called a laboratory notebook (http://www. For any other use.org/science-fair-projects/terms_conditions.shtml 8/24/2012 .org/science-fairprojects/project_judging. you may NOT modify it in any way. When printing this document.org/science-fair-projects/project_scientific_method.sciencebuddies. you should keep a journal containing all of your important ideas and information.org/science-fairprojects/printable_project_logbook.sciencebuddies. A process like the scientific method that involves such backing up and repeating is called an iterative process. All rights reserved.

salt) are an ongoing consideration active science instruction. The process in learning about these areas includes a balance of text-based readings and active investigation. Reading are often in the form of a science textbook covering these three sections with domain vocabulary. Inquiry can range from actively observing all the way to using the scientific method to investigate.. Often it is based on the scientific method which formalizes the inquiry process but it can other forms of investigation and conceptual growth. Storage can be a difficulty to overcome as well. Observe. Read: 5 E's of Science Read: Predict.e. and Physical Science. The best textbook series include a good balance of both. The following readings give a good overview of this and are directly related to three of the assignments in your science journal assignment. Watching students discovering science is well worth the effort. Explain Read: Concept Maps Elementary science generally is broken into three main areas: Life Science. Getting equipment and replacing consumables (i. . Earth & Space Science.Online Science Readings Chapter 2: Science Instruction Chapter 2: Science Instruction It is an ongoing cycle of "Explore" and Explain" This takes the form of observational (the literal) and the explanation (the inferential). vinegar.

as we are stimulated by some intriguing phenomena. we may realize that there is an association between sunlight and water vapor.Miami Museum of Science-The pH Factor/Constructivism and the Five E's Page 1 of 4 Constructivism and the Five E's [ Constructivism | Engage | Explore | Elaborate | Evaluate | Navigate ] Constructivism. The Biological Science Curriculum Study (BSCS). Investigations and activities are included under the headings of each E. and Howard Gardener have explored these ideas in-depth. called the "Five Es". Sometimes when the pieces don't fit together. we can create a rainbow by spraying a water hose in sunlight. our curiosity about a science topic is stirred. Eleanor Duckworth. In trying to make sense of things we use both our prior experience and the first-hand knowledge gained from new explorations. we may realize that if we position ourselves properly.html 8/24/2012 . In our rainbow example. They are presented to be taught either in sequence or independently. this learning approach as it relates to science can be summarized as follows: Learning something new. that proposes learners need to build their own understanding of new ideas. inquire about and explore this phenomena until it becomes less mysterious. has been labeled constructivism. Each investigation is designed to stand on its own and be introduced when deemed appropriate. is not a linear process. It is up to the teacher to facilitate the constructivistic learning process. We validate our theories as we solve problems. It is a continuous and a very individual process.miamisci. such as a rainbow. As we begin to investigate new ideas we can put together bits and pieces of prior explorations that seem to fit our understanding of the phenomena under present investigation. Piece by piece we build knowledge. We have used an adaptation of BSCS's model to introduce the pH factor. The structure of the learning environment should promote opportunities and events that encourage and support the building of understanding. In this models the process is explained by employing five "E"'s. we've noticed. Initially. probe. We poke. (Following a rainbow to find a pot of gold doesn't work easily!) We extend our conceptual understanding through discussions and creative efforts. Much has been researched and written by many eminent leaders in the fields of learning theory and cognition. George Hein. or attempting to understand something familiar in greater depth. we must break down old ideas and reconstruct them. We bring to each learning experience our developmental level. for example. http://www. our personal story and our personal style. at the teacher's discretion. Briefly. The clarity we've gained in understanding a concept gives us the ability to apply this understanding to new situations and new mysteries. A convenient format to view constructivism has been defined by Biological Science Curriculum Study (BSCS). Our instructional model is called the "Seven Es". In the case of the rainbow. Scholars such as Jean Piaget.org/ph/lpintro5e. The philosophy about learning. a team whose Principal Investigator is Roger Bybee developed an instructional model for constructivism.

Asking a question. drawing. The facilitator. Created works such as writing. Explore. Applications to http://www. If we were to make an analogy to the world of marketing a product. and apply their understandings to the world around them. Elaborate and Evaluate. the students first encounter and identify the instructional task. The students' inquiry process drives the instruction during an exploration. or within the learner himself. Language provides a tool of communicable labels. Involving themselves in these activities they develop a grounding of experience with the phenomenon. We won't have their attention unless they have a need to buy the product. the Sun. In the stage Engage. Here they make connections between past and present learning experiences. and in this case we are motivated to create a need. students build a base of common experience which assists them in the process of sharing and communicating. Examining a lamp post. through her exploration. applied to elements of abstract exploration. Elaborate. ideas. These labels. Elaborate.org/ph/lpintro5e. is the point at which the learner begins to put the abstract experience through which she/he has gone /into a communicable form. This observation can lead to further inquiry as to possible connections between the shadow's changing location and the changes in direction of the light source. For example a child. The teacher acts as a facilitator. The third stage. at first we need to grab the customer's attention.miamisci. They may be unaware of a need. showing a surprising event and acting out a problematic situation are all ways to engage the students and focus them on the instructional tasks. Explain. after the child has had a direct experience. may state they have noticed that a magnet has a tendency to "stick" to a certain metallic object. the facilitator.Miami Museum of Science-The pH Factor/Constructivism and the Five E's Page 2 of 4 They are: Engage. make connections to other related concepts. Communication occurs between peers. video. Language provides motivation for sequencing events into a logical format. for student findings and events. Explain. a learner constructs an understanding of the path light travels through space.html 8/24/2012 . For example. questions and hypotheses. As they work together in teams. Working in groups. or tape recordings are communications that provide recorded evidence of the learner's development. Explain. lay the organizational ground work for the activities ahead and stimulate their involvement in the anticipation of these activities. The experiential base she has built offers the student an attachment place for the label. progress and growth. The facilitator can determine levels of understanding and possible misconceptions. Explanations from the facilitator can provide names that correspond to historical and standard language. providing materials and guiding the students' focus. give the learner a means of sharing these explorations. is far more meaningful than before that experience. Common language enhances the sharing and communication between facilitator and students. in her discussion with the child. Engage. might at this stage introduce terminology referring to "an attracting force". Explore. the students expand on the concepts they have learned. defining a problem. she may notice that the shadow of the post changes its location as the day grows later. while exploring light phenomena. In the Exploration stage the students have the opportunity to get directly involved with phenomena and materials. Introducing labels. learners support each other's understanding as they articulate their observations. In stage four.

if a teacher perceives clear evidence of misconception. student interviews. and can become jumping off points for further enrichment of the students' education. the fifth "E". Evaluate. Evaluation and assessment can occur at all points along the continuum of the instructional process.miamisci. parents and administrators. These connections often lead to further inquiry and new understandings. teacher observation structured by checklists. or how to prop up a beach umbrella for shade from the Sun. The learning process is open-ended and open to change. such as where to plant flowers so that they receive sunlight most of the day. Evaluate. is an on-going diagnostic process that allows the teacher to determine if the learner has attained understanding of concepts and knowledge. project and problem-based learning products. the teacher can consider refocusing the investigation to take advantage of this high level of interest.org/ph/lpintro5e. then he/she can revisit the concept to enhance clearer understanding. and embedded assessments. teachers. There is an on going loop where questions lead to answers but more questions and instruction is driven by both predetermined lesson design and the inquiry process. [ Classroom Use | Why the Seven E's | Constructivism and the Five E's ] CLICK on one of the Seven E's below to learn more about the rationale behind it. If the students show profound interest in a branching direction of inquiry. Concrete evidence of the learning proceed is most valuable in communications between students. Displays of attainment and progress enhance understanding for all parties involved in the educational process. are both extensions and applications of the concept that light travels in a straight path.html 8/24/2012 . Some of the tools that assist in this diagnostic process are: rubrics (quantified and prioritized outcome expectations) determined hand-in-hand with the lesson design.Miami Museum of Science-The pH Factor/Constructivism and the Five E's Page 3 of 4 real world events. These evidences of learning serve to guide the teacher in further lesson planning and may signal the need for modification and change of direction. http://www. portfolios designed with specific purposes. Viewing the evaluation process as a continuous one gives the constructivistic philosophy a kind of cyclical structure. For example.

Visit our online store for more information! http://www.html 8/24/2012 .Miami Museum of Science-The pH Factor/Constructivism and the Five E's Page 4 of 4 pH Factor Home Teacher's Guide Expand Excite Extend Explore Exchange Explain Examine Museum Menu ©2001 Miami Museum of Science Questions or comments about the site? Write to the Webmaster.org/ph/lpintro5e.miamisci. You can buy this resource on CD-ROM for use on computers without internet access.

In a concept map the concepts should be represented in a hierarchical fashion with the most inclusive. less general concepts arranged hierarchically below. rearranged (and annotated) from an online manuscript by Joseph D. A final features that may be added to concept maps are specific examples or actual images of events or objects that help to clarify the meaning of a given concept. four legs etc) and typical examples (terrier. They include concepts. Cross-links help us to see how some domains of knowledge represented on the map are related to each other. Figure 1 shows an example of a concept map that describes the structure of concept maps and illustrates the above characteristics. Propositions are statements about some object or event in the universe. or records of events or objects. designated by a label. Sometimes these are called semantic units. There are now about 460. The hierarchical structure for a particular domain of knowledge also depends on the context in which that knowledge is being applied or considered. and these can be comibined to form an infinite number of propositions. cross-links often represent creative leaps on the part of the knowledge producer. C https://www.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps. collie. As defined above. The label for most concepts is a word. albeit most combinations of words might be nonsense. Novak. Think of the concept "Dog" in your mind. we will continue to create new knowledge. Another important characteristic of concept maps is the inclusion of "cross-links. it is best to construct concept maps with reference to some particular question we seek to answer or some situation or event that we are trying to understand through the organization of knowledge in the form of a concept map.Making Concept Maps (Novak) Page 1 of 8 Novak's cmap home Concept Maps: What the heck is this? Excerpted.msu. sheepdog) and even be able to explain it (give a definition) in words." These are relationships (propositions =linking lines with linking words) between concepts in different domains of the concept map. Linking words on the line specify the relationship between the two concepts. We can use the analogy that concepts are like the atoms of matter and propositions are like the molecules of matter.or units of meaning. There are two features of concept maps that are important in the facilitation of creative thinking: the hierarchical structure that is represented in a good map and the ability to search for and characterize cross-links. what do you see? You might see a prototype shape (head.ihmc.000 words in the English language. Cornell University original manuscript was revised in 2008-> http://cmap. Propositions contain two or more concepts connected with other words to form a meaningful statement. there is still the possibility of creating an infinite number of valid propositions. Joe Novak defines "concept" as a perceived regularity in events or objects. (indicated by a connecting line and linking word) between two concepts.htm oncept maps are tools for organizing and representing knowledge. In the creation of new knowledge. concepts and propositons are the building blocks for knowledge in any domain. usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type.edu/~luckie/ctools/ 8/24/2012 . Therefore. either naturally occurring or constructed. We shall never run out of opportunities to create new knowledge! As people create and observe new or exisiting objects or events. most general concepts at the top of the map and the more specific. although sometimes we use symbols such as + or %. and relationships between concepts or propositions.

Making Concept Maps (Novak)

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Figure 1 A concept map about concept mapping Constructing Good Concept Maps

In learning to construct a concept map, it is important to begin with a domain (an area) of knowledge that is very
familiar to the person constructing the map. Since concept map structures are dependent on the context in which they will be used, it is best to identify a segment of a text, a laboratory activity, or a particular problem or question that one is trying to understand. This creates a context that will help to determine the hierarchical structure of the concept map. It is also helpful to select a limited domain of knowledge for the first concept maps. Once a domain has been selected, the next step is to identify the key concepts that apply to this domain. These could be listed, and then from this list a rank order should be established from the most general, most inclusive concept, for this particular problem or situation, to the most specific, least general concept. Although this rank order may be only approximate, it helps to begin the process of map construction. The next step is to construct a preliminary concept map. This can be done by writing all of the concepts on Postits, or preferably by using a computer software program. Post-its allow a group to work on a whiteboard or butcher paper and to move concepts around easily This is necessary as one begins to struggle with the process of building a good hierarchical organization. Computer software programs are even better in that they allow moving of concepts together with linking statements and also the moving of groups of concepts and links to restructure the map. They also permit a computer printout, producing a nice product that can be e-mailed or in other ways easily shared with collaborators or pother interested parties. Figure 2 shows a list of concepts for making a concept map to address the question, "What is a plant?" What is shown is only one of many possible maps. Simple as this map is, it may contain some propositions that are new to the reader. It is important to recognize that a concept map is never finished. After a preliminary map is

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constructed, it is always necessary to revise this map. Good maps usually undergo three to many revisions. This is one reason why computer software is helpful. After a preliminary map is constructed, cross-links should be sought. These are links between different domains of knowledge on the map that help to illustrate how these domains are related to one another. Finally, the map should be revised, concepts positioned in ways that lend to clarity, and a "final" map prepared.

Figure 2 Creating a GOOD MAP

It is important to help students recognize that all concepts are in some way related to one another. Therefore, it is necessary to be selective in identifying cross-links, and to be as precise as possible in identifying linking words that connect concepts. In addition, one should avoid "sentences in the boxes" since this usually indicates that a whole subsection of the map could be constructed from the statement in the box. "String maps" or ("Sentence maps") illustrate either poor understanding of the material or an inadequate restructuring of the map. Figure 3 shows an example of a string map. Students often comment that it is hard to add linking words onto their concept map. This is because they only poorly understand the relationship between the concepts and it is the linking words that specify this relationship. Once students begin to focus in on good linking words, and also identification of good cross-links, they can see that every concept could be related to every other concept. This also produces some frustration, and they must choose to identify the most prominent and most useful cross-links. This process involves what Bloom (1956) identified as high levels of cognitive performance, namely evaluation and synthesis of knowledge. Concept mapping is an easy way to achieve very high levels of cognitive performance, when the process is done well. This is one reason concept mapping can be a very powerful evaluation tool.

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Figure 3 Creating a "String" or "Sentence" map (NOT A GOOD MAP)

Facilitating Cooperative Learning

Using concept maps in planning a curriculum or instruction on a specific topic helps to make the instruction
"conceptually transparent" to students. Many students have difficulty identifying and constructing powerful concept and propositional frameworks, leading them to see science learning as a blur of myriad facts or equations to be memorized. If concept maps are used in planning instruction and students are required to construct concept maps as they are learning, previously unsuccessful students can become successful in making sense out of science and acquiring a feeling of control over the subject matter (Bascones & Novak, 1985; Novak, 1991; Novak, 1998). There is a growing body of research that shows that when students work in small groups and cooperate in striving to learn subject matter, positive cognitive and affective outcomes result (Johnson et al., 1981). In our work with both teachers and students, small groups working cooperatively to construct concept maps have proven to be useful in many contexts. For example, the concept maps shown in Figure 4 was constructed by faculty working together to plan instruction in veterinary medicine at Cornell University. In my own classes, and in classes taught by my students, small groups of students working collectively to construct concept maps can produce some remarkably good maps. In a variety of educational settings, concept mapping in small groups has served us well in tasks as diverse as understanding ideas in assimilation theory to clarifying job conflicts for conflict resolution in profit and non-profit corporations. Concept maps are now beginning to be used in corporations to help teams clarify and articulate the knowledge needed to solve problems ranging from the design of new products to marketing to administrative problem resolution.

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Change in school practices is always slow. if most students have not been given opportunities to learn to use this knowledge representation tool. When concept maps are used in instruction. if state. and national achievement exams will utilize concept mapping as a powerful evaluation tool. On the other hand. There is nothing written in stone that says multiple choice tests must be used from grade school through university. This is a chicken-and-egg problem because concept maps cannot be required on national achievement tests. and perhaps in time even national achievement exams will utilize concept mapping as a powerful evaluation tool. if most students have not been given opportunities to learn to use this knowledge representation tool.Making Concept Maps (Novak) Page 5 of 8 Figure 4 A map created by a collaborative group Concept Maps for Evaluation We are now beginning to see in many science textbooks the inclusion of concept mapping as one way to summarize understandings acquired by students after they study a unit or chapter. but it is likely that the use of concept maps in school instruction will increase substantially in the next decade or two.msu. they can also be used for evaluation. On the other hand. if https://www. regional.edu/~luckie/ctools/ 8/24/2012 . This is a chicken-and-egg problem because concept maps cannot be required on national achievement tests.

1968. Novak. these are acquired by children during the ages of birth to three years. This is a phenomenal ability that is part of the evolutionary heritage of all normal human beings. Concept maps can be helpful to meet this condition.edu/~luckie/ctools/ 8/24/2012 . 1990. This program was based on the learning psychology of David Ausubel (1963. where the attributes of concepts are identified autonomously by the learner. but rather a complex set of interrelated memory systems. The question sometimes arises as to the origin of the first concepts. thus encouraging students to use meaningful-mode learning patterns (Novak & Gowin. new concept and propositional learning is mediated heavily by language. when they recognize regularities in the world around them and begin to identify language labels or symbols for these regularities (Macnamara. and takes place primarily by a reception learning process where new meanings are obtained by asking questions and getting clarification of relationships between old concepts and propositions and new concepts and propositions. Figure 5 illustrates the three memory systems of the human mind. or short-answers tests. The fundamental idea in Ausubel's cognitive psychology is that learning takes place by the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing concept propositional frameworks held by the learner. 1984.msu. The learner must choose to learn meaningfully. 1982). The one condition over which the teacher or mentor has only indirect control is the motivation of students to choose to learn by attempting to incorporate new meanings into their prior knowledge. The control over this choice is primarily in the evaluation strategies used. hence the importance of "hands-on" activity for science learning with young children. verbatim definitions or descriptions. One of the powerful uses of concept maps is not only as a learning tool but also as an evaluation tool. therefore. After age 3. the worst forms of objective tests. Meaningful learning requires three conditions: z z z The material to be learned must be conceptually clear and presented with language and examples relatable to the learner's prior knowledge. In fact. https://www. 1978). but it is necessary to be careful and explicit in building concept frameworks if one hopes to present detailed specific knowledge in any field in subsequent lessons. This kind of problem was recognized years ago in Hoffman's (1962). This acquisition is mediated in a very important way when concrete experiences or props are available. and national exams would begin to include concept maps as a segment of the exam. Hopefully. this will come to pass. Ausubel made the very important distinction between rote learning and meaningful learning. 1983). and by assisting in the sequencing of learning tasks though progressively more explicit knowledge that can be anchored into developing conceptual frameworks. In addition to the distinction between the discovery learning process. The Tyranny of Testing. by the year 2061. but this is also true with learners of any age and in any subject matter domain. and the reception learning process. This condition is easily met after age 3 for virtually any domain of subject matter. They can be as effective as more time-consuming clinical interviews (Edwards & Fraser. 2000). Wandersee and Novak. regional. Origins and Educational Theory of Concept Maps (Joe Novak) Concept maps were developed in the course of our research program where we sought to follow and understand changes in childrenÕs know ledge of science. and typical objective tests seldom require more than rote learning (Holden. that conditions (1) and (2) are interrelated and both are important. both by identifying large general concepts prior to instruction in more specific concepts. The learner must possess relevant prior knowledge. Another important advance in our understanding of learning is that the human memory is not a single "vessel" to be filled. Mintzes. We see. rather than simply memorizing concept definitions or propositional statements or computational procedures. where attributes of concepts are described using language and transmitted to the learner. making it difficult to recall specific. require verbatim recall of statements and this may be impeded by meaningful learning where new knowledge is assimilated into existing frameworks. there would be a great incentive for teachers to teach students how to use this tool. 1992). Concept maps are also effective in identifying both valid and invalid ideas held by students.Making Concept Maps (Novak) Page 6 of 8 state.

While it is true that some students have more difficulty building concept maps and using these. to structure large bodies of knowledge requires an orderly sequence of iterations between working memory and long-term memory as new knowledge is being received (Anderson. students also need to be taught something about brain mechanisms and knowledge organization.Making Concept Maps (Novak) Page 7 of 8 Figure 5 The three memory systems of the human mind While all memory systems are interdependent (and have information going in both directions). 1991). This means that relationships among two or three concepts are about the limit of working memory processing capacity. It is not easy to help students in the former condition move to patterns of learning of the latter type." All incoming information is organized and processed in the working memory by interaction with knowledge in longterm memory. The limiting feature here is that working memory can process only a relatively small number (five to nine) of psychological units at any one moment. to a large extent. differences in the patterns of learning that students have employed varying from high commitment to continuous rote-mode learning to almost exclusive commitment to meaningful mode learning. Therefore. 1991). Many learners and teachers are surprised to see how this simple tool facilitates meaningful learning and the creation of powerful knowledge frameworks that not only permit utilization of the knowledge in new contexts. We believe one of the reasons concept mapping is so powerful for the facilitation of meaningful learning is that it serves as a kind of template to help to organize knowledge and to structure it.and this instruction should accompany the use of concept maps.msu. Novak & Wandersee. at least early in their experience. even though the structure must be built up piece by piece with small units of interacting concept and propositional frameworks.edu/~luckie/ctools/ 8/24/2012 . this appears to result primarily from years of rote-mode learning practice in school settings rather than as a result of brain structure differences per se. There is still relatively little known about memory processes and how knowledge finally gets incorporated into our brain. https://www. but it seems evident from diverse sources of research that our brain works to organize knowledge in hierarchical frameworks and that learning approaches that facilitate this process significantly enhance the learning capability of all learners. but also retention of the knowledge for long periods of time (Novak. While concept maps can help. the most critical memory system for incorporating knowledge into long-term memory is the short-term or "working memory. Socalled "learning style" differences are. 1990.

D. Special Issue on Concept Mapping of Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 47-62. 28(1). D. 89. Novak. New York: Corwell-Collier. New York: Holt. J. Novak. UK: Cambridge University Press.. San Diego: Academic Press. Learning How to Learn. 10. J. P. NY: Cornell University Press. Maruyama. Johnson. Novak. A Theory of Education. Bascones. D. Rinehart and Winston. Science. The effects of cooperative. Johnson. Some interrelationships between constructivist models of learning and current neurobiological theory. Psychological Bulletin. American Educational Research Journal. Wandersee. R. (1977). D. B. Concept maps as reflectors of conceptual understanding. (1991). https://www. O. Novak. 253-261. Musonda. J. J. J. 7(3). Names for Things: A Study of Human Learning.. Coeditors. J. 19-26. Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. Mintzes. Bloom. J. Edwards. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Skon. 1991.. B.Making Concept Maps (Novak) Page 8 of 8 References z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z Anderson. (1992). 29-52.I. D. Hoffman. (1992). 1037-1058. & J.edu/~luckie/ctools/ 8/24/2012 . Novak. (1983). D. Press. J. Alternative instructional systems and the development of problem-solving skills in physics. 2nd ed. Instructional Science. New York: Warbel & Peck. Macnamara. (1968). P...T. J. San Diego: Academic Press Novak. (1978). and K.. S. Wandersee. D.. P. with implications for science education. Ithaca. J. New York: Grune and Stratton. Mintzes. J. (1962). Fraser. J. and L. J. (1981).. European Journal of Science Education. B. R. & D. MA: M. (1956).msu. 1986. Rinehart and Winston.. New York: Holt. The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning. (1985). D. Ausubel. C. 117-153. Educational Psychology: A Cognitive View. New York and Cambridge. (1982). D. Nelson. D. The Science Teacher. Concept maps and Vee diagrams: Two metacognitive tools for science and mathematics education. Hanesian. New York: David McKay. 26. 58(7):45-49. Gowin. (2000) Assessing Science Understanding. and H. 19. Study flunks science and math tests. D. Ausubel. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives--The Classification of Educational Goals. (1990). Novak. J. (1991). Holden. & D. Research in Science Education. Clarify with concept maps. (1998) Teaching Science For Understanding. (1984). and Novak. 29(10). J. Cambridge. 541. J. The Tyranny of Testing. Wandersee. 13. Reprinted. D. Ausubel. G. D. 28. (1963). & J. Novak. A twelve-year longitudinal study of science concept learning. competitive and individualistic goal structure on achievement: A meta-analysis. and Novak.

How the strategy works z z z z Unless students are asked to predict first what will happen. It works best with demonstrations that allow immediate observations. What to do z z Set up a demonstration of an event. particularly in statistics. generating discussion. they may not observe carefully. related to the focus topic. F. When to use POE is a strategy often used in science. This can be useful for uncovering misconceptions or developing understandings they have.org. EXPLAIN (POE) Chris Joyce (2006) The POE strategy was developed by White and Gunstone (1992) to uncover individual students’ predictions. R.nz/strategies/poe. (1992). Ask them what they think they will see and why they think this. Events that surprise create conditions where students may be ready to start re-examining their personal theories.php 8/24/2012 . The theory Constructivist theories of learning consider that students’ existing understandings should be considered when developing teaching and learning programmes.nzcer. Step 1: Predict z z Ask the students to independently write their prediction of what will happen. It can provide information for making decisions about the subsequent learning. providing teachers with information about students’ thinking. z z z z z It can be used for: finding out students' initial ideas. T. Asking students to explain the reasons for their predictions gives the teacher indications of their theories. Great Britain: Falmer Press. A similar strategy also works well in mathematics. http://arb. and their reasons for making these. OBSERVE. & Gunstone. Writing down their prediction motivates them to want to know the answer.. about a specific event. Probing Understanding. motivating students to want to explore the concept. that may surprise students. Reference: White. generating investigations. and suits Physical and Material World contexts. Explaining and evaluating their predictions and listening to others’ predictions helps students to begin evaluating their own learning and constructing new meanings. Tell the students what you are going to be doing. and which can be observed.Predict Observe Explain Page 1 of 5 PREDICT. R.

After students have committed their explanations to paper. With some students it may be more appropriate to ask for oral responses. (Pages 5051). and why. but does allow for students to observe more closely. rather than observe. 323-332. This cautions us to be careful that predictions are not wild guesses. otherwise students start looking for the trick. The POE in the primary school: An evaluation. Living World). writing the answer can be a barrier to useful communication of ideas.org.. Allow time to focus on observation. To adapt the template. some demonstrations should be chosen to not give surprising results. A joint conversation about what we might expect to see.Predict Observe Explain Page 2 of 5 Step 2: Observe z z z Carry out the demonstration. for example. small groups can carry out the activity themselves.php 8/24/2012 . Ask students to write down what they do observe. N. including old teaching resources that promote transmission teaching. Examples of ARB resources that use the POE strategy http://arb.) Younger primary students may have difficulty explaining their reasoning. Research in Science Education. Limitations z z z z z For primary school students. or are very young. References: Palmer. It is more difficult for the teacher to monitor the discussion. In mathematics the students investigate. D. topics that are not "hands-on" or in which it is difficult to get immediate results (for example. discuss their ideas together. 25 (3). for example. young or ESOL students. They often include an explanation. (1995). for example. provide options from which they can choose. could help avoid this trap. If the students are unfamiliar with the underlying concept. If the POE strategy is used often. Hipkins. Step 3: Explain z z Ask students to amend or add to their explanation to take account of the observation. (Use Think-Pair-Share. Using NEMP to inform the teaching of scientific skills. save in your own files. This may affect the explanations they give. (2003). It is not suitable for all topics. Some researchers say that students are more likely to learn from observations that confirm their predictions. Adapting the strategy z z z z Rather than the teacher demonstrating to the whole class. To generate your own POEs Books that contain science “experiments” are often a good source of appropriate activities for adapting to POE. Oral responses need to be managed so other group members do not initially influence students. R. based on the underlying science idea. and make appropriate changes. before sharing with the whole group.nz/strategies/poe. A template is provided for teachers to give to students to write on.nzcer. & Kenneally.

php 8/24/2012 . http://arb.nzcer.nz/strategies/poe.Predict Observe Explain Page 3 of 5 Resources that use the Predict-Observe-Explain (Predict-Investigate-Explain) strategy.org.

nzcer.org.g.Predict Observe Explain Page 4 of 5 Name: __________________________________________________________________ Description of focus of demonstration (e. Explain Write the reasons why you think it will happen this way. Explain Add to or change your ideas about why it happened.. http://arb. Observe Draw or describe what you did see. What will happen when you put an upside down jar over a lighted candle?) Predict Write or draw all the things you think you will see.nz/strategies/poe.php 8/24/2012 .

All rights reserved http://arb.php 8/24/2012 . Wellington. not for sale or other purposes.Predict Observe Explain Page 5 of 5 Assessment strategies | ARB Home Please Note: ARB material may be reproduced for school-based assessment purposes. New Zealand.nz/strategies/poe.nzcer.org. New Zealand Council for Educational Research. The ARBs Assessment information Support materials Help Contact us Site map Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Education.

Neutrons Matter exists in four basic states: solid. When there are uneven combinations they are called ions and isotopes. Read: Atomic Structure . 99% of all matter in the universe is plasma. Read: Elements. On Earth mass and weight are identical although they often measuring using different systems. Electrons. gas and plasma. a compound. Read: Mass.Protons. It is important to understand the conceptual difference between the two and how density is related. Each has a specific function within the atom and the combinations determine the elements listed on the Periodic Table. Note the formula for mass in the reading. In the rest of the universe. Nature of Matter Physical science covers a lot of ground so the chapter has been organized into two parts: the nature of matter and force/motion/energy. Compounds.Chapter 3a: Physical Science. Mixtures . liquid. this is not the case. & neutrons. Read: Solid. electrons. Gas Matter can change form either by physical change or chemical change. An example of manmade plasma is a fluorescent bulb. however. Liquid. Plasma is ionized gas in which is made up of the the same basis atomic structure although it contains electrons which are not bound to the nucleus making it electrically conductive. Read: Physical & Chemical Change Matter can exist as either an element. or a mixture. Density The three parts of the atom are protons. Weight.

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In actuality. is called A neutron walked into a bar and hydrogen (the abbreviation for hydrogen is H). These particles have different properties. Electrons are tiny. Let's look at one type of atom: The atom above. made up of one proton and one electron. You can dismantle one of the watches: take the back off. very light particles that have a negative electrical charge (-). In other words. Protons are much larger and heavier than electrons and have the opposite charge. protons have a positive charge. therefore it would take almost 20 million hydrogen atoms to make a line as long as the dash. if the proton was the size depicted above.Atomic Structure http://web.htm Atomic Structure An updated version of this lesson is available at Visionlearning: Atomic Theory & Ions & Isotopes In the last lesson we learned that atoms were particles of elements. The electron is constantly spinning around the center of the atom (called the nucleus). now the watch no longer behaves like a watch.jjay. if you have 100 watches. the electron would actually be spinning approximately 0. is approximately 5 x 10-8 mm in diameter. substances that could not be broken down further. Each atom is made up of a combination of these particles. we have to clarify this statement. if you have 1 ton.cuny. peer inside and pull things out. What keeps the two from crashing into each other? "for you. In the sub-atomic world. this dash . To put that in perspective." The particles in an atom are not still. the whole atom would be about the size of Giants Stadium. However. sort of like tiny billiard balls. when we do the atom looses its chemical properties.5 km (or about a quarter of a mile) away from the nucleus. In other words. however. so that the proton were the size depicted above.edu/~acarpi/NSC/3-atoms. The proton and electron asked how much for a drink. The electron however. Taking this into consideration. all of these units have the same properties. the electron is a wave that surrounds the 1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:00 PM . has some of the properties of a wave. Another peculiarity of this tiny world is the particles themselves. For example. the electron is more similar to a beam of light than it is to a billiard ball. An atom cannot be broken down further without changing the chemical nature of the substance. or one watch.Internet Chemistry Jokes of the spinning electron keeps the two particles from coming into contact with each other much as the earth's rotation keeps it from plunging into the sun. an atom of hydrogen would look like this: A Hydrogen Atom Keep in mind that atoms are extremely small. So what does an atom look like inside? Atoms are made up of 3 types of particles electrons . for example. The centrigugal force -Jaime . attract each other. In examining atomic structure though. however neutrons have no electrical charge. things often behave a bit strangely. stay together because just like two magnets. protons and neutrons . Protons and neutrons behave like small particles. One hydrogen atom. For example. they all behave like watches and tell time. take the batteries out. First of all. We can break down the atom of oxygen into smaller particles. Neutrons are large and heavy like protons. 1 gram or 1 atom of oxygen. the opposite electrical charges The bartender replied.is approximately 1 mm in length. Thus to represent it as a small particle spinning around a nucleus is slightly misleading. If we were to draw the hydrogen atom above to scale. no charge. the electron actually spins very far from the nucleus.

For helium Z = 2. however. 2 ions and the electrically neutral form. the size of the atom increases. Because the 2 protons in the nucleus have the same charge on them.htm nucleus of an atom like a cloud. Atoms. Neutrons have no electrical charge on them and act as a sort of nuclear glue. hydrogen is the simplest atom with only one proton and one electron. The atomic mass tells you the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom. Helium is the 2nd simplest atom. of hydrogen is 1. To keep the nucleus from pushing apart. the figure below may help you picture what this might look like: Hydrogen: a proton surrounded by an electron cloud While you should keep in mind that electrons actually form clouds around their nucleii. We can measure an atom's size in two ways: using the atomic number (Z) or using the atomic mass (A. A. As we have seen. Z. holding the protons. the positively charged protons are always balanced by an equal number of negatively charged electrons. helium is larger than hydrogen. can have electrical charges. the atomic mass. helium has two neutrons in its nucleus. An atom that carries an electrical charge is called an ion. A Helium Atom As you can see. atoms with no positive or negative charge on them. is equal to 1. In an electrically neutral atom. Listed below are three forms of hydrogen. the atom becomes positively charged (because the number of positively charged protons will exceed the number of electrons). While this is difficult to imagine. If an atom gains electrons. For hydrogen the atomic number. The atomic number describes the number of protons in an atom. Ions and Isotopes So far we have only talked about electrically neutral atoms.jjay. the atom becomes negatively charged. If the atom loses electrons. and thus the nucleus. Z also tells you the number of electrons in the atom. It has two protons in its nucleus and two electrons spinning around the nucleus. together. and the nucleus would fall apart. they would tend to repel each other. also known as the mass number). we will continue to represent the electron as a spinning particle to keep things simple.Atomic Structure http://web. As you add electrons. 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:00 PM . Since the number of protons equals the number of electrons in the neutral atom.cuny. protons and neutrons. Some atoms can either gain or lose electrons (the number of protons never changes in an atom). For helium A = 4. Therefore. With helium though. we have to introduce another particle.edu/~acarpi/NSC/3-atoms.

will remain the same). While the number of protons for a given atom never changes. At the Electrical Force page. the number of neutrons can change. two isotopes of an element will have different atomic masses (however the atomic number. Two isotopes of hydrogen Hydrogen Atomic Mass = 1 Atomic Number = 1 Deuterium Atomic Mass = 2 Atomic Number = 1 If you would like to explore the interaction of protons and electrons further. For example.: a negatively charged hydrogen ion Neither the number of protons nor neutrons changes in any of these ions. the University of Colorado's Physics 2000 site has an interesting experiment posted on line. an isotope of hydrogen exists in which the atom contains 1 neutron (commonly called deuterium).Atomic Structure http://web. Z. Since the atomic mass is the number of protons plus neutrons. You can even try to build your own atom (and see how difficult it is)! Copyright © 1998-1999. therefore both the atomic number and the atomic mass remain the same.cuny.htm H+ : a positively charged hydrogen ion H : the hydrogen atom H. Two atoms with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Anthony Carpi 3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:00 PM .edu/~acarpi/NSC/3-atoms.jjay. you can place an electron next to a proton and see how the electron moves. All Rights Reserved.

sentryair. Ph.com/LLC Chemistry helpChemistry by Whitten 9th Edition Solutions.com Ads Chemical Fume HoodsWide Range of Sizes for Lab.www. Christine. About. ..com Guide See More About: • • • chemical and physical changes states of matter introductory chemistry Fire indicates a chemical change.D.com/chemicalfumehoods LLCs in 3 Easy Steps(1) Sign Up (2) Fill in Online Form (3) Launch Your New Business!LegalZoom.Chemical & Physical Changes Understanding States of Matter By Anne Marie Helmenstine. Pharmacy. www. View Free!Chegg.morguefile. Manufacturing Use.com/HomeworkHelp/Whitten Chemistry Ads • • • • • Chemistry Chemistry Projects Chemical Reactions Worksheets Physical Science Chemical Chemical and physical changes are related to chemical and physical properties.

such as light. learn chemistry. gas production. More Examples of Chemical and Physical Changes Stay up to date on the latest chemistry news. freezing. vaporization. The starting and ending materials of a physical change are the same. cooking an egg. Examples of chemical changes include combustion (burning).Magical Science Experiments for Kids . There may be clues that a chemical reaction took place. odor. A physical change does not produce a new substance. Examples of physical changes include crushing a can. heat. condensation. and get instructions for chemistry projects. Toil and Trouble . A chemical change produces a new substance. rusting of an iron pan. or sound. sublimation) are physical changes. How to Tell Chemical & Physical Changes Apart A chemical change makes a substance that wasn't there before. Physical Changes Physical changes are concerned with energy and states of matter. and breaking a bottle. Changes in state or phase (melting.Chemical Changes Chemical changes take place on the molecular level. Sign up for our free newsletter today! More about Phases & States of Matter • • • Chemical & Physical Changes Quiz Phase Changes Quiz Fire State of Matter Chemical and Physical Properties • • • Chemical Properties Physical Properties Difference Between Chemical and Physical Properties Lean about Chemical Reactions • • • Factors that Affect Reaction Rate Chemical Reactions in Water Endothermic Reaction Examples Related Articles • • Examples of Physical Changes and Chemical Changes Bubble. even though they may look different. melting an ice cube. color change. Bubble. and mixing hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to make salt and water.

• • • Residue (Geology) Defined and Explained Chemistry Subjects October 27 Science History .D. Chemistry Guide • • • Sign up for My Newsletter Headlines Forum . Ph.Science History for October 27 Anne Marie Helmenstine.

kilograms. Do not confuse weight with mass.Mass and Density Introduction Astronomy Tools Concepts 1.3 Particle Density (parts per cm3 ) 3.Nature of Light Formulas . On Earth.length. Stuff can be anything: hydrogen gas.Kepler & Newton . Pressure & Energy .Magnitudes . Mass density is the mass of an object per cm3 and particle density is how many particles there are in the same space. Mass = measure of the amount of matter within an object Weight = measure of an object along with the effect of gravity. height.Concepts .Temperature . Space Observations Equipment 1. Advanced Methods 8.Relativity In addition to the dimensions of an object . divide by 2. Matter Water Lead Gold Mass Density (g/cm3 ) 1 11.Velocity & Acceleration . and mass is measured by grams. density is how much individual particles of stuff are within a small space within the object.Mass and Density http://astronomyonline. radius and so on . but are completely different in application. Density represents the mass (or number of particles) per unit volume of a substance. For pounds to kilograms.2. Radio Astronomy Basic Mathematics Algebra Statistics Geometry Scientific Notation Log Scales Calculus Physics Concepts .Relativistic Redshift . ounces. and so forth. An object that contains a certain amount of stuff is said to have mass. there is 2. thus 70 kg but gravity affects how much I weigh. Let's say I weight 70 kg (I wish): Earth Moon Jupiter A White Dwarf 70 kg 70 kg 70 kg 70 kg 154 pounds 26 pounds 391 pounds 25. While mass measures the total amount of stuff. width.Hubble's Law .3 19.2 pounds per kilograms.Brightness .Concepts .Planck's Law . Generally. A White Dwarf is a very massive stellar remnant.Doppler Shift . Telescopes 2.Frequency & Wavelength .Parallax .Atoms . The chart below demonstrates the difference between mass an weight as compared to location.Inverse Square Law . The chart below demonstrates two types of density: mass and particle.Distance . and so on. water molecules. Spectroscopy 6. Space Tools 4. material. or object. It is common for density measurement to be based on a centimeter cubed (cm3). Radio 3. Electromagnetic Spectrum 2.7 x 1022 3. Density and mass provide physical dimensions of a given object.Mass & Density .3x1022 5.Basic Units of Measure .9x1022 1 of 2 9/18/2012 6:58 PM .Luminosity . Atmosphere Limitations 3.asp Physics . Photography 5. solid iron.measurements of how much stuff an object is made and how much space the stuff fills are also measured.000 pounds The amount of "stuff" in my body remains the same.Force. thus my weight will be incredibly high.org/Science/MassDensity.Cepheid Rulers .Kinetic Energy . Computers 7. weight is measured by pounds.Convert Mass to Energy .Quantum Physics .Orbits .

0 Unported License.Wien's Law Constants Computer Models Additional Resources 1.Stephan-Boltzmann Law . Advanced Topics 2.Tidal Forces . Legal. Guest Contributions Interstellar Space 2x10-24 1 The three states of matter (solid. All rights reserved.Small Angle Formula .Stellar Properties .asp .2012 Astronomy Online.Mass and Density http://astronomyonline.Sidereal Time . 2 of 2 9/18/2012 6:58 PM . liquid and gas) also affect density.Synodic & Sidereal Periods .Concepts . Contact Us.Store | Appendix ©2004 . The works within is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike 3.org/Science/MassDensity.Telescope Related . it is possible to determine mass by the formula: Back to Top Search | Site Map | Buy Stuff . If density and the space filled is known.Temperature .Schwarzschild Radius .

nitrogen). Compounds Microscopic view of the molecules of the compound water (gas phase). Mixtures 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:06 PM . Note that a compound: consists of atoms of two or more different elements bound together.g.g. Compounds & Mixtures Elements Microscopic view of the atoms of the element argon (gas phase). has properties that are different from its component elements.purdue. or different elements..chem.html Elements. Note that the two nitrogen atoms which comprise a nitrogen molecule move as a unit. consists of only one kind of atom. Compounds & Mixtures http://www.Elements. Note that an element: Microscopic view of the molecules of the element nitrogen (gas phase).edu/gchelp/atoms/elements. A molecule consists of two or more atoms of the same element. Oxygen atoms are red and hydrogen atoms are white. and can exist as either atoms (e. cannot be broken down into a simpler type of matter by either physical or chemical means. can be broken down into a simpler type of matter (elements) by chemical means (but not by physical means). argon) or molecules (e. that are chemically bound together. and always contains the same ratio of its component atoms.

Elements. can be separated into its components by physical means. Note that a mixture: consists of two or more different elements and/or compounds physically intermingled. 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:06 PM .html Microscopic view of a gaseous mixture containing two elements (argon and nitrogen) and a compound (water).chem.edu/gchelp/atoms/elements. and often retains many of the properties of its components. Compounds & Mixtures http://www.purdue.

Particles in a: gas are well separated with no regular arrangement.purdue. but the behaviors of these particles differ in the three phases. move about. and slide past each other. and Solids Gases. Note that: Microscopic view of a liquid. and/or ions. Microscopic view of a solid. and Solids http://www.html Gases. Liquids and solids are often referred to as condensed phases because the particles are very close together. molecules. and solids and identifies the microscopic behavior responsible for each property. The following figure illustrates the microscopic differences. Microscopic view of a gas. liquid are close together with no regular arrangement. liquid vibrate.edu/gchelp/liquids/character. liquids and solids are all made up of atoms. usually in a regular pattern. Some Characteristics of Gases. Liquids. Liquids and Solids and the Microscopic Explanation for the Behavior gas assumes the shape and volume of its container particles can move past one another compressible lots of free space between particles liquid assumes the shape of the part of the container which it occupies particles can move/slide past one another not easily compressible little free space between particles solid retains a fixed volume and shape rigid .particles locked into place not easily compressible little free space between particles 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:01 PM .Gases. Particles in a: gas vibrate and move freely at high speeds. solid vibrate (jiggle) but generally do not move from place to place. The following table summarizes properties of gases. Liquids.chem. liquids. solid are tightly packed.

and Solids http://www.particles cannot move/slide past one another 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:01 PM .chem.edu/gchelp/liquids/character.html flows easily particles can move past one another flows easily particles can move/slide past one another does not flow easily rigid .Gases. Liquids.purdue.

Chapter 3b: Force, Motion, Energy

Heat energy can be transferred by either conduction, convection or radiation. Read: Heat Transfer, read section "Heat Energy" When two or more objects interact, the resulting push or pull is known as force. There are two types of force: contact forces and at-a-distance forces. You should be able to identify each and give examples. Read: Types of Forces - Contact & At-A-Distance When light strikes and object reflection or refraction can occur (or both). When light rays within and object it is called absorption. When light is scattered either by reflection and/or refraction it is called diffusion. This is often done to soften the light for practical purposes. Note what happens when light is refracted through a concave lens or a convex lens. This is how eyeglasses bend light to make vision more clear. Read: Light - Refraction, Reflection Electrical energy moves with the flow of electrons. Atoms for some elements can gain or lose electrons this determines whether it has a positive charge or negative charge. Unbalanced electrical changes will seek balance which you may have experienced on a cold day with static electricity. The conductivity or resistance is determined by easily the electrons flow. When electrons flow in a circular pattern it is called a circuit. Read: Energy - Read (brief) Chapters 2, 3 & 4. Energy can be classified into two categories: potential energy and kinetic energy. Note that each has subcategories which correspond to the conceptual definition. Read: Types of Energy

Sir Isaac Newton devised three laws of motion which are still used in physics. You should know the laws and how they translate into the real world. Which one explains why the more you fill up a grocery cart, the more force you need to push it to make it move? Which one explains how a fish swims upstream? Which one is also known as the law of inertia? Read Newton's Three Laws

Heat Energy
Heat is a form of energy. We use it for a lot of things, like warming our homes and cooking our food. Heat energy moves in three ways: 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation Conduction occurs when energy is passed directly from one item to another. If you stirred a pan of soup on the stove with a metal spoon, the spoon will heat up. The heat is being conducted from the hot area of the soup to the colder area of spoon. Metals are excellent conductors of heat energy. Wood or plastics are not. These "bad" conductors are called insulators. That's why a pan is usually made of metal while the handle is made of a strong plastic. Convection is the movement of gases or liquids from a cooler spot to a warmer spot. If a soup pan is made of glass, we could see the movement of convection currents in the pan. The warmer soup moves up from the heated area at the bottom of the pan to the top where it is cooler. The cooler soup then moves to take the warmer soup's place. The movement is in a circular pattern within the pan (see picture above). The wind we feel outside is often the result of convection currents. You can understand this by the winds you feel near an ocean. Warm air is lighter than cold air and so it rises. During the daytime, cool air over water moves to replace the air rising up as the land warms the air over it. During the nighttime, the directions change - the surface of the water is sometimes warmer and the land is cooler.

Radiation is the final form of movement of heat energy. The sun's light and heat cannot reach us by conduction or convection because space is

it is called radiation. The sun's rays travel in straight lines called heat rays. its radiation is absorbed or reflected. When it moves that way. Darker surfaces absorb more of the radiation and lighter surfaces reflect the radiation. When sunlight hits the earth. So you would be cooler if you wear light or white clothes in the summer. . There is nothing to transfer the energy from the sun to the earth.almost completely empty.

a vector quantity is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. These specific forces will be discussed in more detail later in Lesson 2 as well as in other lessons. In such instances. Examples of contact forces include frictional forces. For example. However.The Meaning of Force http://www. Examples of contact and action-at-distance forces are listed in the table below.com/class/newtlaws/u2l2a. it is common to represent forces using diagrams in which a force is represented by an arrow. the sun and planets exert a gravitational pull on each other despite their large spatial separation. the force of friction acts leftwards. The downward force of gravity and the upward force of the table supporting the book act in opposite directions and thus balance each other. For example. both the magnitude (10 Newton) and the direction (downward) are given. and there is no rightward force to balance it. Forces only exist as a result of an interaction. the effect of an individual force upon an object is often canceled by the effect of another force. because forces are vectors. imagine a book sliding across the rough surface of a table from left to right. it is said that the two individual forces balance each other. These specific forces will be discussed in more detail later in Lesson 2 as well as in other lessons. tensional forces.physicsclassroom. two magnets can exert a magnetic pull on each other even when separated by a distance of a few centimeters. One Newton is the amount of force required to give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s/s. To fully describe the force acting upon an object. For simplicity sake. the two objects no longer experience the force. Contact Forces Frictional Force Tension Force Normal Force Air Resistance Force Applied Force Spring Force Action-at-a-Distance Forces Gravitational Force Electrical Force Magnetic Force Force is a quantity that is measured using the standard metric unit known as the Newton. Even when your feet leave the earth and you are no longer in physical contact with the earth. yet a third individual force exists that is not balanced by another force. yet are able to exert a push or pull despite their physical separation. the emphasis is upon the fact that a force is a vector quantity that has a direction.) Furthermore. The size of the arrow is reflective of the magnitude of the force and the direction of the arrow reveals the direction that the force is acting. And magnetic forces are action-at-a-distance forces. The importance of this fact will become clear as we analyze the individual forces acting upon an object later in this lesson. For example." To say "10. In contrast. there is a gravitational pull between you and the Earth. 10 Newton is not a full description of the force acting upon an object. When the interaction ceases. Because a force is a vector that has a direction. Such vector diagrams were introduced in an earlier unit and are used throughout the study of physics. The exact details of drawing free-body diagrams are discussed later. For now.cfm Force and Its Representation The Meaning of Force | Types of Forces | Drawing Free-Body Diagrams Determining the Net Force The Meaning of Force Student Extras A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another Teacher's Guide object. For example. you must describe both the magnitude (size or numerical value) and the direction. there is a force upon each of the objects. and applied forces. normal forces. Thus. all forces (interactions) between objects can be placed into two broad categories: contact forces. the following unit equivalency can be stated: A force is a vector quantity. there would be no unbalanced force acting upon the book. Action-at-a-distance forces are those types of forces that result even when the two interacting objects are not in physical contact with each other. In this case. downward is a complete description of the force acting upon an object. Whenever there is an interaction between two objects. A Newton is abbreviated by an "N. 10 Newton. the effect of a 20-Newton upward force acting upon a book is canceled by the effect of a 20-Newton downward force acting upon the book. air resistance forces. Examples of action-at-a-distance forces include gravitational forces. Other situations could be imagined in which two of the individual vector forces cancel each other ("balance"). For example. Thus. and forces resulting from action-at-a-distance Contact forces are those types of forces that result when the two interacting objects are perceived to be physically contacting each other. 1 of 1 9/21/2012 9:04 AM .0 Newton of force. an unbalanced force acts upon the book to change its state of motion.0 N" means 10. (Such diagrams are known as free-body diagrams and are discussed later in this lesson. As learned in an earlier unit. the protons in the nucleus of an atom and the electrons outside the nucleus experience an electrical pull towards each other despite their small spatial separation. Electric forces are action-at-a-distance forces.

myschoolhouse. A lens is a piece of transparent material. Look at the convex and concave lenses below. If the surface is smooth and flat.com/courses/O/1/36.Light Reflection & Refraction for Kids .. Look at the diagrams below.. http://www. the light will bounce off it at equal angles.Elementary Scienc. Refraction occurs because light bends.Light Lesson . 1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:14 PM . the light scatters. How much reflection depends upon how even the surface is. If the surface is rough.asp HOME LOGIN SUBSCRIPTIONS LESSON LISTS FREE WORKSHEETS FAQ Reading Lessons Science Lessons Social Studies Lessons Language Arts Lessons Math Lessons Spelling Lessons Reflection & Refraction Reflection occurs when light bounces off objects. It is usually made of glass and has at least one curved surface. Notice the angles at which the rays of light strike the surfaces. That is why a flat mirror reflects a good likeness of the object being reflected.

.Elementary Scienc. What type of material is a lens? 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:14 PM .myschoolhouse.. http://www. Thank You for using My Schoolhouse Ads by Google Kids Fun Games Kids Math Kids Games Directions: Answer the questions about reflection and refraction. the light will scatter . When light strikes a surface that is rough.Light Reflection & Refraction for Kids . Reflection Refraction occurs when light bounces off an object.Light Lesson . the light will bounce off at equal angles . occurs when light is bent. When light strikes a surface that is smooth. Notice the paths of light of the convex and concave lenses shown below.com/courses/O/1/36.asp Ads by Google Kids Fun Games Kids Math Kids Games The curved surface/surfaces of a lens bends the light.

Light Lesson . 3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:14 PM .com/courses/O/1/36.Elementary Scienc. Language.asp transparent translucent opaque The path of light through a concave lens is not directed to a single focal point directed to a single focal point The path of light through a convex lens is not directed to a single focal point directed to a single focal point Ads by Google Kids Math Games Math Worksheets Kids Fun Games Fun Kids Math Games Elementary & Middle School Lessons & Self-Correcting Worksheets for Children in all Subject Areas. 1800 Lessons & Worksheets in Math..Light Reflection & Refraction for Kids ..myschoolhouse. and Social Studies. LLC. All rights reserved. Science. Reading. If you have found an error or would like to make comments on this lesson Click Here My Schoolhouse Copyright 1999-2012 by Educational Designers. Spelling. http://www.

the number of electrons . we need to know a little bit about atoms and their structure. There are 118 different known elements that make up every thing! Some elements like oxygen we breathe are essential to life. of atoms. devices and machines that use electricity. There are many different kinds of atoms. television sets. But no matter how many particles an atom has. All matter is made up of atoms. one for each type of element. house or apartment and write down all the different appliances. The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons. protons and neutrons. and atoms are made up of smaller particles. But what is electricity? Where does it come from? How does it work? Before we understand all that. Neutrons are neutral – they have neither a positive nor a negative charge. in the same way the moon spins around the earth.Chapter 2: What Is Electricity? Electricity figures everywhere in our lives. protons a positive charge. The three main particles making up an atom are the proton. Electricity lights up our homes. Each atom has a specific number of electrons. or nucleus. Electrons contain a negative charge. Electrons spin around the center. An atom is a single part that makes up an element. Electricity from batteries keeps our cars running and makes our flashlights shine in the dark. and other electronic devices. cooks our food. Take a walk through your school. Here's something you can do to see the importance of electricity. powers our computers. the neutron and the electron. You'll be amazed at how many things we use each and every day that depend on electricity.

so are diamonds. atmospheres of most planets. The electrons move from one atom to another in a "flow. stars. The element with six protons and six electrons is called carbon. each person would have a bucket of water to pour from one bucket to another." Scientists and engineers have learned many ways to move electrons off of atoms." One electron is attached and another electron is lost. and the food we eat. But instead of passing one bucket from the start of the line of people to the other end. If the numbers are the same. and it is very stable. It is a situation that's very similar to electricity passing along a wire and a circuit. An atom that loses electrons has more protons than electrons and is positively charged. if an atom had six protons. you would wind up with one more proton instead of being balanced. the atom is called balanced. When those electrons move between the atoms. Since all atoms want to be balanced. A "charged" atom is called an "ion. This chain is similar to the fire fighter's bucket brigades in olden times.usually needs to be the same as the number of protons. Coal is made of carbon. it should also have six electrons. Carbon is found in abundance in the sun." Electrons can be made to move from one atom to another. . the atom that has been "unbalanced" will look for a free electron to fill the place of the missing one. So. comets. An atom that gains electrons has more negative particles and is negatively charge. That means that when you add up the electrons and protons. Some kinds of atoms have loosely attached electrons. The charge is passed from atom to atom when electricity is "passed. The result was a lot of spilled water and not enough water to douse the fire. We say that this unbalanced atom has a "positive charge" (+) because it has too many protons. a current of electricity is created.

The electrons also want to be part of a balanced atom. Some things hold their electrons very tightly. so we say that it has a "negative charge" (-). we call the total attraction "charge. Since we have both positive and negative charged groups attracted to each other. cloth. so they have a strong attraction to the positive atoms." Energy also can be measured in joules. The free electron charge is negative. The more positive atoms or negative electrons you have. Joules sounds exactly like the word jewels. a current of electricity is created. just like in the picture. So what do positive and negative charges have to do with electricity? Scientists and engineers have found several ways to create large numbers of positive atoms and free negative electrons. Since positive atoms want negative electrons so they can be balanced. creating an electrical current from one end to other. the stronger the attraction for the other. and has no proton to balance it out. A thousand joules is equal to a British thermal unit. as in diamonds and emeralds. plastic. This is what happens in a piece of wire. Electricity is conducted through some things better than others do.Since it got kicked off. the free electron moves around waiting for an unbalanced atom to give it a home. Rubber. Electrons do not move through them very well. When electrons move among the atoms of matter. These things are called insulators. they have a strong attraction for the electrons. . the positive attracts the negative to balance out. glass and dry air are good insulators and have very high resistance. Its resistance measures how well something conducts electricity. So. The electrons are passed from atom to atom.

a current of electricity is created. The measurement of how well something conducts electricity is called its resistance. The smaller the gauge. the bigger the wire. aluminum wire. Chapter 3: Resistance and Static Electricity As we have learned. Electrons are very. inside your lamps and elsewhere are usually copper. These are called conductors. You can have copper wire. Most metals – like copper.000.000. Different types of metal are used in making wire. The lower the resistance of a wire. how well the metal conducts electricity. and what it's made of. the better it conducts electricity. When those electrons move among the atoms of matter.000. The electrons are passed from atom to atom. Some of the largest thicknesses of regular wire is gauge 1. which move through them very easily. Electricity "flows" or moves through some things better than others do. Electrons can be made to move easily from one atom to another.000. A piece of metal can be made to act like a heater. Resistance in wire depends on how thick and how long it is.000 (1x1022) electrons. The wires in your walls.Other materials have some loosely held electrons. When an electrical current occurs. A single copper penny contains more than 10. very small.000. The thickness of wire is called its gauge. some kinds of atoms contain loosely attached electrons. Each of these metals has a different resistance. even steel wire.000. creating an electrical current from one end to the other. Copper is used in many wires because it has a lower resistance than many other metals. Take a piece of wire. . the resistance causes friction and the friction causes heat. aluminum or steel – are good conductors.

Glass is another good insulator. can be very hot. and that's why rubber is used to cover wires in an electric cord. too many .The higher the resistance. Depending on the resistance of the material making up the bridge." When a bridge is created. Chapter 4: Circuits Electrons with a negative charge. can't "jump" through the air to a positively charged atom. These are called insulators. If you're not careful. the electrons begin moving quickly. Rubber is a good insulator. They keep the metal of the wires from touching the metal of the towers. you'll see that it is attached to some bumpy looking things. If you look at the end of a power line. So. they try to get across as fast as they can. We usually call this bridge a "circuit. Some things conduct electricity very poorly. like the wire in a hair dryer. They have to wait until there is a link or bridge between the negative area and the positive area. These are glass insulators. a coiled wire high in resistance. the hotter it can get.

we learned about electrons and the attraction between positive and negative charges. In Chapter 3. we say we are giving it "resistance". Before electrons can move far. Copper wire is just one type of bridge we use in circuits . they lose energy to the atoms. As a result. they can collide with one of the atoms along the way. This energy appears as heat. causing it to glow and give off light. For example. This slows them down or even reverses their direction." by letting only a certain number through at a time. When we limit the number of electrons that can cross over our circuit. We can limit the number of electrons crossing over the "circuit. And we can make electricity do something for us while they are on their way. We "resist" letting all the electrons through.electrons can go across at one time and destroy the "bridge" or the circuit. Think of the bridge as a garden hose. in the process. and the scattering is a resistance to the current. we can "make" the electrons "heat" a filament in a bulb. The current of electricity is the water flowing in the hose and the water pressure is the voltage of a . however. This works something like a tollbooth on a freeway bridge. We also learned that we can create a bridge called a "circuit" between the charges.

The light bulb changes the electrical energy into light and heat energy.circuit. In an electrical circuit – electrons move from the negative pole to the positive. you create a circuit. This charge changes into electrical energy when the poles are connected in a circuit – similar to connecting the two poles on opposite ends of a battery. Current refers to the movement of charges. The diameter of the hose is the determining factor for the resistance. Along the circuit you can have a light bulb and an on-off switch. If you connected the positive pole of an electrical source to the negative pole. .

in the same way the moon spins around the earth. There are many different kinds of atoms. so they have a strong attraction to the positive atoms. The electrons move from one atom to another in a "flow. A thousand joules is equal to a British thermal unit. or nucleus. Electrons spin around the center. An atom is a single part that makes up an element.gov/story/chapter02. of atoms. This is what happens in a piece of wire. That means that when you add up the electrons and protons. So what do positive and negative charges have to do with electricity? Scientists and engineers have found several ways to create large numbers of positive atoms and free negative electrons. The free electron charge is negative. You'll be amazed at how many things we use each and every day that depend on electricity. each person would have a bucket of water to pour from one bucket to another. But instead of passing one bucket from the start of the line of people to the other end. so are diamonds. It is a situation that's very similar to electricity passing along a wire and a circuit. the number of electrons usually needs to be the same as the number of protons. Electricity is conducted through some things better than others do. We say that this unbalanced atom has a "positive charge" (+) because it has too many protons. The more positive atoms or negative electrons you have. comets. There are 118 different known elements that make up every thing! Some elements like oxygen we breathe are essential to life. The element with six protons and six electrons is called carbon. one for each type of element. they have a strong attraction for the electrons.energyquest. Most metals – like copper. the neutron and the electron. Here's something you can do to see the importance of electricity.Chapter 2: What Is Electricity? Chapter 2: What Is Electricity? http://www. The result was a lot of spilled water and not enough water to douse the fire. protons a positive charge.html Electricity figures everywhere in our lives. the atom is called balanced. The electrons also want to be part of a balanced atom. When electrons move among the atoms of matter. The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons. The charge is passed from atom to atom when electricity is "passed. and it is very stable. Electrons do not move through them very well. glass and dry air are good insulators and have very high resistance. and the food we eat. Coal is made of carbon. Each atom has a specific number of electrons. Some kinds of atoms have loosely attached electrons. An atom that loses electrons has more protons than electrons and is positively charged. we call the total attraction "charge. The three main particles making up an atom are the proton. Since we have both positive and negative charged groups attracted to each other. Joules sounds exactly like the word jewels. Since it got kicked off." Electrons can be made to move from one atom to another. Carbon is found in abundance in the sun. atmospheres of most planets. if an atom had six protons. Other materials have some loosely held electrons. This chain is similar to the fire fighter's bucket brigades in olden times. When those electrons move between the atoms." Energy also can be measured in joules. Since positive atoms want negative electrons so they can be balanced. So. Electrons contain a negative charge. Since all atoms want to be balanced. Rubber. devices and machines that use electricity. All matter is made up of atoms. These things are called insulators. Take a walk through your school. 1 of 1 9/21/2012 9:05 AM . the positive attracts the negative to balance out. you would wind up with one more proton instead of being balanced. we need to know a little bit about atoms and their structure. as in diamonds and emeralds. which move through them very easily. a current of electricity is created. But what is electricity? Where does it come from? How does it work? Before we understand all that. and other electronic devices. Neutrons are neutral – they have neither a positive nor a negative charge. creating an electrical current from one end to other. Electricity from batteries keeps our cars running and makes our flashlights shine in the dark. A "charged" atom is called an "ion. If the numbers are the same. So. just like in the picture. Some things hold their electrons very tightly. the atom that has been "unbalanced" will look for a free electron to fill the place of the missing one. plastic." One electron is attached and another electron is lost. These are called conductors. television sets. An atom that gains electrons has more negative particles and is negatively charge. the stronger the attraction for the other. protons and neutrons. Electricity lights up our homes. house or apartment and write down all the different appliances. Its resistance measures how well something conducts electricity. But no matter how many particles an atom has. cloth. and atoms are made up of smaller particles. aluminum or steel – are good conductors. stars. powers our computers. it should also have six electrons. a current of electricity is created. the free electron moves around waiting for an unbalanced atom to give it a home.ca. cooks our food.The Energy Story . so we say that it has a "negative charge" (-). and has no proton to balance it out. The electrons are passed from atom to atom." Scientists and engineers have learned many ways to move electrons off of atoms.

There are many forms of energy. Sunshine is radiant energy. Nuclear Energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom — the energy that holds the nucleus together.eia. petroleum. Forms of Energy Energy is found in different forms including light. chemical. 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:17 PM . Light is one type of radiant energy.cfm?page=about_forms_of_energy-basics What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Forms of Energy Basics What Is Energy? Energy makes change possible. As an object is heated up. gamma rays and radio waves. natural gas. heat. Energy is needed for our bodies to grow and it allows our minds to think. Modern civilization is possible because we have learned how to change energy from one form to another and use it to do work for us and to live more comfortably. Compressed springs and stretched rubber bands are examples of stored mechanical energy. x-rays. Very large Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is motion — of waves.gov/kids/energy. biomass. atoms. Scientists define energy as the ability to do work. Motion Energy is energy stored in the movement of objects. electrons. is the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within substances. which provides the fuel and warmth that make life on Earth possible. Thermal Energy.EIA Energy Kids . molecules. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy in the Earth. its atoms and molecules move and collide faster. and objects. It moves cars along the road and boats over the water.Forms of Energy http://www. but they can all be put into two categories: potential and kinetic. Mechanical Energy is energy stored in objects by tension. and coal are examples of stored chemical energy. It bakes a cake in the oven and keeps ice frozen in the freezer. There are several forms of potential energy. It plays our favorite songs on the radio and lights our homes. We use it to do things for us. Potential Energy Potential energy is stored energy and the energy of position — gravitational energy. Radiant energy includes visible light. Chemical energy is converted to thermal energy when we burn wood in a fireplace or burn gasoline in a car's engine. or heat. and motion. Batteries. Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. substances. Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules.

Typically. The faster they move. Electrical Energy is delivered by tiny charged particles called electrons. so powerful that it is not confined to a wire. Lightning is an example of electrical energy in nature. the energy in sound is far less than other forms of energy. typically moving through a wire. the gravitational energy is being converted to motion energy. Wind is an example of motion energy.EIA Energy Kids .Forms of Energy http://www.eia. Sound is produced when a force causes an object or substance to vibrate — the energy is transferred through the substance in a wave. the more energy is stored. 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:17 PM . when the car comes to a total stop and releases all its motion energy at once in an uncontrolled instant. the more gravitational energy is stored. Nuclear power plants split the nuclei of uranium atoms in a process called fission. where the dam "piles" up water from a river into a reservoir. Sound is the movement of energy through substances in longitudinal (compression/rarefaction) waves. A dramatic example of motion is a car crash. Hydropower is another example of gravitational energy.gov/kids/energy. The higher and heavier the object.cfm?page=about_forms_of_energy-basics amounts of energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart. When you ride a bicycle down a steep hill and pick up speed. It takes energy to get an object moving. Gravitational Energy is energy stored in an object's height. and energy is released when an object slows down. The sun combines the nuclei of hydrogen atoms in a process called fusion.

The water would have a tendency to spill from the container during specific locations on the track. ultimately hitting the windshield or the dash.credits . If at rest.Newton's First Law http://www. Energy. Consider some of your experiences in an automobile. All objects resist changes in their state of motion . The water resisted this change in its own state of motion. Everyday Applications of Newton's First Law There are many applications of Newton's first law of motion. The two parts are summarized in the following diagram. they will continue in this same state of rest." Suppose that you filled a baking dish to the rim with water and walked around an oval track making an attempt to complete a lap in the least amount of time. Coffee in motion stays in motion. The behavior of the water during the lap around the track can be explained by Newton's first law of motion. Isaac Newton (a 17th century scientist) put forth a variety of laws that explain why objects move (or don't move) as they do. In this unit (Newton's Laws of Motion). 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:20 PM . diagrams. the water kept moving in the same direction and spilled over its edge. East). Teacher's Guide graphs. The water tended to "keep on doing what it was doing. left). subsequently." When you accelerate a car from rest.cfm home . The state of motion of an object is maintained as long as the object is not acted upon by an unbalanced force. If in motion with a leftward velocity of 2 m/s. In general the water spilled when: the container was at rest and you attempted to move it the container was in motion and you attempted to stop it the container was moving in one direction and you attempted to change its direction.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . the variety of ways by which motion can be described (words.they tend to "keep on doing what they're doing. These three laws have become known as Newton's three laws of motion. There are two parts to this statement . The container was stopped near the finish line.physicsclassroom. Newton's first law of motion is often stated as An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. etc. when braking from a state of motion the coffee continues forward with the same speed and in the same direction.Lesson 1 Newton's First Law of Motion Newton's First Law | Inertia and Mass | State of Motion | Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . Have you ever observed the behavior of coffee in a coffee cup filled to the rim while starting a car from rest or while bringing a car to rest from a state of motion? Coffee "keeps on doing what it is doing. The focus of Lesson 1 is Newton's first law of motion . the ways in which motion can be explained will be discussed.one that predicts the behavior of stationary objects and the other that predicts the behavior of moving objects. the car accelerates out from under the coffee and the coffee spills in your lap. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center The behavior of all objects can be described by saying that objects tend to "keep on doing what they're doing" (unless acted upon by an unbalanced force).Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. they will continue in this same state of motion (2 m/s. the coffee remains in the same position. numbers. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Newton's First Law Student Extras In a previous chapter of study.sometimes referred to as the law of inertia. While the car accelerates forward. The container was forced to move in a different direction to make it around a curve. yet the coffee (that was at rest) wants to stay at rest.) was discussed.about . the water kept moving and spilled over container's leading edge. the road provides an unbalanced force on the spinning wheels to push the car forward. The water spills whenever the state of motion of the container is changed. On the other hand. If in motion with an eastward velocity of 5 m/s.terms .com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1a. the water remained at rest and spilled onto the table. they will continue in this same state of motion (5 m/s." The container was moved from rest to a high speed at the starting line.

. Thus. it is often turned upside down and thrusted downward at high speeds and then abruptly halted. What do the tennis balls do? Next Section: Inertia and Mass Jump To Lesson 2: Force and Its Representation Hosted by comPADRE. The head of a hammer can be tightened onto the wooden handle by banging the bottom of the handle against a hard surface. yet there is no unbalanced force to change your own state of motion. attach two tennis balls to opposite ends of the coat hanger as shown in the diagram at the right. There are many more applications of Newton's first law of motion. 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:20 PM . sliding along the seat in forward motion.Newton's First Law http://www. A person in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction .physicsclassroom. A brick is painlessly broken over the hand of a physics teacher by slamming it with a hammer. Blood rushes from your head to your feet while quickly stopping when riding on a descending elevator. Yes! Seat belts are used to provide safety for passengers whose motion is governed by Newton's laws. Then quickly spin in a circle. Place the hanger on your head and balance it. The ends of the hanger with the tennis balls should hang low (below the balancing point). © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. Bend the hanger so that there is a flat part that balances on the head of a person. The seat belt provides the unbalanced force that brings you from a state of motion to a state of rest.cfm Have you ever experienced inertia (resisting changes in your state of motion) in an automobile while it is braking to a stop? The force of the road on the locked wheels provides the unbalanced force to change the car's state of motion. you fly forward off the board when hitting a curb or rock or other object that abruptly halts the motion of the skateboard. Several applications are listed below. Using duct tape. Try This At Home Acquire a metal coat hanger for which you have permission to destroy. Perhaps you could speculate what would occur when no seat belt is used.. All rights reserved. Headrests are placed in cars to prevent whiplash injuries during rear-end collisions. While riding a skateboard (or wagon or bicycle). Pull the coat hanger apart. you continue in motion. Perhaps you could think about the law of inertia and provide explanations for each application.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1a. (CAUTION: do not attempt this at home!) To dislodge ketchup from the bottom of a ketchup bottle. unless acted upon by the unbalanced force of a seat belt.

cfm home .terms .credits . Student Extras Teacher's Guide Newton's conception of inertia stood in direct opposition to more popular conceptions about motion." Objects tend to "keep on doing what they're doing. if it were oriented along the horizontal). And if the opposing incline was not even inclined at all (that is. Forces Don't Keep Objects Moving Isaac Newton built on Galileo's thoughts about motion. Newton's first law of motion 1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:20 PM . Energy. Galileo postulated that if friction could be entirely eliminated. Galileo reasoned that moving objects eventually stop because of a force called friction. would eventually stop moving.about . Galileo further observed that regardless of the angle at which the planes were oriented. the idea that dominated people's thinking for nearly 2000 years prior to Newton was that it was the natural tendency of all objects to assume a rest position.if the opposite incline were elevated at nearly a 0-degree angle.Inertia and Mass http://www. If the slope of the opposite incline were reduced. then the ball would reach exactly the same height. a moving object would eventually come to rest and an object at rest would stay at rest. a force was necessary to keep an object moving. the ball would roll up the opposite plane even closer to the original height. Galileo observed that a ball would roll down one plane and up the opposite plane to approximately the same height.. .feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . Moving objects.physicsclassroom..Lesson 1 Newton's Laws of Motion Newton's First Law | Inertia and Mass | State of Motion | Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors .Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. thus. then the ball would roll a further distance in order to reach that original height.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1b. the final height was almost always equal to the initial height. If smoother planes were used. it is the natural tendency of objects to resist changes in their state of motion. a premier scientist in the seventeenth century. then . The dominant thought prior to Newton's day was that it was the natural tendency of objects to come to a rest position. Inertia: the resistance an object has to a change in its state of motion. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Inertia and Mass Newton's first law of motion states that "An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. But if left to itself. an object in motion would continue in motion. developed the concept of inertia. This tendency to resist changes in their state of motion is described as inertia.. In experiments using a pair of inclined planes facing each other. then the ball would roll almost forever in an effort to reach the original height. so it was believed." In fact. Galileo and the Concept of Inertia Galileo. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center Galileo's reasoning continued .. Galileo reasoned that any difference between initial and final heights was due to the presence of friction.

The brick that offers the least resistance is the brick with the least inertia .") A common variation of this demonstration involves breaking a brick over the teacher's hand using the swift blow of a hammer. it is a force that brings the book to rest. The demonstration goes as follows: several massive books are placed upon a teacher's head.. the force of the hammer is sufficiently resisted (inertia). In the absence of a force of friction. The more inertia that an object has.that brings the book to a rest position. In actuality.and therefore the brick with the least mass (i.cfm declares that a force is not needed to keep an object in motion.that force being the force of friction . Mass is that quantity that is solely dependent upon the inertia of an object. This is demonstrated by the fact that the teacher does not feel the hammer blow. the book would continue in motion with the same speed and direction .they have inertia. Due to the large mass of the books. All objects have this tendency .) A force is not required to keep a moving book in motion. the more that object resist changes in its state of motion. (Of course.e.forever! (Or at least to the end of the table top. The massive bricks resist the force and the hand is not hurt. The book in motion on the table top does not come to a rest position because of the absence of a force. A more massive object has a greater tendency to resist changes in its state of motion. A common physics demonstration relies on this principle that the more massive the object. Mass as a Measure of the Amount of Inertia All objects resist changes in their state of motion.Inertia and Mass http://www. this story may explain many of the observations that you previously have made concerning your "weird physics teacher. 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:20 PM . (CAUTION: do not try these demonstrations at home. A wooden board is placed on top of the books and a hammer is used to drive a nail into the board.) Watch It! A physics instructor explains the property of inertia using a phun physics demonstration. Slide a book across a table and watch it slide to a rest position.physicsclassroom. Yet one brick consists of mortar and the other brick consists of Styrofoam. the Styrofoam brick). Without lifting the bricks.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1b. rather it is the presence of a force . Suppose that there are two seemingly identical bricks at rest on the physics lecture table. how could you tell which brick was the Styrofoam brick? You could give the bricks an identical push in an effort to change their state of motion. But do some objects have more of a tendency to resist changes than others? Absolutely yes! The tendency of an object to resist changes in its state of motion varies with mass. the more mass that it has.

The rock will a. Ben Tooclose is being chased through the woods by a bull moose that he was attempting to photograph. continue in motion in the same direction at constant speed. The enormous mass of the bull moose is extremely intimidating.physicsclassroom. but rather upon mass. A 2-kg object is moving horizontally with a speed of 4 m/s. Fred spends most Sunday afternoons at rest on the sofa. would it require a force to set an object in motion? See Answer 5. Yet. Imagine a place in the cosmos far from all gravitational and frictional influences. See Answer 4. Explain this in terms of inertia and Newton's first law of motion. Mac says that if he flings the Jell-O with a greater speed it will have a greater inertia.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1b. b. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. She acquires an intense desire to know which of the two bricks are most massive. gradually stop. Discuss how the process of pushing the bricks will allow Shirley to determine which of the two bricks is most massive. See Answer 6. Who do you agree with? Explain why. Suppose that you visit that place (just suppose) and throw a rock. Since Shirley is vertically challenged. Shirley Sheshort stands on her toes and spots the two bricks. What effect (if any) does this practice have upon his inertia? Explain. See Answer 7.Inertia and Mass http://www. if Ben makes a zigzag pattern through the woods. All rights reserved. Tosh argues that inertia does not depend upon speed. What difference will Shirley observe and how can this observation lead to the necessary conclusion? See Answer Next Section: State of Motion Jump To Lesson 2: Force and Its Representation Hosted by comPADRE. she can however reach high enough to give the bricks a push. How much net force is required to keep the object moving at this speed and in this direction? See Answer 3. Mac and Tosh are arguing in the cafeteria. Supposing you were in space in a weightless environment. he will be able to use the large mass of the moose to his own advantage. 3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:20 PM . she is unable to reach high enough and lift the bricks. watching pro football games and consuming large quantities of food. Two bricks are resting on edge of the lab table.cfm Check Your Understanding 1. See Answer 2.

feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . Mr. The 15th hole at the Hole-In-One Putt-Putt Golf Course has a large metal rim that putters must use to guide their ball towards the hole. Thus.Lesson 1 Newton's Laws of Motion Newton's First Law | Inertia and Mass | State of Motion | Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . Thus. Check Your Understanding 1. or 3) will the golf ball follow? See Answer 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:21 PM .e.the speed with a direction. Air is blown through many small holes in the track in order to lift the glider off the track. which path (1. As they say: objects in motion stay in motion .e. Such an object will not change its state of motion (i. S guides a golf ball around the metal rim When the ball leaves the rim. Energy. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center Watch It! An air track glider is shown moving across an air track.. an object that is not changing its velocity is said to have an acceleration of 0 m/s/s.physicsclassroom.terms .State of Motion http://www. Such an object will not change its state of motion (i. A group of physics teachers is taking some time off for a little putt-putt golf.cfm home .. we could provide an alternative means of defining inertia: Inertia: tendency of an object to resist accelerations.credits . As learned in an earlier unit. The glider moves with what seems to be a constant speed motion. East will (in the absence of an unbalanced force) remain in motion with a velocity of 2 m/s. . An object in motion with a velocity of 2 m/s.about .com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1c. inertia could be redefined as follows: Inertia: tendency of an object to resist changes in its velocity. Objects resist changes in their velocity. Student Extras Teacher's Guide An object at rest has zero velocity .. velocity) unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. This reduces. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light State of Motion Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist changes in its state of motion. East.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. maybe even eliminates. But what is meant by the phrase state of motion? The state of motion of an object is defined by its velocity . velocity) unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.and (in the absence of an unbalanced force) will remain with a zero velocity.. the action of surface friction upon the glider. 2.

0 N d.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1c. depends on the speed. All rights reserved.5 N c. 2. A 4. b.physicsclassroom. Which one of the following horizontal forces is necessary to maintain this state of motion? a. 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:21 PM .cfm 2.0-kg object is moving across a friction-free surface with a constant velocity of 2 m/s.0 N See Answer Next Section: Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Jump To Lesson 2: Force and Its Representation Hosted by comPADRE. 8. 0 N e. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom.State of Motion http://www. 0.

1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:22 PM . we will first consider a physics book at rest on a tabletop. Energy. The other force . the object will be at equilibrium.) The forces acting upon the book are shown below.the push of the table on the book (sometimes referred to as a normal force) . The force of gravity exerts a downward force. Student Extras Teacher's Guide An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Whatever the case. Or perhaps it acquired its motion by sliding down an incline from an elevated position. they balance each other.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1d.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. But what exactly is meant by the phrase unbalanced force? What is an unbalanced force? In pursuit of an answer.Lesson 1 Newton's First Law of Motion Newton's First Law | Inertia and Mass | State of Motion | Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . The person is at equilibrium. The book is in motion and at the moment there is no one pushing it to the right.Balanced and Unbalanced Forces http://www.terms .) Now consider a book sliding from left to right across a tabletop. (Remember: a force is not needed to keep a moving object moving to the right. it may have been given a shove and set in motion from a rest position.a person standing upon the ground. The floor of the floor exerts an upward force.) Consider another example involving balanced forces . they balance each other.physicsclassroom. There is no unbalanced force acting upon the person and thus the person maintains its state of motion.pushes upward on the book. There is no unbalanced force acting upon the book and thus the book maintains its state of motion. it will not accelerate.about .exerts a downward force. There are two forces acting upon the book. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Newton's first law of motion has been frequently stated throughout this lesson.credits . One force . Sometime in the prior history of the book. our focus is not upon the history of the book but rather upon the current situation of a book sliding to the right across a tabletop. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center Since these two forces are of equal magnitude and in opposite directions. Since these two forces are of equal magnitude and in opposite directions. There are two forces acting upon the person. The book is said to be at equilibrium. (Note: diagrams such as the one above are known as free-body diagrams and will be discussed in detail in Lesson 2. (Note: diagrams such as the one above are known as free-body diagrams and will be discussed in detail in Lesson 2.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws .the Earth's gravitational pull .cfm home . When all the forces acting upon an object balance each other.

the forces are balanced and the cat will stop. then the forces are said to be balanced. and as such. the cat will accelerate upwards because the water applies an upward force. Check Your Understanding Luke Autbeloe drops an approximately 5. Support your answer with sound reasoning. 1. Upon encountering the pool. If the forces acting upon an object are balanced.0 N) off the roof of his house into the swimming pool below. friction acts to the left to slow the book down. There is an unbalanced force. the unbalanced force is directed opposite the book's motion and will cause it to slow down. See Answer b. Which one of the following dot diagrams best describes the motion of the falling cat from the time that they are dropped to the time that they hit the bottom of the pool? The arrows on the diagram represent the point at which the cat hits the water. a. Upon hitting the water. Indicate whether each of the comments is correct or incorrect? Support your answers. then the object 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:22 PM . Unbalanced forces cause accelerations.physicsclassroom. Once the cat hits the water. Several of Luke's friends were watching the motion of the falling cat. the book changes its state of motion. Upon hitting the water. the cat will bounce upwards due to the upward force. an analysis must first be conducted to determine what forces are acting upon the object and in what direction. the cat encounters a 50. Such analyses are discussed in Lesson 2 of this unit and applied in Lesson 3. If two individual forces are of equal magnitude and opposite direction. See Answer 3. The book is not at equilibrium and subsequently accelerates. they began discussing the motion and made the following comments. See Answer 4. Use this description to answer the following questions.0 kg fat cat (weight = 50.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1d. See Answer 2.) To determine if the forces acting upon an object are balanced or unbalanced. Being "physics types". An object is said to be acted upon by an unbalanced force only when there is an individual force that is not being balanced by a force of equal magnitude and in the opposite direction. Which one of the velocity-time graphs best describes the motion of the cat? Support your answer with sound reasoning. Yet there is no force present to balance the force of friction. These two forces balance each other.0 N upward resistance force (assumed to be constant). (Note: diagrams such as the one above are known as free-body diagrams and will be discussed in detail in Lesson 2. See Answer c.Balanced and Unbalanced Forces http://www.cfm The force of gravity pulling downward and the force of the table pushing upwards on the book are of equal magnitude and opposite directions. In this case. As the book moves to the right. Click the button to view the correct answers.

3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:22 PM . must not be accelerating. All rights reserved.physicsclassroom. none of these See Answer Jump To Lesson 2: Force and Its Representation Hosted by comPADRE. must be moving with a constant velocity. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. d. b.Balanced and Unbalanced Forces http://www.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1d.cfm a. must not be moving. c.

0 N" means 10. you must describe both the magnitude (size or numerical value) and the direction. These specific forces will be discussed in more detail later in Lesson 2 as well as in other lessons. two magnets can exert a magnetic pull on each other even when separated by a distance of a few centimeters. the effect of a 20-Newton upward force acting upon a book is canceled by the effect of a 20-Newton downward force acting upon the book. In contrast. an unbalanced force acts upon the book to change its state of motion. because forces are vectors. and forces resulting from action-at-a-distance Contact forces are those types of forces that result when the two interacting objects are perceived to be physically contacting each other. 10 Newton. yet a third individual force exists that is not balanced by another force. the two objects no longer experience the force. both the magnitude (10 Newton) and the direction (downward) are given. To fully describe the force acting upon an object. and applied forces.Lesson 2 Force and Its Representation Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . there would be no unbalanced force acting upon the book. downward is a complete description of the force acting upon an object. For example. However. the emphasis is upon the fact that a force is a 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:22 PM . Action-at-a-distance forces are those types of forces that result even when the two interacting objects are not in physical contact with each other. Other situations could be imagined in which two of the individual vector forces cancel each other ("balance"). Examples of contact and action-at-distance forces are listed in the table below. there is a force upon each of the objects. Forces only exist as a result of an interaction. The exact details of drawing free-body diagrams are discussed later. 10 Newton is not a full description of the force acting upon an object. Electric forces are action-at-a-distance forces. yet are able to exert a push or pull despite their physical separation. For now. For example.terms .The Meaning of Force http://www. there is a gravitational pull between you and the Earth. the protons in the nucleus of an atom and the electrons outside the nucleus experience an electrical pull towards each other despite their small spatial separation. Examples of contact forces include frictional forces.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work.cfm home . and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light The Meaning of Force | Types of Forces | Drawing Free-Body Diagrams Determining the Net Force The Meaning of Force Student Extras A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another Teacher's Guide object.physicsclassroom. Thus.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2a. normal forces. For example. the effect of an individual force upon an object is often canceled by the effect of another force. tensional forces. Even when your feet leave the earth and you are no longer in physical contact with the earth. the sun and planets exert a gravitational pull on each other despite their large spatial separation. Energy.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . it is said that the two individual forces balance each other. Examples of action-at-a-distance forces include gravitational forces. Because a force is a vector that has a direction.about . For example. In this case. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center Contact Forces Frictional Force Tension Force Normal Force Air Resistance Force Applied Force Spring Force Action-at-a-Distance Forces Gravitational Force Electrical Force Magnetic Force Force is a quantity that is measured using the standard metric unit known as the Newton. When the interaction ceases. the force of friction acts leftwards. it is common to represent forces using diagrams in which a force is represented by an arrow. (Such diagrams are known as free-body diagrams and are discussed later in this lesson. The downward force of gravity and the upward force of the table supporting the book act in opposite directions and thus balance each other. Whenever there is an interaction between two objects. a vector quantity is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. imagine a book sliding across the rough surface of a table from left to right. and there is no rightward force to balance it. air resistance forces. all forces (interactions) between objects can be placed into two broad categories: contact forces.credits .) Furthermore. And magnetic forces are action-at-a-distance forces. the following unit equivalency can be stated: A force is a vector quantity. As learned in an earlier unit. Such vector diagrams were introduced in an earlier unit and are used throughout the study of physics." To say "10. For example. The size of the arrow is reflective of the magnitude of the force and the direction of the arrow reveals the direction that the force is acting. In such instances.0 Newton of force. These specific forces will be discussed in more detail later in Lesson 2 as well as in other lessons. One Newton is the amount of force required to give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s/s. A Newton is abbreviated by an "N. Thus. For simplicity sake.

Next Section: Types of Forces Jump To Lesson 3: Newton's Second Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE.The Meaning of Force http://www. 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:22 PM . © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom.physicsclassroom. All rights reserved.cfm vector quantity that has a direction.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2a. The importance of this fact will become clear as we analyze the individual forces acting upon an object later in this lesson.

cfm home .com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2b. The applied force is the force exerted on the desk by the person. By definition. causing intermolecular attractive forces Normal Force Fnorm Friction Force Ffrict 1 of 4 9/18/2012 7:23 PM . Return to Top The friction force is the force exerted by a surface as an object moves across it or makes an effort to move across it.physicsclassroom.) Return to Top The normal force is the support force exerted upon an object that is in contact with another stable object. Contact Forces Frictional Force Tension Force Normal Force Air Resistance Force Applied Force Spring Force Action-at-a-Distance Forces Gravitational Force Electrical Force Magnetic Force These types of individual forces will now be discussed in more detail.terms . a normal force is exerted horizontally between two objects that are in contact with each other.8 N/kg (on Earth) and m = mass (in kg) (Caution: do not confuse weight with mass. To read about each force listed above. There are at least two types of friction force . a variety of force types were placed into two broad category headings on the basis of whether the force resulted from the contact or non-contact of the two interacting objects. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light The Meaning of Force | Types of Forces | Drawing Free-Body Diagrams Determining the Net Force Types of Forces Student Extras A force is a push or pull acting upon an object as a result of its interaction with another object.sliding and static friction. or other massively large object attracts another object towards itself. Friction results from the two surfaces being pressed together closely. Return to Top The force of gravity is the force with which the earth. click on its name from the list below. if a book is resting upon a surface. if a book slides across the surface of a desk. If a person is pushing a desk across the room. this is the weight of the object. On occasions. the wall pushes horizontally on the person. the friction force often opposes the motion of an object. then the surface is exerting an upward force upon the book in order to support the weight of the book. Thought it is not always the case. All objects upon earth experience a force of gravity that is directed "downward" towards the center of the earth.Lesson 2 Force and Its Representation Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . then there is an applied force acting upon the object. Energy.Types of Forces http://www. then the desk exerts a friction force in the opposite direction of its motion. For example. Applied Force Gravitational Force Normal Force Frictional Force Air Resistance Force Tension Force Spring Force Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center Type of Force (and Symbol) Description of Force An applied force is a force that is applied to an object by a person or another object. For example. moon. The force of gravity on earth is always equal to the weight of the object as found by the equation: Applied Force Fapp Gravity Force (also known as Weight) Fgrav Fgrav = m * g where g = 9.about . Or to read about an individual force.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work.credits . Previously in this lesson.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . Teacher's Guide There are a variety of types of forces. For instance. if a person leans against a wall. continue scrolling through this page.

Return to Top The spring force is the force exerted by a compressed or stretched spring upon any object that is attached to it.) Always be cautious of the distinction between mass and weight. the weight of an object (measured in Newton) will vary according to where in the universe the object is.0 N . This force will frequently be neglected due to its negligible magnitude (and due to the fact that it is mathematically difficult to predict its value). For example. g is 1. Mass is related to how much stuff is there and weight is related to the pull of the Earth (or any other planet) upon that stuff. As mentioned above.. An object that compresses or stretches a spring is always acted upon by a force that restores the object to its rest or equilibrium position.8 N/kg (often approximated as 10 N/kg). The scale reads just short of 10. the magnitude of the force is directly proportional to the amount of stretch or compression of the spring. Weight depends upon which planet is exerting the force and the distance the object is from the planet. Return to Top Air Resistance Force Fair Tension Force Ftens Spring Force Fspring Confusion of Mass and Weight A few further comments should be added about the single force that is a source of much confusion to many students of physics the force of gravity. a 2-kg object will have a mass of 2 kg whether it is located on Earth. Weight. On the moon's surface. and there will be another g value. It is the source of much confusion for many students of physics. For most springs (specifically. friction depends upon the nature of the two surfaces and upon the degree to which they are pressed together. Weight refers to the force with which gravity pulls upon the object. Furthermore. its mass will be 2 kg whether it is moving or not (at least for purposes of our study).8 N. being equivalent to the force of gravity. Return to Top The air resistance is a special type of frictional force that acts upon objects as they travel through the air. the force of gravity acting upon an object is sometimes referred to as the weight of the object.the gravitational field strength.Types of Forces http://www. rope. the pull of gravity. the weight of an object is the force of gravity acting upon that object. The force of air resistance is often observed to oppose the motion of an object. The mass of an object refers to the amount of matter that is contained by the object. The maximum amount of friction force that a surface can exert upon an object can be calculated using the formula below: Ffrict = µ • Fnorm The friction force is discussed in more detail later on this page. and its mass will be 2 kg whether it is being pushed upon or not. The mass of an object (measured in kg) will be the same no matter where in the universe that object is located. It is most noticeable for objects that travel at high speeds (e. Return to Top The tension force is the force that is transmitted through a string.g. 2 of 4 9/18/2012 7:23 PM . the g value is inversely proportional to the distance from the center of the planet. or Jupiter. Flickr Physics Photo A 1.close enough to call it 9. (The nature of the force of gravity will be discussed in more detail in a later unit of The Physics Classroom. Go to another planet. Air resistance will be discussed in more detail in Lesson 3.0-kg mass is suspended from a spring scale in an effort to determine its weight.7 N/kg. Many students of physics confuse weight with mass. Mass is never altered by location.physicsclassroom. a skydiver or a downhill skier) or for objects with large surface areas. cable or wire when it is pulled tight by forces acting from opposite ends. speed or even the existence of other forces. On earth's surface g is 9. the moon. for those that are said to obey "Hooke's Law"). So if we were to measure g at a distance of 400 km above the earth's surface. then we would find the g value to be less than 9.8 N/kg. is dependent upon the value of g .cfm between molecules of different surfaces. Mass refers to how much stuff is present in the object. As such.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2b. The tension force is directed along the length of the wire and pulls equally on the objects on the opposite ends of the wire. On the other hand.

IL Sliding versus Static Friction As mentioned above. the friction coefficients show little dependence upon other variables such as area of contact. temperature. The more that surface molecules tend to adhere to each other.static friction and sliding friction. Location: Get g Chicago. Friction forces can also exist when the two surfaces are not sliding across each other. We often say that the floor exerts a friction force upon the box. Static friction results when the surfaces of two objects are at rest relative to one another and a force exists on one of the objects to set it into motion relative to the other object. For most surface combinations. The formula is: Sliding Ffrict = µ • Fnorm The symbol represents the coefficient of sliding friction between the two surfaces. This friction force is also a sliding friction force because the car is sliding across the road surface. This is an example of a sliding friction force since it results from the sliding motion of the box. Suppose you were to push with 5-Newton of force on a large box to 3 of 4 9/18/2012 7:23 PM . For the purpose of our study of physics at The Physics Classroom. The values of µ provide a measure of the relative amount of adhesion or attraction of the two surfaces for each other. Sliding friction forces can be calculated from knowledge of the coefficient of friction and the normal force exerted upon the object by the surface it is sliding across. etc. Such friction forces are referred to as static friction. the greater the coefficient values and the greater the friction force. As an example. the friction force is the force exerted by a surface as an object moves across it or makes an effort to move across it. there are local variations in the value of g that have very small effects upon an object's weight. there are two types of friction force .physicsclassroom. If a car slams on its brakes and skids to a stop (without antilock brakes). These variations are due to latitude. The coefficient value is dependent primarily upon the nature of the surfaces that are in contact with each other. Sliding friction results when an object slides across a surface. altitude and the local geological structure of the region. Gravitational Fields Enter a location and click on the Get g button.Types of Forces http://www. The floor surface offers resistance to the movement of the box. Use the Gravitational Fields widget below to investigate how location affects the value of g.cfm Investigate! Even on the surface of the Earth. consider pushing a box across a floor. there is a sliding friction force exerted upon the car tires by the roadway surface. Values of have been experimentally determined for a variety of surface combinations and are often tabulated in technical manuals and handbooks.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2b.

a. c.physicsclassroom. the static friction force spans the range from 0 Newton (if there is no force upon the box) to 25 Newton (if you push on the box with 25 Newton of force). Ultimately. it typically takes more force to budge an object into motion than it does to maintain the motion once it has been started. The meaning of each of these forces listed in the table above will have to be thoroughly understood to be successful during this unit. 4 of 4 9/18/2012 7:23 PM . In general. The amount of static friction resulting from the adhesion of any two surfaces has an upper limit. When a person diets. The static friction force balances the force that you exert on the box such that the stationary box remains at rest. values of static friction coefficients are greater than the values of sliding friction coefficients for the same two surfaces. Suppose that you were to push with 25 Newton of force on the large box and the box were to still remain in place. Like the coefficient of sliding friction. d. The force exerted by gravity on 1 kg = 9. Object Mass (kg)Weight (N) Melon Apple Pat Eatladee Fred 1 kg See Answer 25 kg See Answer See Answer 0. Different masses are hung on a spring scale calibrated in Newtons.98 N See Answer 980 N 2. The box-floor surfaces were able to provide up to 25 Newton of static friction force to match your applied force. In this case. Complete the following table showing the relationship between mass and weight. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. See Answer 3. The force exerted by gravity on _______ kg = 98 N.Types of Forces http://www.cfm move it across the floor. the static friction force has a magnitude of 5 Newton. The force exerted by gravity on 70 kg = ________ N. The force exerted by gravity on 5 kg = ______ N. This relationship is often expressed as follows: Ffrict-static ≤ µfrict-static• Fnorm The symbol µfrict-static represents the coefficient of static friction between the two surfaces.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2b. Static friction now has a magnitude of 25 Newton. you must be able to read a verbal description of a physical situation and know enough about these forces to recognize their presence (or absence) and to construct a free-body diagram that illustrates their relative magnitude and direction. A static friction force exists between the surfaces of the floor and the box to prevent the box from being set into motion. Yet the two surfaces were not able to provide 26 Newton of static friction force. The box might remain in place.8 N. When exerting 5 Newton of applied force on the box. Check Your Understanding 1. is their goal to lose mass or to lose weight? Explain. b. Thus. Then suppose that you were to increase the force to 26 Newton and the box finally budged from its resting position and was set into motion across the floor. See Answer Next Section: Drawing Free-Body Diagrams Jump To Lesson 3: Newton's Second Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE. All rights reserved. this coefficient is dependent upon the types of surfaces that are attempting to move across each other.

See answer. j. or three.cfm home .com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2c. A force is applied to the right to drag a sled across loosely packed snow with a rightward acceleration. then you ought to be concerned. A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk with a rightward acceleration. Diagram the forces acting on the egg as it is falling. Diagram the forces acting on the squirrel. A book is at rest on a tabletop. Neglect air resistance. There is no hard and fast rule about the number of forces that must be drawn in a free-body diagram. A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk at constant velocity. The direction of the arrow shows the direction that the force is acting. g. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light The Meaning of Force | Types of Forces | Drawing Free-Body Diagrams Determining the Net Force Drawing Free-Body Diagrams Free-body diagrams are diagrams used to show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting upon an object in a given situation. Answers Answers to the above exercise are shown here. A flying squirrel is gliding (no wing flaps) from a tree to the ground at constant velocity.Drawing Free-Body Diagrams http://www. An example of a free-body diagram is shown at the right. A college student rests a backpack upon his shoulder. Thus. See answer. h. If you have difficulty drawing free-body diagrams. See answer. It is generally customary in a free-body diagram to represent the object by a box and to draw the force arrow from the center of the box outward in the direction that the force is acting. The only rule for drawing free-body diagrams is to depict all the forces that exist for that object in the given situation. If necessary. See answer. Diagram the vertical forces acting on the backpack. label each force arrow according to its type. d. Student Extras Teacher's Guide Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center The free-body diagram above depicts four forces acting upon the object. Diagram the forces acting on the book. Finally. k. Neglect air resistance. Diagram the forces acting on the book. These diagrams will be used throughout our study of physics. Diagram the forces acting on the book. draw a box and add arrows for each existing force in the appropriate direction. Diagram the forces acting upon the football as it rises upward towards its peak.physicsclassroom. Consider air resistance. A car is coasting to the right and slowing down. Consider air resistance. a. The pack is suspended motionless by one strap from one shoulder. Answers are shown and explained at the bottom of this page. Continue to review the the list of forces and their description and this page in order to gain a comfort with constructing free-body diagrams. two. it is extremely important to know the various types of forces. The size of the arrow in a free-body diagram reflects the magnitude of the force. A skydiver is descending with a constant velocity. Objects do not necessarily always have four forces acting upon them. to construct free-body diagrams. Consider frictional forces. A free-body diagram is a special example of the vector diagrams that were discussed in an earlier unit. See answer. c. Practice Apply the method described in the paragraph above to construct free-body diagrams for the various situations described below. Diagram the forces acting on the combination of girl and bar. A football is moving upwards towards its peak after having been booted by the punter. Diagram the forces acting upon the skydiver. f.Lesson 2 Force and Its Representation Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . An egg is free-falling from a nest in a tree.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. See answer. See answer. See answer. Each force arrow in the diagram is labeled to indicate the exact type of force.terms . 1 of 4 9/18/2012 7:23 PM . b. Diagram the forces acting upon the sled. Diagram the forces acting upon the car. refer to the list of forces and their description in order to understand the various force types and their appropriate symbols.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . A girl is suspended motionless from the ceiling by two ropes. See answer. Then determine the direction in which each force is acting.credits . e. If given a description of a physical situation. Consider frictional forces. Neglect air resistance. There will be cases in which the number of forces depicted by a free-body diagram will be one. See answer. begin by using your understanding of the force types to identify which forces are present. See answer. i.about . Energy.

Consider frictional forces. A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk with a rightward acceleration. A girl is suspended motionless from the ceiling by two ropes. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List 2. A flying squirrel is gliding (no wing flaps) from a tree to the ground at constant velocity. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams 2 of 4 9/18/2012 7:23 PM .Drawing Free-Body Diagrams http://www. Consider air resistance. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List 4. Neglect air resistance. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List 5. An egg is free-falling from a nest in a tree.cfm 1. A book is at rest on a tabletop.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2c. Neglect air resistance. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List 3.physicsclassroom.

A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List 3 of 4 9/18/2012 7:23 PM .Drawing Free-Body Diagrams http://www.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2c. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List 8. A force is applied to the right to drag a sled across loosely packed snow with a rightward acceleration. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List 9. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List 7.physicsclassroom. Neglect air resistance. Consider air resistance. Consider frictional forces. A college student rests a backpack upon his shoulder. The pack is suspended motionless by one strap from one shoulder. A skydiver is descending with a constant velocity.cfm Return to on-line Force Description List 6. A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk at constant velocity.

cfm 10. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List 11. All rights reserved. A free-body diagram for this situation looks like this: Return to Questions Return to Info on Free-body diagrams Return to on-line Force Description List Next Section: Determining the Net Force Jump To Lesson 3: Newton's Second Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2c. A football is moving upwards towards its peak after having been booted by the punter. A car is coasting to the right and slowing down.Drawing Free-Body Diagrams http://www. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom.physicsclassroom. 4 of 4 9/18/2012 7:23 PM .

etc.terms .com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2d. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light The Meaning of Force | Types of Forces | Drawing Free-Body Diagrams Determining the Net Force Determining the Net Force If you have been reading through Lessons 1 and 2. ticker tape diagrams. In a previous unit. there is an unbalanced force. the unbalanced force refers to that force that does not become completely balanced (or canceled) by the other individual forces. then an unbalanced force exists. In the statement of Newton's first law.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. It is commonly said that in each situation there is a net force acting upon the object. The net force is the vector sum of all the forces that act upon an object. And a leftward vector will provide a partial or full cancellation of a rightward vector. 1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:24 PM .physicsclassroom. a net force (i. At this point.Lesson 2 Force and Its Representation Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors .) were discussed. Free-body diagrams for three situations are shown below.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . If either all the vertical forces (up and down) do not cancel each other and/or all horizontal forces do not cancel each other. the vector sum of all the individual forces)..about . Student Extras Teacher's Guide An object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. The addition of force vectors can be done in the same manner in order to determine the net force (i. As mentioned earlier. the rules for summing vectors (such as force vectors) will be kept relatively simple. Click on the button to view the answers. then Newton's first law of motion ought to be thoroughly understood. several means of representing accelerated motion (position-time and velocity-time graphs.cfm home . Energy. an unbalanced force) causes an acceleration. Observe the following examples of summing two forces: Observe in the diagram above that a downward vector will provide a partial or full cancellation of an upward vector. the net force is the sum of all the forces.credits .e. Consider the three situations below in which the net force is determined by summing the individual force vectors that are acting upon the objects..Determining the Net Force http://www. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center In each of the above situations. Combine your understanding of acceleration and the newly acquired knowledge that a net force causes an acceleration to determine whether or not a net force exists in the following situations. Note that the actual magnitudes of the individual forces are indicated on the diagram. taking into account the fact that a force is a vector and two forces of equal magnitude and opposite direction will cancel each other out. velocity-time data. That is to say.e. The existence of an unbalanced force for a given situation can be quickly realized by looking at the free-body diagram for that situation.

However. Free-body diagrams for four situations are shown below.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2d. Click the buttons to view the answers. the magnitudes of a few of the individual forces are not known. determine the net force acting upon the object.physicsclassroom. See Answer to Situation A See Answer to Situation B See Answer to Situation C See Answer to Situation D 2. Analyze each situation individually and determine the magnitude of the unknown forces.cfm Description of Motion Net Force: Yes or No? See Answer See Answer See Answer See Answer See Answer See Answer Check Your Understanding 1. 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:24 PM . The net force is known for each situation. Free-body diagrams for four situations are shown below.Determining the Net Force http://www. For each situation. Then click the button to view the answers.

© 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. All rights reserved. 3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:24 PM .com/Class/newtlaws/u2l2d.cfm See Answer Jump To Lesson 3: Newton's Second Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE.Determining the Net Force http://www.physicsclassroom.

states that if the forces acting upon an object are balanced.terms .Newton's Second Law http://www. its direction. Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force. the following unit equivalency can be written.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3a.physicsclassroom. The NET FORCE. or both its speed and direction. and inversely upon the mass of the object. the acceleration in the same direction as the net force.changing its speed.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. The presence of an unbalanced force will accelerate an object . and acceleration into the above equation. an object will only accelerate if there is a net or unbalanced force acting upon it. The acceleration of an object depends directly upon the net force acting upon the object. As discussed in an earlier lesson. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Newton's Second Law | The Big Misconception | Finding Acceleration Finding Individual Forces | Free Fall and Air Resistance | Double Trouble Newton's Second Law Student Extras Newton's first law of motion predicts the behavior of objects for which all existing forces are Teacher's Guide balanced. It is important to remember this distinction. review this principle by returning to the practice questions in Lesson 2. By substituting standard metric units for force. the acceleration of the object is increased. an acceleration is produced by a net force. Energy.about . the emphasis has been on the net force. According to Newton. The acceleration is directly proportional to the net force. The net force is equated to the product of the mass times the acceleration. As the force acting upon an object is increased. The first law . the net force is the vector sum of all the forces. This verbal statement can be expressed in equation form as follows: a = Fnet / m The above equation is often rearranged to a more familiar form as shown below. The definition of the standard metric unit of force is stated by the above equation.cfm home . If necessary. As the mass of an object is increased. in the same direction as the net force.the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object. and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. The second law states that the acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables .credits .Lesson 3 Newton's Second Law of Motion Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . One Newton is defined as the amount of force 1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:25 PM . the acceleration of the object is decreased. It is the net force that is related to acceleration.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . Fnet = m * a In this entire discussion. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center Newton's second law of motion pertains to the behavior of objects for which all existing forces are not balanced. mass. then the acceleration of that object will be 0 m/s/s. the net force equals mass times acceleration. then the net force can be determined. a unit of force is equal to a unit of mass times a unit of acceleration. Do not use the value of merely "any 'ole force" in the above equation. If all the individual forces acting upon an object are known.sometimes referred to as the law of inertia . Consistent with the above equation. Objects at equilibrium (the condition in which all forces balance) will not accelerate.

Furthermore. As stated above. one-third or one-fourth its original value. Try it yourself and then use the click on the buttons to view the answers. Rocket Science! NASA rockets (and others) accelerate upward off the launch pad as they burn a tremendous amount of fuel.com/ Check Your Understanding 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:25 PM . 5. (If necessary. The table below can be filled by substituting into the equation and solving for the unknown quantity. 10 20 20 See Answer 10 Mass (kg) 2 2 4 2 See Answer Acceleration (m/s/s) See Answer See Answer See Answer 5 10 The numerical information in the table above demonstrates some important qualitative relationships between force. comparing the values in rows 2 and 4 demonstrates that a halving of the net force results in a halving of the acceleration (if mass is held constant). Then click the buttons to view the answers. rows 4 and 5 show that a halving of the mass results in a doubling of the acceleration (if force is held constant). On the other hand. Thus. As such. and the acceleration will be one-half. The Fnet = m • a equation is often used in algebraic problem solving. the mass of the rocket changes. the same change will occur with the acceleration. The analysis of the table data illustrates that an equation such as Fnet = m*a can be a guide to thinking about how a variation in one quantity might effect another quantity.) See Answer See Answer In conclusion. then the direction of the net force is also known.cfm required to give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s/s. whatever alteration is made of the mass. the qualitative relationship between mass and acceleration can be seen by a comparison of the numerical values in the above table. Double. Acceleration is directly proportional to net force. Double. Newton's second law provides the explanation for the behavior of objects upon which the forces do not balance. 4. 2. and acceleration. triple or quadruple the mass. and the acceleration will do the same. The law states that unbalanced forces cause objects to accelerate with an acceleration that is directly proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass. Use the Rocket Science widget below to explore this effect. if the direction of the acceleration is known. 3. As the fuel is burned and exhausted to propel the rocket. the opposite or inverse change will occur with the acceleration. Comparing the values in rows 1 and 2.Newton's Second Law http://www. Acceleration is inversely proportional to mass. the direction of the net force is in the same direction as the acceleration. Similarly.physicsclassroom. Consider the two oil drop diagrams below for an acceleration of a car. mass. Rocket Science Determines the speed of a rocket as a function of time if given the initial mass and the exhaust velocity. From the diagram.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3a. Show Me the Science http://www. Observe from rows 2 and 3 that a doubling of the mass results in a halving of the acceleration (if force is held constant). it can be seen that a doubling of the net force results in a doubling of the acceleration (if mass is held constant). And similarly. Whatever alteration is made of the net force. triple or quadruple the net force. Net Force (N) 1.physicsclassroom. the same propulsion force can result in increasing acceleration values over time. determine the direction of the net force that is acting upon the car. review acceleration from the previous unit.

cfm 1. See Answer 3. If the net force is tripled and the mass is halved. then what is the new acceleration of the sled? See Answer Next Section: The Big Misconception Jump To Lesson 4: Newton's Third Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE. If the net force is tripled and the mass is doubled. Suppose that a sled is accelerating at a rate of 2 m/s2.physicsclassroom. Suppose that a sled is accelerating at a rate of 2 m/s2.Newton's Second Law http://www. All rights reserved. Determine the mass of the encyclopedia. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3a. See Answer 2. Determine the accelerations that result when a 12-N net force is applied to a 3-kg object and then to a 6-kg object. A net force of 15 N is exerted on an encyclopedia to cause it to accelerate at a rate of 5 m/s2. then what is the new acceleration of the sled? See Answer 4. 3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:25 PM .

and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Newton's Second Law | The Big Misconception | Finding Acceleration Finding Individual Forces | Free Fall and Air Resistance | Double Trouble The Big Misconception So what's the big deal? Many people have known Newton's first law since eighth grade (or earlier). an object experiencing a balance of forces will be at rest. Self-reflection.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. but rather the ability to understand their meaning and to believe their implications. critical thinking (to analyze the reasonableness of two competing ideas).cfm home . critical thinking. Who do you agree with? See Answer Remember last winter when you went sledding down the hill and across the level surface at the local park? (Apologies are extended to those who live in warmer winter climates.physicsclassroom.terms .com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3b. Anna Litical suggests to Noah Formula that the object under discussion could be moving. The most common misconception is one that dates back for ages. give careful attention to your own belief systems. While this process may seem terribly complicated. These beliefs about motion (known as misconceptions) hinder further learning. arguing that the object could not have any horizontal motion if there are only vertical forces acting upon it. The big deal however is not the ability to recite the first law nor to use the second law to solve problems. most people could probably recite the law word for word. an object experiencing forces as described at the right could be experiencing a horizontal motion as described below. says Noah. perhaps on a table or floor. To test your own belief system. Student Extras Teacher's Guide Cognitive scientists (scientists who study how people learn) have shown that physics students come into physics class with a set of beliefs that they are unwilling (or not easily willing) to discard despite evidence to the contrary.credits . This process involves self-reflection (to ponder your own belief systems). The misconception has already been discussed in a previous lesson. making a personal evaluation of the two competing ideas and adopting a new conception that is more reasonable than the previously held-misconception. and evaluation. View physics as a system of thinking about the world rather than information that can be dumped into your brain without evaluating its consistency with your own belief systems. considering alternative conceptions or explanations.) Imagine a the moment that there was no friction along the level surface from point B to point C and 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:25 PM . it is simply a matter of using your noodle (that's your brain). the object could be moving in a horizontal direction. many people do not know what they mean (or simply do not believe what they mean). As your read through the following discussion.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . Newton's laws declare loudly that a net force (an unbalanced force) causes an acceleration.about . This misconception sticks out its ugly head in a number of different ways and at a number of different times. They are discussing an object that is being acted upon by two individual forces (both in a vertical direction). Noah Formula objects. While most people know what Newton's laws say. According to Anna. After all. During the discussion. In fact. The task of overcoming misconceptions involves becoming aware of the misconceptions. And if prompted with the first few words. it is the idea that sustaining motion requires a continued force.The Big Misconception http://www. Anna suggests that if friction and air resistance could be ignored (because of their negligible size). but will now be discussed in more detail. Energy. Noah claims that the object must be at rest. And what is so terribly difficult about remembering that F = ma? It seems to be a simple algebraic statement for solving story problems. the free-body diagram for the particular object is shown at the right. the acceleration is in the same direction as the net force.Lesson 3 Newton's Second Law of Motion Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . and evaluation (to select the most reasonable and harmonious model that explains the world of motion). Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center Are You Infected with the Misconception? Two students are discussing their physics homework prior to class. consider the following question and its answer as seen by clicking the button.

as in the case of the sled and as in the case of the object that Noah and Anna are discussing. To read more about this misconception.physicsclassroom. These forces are balanced and since the sled is already in motion at point B it will continue in motion with the same speed and direction. So. All rights reserved. 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:25 PM .The Big Misconception http://www.that brings the book to a rest position. and a force is not required to keep any object horizontally moving object in motion. The forces acting upon the sled from point B to point C would be the normal force (the snow pushes up on the sled) and the gravity force (see diagram at right). © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. In the absence of a force of friction. rather it is the presence of a force .com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3b. forces cause accelerations. and a force is not required to keep a moving sled in motion.cfm that there was no air resistance to impede your motion. the book would continue in motion with the same speed and direction . Newton's first law of motion declares that a force is not needed to keep an object in motion. The book in motion on the table top does not come to a rest position because of the absence of a force. Next Section: Finding Acceleration Jump To Lesson 4: Newton's Third Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE. Slide a book across a table and watch it slide to a rest position. Without friction or air resistance to slow it down.forever (or at least to the end of the table top)! A force is not required to keep a moving book in motion. Forces do not cause motion. the sled would continue in motion with the same speed and in the same direction.that force being the force of friction . an object can be moving to the right even if the only forces acting upon the object are vertical forces. return to an earlier lesson. How far would your sled travel? And what would its motion be like? Most students I've talked to quickly answer: the sled would travel forever at constant speed.

the net force.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. we will learn how to determine the acceleration of an object if the magnitudes of all the individual forces are known. the normal force. The object encounters 10 N of friction. the task involves using the above equations.about . Thus. Once you have solved the problems. and the 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:26 PM . Energy. the coefficient of friction (µ) between the object and the surface. the net force. and the equation for frictional force (Ffrict = µ•Fnorm). the net force.credits .physicsclassroom. the equation for gravitational force (Fgrav = m•g). click the button to check your answers. The process of determining the acceleration of an object demands that the mass and the net force are known.cfm home . and the acceleration of the object. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Newton's Second Law | The Big Misconception | Finding Acceleration Finding Individual Forces | Free Fall and Air Resistance | Double Trouble Finding Acceleration Student Extras As learned earlier in Lesson 3 (as well as in Lesson 2).Finding Acceleration http://www.) See Answer Practice #3 A 5-kg object is sliding to the right and encountering a friction force that slows it down. To gain a feel for how this method is applied. Determine the force of gravity. Practice #1 An applied force of 50 N is used to accelerate an object to the right across a frictional surface. In Lesson 2. The coefficient of friction (µ) between the object and the surface is 0. try the following practice problems. then the acceleration is determined by use of the equation.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . the force of friction. Use the diagram to determine the normal force. (Neglect air resistance. In this lesson.) Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center See Answer Practice #2 An applied force of 20 N is used to accelerate an object to the right across a frictional surface. the given information. (Neglect air resistance. the mass. If mass (m) and net force (Fnet) are known. The three major equations that will be useful are the equation for net force (Fnet = m•a). the net force is the vector sum of all the Teacher's Guide individual forces.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3c. and the acceleration of the object. and your understanding of Newton's laws to determine the acceleration.1. The object encounters 10 N of friction. Use the diagram to determine the normal force. we learned how to determine the net force if the magnitudes of all the individual forces are known. the mass.Lesson 3 Newton's Second Law of Motion Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors .terms .

Use your conceptual understanding of net force (vector sum of all the forces) to find the value of Fnet or the value of an individual force. then what is the cart's acceleration? See Answer Next Section: Finding Individual Forces Jump To Lesson 4: Newton's Third Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE. an important caution is worth mentioning: Avoid forcing a problem into the form of a previously solved problem. The coefficient of friction between the book and the tabletop is 0. solutions.cfm acceleration. Instead of solving problems by rote or by mimicry of a previously solved problem. In the meantime. Problems in physics will seldom look the same.physicsclassroom. If the total resistance force to the motion of the cart is 0. Determine the acceleration of the book. Kate and Rob use a hanging mass and pulley system to exert a 2. and other students.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3c. It is likely that you are having a physics concepts difficulty.765-kg book to accelerate it across a tabletop.45 N rightward force on a 0. Use your understanding of weight and mass to find the m or the Fgrav in a problem. Check Your Understanding 1. See Answer 2. utilize your conceptual understanding of Newton's laws to work towards solutions to problems. teachers. (Neglect air resistance.25-N rightward force to a 0. Do not divorce the solving of physics problems from your understanding of physics concepts. All rights reserved. Edwardo applies a 4. Commit yourself to individually solving the problems.Finding Acceleration http://www. In a physics lab. If you are unable to solve physics problems like those above. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. it is does not necessarily mean that you are having math difficulties. 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:26 PM .) See Answer A couple more practice problems are provided below. You should make an effort to solve as many problems as you can without the assistance of notes.410.500-kg cart to accelerate it across a low-friction track.72 N.

normal force.Finding Individual Forces http://www. The three major equations that will be useful are the equation for net force (Fnet = m•a). Analyze each situation individually and determine the magnitude of the unknown forces. (Neglect air resistance.terms . If mass (m) and acceleration (a) are known. Energy. and the equation for frictional force (Ffrict = µ•Fnorm).cfm home . However. then the net force (Fnet ) can be determined by use of the equation. we will learn how to determine the magnitudes of all the individual forces if the mass and acceleration of the object are known. normal force. and applied force. Thus. Use the diagram to determine the gravitational force.physicsclassroom. the net force is the vector sum of all the Teacher's Guide individual forces.) 1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:26 PM .Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. Practice #1 Free-body diagrams for four situations are shown below. the task involves using the above equations. The process of determining the value of the individual forces acting upon an object involve an application of Newton's second law (Fnet =m•a) and an application of the meaning of the net force.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3d. Once you have solved a problem. and net force.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . then the value of all individual forces can be determined. click the button to check your answers. Fnet = m • a If the numerical value for the net force and the direction of the net force is known. The problems progress from easy to more difficult.2. The object encounters 15 N of frictional force. The net force is known for each situation. frictional force. the given information. Use the diagram to determine the gravitational force.credits .) See Answer Practice #3 A rightward force is applied to a 10-kg object to move it across a rough surface at constant velocity. To gain a feel for how this method is applied. the magnitudes of a few of the individual forces are not known.Lesson 3 Newton's Second Law of Motion Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . try the following practice problems. net force. In this lesson. and your understanding of net force to determine the value of individual forces. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Newton's Second Law | The Big Misconception | Finding Acceleration Finding Individual Forces | Free Fall and Air Resistance | Double Trouble Finding Individual Forces Student Extras As learned earlier in Lesson 3 (as well as in Lesson 2). we learned how to determine the net force if the magnitudes of all the individual forces are known.about . The coefficient of friction between the object and the surface is 0. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center See Answer Practice #2 A rightward force is applied to a 6-kg object to move it across a rough surface at constant velocity. applied force. the equation for gravitational force (Fgrav = m•g). (Neglect air resistance. In Lesson 2.

(Neglect air resistance. (Neglect air resistance.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3d. frictional force. Use the diagram to determine the gravitational force. teachers.1. applied force. and other students. In the meantime. and the coefficient of friction between the object and the surface. The coefficient of friction between the object and the surface is 0. and net force.) See Answer A couple more practice problems are provided below.physicsclassroom. net force.) See Answer Practice #5 A rightward force of 25 N is applied to a 4-kg object to move it across a rough surface with a rightward acceleration of 2.5 m/s/s. solutions. Use the diagram to determine the gravitational force. Commit yourself to individually solving the problems.Finding Individual Forces http://www. Instead of solving problems by rote or by mimicry of a previously solved problem. frictional force. an important caution is worth mentioning: Avoid forcing a problem into the form of a previously solved problem. You should make an effort to solve as many problems as you can without the assistance of notes.cfm See Answer Practice #4 A rightward force is applied to a 5-kg object to move it across a rough surface with a rightward acceleration of 2 m/s/s. normal force. normal force. utilize your conceptual 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:26 PM . Problems in physics will seldom look the same.

Ernesto and Amanda apply a 34. He exerts a rightward force of 9.physicsclassroom. It is likely that you are having a physics concepts difficulty. Use your conceptual understanding of net force (vector sum of all the forces) to find the value of Fnet or the value of an individual force.28 m/s/s. See Answer Next Section: Free Fall and Air Resistance Jump To Lesson 4: Newton's Third Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE.68-kg sled to accelerate it across the snow.5 N rightward force to a 4. In a Physics lab. If you are unable to solve physics problems like those above.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3d. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. All rights reserved. Determine the friction force acting upon the cart. 3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:26 PM .cfm understanding of Newton's laws to work towards solutions to problems.13 N on his 4.52-kg cart to accelerate it across a horizontal surface at a rate of 1. it is does not necessarily mean that you are having math difficulties. Check Your Understanding 1.815 m/s/s.Finding Individual Forces http://www. Use your understanding of weight and mass to find the m or the Fgrav in a problem. Do not divorce the solving of physics problems from your understanding of physics concepts. then what is the coefficient of friction between the sled and the snow? See Answer 2. If the acceleration of the sled is 0. Lee Mealone is sledding with his friends when he becomes disgruntled by one of his friend's comments.

because they all have the same gravity? .credits . This increased mass has an inverse affect upon the elephant's acceleration.cfm home . they are falling under the sole influence of gravity.9. Free Fall Motion As learned in an earlier unit.Free Fall and Air Resistance http://www.Lesson 3 Newton's Second Law of Motion Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors . In particular.8 m/s/s. all objects on Earth's surface will experience this amount of force per mass. all objects free fall at the same rate regardless of their mass. and so each object accelerates at the same rate . Newton's second law of motion (Fnet = m•a) will be applied to analyze the motion of objects that are falling under the sole influence of gravity (free fall) and under the dual influence of gravity and air resistance. and if a free-body diagram were constructed. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Newton's Second Law | The Big Misconception | Finding Acceleration Finding Individual Forces | Free Fall and Air Resistance | Double Trouble Free Fall and Air Resistance Student Extras In a previous unit. then it would be seen that the 1000-kg baby elephant would experiences a greater force of gravity.) 1 of 4 9/18/2012 7:27 PM .the acceleration of gravity . we often call this ratio the acceleration of gravity. As such. regardless of their mass. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center If Newton's second law were applied to their falling motion. free fall is a special type of motion in which the only force acting upon an object is gravity. This ratio (Fnet /m) is sometimes called the gravitational field strength and is expressed as 9. two questions will be explored: Why do objects that encounter air resistance ultimately reach a terminal velocity? In situations in which there is air resistance.about . Energy. thus. All objects placed upon Earth's surface will experience this amount of force (9..8 N) upon every 1 kilogram of mass within the object. are not encountering a significant force of air resistance. all objects will fall with the same rate of acceleration.. because the air resistance is the same for each? Why? These questions will be explored in this section of Lesson 3. In addition to an exploration of free fall. why do more massive objects fall faster than less massive objects? To answer the above questions.. it might be thought that the 1000-kg baby elephant would accelerate faster.physicsclassroom.terms .8 m/s/s acceleration of any object placed there. the direct affect of greater force on the 1000-kg elephant is offset by the inverse affect of the greater mass of the 1000-kg elephant.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. The 1000-kg baby elephant obviously has more mass (or inertia). And thus. But acceleration depends upon two factors: force and mass.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3e. based on force alone. (Gravitational forces will be discussed in greater detail in a later unit of The Physics Classroom tutorial. Objects that are said to be undergoing free fall.. Because the 9.g.8 N/kg (for a location upon Earth's surface). it was stated that all objects (regardless of their mass) free fall with the Teacher's Guide same acceleration . This particular acceleration value is so important in physics that it has its own peculiar name .feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws .8 N/kg gravitational field at Earth's surface causes a 9. This greater force of gravity would have a direct affect upon the elephant's acceleration.and its own peculiar symbol . But why do all objects free fall at the same rate of acceleration regardless of their mass? Is it because they all weigh the same? . Being a property of the location within Earth's gravitational field and not a property of the free falling object itself. The ratio of force to mass (Fnet /m) is the same for the elephant and the mouse under situations involving free fall. Under such conditions.approximately 10 m/s/s. The gravitational field strength is a property of the location within Earth's gravitational field and not a property of the baby elephant nor the mouse. But why? Consider the free-falling motion of a 1000-kg baby elephant and a 1-kg overgrown mouse. the motion of objects that encounter air resistance will also be analyzed.

Value of g What is the acceleration of gravity on Submit moon (in m/s/s)? See http://www. it can be said that the two most common factors that have a direct affect upon the amount of air resistance are the speed of the object and the cross-sectional area of the object. Location: Get g Chicago. Then use the button to view the answers. For each case. In the diagrams below. there are local variations in the value of g. Gravitational Fields Enter a location and click on the Get g button. use the diagrams to determine the net force and acceleration of the skydiver at each instant in time.com/Class/circles/u6l3e. it usually encounters some degree of air resistance. 2 of 4 9/18/2012 7:27 PM . Investigate! Even on the surface of the Earth. Newton's second law will be applied to the motion of a falling skydiver. Increased cross-sectional areas result in an increased amount of air resistance.physicsclassroom. then click the Submit button.physicsclassroom. Increased speeds result in an increased amount of air resistance.Free Fall and Air Resistance http://www.cfm. it buldges in the middle). Select a location from the pull-down menu. IL Falling with Air Resistance As an object falls through air. Use the Gravitational Fields widget below to investigate how location affects the value of g.cfm Look It Up! The value of the gravitational field strength (g) is different in different gravitational environments. Air resistance is the result of collisions of the object's leading surface with air molecules.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3e. To keep the topic simple. free-body diagrams showing the forces acting upon an 85-kg skydiver (equipment included) are shown. Why does an object that encounters air resistance eventually reach a terminal velocity? To answer this questions. altitude and the local geological structure of the region. These variations are due to latitude (the Earth isn't a perfect sphere. Use the Value of g widget below to look up the the gravitational field strength on other planets. The actual amount of air resistance encountered by the object is dependent upon a variety of factors.

1. more massive objects fall faster than less massive objects because they are acted upon by a larger force of gravity. it is necessary to consider the free-body diagrams for objects of different mass. Values for various shapes can be found here. The change in velocity terminates as a result of the balance of forces. the force of air resistance becomes large enough to balances the force of gravity.Free Fall and Air Resistance http://www. the net force is 0 Newton. for this reason. The velocity at which this happens is called the terminal velocity.physicsclassroom. Investigate! The amount of air resistance an object experiences depends on its speed. In situations in which there is air resistance. A falling object will continue to accelerate to higher speeds until they encounter an amount of air resistance that is equal to their weight. the object will stop accelerating. Consider the falling motion of two skydivers: one with a mass of 100 kg (skydiver plus parachute) and the other with a mass of 150 kg (skydiver plus parachute). they accelerate to higher speeds until the air resistance force equals the gravity force. Nonetheless. The free-body diagrams are shown below for the instant in time in which they have reached terminal velocity. temperature and humidity. But why? To answer the why question.29 kg/m3 is a very reasonable value. Use the What a Drag! widget below to explore the dependence of the air resistance force upon these four variables. its cross-sectional area. Thus. it picks up speed. As learned above. Air densities vary with altitude.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3e. The shape of an object effects the drag coefficient (Cd). At this instant in time. Since the 150-kg skydiver weighs more (experiences a greater force of gravity). more massive objects fall faster than less massive objects. Eventually. its shape and the density of the air. the amount of air resistance depends upon the speed of the object. The object is said to have reached a terminal velocity. What a Drag! 3 of 4 9/18/2012 7:27 PM .cfm See Answer to A See Answer to B See Answer to C See Answer to D The diagrams above illustrate a key principle. As an object falls. it will accelerate to higher speeds before reaching a terminal velocity. The increase in speed leads to an increase in the amount of air resistance.

800 Next Section: Double Trouble (a. object speed.29 50.. Mass Density (kg/m^3) Object Speed (m/s) Drag Coefficient X-sectional Area (m^2) Determine Drag Foce 1.Free Fall and Air Resistance http://www. Then click on Determine Drag Force button.physicsclassroom.a. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. drag coefficient and cross-sectional area.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3e.0 0. 4 of 4 9/18/2012 7:27 PM . All rights reserved. Two Body Problems) Jump To Lesson 4: Newton's Third Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE.cfm Enter values of mass density.k.50 0.

0-kg box and the 10. How is such an analysis conducted? How is the acceleration of the tow truck and the car determined? What about the force acting between the tow truck and the car? In this part of Lesson 3. the two unknowns are the acceleration of the two objects and the force transmitted between the two objects.Lesson 3 Newton's Second Law of Motion Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors .0-kg object pushing the 10.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws .0 kg (since this analysis is for the 10.through the use of free-body diagrams and Newton's laws.about .0 N. So the answers to the two unknowns for this problem are 3. Situations involving two objects are often referred to as two-body situations.0-kg object. A free-body diagram is constructed and the individual forces acting upon the object are identified and calculated.0-kg object accelerates to the right. The free-body diagram for the 10.0 N. we will ignore the fact that we know what the answers are and presume that we are solving the problem for the first time. A system analysis is usually performed to determine the acceleration of the system.0-kg object is the Fcontact.0-kg box is not considered in the system analysis since it is an internal force. there could be a tow truck hauling a car down a highway. Each individual object analysis generates an equation with an unknown. The diagrams below show the free-body diagrams for the two objects. only external forces are considered when drawing free-body diagrams. it has a magnitude of 30. If acceleration is involved. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Newton's Second Law | The Big Misconception | Finding Acceleration Finding Individual Forces | Free Fall and Air Resistance | Double Trouble Double Trouble (a. two separate free-body diagram analyses are performed.0 m/s2 and 30. consider the following example problem.0-kg object is shown at the right. When appearing as physics problems. In this approach.a.0 kg of mass). The free-body diagram for the system is shown at the right.0 kg. free-body diagrams are constructed independently for each object and Newton's second law is used to relate the individual force values to the mass and acceleration. In the system analysis. As the 5.0 kg object (only because there is one less force acting on it). and the applied force (the hand is pushing on the back part of the system). The mass of the system of two objects is 15. independent object. The dual combination of a system analysis and an individual object analysis is one of two approaches that are typically used to analyze two-body problems. The magnitude of the normal force is also 147 N since it must support the weight (147 N) of the system.. The dividing line that separates the objects is ignored.credits . The mass of the system is the sum of the mass of the two individual objects. Ignore friction forces and determine the acceleration of the boxes and the force acting between the boxes. the acceleration is 3. it will be pushing rightward upon the 10. In the process of this second approach. Energy. The applied force is stated to be 45. Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center As a first example of the two approaches to solving two-body problems. This force is the net force and is equal to m•a where m is equal to 10. The net force is equal to 30. But what happens if there are two objects connected together in one way or another? For instance.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3f. so the forces holding together the parts of a system are ignored. Two Body Problems) Student Extras Our study thus far has been restricted to the analysis of single objects moving under the Teacher's Guide influence of Newton's laws. 1 of 5 9/18/2012 7:28 PM .cfm home . The system of equations is solved in order to determine the unknown values. two-body problems are characterized by a set of two unknown quantities. This net force is the force of the 5. either one of the two objects is isolated and considered as a separate. A second approach involves the use of two separate individual object analyses. this is known as a contact force (or a normal force or an applied force or …).0 N.0 N.Double Trouble (a.0-kg object) and a was already determined to be 3.0 kg for m.the gravity force (the Earth pulls down on the 15.0-kg and a 10. we will make an attempt to analyze such situations. Now that the acceleration has been determined.0-kg object to the right. Using 45. A 45. An individual object analysis is usually performed in order to determine the value of any force which acts between the two objects . Most commonly (though not always the case). Newton's second law (a = Fnet/m) can be used to determine the acceleration. The system analysis is combined with an individual object analysis.0-kg box in order to accelerate both boxes across the floor.for example. Two Body Problems) http://www. As mentioned.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. Example Problem 1: A 5. Two body-problems can typically be approached using one of two basic approaches. One approach involves a combination of a system analysis and an individual body analysis. the two objects are considered to be a single object. Just as the forces holding atoms together within an object are not included in a free-body diagram. In the system analysis. an individual object analysis can be performed on either object in order to determine the force acting between them. The vertical forces balance each other since there is no vertical acceleration.k.0-kg box are touching each other. In the individual object analysis. The force acting between the 5.0 m/s2. It does not matter which object is chosen.a. contact forces or tension forces. The result is a system of two equations with two unknowns. The only unbalanced force on the 10. the result will be the same in either case. The first approach to this problem involves the dual combination of a system analysis and an individual object analysis.the force of gravity on the 10. We will find that the analysis is conducted in the same general manner as when there is one object .0-N horizontal force is applied to the 5. There are three forces acting upon the system . the acceleration of the system is the same as that of the individual objects. The magnitude of the force of gravity is m•g or 147 N.0 m/s2. Now we will consider the solution to this same problem using the second approach .. Here the individual object analysis is conducted on the 10.0 N for Fnet and 15.k.physicsclassroom.terms .0-kg. These are considered internal forces. There are only three forces acting upon it . the two objects are considered to be a single object moving (or accelerating) together as a whole. the system analysis is used to determine the acceleration and the individual object analysis is used to determine the forces acting between the objects.the use of two individual object analyses. In such an approach. the support force (from the floor pushing upward) and the rightward contact force (Fcontact). the normal force (the floor pushes up on the system to support its weight).

The horizontal forces do not balance each other.. Applying Newton's second law to this object yields the equation: Fcontact .0-kg object is not the same as the friction force on the system (since the system was weightier).are obvious forces.0-kg object forward.0-kg object will yield the Equation 1 below: 45.0-kg object) forward. Two Body Problems) http://www. This Fnet is equal to Fcontact Ffrict . The net force can be determined as the vector sum of Fapp and Ffrict . left. The acceleration can now be calculated using Newton's second law.6 N/15. The 2 of 5 9/18/2012 7:28 PM . Once more.200)•(147 N) = 29. The Fnorm of the system is equal to the force of gravity acting upon the 15.0-kg object and has already been considered in the previous free-body diagram. an individual object analysis can be performed on either object in order to determine the force acting between them. it does not matter which object is chosen.Double Trouble (a.0 •3.consistent with the fact that there is no vertical acceleration. The horizontal forces are the friction force to the left and the force of the 5. Our first solution to this problem will involve the dual combination of a system analysis and an individual object analysis. The two vertical forces are obvious the force of gravity (98. the friction on the 15-kg system must be considered. The net force . this value is 147 N.0-kg object is the force of the 10.0-kg object pushing leftward on the 5.0-kg object.4 N.0•a is substituted into Equation 1 for Fcontact .0 N applied force is not exerted upon this 10.0 . This value of a can be substituted back into Equation 2 in order to determine the contact force: Fcontact = 10. The 45.200.0•a A couple of steps of algebra lead to an acceleration value of 3. The 45.0-kg object is chosen for the individual object analysis because there is one less force acting upon it.10. Example Problem 2 is similar to Example Problem 1 with the exception that the surface is not frictionless in Example Problem 2. There are four forces acting upon the 10.0 kg) = 1. right + 29. using the second approach to solve two body problems yields the same two answers for the two unknowns.Fgrav and Fnorm . the result would be the same in either case. That is.0-kg object) pushes back upon it.Fgrav and Fnorm .a.Fcontact = 5.0 Fcontact = 30. As an attempt is made to push the rear object (5.0-kg object. The equation becomes 45. Now we will try the same two approaches on a very similar problem that includes a friction force. So Ffrict = µ•Fnorm = (0.0 kg)•(1. Now the goal of this approach is to generate system of two equations capable of solving for the two unknown values.0-kg object. Fnet = 45.0-kg object at the rear. then Equation 1 becomes reduced to a single equation with a single unknown. this is labeled as Fcontact on the free-body diagram.6 N.0-kg object will yield the Equation 2 below: Fcontact = 10.0-kg box in order to accelerate both boxes across the floor.0•a (Note that the units have been dropped from Equations 1 and 2 in order to clean the equations up.0-kg object forward.0-kg and a 10.can always be found by adding the forces in the direction of the acceleration and subtracting those that are in the opposite direction.Ffrict = (10. there are only three forces.physicsclassroom. The leftward contact force on the 5.04 m/s2) The friction force on this 10. So the free-body diagram for the system now includes four forces .k.0 N. this makes the solution easier.4 N The vertical forces balance each other . The coefficient of kinetic friction is 0. Using Fnet = m•a with the free-body diagram for the 5. the two vertical forces . In the free-body diagram for the 10.cfm Note that there are four forces on the 5.0 N) and the normal force (equal to the force of gravity). The horizontal force is simply the 5.0•a = 10.) If the expression 10. Determine the acceleration and the contact force.0-kg system.0-N horizontal force is applied to the 5. A 45.vector sum of all the forces . This force is equal to and opposite of the rear object pushing forward on the front object.04 m/s2 Now that the system analysis has been used to determine the acceleration.0 m/s2.0 .0 N As can be seen.are obvious forces.0-kg object pushing the 10.0-kg object. Once more.0-kg box are touching each other.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3f. As you likely noticed. right. it is exerted on the 5. Example Problem 2: A 5. these add to 15.0-N applied force (Fapp) is the result of the hand pushing on the rear object as described in the problem statement and depicted in the diagram.0-kg object pushing the 10. the front object (10. This force is simply labeled as Fcontact for both of the free-body diagrams. a = Fnet / m = (15. The 10.the same three as in Example Problem 1 plus a leftward force of friction. So when conducting the system analysis in this second example. The force of friction on the system can be calculated as µ•Fnorm where Fnormis the normal force experienced by the system. The two vertical forces .0•a = 5.0•a Using Fnet = m•a with the free-body diagram for the 10.

Fcontact .physicsclassroom. The final example problem will involve a vertical motion.9. There are two forces acting upon this system .04 m/s2) Fcontact = (10. The first approach involves the dual combination of a system analysis and an individual object analysis.) From Equation 4.6 .0-kg object moves.0-kg object.0-kg object forward.0•a (Note that the units have been dropped from Equations 3 and 4 in order to clean the equations up.200•49.0-kg object. the Fgrav is not equal to 3 of 5 9/18/2012 7:28 PM .0•a 45.0-kg object (98.0 N So using the dual combination of the system analysis and individual body analysis allows us to determine the two unknown values . The top box has a mass of 6.0 kg)•(1.6) . respectively.2 N Since there is a vertical acceleration. Each object experiences a normal force equal to its weight (since vertical forces must balance). So the friction forces for the 5. Its value is the same as the contact force that is exerted on the front 10.0-kg object. Now we will see how two individual object analyses can be combined to generate a system of two equations capable of solving for the two unknowns.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3f.Double Trouble (a.6 N can be substituted into the above equation and Fcontact can be calculated: Fcontact .0-kg object. Substituting this expression for Fcontact into Equation 3 and performing proper algebraic manipulations yields the acceleration value: 45.04 m/s2 for the acceleration and 30. The man sets the two boxes on a metric scale sitting on the floor. Using Fnet = m•a with the free-body diagram for the 5.0 kg.6 = 15.6 N Fcontact = 30.9. The free-body diagram is shown at the right.0 kg and the bottom box has a mass of 8. Example Problem 3: A man enters an elevator holding two boxes .0•a a = (15.one on top of the other.0•a + 19.0-kg object.8 = 5.0 N) = 19. this value is 98. The Fnormof the 10.8 = 15.0•a Using Fnet = m•a with the free-body diagram for the 10.0 N applied force is not exerted upon this 10.0-kg object pushing the 10. The leftward contact force on the 5.0•a + 19.0-kg object.6 = 10.0 N Again we find that the second approach of using two individual object analyses yields the same set of answers for the two unknowns.0-kg object by the rear 5.0-kg object will yield the Equation 4 below: Fcontact . Using these Ffrict values and Newton's second law. Fgrav = m•g = 14.200•98. Fcontact = 10.6 Fcontact = 30. The free-body diagrams for the individual objects are shown below.0 .19. Once more we will start the analysis by presuming that we are solving the problem for the first time and do not know the acceleration nor the contact force. this is the upward force upon the bottom box. The friction force for each object can be determined as µ•Fnorm where Fnorm is the normal force experienced by the individual objects.are obvious.0-kg object (49.6 N = (10.0 N and 0..0-kg object is the force of the 10.6 = 10. Both approaches will be used to solve this problem. The force of gravity is calculated in the usual manner using 14.0-kg object pushing leftward on the 5. Once more.0•a + 19. The approaches will remain the same. the vertical forces will not be balanced. there are now four forces.cfm Ffrict value can be computed as µ•Fnorm where Fnorm is the normal force experienced by the 10.the force of gravity and the normal force.04 m/s2) + 19. Two Body Problems) http://www.0 N weight) and 10. When accelerating upward from rest.04) + 19. the leftward friction force is the result of friction with the floor over which the 5.0-kg object and has already been considered in the previous free-body diagram.a.0-kg object at the rear. The 45. And the leftward friction force is the result of friction with the floor.6.0 kg)•(1. Determine the acceleration of the elevator (and boxes) and determine the forces acting between the boxes.200)•(98.0 N.0 kg as the mass.k.0•a 15.0 kg. For the system analysis. a system of two equations capable of solving for the two unknown values can be written. The two vertical forces .are obvious forces. The rightward contact force (Fcontact ) is simply the 5.0•(1.Fgrav and Fnorm . The two vertical forces .0)= 1.6 N So now the value of 19.8 = 5.0 N weight) are 0. This force is simply labeled as Fcontact for both of the free-body diagrams.0-kg is equal to the force of gravity acting upon the 10.6/15.9.19. In the free-body diagram for the 10.04 m/s2 This acceleration value can be substituted back into the expression for Fcontact in order to determine the contact force: Fcontact = 10. There are now five forces on the 5.Fgrav and Fnorm .1.8 N/kg = 137.0 .19.0 N.0 . the two boxes are considered to be a single system with a mass of 14.(10. Finally.0-N applied force (Fapp) is the result of the hand pushing on the rear object. it is exerted on the 5.0-kg object will yield Equation 3 below: 45.0 kg • 9.0 N for the Fcontact. the man observes that the scale reads a value of 166 N. So Ffrict = µ•Fnorm = (0. the 45.

The normal force is provided in the problem statement. it does not matter which box is chosen.cfm the Fnorm value. These two contact forces are equal to one another since they result from a mutual interaction between the two boxes. Two Body Problems) http://www.4 = 8.8 This expression for Fcontact can then be substituted into equation 6.k.Double Trouble (a. up The acceleration can be calculated using Newton's second law: a = Fnet /m = 28.0 • a + 58.8 N.8) to solve for Fcontact .58.0-kg box) and Equation 6 (for the 8.4 = 8..0 kg for the bottom box.0571 m/s2 = ~2.14 N. The upward force is not known but can be calculated if the Fnet = m•a equation is applied to the free-body diagram.4 = 8.0571 m/s2) (Notice that the unrounded value of acceleration is used here.0 • a + 6. algebra can be used to solve for the two unknowns. the Fnet side of the equation would be equal to the force in the direction of the acceleration (Fcontact) minus the force that opposes it (Fgrav).6.78.0 • a + 58.8) . This 166-N normal force is the upward force exerted upon the bottom box.8 . It should be noted that the second approach to this problem yields the same numerical answers as the first approach. So Fnet = 166 N.1 m/s2 Now the value for acceleration (a) can be substituted back into the expression for Fcontact (Fcontact = 6.0 • a Now that a system of two equations has been developed.a. A shortened version of the solution has been provided for each problem.1 m/s2 and a contact force of 71 N. Since the acceleration is upward.0-kg box).0 • a 28. In this solution. The contact force (Fcontact) on the bottom box is downward since the top box pushes downward on the bottom box as the acceleration occurs. As in the previous problems.0 • a 166 . two individual object analyses will be combined to generate a system of two equations capable of solving for the two unknowns.78. Note that the Fgrav values for the two boxes have been included on the diagram. Fcontact .1 m/s2 Now that the system analysis has been used to determine the acceleration.) Solving for Fcontact yields 71. Equation 6 then becomes 166 . This figure can be rounded to two significant digits .Fcontact . consider the following two-body problems.0 kg. down = 28. The force of gravity is 58.(6.0 • a .0 a a = 2. The free-body diagram is shown at the right. The contact force (Fcontact) on the top box is upward since the bottom box is pushing it upward as the system of two objects accelerates upward. Applying Newton's second law to these two free-body diagrams leads to Equation 5 (for the 6.58. the result will be the same in either case. Equation 5 can be used to write an expression for the contact force (Fcontact ) in terms of the acceleration (a). The net force is the vector sum of these two forces. The force of gravity on the top box is m•g where m = 6. Students are encouraged to use the approach that they are most comfortable with.58.8 = 14.physicsclassroom.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3f.0 • a 166 . The third force on the bottom box is the force of the scale pushing upward on it with 166 N of force. The top box is used in this analysis since it encounters one less force.0 kg = 2.8 .4 = 8.14 N (~71 N).0571 m/s2 = ~2. an individual object analysis can be performed on either box in order to determine the force acting between them.8 N/14.8 = 6. 166 . So Fcontact . The contact force is 71. up + 137.0 • a + 58.2 N. rounding will occur when the final answer is determined.58. For additional practice.78. The topic of two-body problems will be returned to in the next chapter when we consider situations involving pulleys 4 of 5 9/18/2012 7:28 PM .0 kg)•(2. Fcontact = 6. These were calculated using Fgrav = m•g where m=6.78. this value was given in the problem statement.0 kg for the top box and m=8. The free-body diagrams for the individual objects are shown below. We will start this analysis by presuming that we are solving the problem for the first time and do not know the acceleration nor the contact force.0 • a The following algebraic steps are performed on the above equation to solve for acceleration. it serves as the force on the system since the bottom box is part of the system. Now the second problem-solving approach will be used to solve the same problem.71 N. So the dual combination of the system analysis and the individual body analysis leads to an acceleration of 2.8 N.8 N = (6.

(Assume the wire is relatively massless. A truck hauls a car cross-country. A chain connects the logs to each other. (b) Find the tension in the bottom wire (connecting points C and D). The coefficient of friction between the logs and the field is approximately 0. Two Body Problems) http://www.physicsclassroom. The coefficient of friction between the ground and the boxes is 0. A tractor is being used to pull two large logs across a field.120.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3f. 5 of 5 9/18/2012 7:28 PM . then determine the acceleration of the car (or the truck) and the force at which the truck pulls upon the car.84 m/s2. The elevator accelerates upwards at 2.00x103 kg and the car's mass is 1.00-kg box is pulled by rope 2 with a force of 25. Determine the acceleration of the boxes and the tension in rope 1.4 kg. Assume negligible air resistance forces. The truck's mass is 4.2 kg.a.00-kg box by rope 1. See Answer 3.45. Check Your Understanding 1. Determine the tension in the chain that connects the two logs. A 7. The 7.cfm and objects moving in different directions.) (a) Find the tension in the top wire (connecting points A and B).. The mass of the front log is 180 kg.60x103 kg. the mass of the bottom box is 10. The mass of the top box is 14. The mass of the back log is 220 kg. The tension in the chain connecting the tractor to the front log is 1850 N. See Answer 2.Double Trouble (a.50x104 N. See Answer Jump To Lesson 4: Newton's Third Law of Motion Hosted by comPADRE.00-kg box is attached to a 3.0 N. the front log is connected to the tractor by a separate chain. Two boxes are held together by a strong wire and attached to the ceiling of an elevator by a second wire (see diagram).k. See Answer 4. © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. All rights reserved. If the force of propulsion resulting from the truck's turning wheels is 2.

there is an equal (in size) and opposite (in direction) reaction. your body exerts a downward force on the chair and the chair exerts an upward force on your body. the direction of the force on the road (backwards) is opposite the direction of the force on the wheels (forwards). A fish uses its fins to push water backwards. There are two forces resulting from this interaction .physicsclassroom. some forces result from contact interactions (normal.feedback » The Physics Classroom » Physics Tutorial » Newton's Laws Newton's Laws . Consider the motion of a car on the way to school. For years. The statement means that in every interaction. According to Newton. Energy. Many people are familiar with the fact that a rifle recoils when fired. A variety of action-reaction force pairs are evident in nature..about . Minds on Physics The Calculator Pad Multimedia Studios Shockwave Studios The Review Session Physics Help Curriculum Corner The Laboratory The Photo Gallery ACT Test Center Check Your Understanding 1..equal and opposite action-reaction force pairs.Newton's Third Law http://www. Actionreaction force pairs make it possible for cars to move along a roadway surface. For every action. This is a clear case of Newton's third law of motion. But a push on the water will only serve to accelerate the water. A bird flies by use of its wings.. there is an equal (in size) and opposite (in direction) reaction. While driving down the road. For every action. a. . When you sit in your chair. These two forces are called action and reaction forces and are the subject of Newton's third law of motion. A car is equipped with wheels that spin. d. the road must also be pushing the wheels forward. Formally stated. and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light Newton's Third Law Student Extras A force is a push or a pull upon an object that results from its interaction with another object... space is void of air so the rockets have nothing to push off of. they exert forces upon each other. . The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object. The size of the force on the road equals the size of the force on the wheels (or car). . . The firefly hit the bus and the bus hits the firefly. tensional. Since forces result from mutual interactions. The size of the forces on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object.credits . The wings of a bird push air downwards.cfm home . nonsense! Rockets do accelerate in space and have been able to do so for a long time. Since forces result from mutual interactions. propelling the fish through the water. they grip the road and push the road backwards. the direction of the force on the air (downwards) is opposite the direction of the force on the bird (upwards). Since forces result from mutual interactions. gravity is absent in space. whenever objects A and B interact with each other. Action-reaction force pairs make it possible for fish to swim.. there is an equal (in size) and opposite (in direction) reaction force. See Answer 3. As the wheels spin. Consider the propulsion of a fish through the water. Which of the two forces is greater: the force on the firefly or the force on the bus? See Answer 2... electrical. Consider the flying motion of birds. the air must also be pushing the bird upwards. space is void of air and so there is no air resistance in space. there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. a firefly strikes the windshield of a bus and makes a quite obvious mess in front of the face of the driver. For every action. This inability of a rocket to provide propulsion is because .a force on the chair and a force on your body. and applied forces are examples of contact forces) and other forces are the result of action-at-a-distance interactions (gravitational. Newton's third law is: For every action.Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work. b.. the water must also be pushing the fish forwards. space travel was believed to be impossible because there was nothing that rockets could push off of in space in order to provide the propulsion necessary to accelerate. there is an equal and opposite reaction. Action-reaction force pairs make it possible for birds to fly. The size of the force on the air equals the size of the force on the bird. the direction of the force on the water (backwards) is opposite the direction of the force on the fish (forwards). c.Lesson 4 Newton's Third Law of Motion Newton's Third Law | Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs Physics Tutorial 1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors .terms . This recoil is the result of action- 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:28 PM . Teacher's Guide Forces result from interactions! As discussed in Lesson 2. frictional. Forces always come in pairs . and magnetic forces).. The size of the force on the water equals the size of the force on the fish.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l4a.

cfm reaction force pairs.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l4a. the same size as the acceleration of the bullet. See Answer 4. the Kent is pulling upon a rope that is attached to an elephant.. a... © 1996-2012 The Physics Classroom. Kent Budgett is pulling upon a rope that is attached to a wall. smaller than the acceleration of the bullet. b. See Answer Next Section: Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs Back to the Physics Tutorial Table of Contents Hosted by comPADRE. a. the bullet pushes backwards upon the rifle. In the bottom picture. b. In the top picture (below). c. In each case. Consistent with Newton's third law of motion. the same force in each case.Newton's Third Law http://www. A gunpowder explosion creates hot gases that expand outward allowing the rifle to push forward on the bullet. the force scale reads 500 Newton. Kent is pulling . 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:28 PM . c. The acceleration of the recoiling rifle is .physicsclassroom. All rights reserved. greater than the acceleration of the bullet. with more force when the rope is attached to the elephant. with more force when the rope is attached to the wall..

Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs

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Newton's Laws - Lesson 4

Newton's Third Law of Motion
Newton's Third Law | Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs

Physics Tutorial
1-D Kinematics Newton's Laws Vectors - Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions Momentum and Its Conservation Work, Energy, and Power Circular Motion and Satellite Motion Thermal Physics Static Electricity Current Electricity Waves Sound Waves and Music Light Waves and Color Reflection and Ray Model of Light Refraction and Ray Model of Light

Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs

Student Extras

According to Newton's third law, for every action force there is an equal (in size) and opposite Teacher's Guide (in direction) reaction force. Forces always come in pairs - known as "action-reaction force pairs." Identifying and describing action-reaction force pairs is a simple matter of identifying the two interacting objects and making two statements describing who is pushing on whom and in what direction. For example, consider the interaction between a baseball bat and a baseball.

The baseball forces the bat to the left; the bat forces the ball to the right. Together, these two forces exerted upon two different objects form the action-reaction force pair. Note that in the description of the two forces, the nouns in the sentence describing the forces simply switch places. Consider the following three examples. One of the forces in the mutual interaction is described; describe the other force in the action-reaction force pair. Click the button to view the answer.

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Bowling ball pushes pin leftwards. See Answer Baseball pushes glove leftwards. See Answer

Enclosed air particles push balloon wall outwards. See Answer

Check Your Understanding
1. Consider the interaction depicted below between foot A, ball B, and foot C. The three objects interact simultaneously (at the same time). Identify the two pairs of action-reaction forces. Use the notation "foot A", "foot C", and "ball B" in your statements. Click the button to view the answer.

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Identifying Action and Reaction Force Pairs

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See Answer

2. Identify at least six pairs of action-reaction force pairs in the following diagram.

See Answer

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The Energy Story - Chapter 2: What Is Electricity?

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Table of Content
Introduction Chapter 1: Energy - What Is It? Chapter 2: Electricity Chapter 3: Static Electricity & Resistance Chapter 4: Electrical Circuits Chapter 5: Stored Energy & Batteries Chapter 6: Generators, Turbines and Power Plants Chapter 7: Electricity Transmission System Chapter 8: Fossil Fuels - Coal, Oil and Natural Gas Chapter 9: Natural Gas Distribution System Chapter 10: Biomass Energy Chapter 11: Geothermal Energy Chapter 12: Hydro Power Chapter 13: Nuclear Energy - Fission and Fusion Chapter 14: Ocean Energy Chapter 15: Solar Energy Chapter 16: Wind Energy Chapter 17: Renewable vs. Nonrenewable Environment & Air Quality Chapter 18: Energy for Transportation Chapter 19: Saving Energy and Energy Efficiency Chapter 20: Hydrogen and Energy In Our Future Conclusion

Chapter 2: What Is Electricity?
Electricity figures everywhere in our lives. Electricity lights up our homes, cooks our food, powers our computers, television sets, and other electronic devices. Electricity from batteries keeps our cars running and makes our flashlights shine in the dark. Here's something you can do to see the importance of electricity. Take a walk through your school, house or apartment and write down all the different appliances, devices and machines that use electricity. You'll be amazed at how many things we use each and every day that depend on electricity. But what is electricity? Where does it come from? How does it work? Before we understand all that, we need to know a little bit about atoms and their structure. All matter is made up of atoms, and atoms are made up of smaller particles. The three main particles making up an atom are the proton, the neutron and the electron. Electrons spin around the center, or nucleus, of atoms, in the same way the moon spins around the earth. The nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons. Electrons contain a negative charge, protons a positive charge. Neutrons are neutral – they have neither a positive nor a negative charge. There are many different kinds of atoms, one for each type of element. An atom is a single part that makes up an element. There are 118 different known elements that make up every thing! Some elements like oxygen we breathe are essential to life. Each atom has a specific number of electrons, protons and neutrons. But no matter how many particles an atom has, the number of electrons usually needs to be the same as the number of protons. If the numbers are the same, the atom is called balanced, and it is very stable. So, if an atom had six protons, it should also have six electrons. The element with six protons and six electrons is called carbon. Carbon is found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, atmospheres of most planets, and the food we eat. Coal is made of carbon; so are diamonds. Some kinds of atoms have loosely attached electrons. An atom that loses electrons has more protons than electrons and is positively charged. An atom that gains electrons has more negative particles and is negatively charge. A "charged" atom is called an "ion." Electrons can be made to move from one atom to another. When those electrons move between the atoms, a current of electricity is created. The electrons move from one atom to another in a "flow." One electron is attached and another electron is lost. This chain is similar to the fire fighter's bucket brigades in olden times. But instead of passing one bucket from the start of the line of people to the other end, each person would have a bucket of water to pour from one bucket to another. The result was a lot of spilled water and not enough water to douse the fire. It is a situation that's very similar to electricity passing along a wire and a circuit. The charge is passed from

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as in diamonds and emeralds. Most metals – like copper." Scientists and engineers have learned many ways to move electrons off of atoms. Joules sounds exactly like the word jewels. Since all atoms want to be balanced. which move through them very easily. Where Does the Word 'Electricity' Come From? In the next chapter read about Static Electricity & Resistance.energyquest. so they have a strong attraction to the positive atoms. the stronger the attraction for the other. These things are called insulators. | About Energy Quest | Art Gallery | Ask Professor Quester | Devoured by the Dark | Energy Library | Energy News | Energy Story | Energy Vampires | | Find It Fast | Games | How Things Work | Links | Movie Room | Oops | Saving Energy | Science Projects | Solar Facts | Super Scientists | | Time Machine | Transportation Energy | Parents' & Teachers' Resources | Terms of Use | Privacy Info | Search | Contact Us | © 1994 . Electricity is conducted through some things better than others do. Since we have both positive and negative charged groups attracted to each other. The electrons are passed from atom to atom. So what do positive and negative charges have to do with electricity? Scientists and engineers have found several ways to create large numbers of positive atoms and free negative electrons. When electrons move among the atoms of matter. they have a strong attraction for the electrons. we call the total attraction "charge.ca. The free electron charge is negative. Rubber. 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:16 PM . just like in the picture. That means that when you add up the electrons and protons. plastic.html atom to atom when electricity is "passed.Chapter 2: What Is Electricity? http://www. Some things hold their electrons very tightly. the free electron moves around waiting for an unbalanced atom to give it a home. Energy Quest™ is a trademark of the California Energy Commission. the positive attracts the negative to balance out. you would wind up with one more proton instead of being balanced. A thousand joules is equal to a British thermal unit.2012 California Energy Commission. a current of electricity is created. and has no proton to balance it out. glass and dry air are good insulators and have very high resistance. so we say that it has a "negative charge" (-). So. aluminum or steel – are good conductors.The Energy Story . the atom that has been "unbalanced" will look for a free electron to fill the place of the missing one. Electrons do not move through them very well. These are called conductors. Since positive atoms want negative electrons so they can be balanced.gov/story/chapter02. This is what happens in a piece of wire. cloth. Since it got kicked off. The electrons also want to be part of a balanced atom. We say that this unbalanced atom has a "positive charge" (+) because it has too many protons. All rights are reserved. creating an electrical current from one end to other. The more positive atoms or negative electrons you have. Other materials have some loosely held electrons." Energy also can be measured in joules. Its resistance measures how well something conducts electricity.

loam. and evaporation. and low pressure system look like? Read: Weather Systems . What are the differences between the two? Read: Weathering and Erosion Plate tectonics is the study of how large sections of the Earth's crust are constantly in motion causing different landforms to appear. Note the difference between the types. Read: Soil Types The Water Cycle is the continuous action of precipitation. warm front. What do the symbols for cold front. Read: Water Cycle What is the difference between weather and climate? Read: Weather and Climate Reading a weather map is a necessary skill if you live in the state of Florida. high pressure system. condensation. Convergent Boundaries. and Transform Boundaries are three of the most common types. Read: Plate Tectonics Three of the most common soil types are clay.Chapter 4a: Earth Science Weathering and Erosion are two distinct processes that cause change on the surface of our planet. Divergent Boundaries. Note in the reading the percentages of water in oceans. and sand.

Both processes occur in place. call it erosion.gov/geology/usgsnps/misc/gweaero. but metamorphic chemical changes occur at depth where either the temperature and/or pressure are significantly higher than conditions found on the Earth’s surface.nps. chemically or mechanically. Once the particle starts moving. | USGS Geology in the Parks home | NPS Park Geology Tour home | This site is a cooperative endeavor of the US Geological Survey Western Earth Surface Processes Team and the National Park Service. here it is: if a particle is loosened. slumps.nps. call it weathering.nps. but stays put.html What’s the difference between weathering and erosion? Weathering involves two processes that often work in concert to decompose rocks. As soon as a rock particle (loosened by one of the two weathering processes) moves. As you know. Rock falls. Please share your comments and suggestions with us! parkgeology@den. and debris flows are all examples of mass wasting.gov/grd/usgsnps/misc/gweaero. No movement is involved in weathering. water or ice. It’s important to keep in mind that weathering is a surface or near-surface process. Erosion http://www.gov http://www. Mass wasting is simply movement down slope due to gravity. We call it erosion if the rock particle is moved by some flowing agent such as air. we call it erosion or mass wasting. Mechanical weathering involves physically breaking rocks into fragments without changing the chemical make-up of the minerals within it.Weathering vs.nature. So.html This page was last updated on 11/22/99 1 of 1 9/18/2012 7:31 PM . metamorphism also produces chemical changes in rocks. Chemical weathering involves a chemical change in at least some of the minerals within a rock.nature.

the lithosphere. The place where the two plates meet is called a plate boundary. and Philippines plates. South American. Eurasian. Earth's ancient magnetism. is broken into 7 large.cotf.html Skip Navigation The theory of plate tectonics has done for geology what Charles Darwin's theory of evolution did for biology. The plates are moving around like cars in a demolition derby. Australian. The plates are all moving in different directions and at different speeds (from 2 cm to 10 cm per year--about the speed at which your fingernails grow) in relationship to each other. which means they sometimes crash together. or sideswipe each other. 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:33 PM . the distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes. and Pacific plates. North American. pull apart. and the worldwide distribution of plant and animal fossils. including the Arabian.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/plates1." The theory was formulated in the 1960s and 1970s as new information was obtained about the nature of the ocean floor. Several minor plates also exist. Plate Tectonics Convergent Boundaries Divergent Boundaries Transform Boundaries The theory states that Earth's outermost layer. Nazca. Antarctic. rigid pieces called plates: the African. It provides geology with a comprehensive theory that explains "how the Earth works. the flow of heat from Earth's interior.Earth Floor: Plate Tectonics http://www.

Circuit Board/Apple graphic logo. All rights reserved. or near the boundary of a plate? What does this mean for you tectonically? Next Plate Tectonics | Convergent Boundaries | Divergent Boundaries | Transform Boundaries Diversity | Adaptation | Plate Tectonics | Cycles | Spheres | Biomes | Geologic Time Site maintained by the ETE Team Last updated on April 28. or sideswiping: Transform Boundaries With respect to plate boundaries is your home located in the middle of.com Privacy Statement and Copyright © 1997-2004 by Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA-supported Classroom of the Future.html Boundaries have different names depending on how the two plates are moving in relationship to each other crashing: Convergent Boundaries.clipart. 2005 Some images © 2004 www. Center for Educational Technologies.cotf. and COTF Classroom of the Future logo are registered trademarks of Wheeling Jesuit University.Earth Floor: Plate Tectonics http://www.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/plates1. pulling apart: Divergent Boundaries. 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:33 PM .

. The orange dot marks a good soil with a lot of loam in it. like the blue spot.historyforkids.Geology for Kids! http://www. The yellow dot marks soils that are more typically Mediterranean: a mixture of loam and sand. Loam is organic particles (bits of dead plants). and also the soil in river valleys like the Nile.htm Kidipede home > Geology > Soil Types All dirt is basically made of three different kinds of particles. Down where the purple spot is. worn down from rock. that would be good clay for making pottery. coarser particles. light enough to plow by hand. Clay is very fine. Geologists and archaeologists can describe any particular soil by saying where it lies in this triangle: Soil Types Triangle The best soils for farming have a lot of loam in them. that's sand that you can melt down into glass.org/learn/environment/soiltypes. Over by the green dot. like counting tree rings. To find out more about soil types in archaeology. by Richard Panchyk (2001).Soil Types . and that makes it heavy and hard to plow. sand.com or from your library: Archaeology for Kids: Uncovering the Mysteries of Our Past. small inorganic particles. These are clay. A lot of northern European soils are like that. but it does have a lot of clay in it. You need animals to pull the plow. and loam. With twenty-five projects. with only a little clay. they fall near the top of the triangle. and 1 of 2 9/18/2012 7:33 PM . check out this book from Amazon. Sand is bigger. also from rock. often quartz or silica.

Includes a project on soil types. Kidipede . Karen (PhD).Soil Types .org/learn/environment/soiltypes.historyforkids.Geology for Kids! http://www.History for Kids.htm 2 of 2 9/18/2012 7:33 PM .htm serializing cars from photographs. http://www.historyforkids. Back to environment History for Kids home page Cite this page: Carr. 2012.org/learn/environment/soiltypes.

only constitute about 22. If you check back in a thousand or million years. and ice. Fresh surface-water sources. Water is always changing states between liquid.300 cubic miles (93. Atmosphere · Condensation · Evaporation · Evapotranspiration · Freshwater storage Groundwater discharge · Groundwater storage · Ice and snow · Infiltration · Oceans Precipitation · Runoff · Snowmelt · Springs · Streamflow · Sublimation Global water distribution For an estimated explanation of where Earth's water exists. with these processes happening in the blink of an eye and over millions of years. By now. such as rivers and lakes. over 68 percent is locked up in ice and glaciers. describes the continuous movement of water on. vapor.usgs.The water cycle. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Science School http://ga. also known as the hydrologic cycle.5 million cubic miles of water. Yet. and the natural water cycle. and below the surface of the Earth. U. so realize that the chart and table below represent the presence of Earth's water at a single point in time.S.Water Science for Schools The Water Cycle Earth's water is always in movement. look at the chart below. of the total freshwater. over 96 percent is saline. Another 30 percent of freshwater is in the ground. no doubt these numbers will be different! Notice how of the world's total water supply of about 332.html The Water Cycle . which is about 1/150th of one percent of total water. you know that the water cycle describes the movement of Earth's water.water. above. 1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:35 PM .100 cubic kilometers). rivers and lakes are the sources of most of the water people use everyday.gov/edu/watercycle. And.

over 96 percent is saline. U. Gleick (editor).water. rivers and lakes that supply surface water for human uses only constitute about 22. & Permanent Snow Groundwater Fresh Saline Soil Moisture 321.S. One Estimate of Global Water Distribution (Numbers are rounded) Water source Water volume. Where is Earth's water? For a detailed explanation of where Earth's water is.5 1.000 3.773.000 2.386 million cubic kilometers) of water.614. Thus.html Source: Igor Shiklomanov's chapter "World fresh water resources" in Peter H. 1993. Another 30 percent of freshwater is in the ground.000 16.526.usgs. look at the data table below.959 23. of the total freshwater.530. Notice how of the world's total water supply of about 333 million cubic miles (1. Seas. in cubic kilometers Percent of freshwater Percent of total water Oceans.1 -0.000 -68.338.300 cubic miles (93.7 0.007 percent of total water. yet rivers are the source of most of the water people use.400.76 0. in cubic miles Water volume.000 12.gov/edu/watercycle.74 5.93 0.000 1. And.000 24. New York).500 -30.000 5.000.001 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:35 PM .870.05 1.000 3. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Science School http://ga.088.100 cubic kilometers). which is about 0. Glaciers.000.000 10.064.6 96. & Bays Ice caps.The water cycle. over 68 percent is locked up in ice and glaciers. Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources (Oxford University Press.

1993.120 0.320 21.S. Department of the Interior | U.26 -0.water.0008 0.0001 Source: Igor Shiklomanov's chapter "World fresh water resources" in Peter H.0002 0.970 42.007 0.html Water source Water volume.120 1. U.900 11.007 0.usgs.490 3. in cubic miles Water volume.003 0.S. Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources (Oxford University Press.752 509 269 300. New York).water.86 -0.022 0.04 0.470 2. Gleick (editor).gov/edu/watercycle.html Page Contact Information: Howard Perlman Page Last Modified: Thursday.S.03 0.400 12.001 0. 13-Sep-2012 07:10:59 EDT 3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:35 PM .013 0. in cubic kilometers Percent of freshwater Percent of total water Ground Ice & Permafrost Lakes Fresh Saline Atmosphere Swamp Water Rivers Biological Water 71.400 91. U.gov/edu/watercycle. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Science School http://ga.095 2.830 20.000 85. Geological Survey URL: http://ga.usgs.The water cycle.000 176.006 0.

the temperature decreases with height. Air currents drive the weather globally. and in the stratosphere the temperature increases with height. The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere that is closest to Earth. along with daily monitoring of local effects. tasteless. It is approximately 10 kilometers in depth. High-pressure weather tends to be clear and low-pressure weather tends to be cloudy. Where the air is sinking (colder air). there is low-pressure. but there are other influences on the weather including the moisture content of the air. The atmosphere is the source of the air we breathe. Weather and Climate Where is weather created? Weather is created and changed by the atmosphere.rkdn. The constantly moving air is actually the source of winds around the world. where it meets the stratosphere. the air cycles as it is cooled and warmed. where it is coldest. there is high pressure.htm Measuring and Monitoring Weather Climate | Weather Watching | Avalanches | The Sun Clouds and Precipitation | Wind A. and changeable. The whole atmosphere. in the troposphere. The difference in the temperatures in the various regions between the equator and each of the poles means that the air is warmer and colder to varying degrees around the Earth. the warmth we feel. Layers of the atmosphere From "Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science.org/outdoors/weather. specifically the troposphere. It is more intense at the equator and gradually less so towards each of the poles. The movement of the air causes the constantly changing weather patterns on the Earth. This mixture of colorless. odorless gases is the only thing that makes the earth an excellent environment for life. from the troposphere to the exosphere. is only 700 kilometers deep. There are three different zones of circulating air between the equator and each pole. Since warm air rises and cold air sinks. wet. Meteorologists' knowledge of these systems. 1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:35 PM . Hot air rises at the equator and falls at the poles where it is the coldest (receiving less of the sun's warmth). Within each of these zones." Stoddart 1998. Each layer is identified according to its variations in temperature compared to height. The places where these zones meet have some of the most turbulent weather. powerful jet streams are created where these cycling masses of air come together and separate as they continue their cycle from lower to higher parts of the troposphere. the protection we have from the sun's harmful radiation. allows them to predict weather. Except at the equator.Measuring and monitoring weather Climate http://www." Stoddart 1998. Without it. the water we drink and our protection from meteorites. we could not live here any more than we could on Mars or the Moon. which is in continuous motion. there are differences in air pressure in the troposphere. Where the air is rising (warmer air). For example. Earth's wind patterns From "Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science. which causes continuous motion of the air. How is weather created? The heat of the sun is not equal between the North and South poles and the Equator.

The climate is the average temperature. For example. especially the Weather Channel (in Canada). Predictions are generally made for a day. the Greenhouse Effect is being monitored by measuring temperature and using UK Weather climate data to compare temperature changes from historical to present time. We use this information to generalize and describe weather in a province. hail and any other form that falls from clouds). Chinook winds and rain. according to climate information. Weather and climate information is very important to those people who are planning vacations. in some areas especially). as well as plans about local and international travel. wind speed and direction. etc.Measuring and monitoring weather Climate http://www. cold temperatures. go to the weather website of your local news or government weather station and watch the weather news. This is the information that helps us make our daily decisions about traveling and how to dress for the weather. What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather . We measure weather because we are interested in knowing what the daily temperature is. On detailed weather maps lines. Climate . have very cold weather in general (which is true. It gives information about typical seasonal patterns. Web Links We measure weather and monitor climate (weather over time) for even more important reasons. The ones used by meteorologists on your local news are simplified and interpreted by the news staff so that everyone can get the information they need from the report without knowing a whole lot about weather. even comparable to some states. The further ahead we know about these conditions. This drives the formation of clouds and the resulting precipitation. Although these can be related to and do influence global weather patterns. people in the southern United States might generally assume that Canadians. with attention to particular daily changes in the patterns that bring rain. cloud cover.org/outdoors/weather. Environment Canada Weather @ cbc. without taking into consideration that some summer daily temperatures can be quite warm. snow. which are now usually electronically generated with computer technology in many formats. as humans have been having on our environment and we are learning about The Weather Underground. Mountains can influence weather such as fog. There is no way to know what specific temperature and precipitation you will receive for the specific days of your vacation.rkdn. we are able to predict when an area might be hit with such phenomena.is generally noted on a day to day basis. nor do some people want to visit Canada in the height of winter. locally. a mountain's immediate weather influence doesn't necessarily apply to a large area. show the areas where air pressure (barometric pressure) is equal. For example.is the overall weather over time. Atmospheric scientists and meteorologists measure. but you can choose dates that. a state or a country over time. We measure weather so that people can make daily clothing decisions. including the safety of people. Why do we measure weather and monitor climate? Weather conditions are usually measured and described in terms of temperature. To see more sophisticated examples. and precipitation (precipitation includes rain. 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:35 PM . the more time people have to prepare their homes and property or even evacuate. we have also been able to learn about the effect that we. record and communicate weather patterns via weather maps. or patterns generally found in a large geographical area. Generally people don't want to visit tropical areas during the rainy season. and whether that temperature is normal according to the history of the climate for that area.htm How much moisture air contains is a function of how close the air is to a body of water. two days or up to a week in advance. average rainfall. especially since the industrial revolution. Based on weather monitoring and recording conditions that lead up to a hurricane or tornado and other potentially disastrous weather. called isobars. are more likely to have warm weather and less likely to have an abundance of rain. and so on. Other geographical features that influence local weather variations include nearby mountains. Inc ways that we can make changes that are better for the environment. high winds.ca Weather Gone Wild The Weather Channel By monitoring weather over time. especially those that live in Northern Canada.

These weather stations are indicated by a dot. The bumps represent warm fronts and the spikes (or triangles) represent cold fronts.Measuring and monitoring weather Climate http://www. The direction of the key is the direction from which the wind is blowing.htm Lines with bumps and/or spike-type symbols indicate where the air masses meet. which indicates where storms are occurring. Climate | Weather Watching | Avalanches | The Sun Clouds and Percipitation | Wind Weather map From "Ultimate Visual Dictionary of Science.rkdn. 3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:35 PM .org/outdoors/weather. One of the other major symbols shows wind direction as reported from various weather stations." Stoddart 1998. A 'key' shape joined to the dot indicates the wind direction.

dry air that generally brings fair weather and light winds.com/weather-forecasting. Click Here to see a complete list of all the weather station symbols. By using these methods. reasonable accurate forecasts can be made up to seven days in advance. When viewed from above. tomorrow. What is a High Pressure System? A high pressure system is a whirling mass of cool. Weather forecasting involves a combination of computer models. or next week. winds spiral out of a high-pressure center in a clockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere. What are weather station symbols? Weather symbols are used on my weather maps as shorthand for the conditions at weather observing stations. A high pressure system is represented as a big. These bring sunny skies.weatherwizkids. red L. observations. winds spiral into a low-pressure center in a counterclockwise rotation in the Northern Hemisphere. moist air that generally brings stormy weather with strong winds.htm Weather Forecasting How do meteorologists forecast the weather? Weather forecasting is a prediction of what the weather will be like in an hour.Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids http://www. 1 of 5 9/18/2012 7:36 PM . Click Here for an easy print out of the different weather station symbols. H What is a Low Pressure System? A low pressure system is a whirling mass of warm. When viewed from above. blue H. and a knowledge of trends and patterns. A low pressure system is represented as a big.

moist. dry air is pumped up off of the Mexican Plateau. Little moisture added so air is dry mP . Require long.located over large land masses.S. and if it becomes stagnant over the midwest.S.) Tropical latitudes (T) . cP continental polar cold. slow moving weather systems in SW flow aloft can draw up moisture at mid and low levels producing precipitation.S. In the case of the Pacific NW mountains force the air to rise (orographic lifting) causing rain. mT . cT .Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids http://www. A front usually is a line of separation between warm and cold air masses. moist. since it is such a large country.S.) Marine (m) . 1.located within about 25 degrees of the equator 3. Occasionally. There are 4 general air mass classifications categorized according to the source region: polar. Air masses can cover large (hundreds of miles) areas.. resulting in stormy weather. 2 of 5 9/18/2012 7:36 PM . picking up some warmth and moisture from the warmer ocean.wintertime bitter cold can extent to Southern U. but only influences winter weather in the SE states. stable cT continental tropical hot. and unstable mT maritime tropical warm. to months. Deaths associated with the 1995 heat wave in the midwest were the result of cT and mT air which stagnated over the central and eastern part of the U.) Continental (c) .Continental tropical air usually only influences the U.wintertime source for the SW U. Below are a few examples: cP . It is usually fairly stable and dry.weatherwizkids. Most weather occurs along the periphery of these air masses at boundaries called fronts. What is a front? A front is a boundary between two different air masses. which means strong radiational cooling of air near the surface. Air masses can control the weather for a relatively long time period: from a period of days. clear nights. stable air aloft. A stable air mass. and even Florida causing crop damage. in summertime as warm. mT air that influences weather east of the Rocky Mountains comes from the Gulf of Mexico. is the subtropical East Pacific Ocean.) Polar latitudes (P) .located poleward of 60 degrees north and south 2. at any given altitude. continental and marine.com/weather-forecasting.S. unstable surface air mP maritime polar cool. are fairly similar in any horizontal direction.htm L What is an air mass? An air mass is an extremely large body of air whose properties of temperature and moisture content (humidity). dry. dry 4. tropical.Winter cP air moves over a region such as the NE Pacific. usually unstable What type of air masses affect the United States? There are many types of air masses that can affect the U.located over the oceans We can then make combinations of the above to describe various types of air masses. results in a drought. dry.

What is a warm front? A warm front is a boundary between two air masses. rapid shifts in wind direction. A cold front is represented as a blue line with the teeth pointing toward the direction on movement. An occluded front is represented as a purple line with teeth and half circles. What is a stationary front? A stationary front is a boundary between two air masses that more or less doesn’t move. clouds and precipitation patterns. moving so that the warmer air replaces the cooler air. What is a occluded front? An occluded front is a combination of two fronts that form when a cold front catches up and overtakes a warm front. A trough is represented by a hash mark line. change in moisture content. Troughs bring cloudy and rainy weather.htm How do you identify a front on a surface weather map or by your own weather observations? Look for: Sharp temperature changes over a relatively short distance. A warm front is represented as a red line with half circles pointing toward the direction on movement. What is a cold front? A cold front is a boundary between two air masses.com/weather-forecasting.Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids http://www. pressure changes. one cool and the other warm. A stationary front is represented as an alternating warm and cold front symbol. one cold and the other warm. 3 of 5 9/18/2012 7:36 PM . moving so that the colder air replaces the warmer air. but some stationary fronts can wobble back and forth for several hundred miles a day. What is a trough? A trough on a weather map is an elongated area of relatively low pressure.weatherwizkids.

large hail. etc. Doppler Radar gives forecasters the capability of providing early detection of severe thunderstorms that may bring strong damaging winds. fires. Combined with satellites. What is radar? Radar is an electronic instrument. energy flows. snow cover.com/weather-forecasting. What is NEXRAD Radar? 4 of 5 9/18/2012 7:36 PM .Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids http://www. which determines the direction and distance of objects that reflect radio energy back to the radar site. and provides estimates of hail size and rainfall amounts. and possibly tornadoes. How does Doppler Radar work? Doppler Radar gets its name from the Doppler Effect.htm What is a weather satellite? A weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth. heavy rain. It stands for Radio Detection and Ranging. This change in the frequency of sound is called the Doppler Effect. seeing the same swath of the Earth every 12 hours. are other types of environmental information collected using weather satellites. What is Doppler Radar? Doppler Radar detects precipitation intensity. These meteorological satellites see more than clouds and cloud systems. effects of pollution. This is what meteorologists use to see rain or snow.. Satellites can be either polar orbiting. radar gives forecasters the ultimate tools to provide accurate forecasts and advanced severe weather warnings.weatherwizkids. or geostationary. ice mapping. hovering over the same spot on Earth by orbiting over the equator while moving at the speed of the Earth's rotation. auroras. wind direction and speed. sand and dust storms. Have you ever listened to a train whistle as it was coming toward you? You probably noticed that the pitch of the whistle changed as the train passed you and moved away. City lights. boundaries of ocean currents. Doppler Radar measures the changes in the frequency of the signal it receives to determine the wind.

This lesson plan will teach kids about the different types of weather symbols and show them how they are used on a weather map. NEXRAD stands for Next Generation Radar. Home | About Crystal | Contact Crystal | Privacy Policy | ©Copyright 2010 Weather Wiz Kids® Weather Wiz Kids Store | Hurricanes | Tornadoes | Winter Storms | Clouds | Rain & Floods | Thunderstorms Lightning | Wind | Temperature | Wildfires | Earthquakes | Volcanoes | Climate | Optical Illusions Weather Experiments | Weather Safety | Weather Games | Weather Flashcards | Weather Jokes | Weather Folklore Weather Words | Weather Instruments | Weather Photos | Career Corner | Weather Links 5 of 5 9/18/2012 7:36 PM . This radar produces many different views of storms and rain that allows meteorologists to determine if a storm could be severe.weatherwizkids. Weather Forecasting Activities Lesson Plan: Here is a great lesson plan on learning how to forecast. so you need to have Adobe Acrobat Reader. In this activity. Science Fair Project Ideas: Here is a complete list of science fair project ideas. This is a PDF file.htm The National Weather Service has installed a new type of Doppler Radar called NEXRAD Radar. Lesson Plan: Here is a great lesson plan on weather symbols for younger kids. Lesson Plan: Here is a great lesson plan on weather symbols. Discover the science behind the weather that impacts us every day. The Doppler Effect Experiment: Here is a an experiment that teaches kids what the Doppler Effect is.com/weather-forecasting. You will need to download this file to then be able to print off copies for your students. This lesson plan requires kids to match the weather symbols to words.Weather Wiz Kids weather information for kids http://www. They can learn how the Doppler Effect works and why Doppler Radar is such an important tool in weather forecasting. kids learn about different forecasting tricks.

What is the difference between a solar ellipse and a lunar eclipse in relation to the positions of the Earth. What affect does the position of moon have on regular tides? When do the Neap Tides and Spring Tides happen with relation to the Earth and the Sun. full. but at the same time except during a lunar eclipse. asteroids. Read: Eclipses Read: Additional Space Science Facts . What is the difference between gibbous and crescent? What is the difference between waxing and waning? At what position is the moon in relation to to the Earth and Sun in its new. Note that the same side always faces the Earth. What is the difference between meteors and meteorites? Read: Solar System The moon goes through several phases while it revolves around the Earth. and quarter phases? Read: Phases of the Moon The moon has a profound affect on the Earth's tides. These include sun. and comets.Tides The word eclipse means to block. What is the difference between the apogee and the perigee? Read: Moon .Chapter 4b: Space Science Our solar systems is made up of many different types of of objects. and Sun? why aren't there solar and lunar eclipses every month. 50% of the moon is always lit by the sun (we just can't always see it). planets. Moon.

and asteroids .html Brought to you by the National Earth Science Teachers Association Our Solar System Our solar system is filled with a wide assortment of celestial bodies .The Solar System: The Sun. Comets are lumps of ice and dust that periodically come into the center of the solar system from its outer reaches. when gases and dust began to come together to form the Sun. and other bodies of the solar system.org/our_solar_system/solar_system.the Sun itself. Planets. It has an orbit of about 75. Dwarf Planets. where the outer reaches of the solar system interact with interstellar space. heat makes them start to evaporate. This photograph shows Comet Kohoutek.. When comets get close enough to the Sun. Solar system formation began billions of years ago. we find the Kuiper Belt and the Oort cloud. Moons. dwarf planets. http://www. Some comets make repeated trips to the inner solar system. life itself! The inner solar system is occasionally visited by comets that loop in from the outer reaches of the solar system on highly elliptical orbits. Asteroids..000 years! Image courtesy of NASA 1 of 5 9/18/2012 7:43 PM . Jets of gas and dust form long tails that we can see from Earth. our eight planets. In the outer reaches of the solar system.and on Earth. Still farther out. planets. which visited the inner solar system in 1973. C.windows2universe. we eventually reach the limits of the heliosphere.

http://www.windows2universe..Benefits. Dwarf Planets. when gases and dust began to come together ... Asteroids.org/our_solar_system/solar_system. Planets. C.Read more 2 of 5 9/18/2012 7:43 PM . No Ads! Member Benefits Special Offers for Teachers Teacher Newsletter Partnership Opportunities Explore Our Solar System Solar System Formation Solar system formation began billions of years ago.The Solar System: The Sun.. Moons.html Windows to the Universe Community News Opportunities Upcoming W2U Events Join Today .

. and Meteorites Meteors are streaks of light.org/our_solar_system/solar_system...Read more Comets Not long ago.. Moons. Dwarf Planets. . spinning .The Solar System: The Sun. C.Read more Meteors. which people occasionally .windows2universe. usually lasting just a few seconds. A giant.....Read more Asteroids Asteroids are small bodies that are believed to be left over from the beginning of the solar .html Sun The Sun is the closest star to Earth and is the center of our solar system.Read more 3 of 5 9/18/2012 7:43 PM .Read more Planets By the current count of astronomers. our solar system includes 8 planets and 5 dwarf planets...Read more Dwarf Planets In 2006 the International Astronomical Union (IAU) approved a new classification scheme for . http://www.. Asteroids.. Meteoroids. Planets.. many people thought that comets were a sign that something bad was about to ..

Myth. and Arts Make important cultural connections about the Sun. moons..Read more Culture.. Planets.html Poles in Space The areas around the North and South Poles of planets. and even the Sun are often interesting . not one? Earth and Space Science Concept of the Day Do you know what this word or phrase means? Salinity Click on the word to find out! Research Highlights Geologists Uncover Major Ancient Human Ancestor in South Africa Scientists have discovered two fossil skeletons of an ancient human ancestor – a species related to 4 of 5 9/18/2012 7:43 PM ..Read more Solar System Discoveries Who discovered the planets? For many of the planets in the solar system.Read more More about Our Solar System Kuiper Belt Solar System Facts Solar System News Multimedia Tours Did you know? Do you want to build your own custom comet? Did you know that comets have two tails. Dwarf Planets.. http://www.. . planets.The Solar System: The Sun. Asteroids. we'll never know! .windows2universe. C.org/our_solar_system/solar_system. Moons.... and the Moon.

.html humans that had never been found before.. C.. formed almost. a young male and an adult female. Planets. http://www. Moons.Read more 5 of 5 9/18/2012 7:43 PM .windows2universe.org/our_solar_system/solar_system. The fossils. Dwarf Planets.The Solar System: The Sun. Asteroids..

25.Neptune's atmosphere shows a striped pattern of clouds.7 million miles (9. Neptune even has a Great Dark Spot similar to Jupiter's Great Red Spot. similar to the hole in the ozone layer on Earth. when the spacecraft was 5. This cloud pattern is very similar to that of Jupiter and Saturn.2 million kilometers) from Jupiter. Image courtesy of NASA . 1979. in the methane cloud deck of Neptune. The Great Dark Spot of Neptune is thought to be a hole. Cloud details as small as 100 miles (160 kilometers) across can be seen here. wavy cloud pattern to the left of the Red Spot is a region of extraordinarily complex end variable wave motion. The colorful. Image courtesy of NASA This dramatic view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and its surroundings was obtained by Voyager 1 on Feb.

as well as at the poles of Jupiter. It orbits the Sun in the main asteroid belt between the planets Mars and Jupiter. These "curtains of light" sometimes rise 1. though. The European space probe Rosetta flew past Lutetia in July 2010. and gave us our first good look at the asteroid. The Hubble Space Telescope took this picture in 2004. Image courtesy of ESA 2010 MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/RSSD/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA. too. Have you ever seen the Southern or Northern Lights? Earth isn't the only planet that puts on these beautiful light shows. This lumpy object is about 96 km (60 miles) in diameter. . It isn't a perfect sphere. Aurora have been seen at both poles of Saturn. Lutetia is 132 km (82 miles) across one way. which are also called the "aurora".000 km) above the cloud tops near Saturn's poles.200 miles (2. but only about 76 km (47 miles) long in another direction.Lutetia is a medium-sized asteroid.

MESSENGER entered orbit around Mercury earlier in March 2011. Click on image for full size Related links: News from NSF: A Newly Discovered Solar System Contains Scaled-Down Versions of Saturn and Jupiter (2/14/08) . Temperatures there can reach over 800°F because Mercury is so close to the Sun and rotates so slowly.Image courtesy of NASA. J. the innermost planet of the solar system. and Z. ESA. it shows numerous craters across the surface of the planet. Levay (STScI) This historic image is the first ever taken from a spacecraft in orbit about Mercury. Taken on 3/29/2011 by MESSENGER. NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of This is an image of the solar system. Clarke (Boston University).

and eventually. the center of our solar system. 2010 by Randy Russell. and Neptune are all composed primarily of gas and are known as the outer planets. in recognition of its importance to life on Earth.. Last modified July 15. Jupiter. The planets. Saturn. The Sun The Sun is the closest star to Earth and is the center of our solar system.. asteroids. Planets By the current count of astronomers. comets. The planets were formed during the process of solar system formation. A giant. Earth. when gases and dust began to come together to form the Sun. and other bodies of the solar system. The Solar System The solar system is made up of the Sun. In about five billion years. erupting prominences. and comets travel around the Sun. Solar system formation began billions of years ago. These phenomena. Many cultures have had interesting myths about the Sun. planets. The four rocky planets at the center of the solar system Mercury. Uranus. Most of the bodies in the solar system travel around the Sun along nearly circular paths or orbits. spinning ball of very hot gas. our solar system includes 8 planets and 5 dwarf planets. The light from the Sun heats our planet and makes life possible. only the planets and other small bodies in the solar system remained. the Sun will evolve into a Red Giant. asteroids. solar flares. Eventually. impact our near-Earth space environment and determine our "space weather". a White Dwarf star. Mars. are known as the inner planets. . when clumps began to form in the disk of gas and dusk rotating about our young Sun. which are all related to the Sun's magnetic field. Find out more about the planets through the links below. and coronal mass ejections.Podcasts from NSF: Systemic Search Science books available along these topics. dust and gas. Venus. the 8 planets and 5 dwarf planets and their 174 known moons. the Sun is fueled by nuclear fusion reactions. and all the planets travel about the Sun in the anticlockwise direction (when viewed from above). The Sun is also an active star that displays sunspots.

ESA. the much larger planets (including Earth. Luna. and A. JPL. . Ceres. Click on image for full size Images courtesy of NASA. and the new category of in-between sized "dwarf planets". None of the distances between objects in this image are to scale.This picture shows the sizes of the original three dwarf planets (Pluto. It also shows Pluto's large moon Charon (and its two small moons Nix and Hydra) and Eris's moon Dysnomia to scale. Jupiter. Related links: Ceres Pluto Haumea Makemake Eris What is a planet? Sizes of Earth. Their scheme includes three classes of objects: "small solar system bodies" (including most asteroids and comets). Feild (STScI). and the First Five Dwarf Planets The Poles of the Dwarf Planets Dwarf Planets In 2006 the International Astronomical Union (IAU) approved a new classification scheme for planets and smaller objects in our Solar System. and Eris) as compared to Earth. and so on).

But just how big does a planet need to be to become a full-fledged planet instead of a dwarf? You might think the minimum size requirement is arbitrary. an icy band of frozen planetoids on the edge of our Solar System. Planets clear smaller objects out of their orbits by sucking the small bodies into themselves or flinging them out of orbit. They are rocky objects with round or irregular shapes up to several hundred km across. not other planets (in which case we call them moons). Both planets and dwarf planets orbit the Sun. with dwarf planets being smaller. was demoted to dwarf planet status. the largest asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Makemake. but most are much smaller. .6 billion years ago. Makemake. Scientists think that this debris may be the remains of an early planet. was also declared a dwarf planet. many of which have irregular shapes. which broke up early in the solar system. The chances of an asteroid colliding with Earth are very small! But some do come close to Earth. Asteroids Asteroids are small bodies that are believed to be left over from the beginning of the solar system 4. are unable to clear out their orbits. Dwarf planets. What's the difference between regular planets and dwarf planets? As you might guess. we can't yet determine whether they are actually dwarf planets or not. Pluto. Pluto. More observations and better telescopes will help us determine which other objects are dwarf planets. and Haumea. like Hermes (closest approach of 777. also a Trans-Neptunian Object. Both must be large enough that their own gravity pulls them into the shapes of spheres. and Haumea orbit the Sun on the frozen fringes of our Solar System in the Kuiper Belt. These asteroids lie in a location in the solar system where there seems to be a jump in the spacing between the planets.000 asteroids lie in a belt between Mars and Jupiter.000 km). their number is expected to grow.There are currently five official dwarf planets. with their weaker gravities. but the size cutoff is actually based on other properties of the object and its history in the Solar System. Several thousand of the largest asteroids in this belt have been given names. Though there are just five dwarf planets now. Eris. Scientists estimate there may be 70 dwarf planets amongst outer solar system objects that have been discovered already. The three other (for now!) dwarf planets are Eris. Astronomers speculate that there may be 200 or so dwarf planets out through the distance of the Kuiper Belt. More than 100. formerly the smallest of the nine "traditional" planets. is even further from the Sun. Ceres. Since we don't know the actual sizes or shapes of many of the objects we've found (because they are so far away). this rules out numerous smaller bodies like most asteroids. it's partly an issue of size.

usually lasting just a few seconds. Most meteoroid particles are quite small. Comets can form tails. was part of the Leonid Meteor Shower in November 1998. Meteors appear briefly as they streak through the sky. which people occasionally see in the night sky. This glow produces the bright trails of light in the sky we see as meteors. These particles. or metal from space into the atmosphere at extremely high speeds. The incredible pressure meteoroids experience when they collide with Earth's atmosphere shatters them. called "meteoroids" when they are floating around in space (think of very small asteroids). Meteors are caused by the entry of small pieces of rock. Meteors are not the same thing as comets. Comets are much larger objects that are actually still out in space. Almost all of them disintegrate in the atmosphere long before reaching the ground. This explosion often vaporizes whatever solid material is left of the meteoroid after its fiery flight through the atmosphere. transferring energy to atoms and molecules in the atmosphere. They are sometimes called "shooting stars" or "falling stars". which then release the energy by glowing. Italy Related links: Meteor Showers Geologists Discover New Way of Estimating Size and Frequency of Meteorite Impacts Meteors Meteors are streaks of light. are traveling at incredible speeds of tens of kilometers per second (tens of thousands of miles per hour) when they streak into the atmosphere. and . seen lighting up some clouds.This bright meteor. These chunks of rock or metal are called meteorites. though they are not stars at all. ranging in size from a grain of sand to a pea-sized pebble. Sometimes. a larger meteoroid actually survives to strike the ground. Very rarely. creating a meteor crater in a huge explosion. pieces of the meteoroid survive and are found in the crater or nearby. Click on image for full size Courtesy of Lorenzo Lovato of Imola. however. dust.

it will land on a comet named Churyumov-Gerasimenko! Now scientists have identified a class of comets known as small comets (though they originally were just called snowballs from space!) . When this happens we can see many meteors in a single night. though. comet Shoemaker-Levy became trapped by the gravity of Jupiter and plunged into Jupiter's atmosphere! In 1996 and 1997 we saw comet Hyakutake. Hale-Bopp was one of the brightest comets ever seen from Earth. Especially bright meteors are called fireballs. Some fireballs are so bright that they can be seen in the daytime. In 1985-1986. they don't move fast enough for the eye to notice. People didn't understand how objects in the sky moved. It would be possible to see meteors above any planet that has an atmosphere. In 1994. [Meteorology is not the science of meteors!] When they reach the ground. Halley. a spacecraft called Giotto visited the most famous comet. or a meteorite? Here's how I do it! When they are out in space. on Halley's most recent visit to the inner solar system. I hope that helps you remember too! Comets Not long ago. There is a connection. There are many historical records and works of art which record the appearance of comets and link them with terrible events such as wars or plagues. When they are streaking through the atmosphere as bright flashes of light. Now we know that comets are lumps of ice and dust that periodically come into the center of the solar system from somewhere in its outer reaches.though they do change position from night to night. they seem to hang in place in the sky. When comets get close enough to the Sun. many people thought that comets were a sign that something bad was about to happen to them. These tails can sometimes be millions of miles long. a meteoroid.which reminds me of the stalactites and stalagmites that are found under the ground in caves. we call them meteorites . and that some comets make repeated trips. The Stardust spacecraft flew by Comet Wild 2 in January 2004. The newest comet mission is Rosetta -.which reminds me of meteorology. collecting samples of the comet to return to Earth. so the sight of a comet must have been very disturbing. heat makes them start to evaporate. which is the science concerned with weather and the atmosphere. and comet Hale-Bopp. A camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured a picture of meteor in the sky above Mars in 2004! How can you remember whether something is a meteor. like asteroids. where dust and small bits of rock from the comet have been left behind. between some comets and some meteors. Jets of gas and dust form long tails that we can see from Earth. Several times each year Earth passes across the orbit of a comet. we call them meteors . they are called meteoroids. Comet Linear was discovered in 1999 and made its closest approach of the Sun in July 2000. sometimes as many as 100 or more per hour! These events are called meteor showers.

Venus was carefully observed in early Mesoamerican cultures.Read more . in our solar system and beyond. we'll never know! Some planets are so bright in the sky that the first observers of these planets are lost in the distant past of early civilizations. check out our interactive comet animation! Poles in Space The areas around the North and South Poles of planets. and even the Sun are often interesting and unusual places..the orbital plane in which the planets orbit the Sun. The links below provide an overview of what we know about the polar regions of many of the major bodies in the solar system.. moons. Planets with a large tilt have stronger seasonal behavior than planets without a tilt. and we're now still discovering Dwarf planets. The most distant planets were discovered in the last century. the characteristics of the poles are similar to those of Earth. while on some planets. We have discovered all sorts of unique behavior at these locations. Solar System Discoveries Who discovered the planets? For many of the planets in the solar system." Explore Solar System Discoveries Discovery of Mercury Mercury's orbit is so close to the Sun that it is difficult to see from the ground. On some planets and moons. we still don't have observations from their poles so can only make educated guesses of what we expect to find there based on our scientific understanding of the celestial body. This explains . Visit the links here to find out more about what we know about the discovery of planets. An important concept related to the poles of the planets is the amount of tilt of a planet's rotational axis relative to the plane of the ecliptic .Would you like build your own custom comet? If you would.

..Read more Discovery of Mars Mars is much like Venus-. so it is clearly visible to the naked eye. . .. He was using .. Saturn is clearly visible in the night sky.. The ancient ..it's very bright and therefore easily spotted in the night sky.. It is also one of the brighter objects .Read more Discovery of Jupiter Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system.Discovery of Venus Venus is one of the brightest objects in the sky.Read more Discovery of Saturn Like the inner planets and Jupiter..Read more Discovery of Neptune ..Read more Discovery of Uranus Astronomer William Herschel is credited with the discovery of Uranus in 1781..

Read more Discovery of Haumea Haumea is a dwarf planet in our Solar System... you'd probably .Read more Discovery of Ceres Ceres is the largest asteroid in the main asteroid belt.Read more Discovery of Pluto After the discovery of Neptune in 1846... . It was classified as a "dwarf ... mathematics suggested that there still might be a ..Read more . Haumea is officially the fifth dwarf planet.If you had a quiz question in school that asked what year Neptune was discovered..

The earth. in the diagram above. is at the center of the diagram. One important thing to notice is that exactly one half of the moon is always illuminated by the sun. you can look at the larger moon image. the moon and the sun. So the basic explanation is that the lunar phases are created by changing angles (relative positions) of the earth. Diagram Explanation The illustration may look a little complex at first. and waning crescent phases you have to mentally turn yourself upside down.moonconnection. At certain times we see both the sunlit portion and the shadowed portion -. 1 of 3 9/18/2012 7:53 PM . copied. third quarter. it is only shown for clarification purposes. The dotted line from the earth to the moon represents your line of sight when looking at the moon.com All Rights Reserved.Moon Phases / Lunar Phases Explained http://www. but you need to visualize it in order to understand the phases. Sunlight is shown coming in from the right. This moon phases diagram is NOT public domain and may not be used on websites. To help you visualize how the moon would appear at that point in the cycle. as the moon orbits the earth. The moon is shown at 8 key stages during its revolution around the earth. The moon phase name is shown alongside the image. just as you see in the large image. When you do this.com/moon_phases. you'll "see" that the illuminated portion is on your left.phtml Tools Moon Software Moon Phases Calendar Current Moon Phase Moon Phase Module iGoogle Moon Gadget Gravity On The Moon Understanding The Moon Phases Have you ever wondered what causes the moon phases? We all know that its appearance changes over time. printed or republished except by permission. This means for the waning gibbous. But why? The good way to understand the phases of the moon is to examine an earthmoon-sun diagram: Featured Moon Phases Explained Moon Trading Fishing By Moon Phase Moon Phase Hunting Night Photography Moon Phase Lesson Plan Moon Glossary Topics Tides Explained One Side of Moon Moon Facts Apollo Missions Apollo 13 Apollo 11 Moon Landing Hoax School Moon Activity Astrological Moon Sign The Moon Cycle Lunar Eclipse Solar Eclipse Lunar vs Solar Eclipse Apogee and Perigee Earthshine Full Moon Names Harvest Moon Blue Moon The Moon Diet Products We Recommend Moon Shop Moon Posters ©MoonConnection. Also note that the shadowed part of the moon is invisible to the naked eye. of course. Of course that is perfectly logical. but it's easy to explain.and that creates the various moon phase shapes we are all familiar with.

and waning means "shrinking" or decreasing in illumination. complex equations are used to determine the exact position and phase of the moon at any given point in time.5305882 days. The three objects are in approximate alignment (why "approximate" is explained below). happen when the moon is at a 90 degree angle with respect to the earth and sun. the new moon occurs when the moon is positioned between the earth and sun. Waxing essentially means "growing" or expanding in illumination. as the illuminated portion gradually transitions between them. Moon Software If you want to follow the phases of the moon. Roughly 4 to 7 eclipses happen in any given year. so it is waxing gibbous. and it can only happen during the new moon phase. looking at the diagram (and imagining it to scale).com/moon_phases. The word gibbous refers to phases where the moon is more than half illuminated. Major lunar or solar eclipses are relatively uncommon. the sunlit portion is still increasing. as follows: After the new moon. The shadowed portion is entirely hidden from view. the earth. Once you understand those four key moon phases. the earth. it's called a lunar eclipse. which wanes until the light is completely gone -. the light continually decreases. the sunlit portion is increasing. The first quarter and third quarter moons (both often called a "half moon"). Moon Phases Simplified It's probably easiest to understand the moon cycle in this order: new moon and full moon. and waning. 2 of 3 9/18/2012 7:53 PM . why the earth doesn't block sunlight from reaching the moon. That's true. our flagship moon software product for your personal computer. and at a full moon. Why is the synodic period different from the sidereal period? The short answer is because on earth. but it's not exactly one month. but less than half. the earth has moved approximately one month along its year-long orbit around the sun. the moon phase can't be precisely calculated by simple division of days because the moon's motion (orbital speed and position) is affected and perturbed by various forces of different strengths. the moon doesn't block the sun. waxing. moon. Thus you can simply combine the two words to create the phase name. If you were to view the moon cycling the earth from outside our solar system (the viewpoint of the stars). but most of them minor or "partial" eclipses. you may have wondered why. The synodic period or lunation is exactly 29. When the moon blocks the sun or a part of it. at special times during the year. After the full moon (maximum illumination).a new moon. The Moon's Orbit You may have personally observed that the moon goes through a complete moon phases cycle in about one month. it's called a solar eclipse. the half that we cannot see. but the moon is on the opposite side of the earth. Also. As shown in the above diagram. at a new moon. So the waning gibbous phase occurs next. and can only happen during the full moon phase. and sun are in approximate alignment. It's the time required for the moon to move to the same position (same phase) as seen by an observer on earth. altering our angle of view with respect to the moon. At a full moon. Following the third quarter is the waning crescent. The reason is because the moon's orbit about the earth is about 5 degrees off from the earth-sun orbital plane. This figure is called the sidereal period or orbital period. via computer software. The earth's orbital direction is such that it lengthens the period for earthbound observers.phtml If you'd like to examine the phases of the moon more closely. The entire illuminated portion of the moon is on the back side of the moon. but now it is more than half. Although the synodic and sidereal periods are exact numbers. gibbous. the time required is 27. The word crescent refers to the phases where the moon is less that half illuminated. and the phases in between. you should definitely take a look at QuickPhase Pro. and sun do in fact "line up". and thus altering the phase. you may be interested in this moon phases calendar software.Moon Phases / Lunar Phases Explained http://www. However. roughly two days less. This attractive and fun software covers thousands of years of past and future moon phases and is easy to use.moonconnection. so the entire sunlit part of the moon is facing us. first quarter and third quarter.3217 days. just as the new moon. so it is waxing crescent. we are viewing the moon from a moving platform: during the moon cycle. Hence. So we are seeing exactly half of the moon illuminated and half in shadow. An easy way to remember and understand those "between" lunar phase names is by breaking out and defining 4 words: crescent. After the first quarter. When the earth casts a shadow on the moon. the phases between should be fairly easy to visualize. moon.

com. Copyright | Contact | About | Privacy Policy 3 of 3 9/18/2012 7:53 PM .moonconnection. All Rights Reserved.phtml Click Here For Recommended Moon Software & Products (c) 2012 MoonConnection.Moon Phases / Lunar Phases Explained http://www.com/moon_phases.

water is kept balanced on all sides of the planet through centrifugal force. since the Sun is over 380 times farther away from the Earth than the Moon. Both the Moon and the Earth are constantly moving through space. when the Moon is farther away from the Earth (furthest distance is called apogee). its gravitational forces can increase by almost 50%. Since the gravitational influence of an object is directly related to its mass. named not for the season. but it also keeps order in the solar system. Specifically. The Moon's gravitational forces are strong enough to disrupt this balance by accelerating the water towards the Moon. and the others are subject to a low tide. The Moon's influence can also be balanced out by the position of the Sun – if the Sun and the Moon find themselves 90 degrees apart in relation to an observer on the Earth. due to the fact that the Moon is not always the same distance from the Earth. drawing even higher tides. This is because the Moon takes slightly longer than 24 hours to line up again exactly with the same point on the Earth . gravitational forces are responsible for the rise and fall of the ocean's tides all over the world. The two primary agents when it comes to the motion of the ocean are the Sun and the Moon. Click Here For Recommended Moon Software & Products Featured Moon Phases Explained Moon Trading Fishing By Moon Phase Moon Phase Hunting Night Photography Moon Phase Lesson Plan Moon Glossary Topics Tides Explained One Side of Moon Moon Facts Apollo Missions Apollo 13 Apollo 11 Moon Landing Hoax School Moon Activity Astrological Moon Sign The Moon Cycle Lunar Eclipse Solar Eclipse Lunar vs Solar Eclipse Apogee and Perigee Earthshine Full Moon Names Harvest Moon Blue Moon The Moon Diet Products We Recommend Moon Shop Moon Posters (c) 2012 MoonConnection. Therefore. and as it encircles our planet. with each tide commencing approximately 24 hours and 50 minutes later than the one before it. These forces aren't only limited to managing the dynamics of the celestial bodies.The Ocean's Tides Explained http://www.about 50 minutes more. the tides are not as spectacular. as well as keep the Moon trapped in orbit around the Earth. These are known as spring tides. This causes the water to 'bulge. The key when it comes to understanding how the tides work is to understand the relationship between the motion of our planet and its moon. However. In the same way. Tides occur regularly in the sense that they can be expected twice a day. this bulge moves with it. then the Sun can act to amplify the tidal forces. The height of the tides can vary during the course of a month. However. and this stronger force leads to high tides. but for the fact that the water "springs" higher than normal. As the Moon's orbit brings it in closer proximity to our planet (closest distance within a moon cycle is called perigee).moonconnection. the timing of high tides is staggered throughout the course of a month. the Sun has a definite advantage over the moon when it comes to the strength of its forces.phtml Tools Moon Software Moon Phases Calendar Current Moon Phase Moon Phase Module iGoogle Moon Gadget Gravity On The Moon The Ocean's Tides Explained Almost everyone is aware of the role that gravity plays in our lives. Likewise. as during a Full Moon. the smaller mass in orbit around us is able to exert its effects on us much more strongly than the star. the Sun's mass allows it to exert enough gravitational force on the oceans that it can negate some of the effects of the Moon's pull. the Moon's movement around the Earth means that the effects of its forces are in motion as well. The gravitational forces associated with the Sun and the planets interact to describe the orbits that we are familiar with. This phenomenon of lower high tides is called a neap tide. Gravity also has a more directly observable influence on our planet. All Rights Reserved. then high tides are not as high as they normally would be. Copyright | Contact | About | Privacy Policy 1 of 1 9/18/2012 7:54 PM . when the Sun lines up with the Moon and the Earth. however. The variance in the height of the world's tides also depends on the local geography of the coastline and the topography of the ocean floor.com. This is because despite its greater distance from the planet. Not only does it keep our feet planted firmly on the ground.' The Earth's rotation causes a sympathetic bulge on the opposite side of the planet as well. but their periods do not coincide with the 24 hour day that we use for our calendar. The areas of the Earth where the bulging occurs experience high tide. Since the Earth spins on its own axis.com/tides.

A Solar eclipse can be Total. A lunar Eclipse is when the Earth is between the Sun and Moon and only occurs if the Moon passes through all or some portion of Earth's umbra shadow therefore blocking sunlight directly striking the Moon’s surface. It may also occur when a celestial body passes through all or part off the shadow of another celestial body. .Sun system . Earth. and Moon are aligned exactly.Astronomers recognise three basic types of lunar eclipse .Moon . This can occur only when the Sun. Annular. or almost exactly.There are four types of solar eclipse . Types of Eclipse -Earth . It may occur when one celestial body passes in front of another therefore cutting off some or all of its light.Types of Eclipse and Definition of an Eclipse There are two primary types of eclipse which can be viewed from Earth. a Lunar Eclipse and a Solar Eclipse Definition of an Eclipse An eclipse is the total or partial obscuring of one celestial body by another. Partial and Penumbral However there is a rare forth variation known as a Total Penumbral Lunar Eclipse Total Lunar Eclipse Eclipse of the Moon (or Lunar Eclipse).Lunar Eclipses and Solar Eclipses Eclipses of the Sun / Solar Eclipse . Partial or Hybrid Eclipse of the Moon / Lunar Eclipses .Total.

and can be seen from the entire night side of the Earth and looks the same to everyone. . This can occur only when the Sun. or Solar Eclipse. An amazing coincidence that Total Solar Eclipses actually occur Eclipse of the Sun. or lunar eclipse. or Lunar Eclipse An eclipse of the Moon. or a solar eclipse. Earth. this can only occur when the Sun. The Moon also has to be at or near one of its nodes. A lunar eclipse occurs at night and only when there is a Full Moon. A lunar eclipse can last for many hours. is when the Earth is between the Sun and Moon and only occurs if the Moon passes through all or some portion of Earth's umbra shadow therefore blocking sunlight directly striking the Moon’s surface. Total Solar Eclipse Eclipse of the Sun.Eclipse of the Moon. Moon and Earth are exactly aligned producing a Total Solar Eclipse. and Moon are aligned exactly. a solar eclipse is when the Moon is between the Sun and Earth and only occurs when the Moon is at just the right distance and angle in the sky to cover the Sun. or almost exactly. Moon and Earth are exactly aligned producing a Total Solar Eclipse. a node is simply the point at which the Moon crosses the eliptic from south to north or vice versa as it orbits the Earth. this can only occur when the Sun. or Solar Eclipse An eclipse of the Sun. is when the Moon is between the Sun and Earth and only occurs when the Moon is at just the right distance and angle in the sky to cover the Sun.

The descending node is when the Moon crosses from the north to the south side of the ecliptic. The Sun is 400 times the Moon's diameter. and Earth are in alignment. The Sun is 400 times the Moon's diameter and 400 times as far away. Penumbral Lunar Eclipse . This means that the Sun and Moon appear to have the same apparent size in the sky when viewed from Earth. Moon and Earth. all being (as the Goldilocks Principle says) it's just right.1° to Earth's orbit around the Sun.5 arc in angular measurement. the Moon’s diameter still remains too small to cover the disc of the Sun and an annular eclipse will occur.A Total Solar Eclipse occurs during daytime and only when there is a New Moon. The Moon also has to be at one of its nodes. and 400 times as far away It is an amazing coincidence that total solar eclipses actually occur. When the Moon is at apogee (furthest distance from Earth) it is 11% more distant from Earth than it is a perigee. The ascending node is when the Moon crosses from the south to the north side of the ecliptic. A Total Solar Eclipse only occurs when the Moon is at or very near perigee (closest distance to Earth) and all three bodies of the Sun. the Moon's orbit crosses the ecliptic at two points / nodes two times every month. this makes the apparent size of the Moon slightly smaller in diameter.. The difference is small but is enough to change the characteristics of a solar eclipse. both having approximately the same degree of 0. Moon and Earth are in perfect alignment. As a consequence. A solar eclipse duration is short with totality lasting from a few secounds to a few minutes. a node is simply the point at which the Moon crosses the eliptic as it orbits the Earth. A Total Solar Eclipse is only seen by a minority of people along a narrow corridor and appears different according to ones location and distance from the central track of totality. The orbit of the Moon around Earth is inclined at approximately about 5. resulting in that even if all three bodies of the Sun. Moon. It is all due to size and distance between all three celestial bodies of the Sun.

The phenomena is not a type of eclipse. The side-by-side comparison of a Total Penumbra Eclipse makes it fairly easy to spot the slight tone change to the Moon’s northern hemisphere. appearing just above the horizon at opposite points in the sky. Observing live. total.In essence most penumbral lunar eclipses are actually partial penumbral eclipses with only part of the Moon passing through Earth’s penumbra shadow with the remaining section of the Moon staying outside. Although astronomers recognise three main types of lunar eclipse . there is another rare variation of a penumbral eclipse known as a Total Penumbral Eclipse.with the Moon passing entirely within the penumbra cone of Earth without touching the any part of Earth’s deeper umbra shadow. Rare Total Penumbral Eclipse A Total Penumbral Eclipse occurs when the whole of the Moon is completely immersed in the penumbra shadow of the Earth . This has led to the event sometimes being referred to as a Horizontal Eclipse. and penumbral. It occurs during every lunar eclipse at all those places on the Earth where it is sunrise or sunset at the time of the eclipse. partial. both at the same time. it is simple a phenomena which occurs during a lunar eclipse just before sunset or just after sunrise. . even with a telescope. nor a sub classification of any type of eclipse.2% of all lunar eclipses are Total Penumbral Eclipses. The reddened light that reaches the Moon comes from all the simultaneous sunrises and sunsets on the Earth and from the atmosphere of Earth bending light inwards towards the Moon. can be difficult to spot any variation as there is nothing with which to compare. but the mid and southern hemisphere of the Moon is almost indistinguishable. A Total Penumbral Eclipse is rare because the penumbra shadow cast by Earth is about as wide as the Moon itself. Although Total Penumbra Eclipses are rare there is only a slight tone change in the Moon’s appearance. About 1. Selenehelion or Selenelion Phenomena – sometimes called a Horizontal Eclipse Lunar eclipses occurring just before sunrise or just after sunset produce an amazing phenomenon A Selenehelion or selenelion event occurs during a Lunar Eclipse and can only be viewed just before sunset or just after sunrise when it is possible to simultaneously view the sun rising in the east and the eclipsed full moon setting in the west.those being.

1.476km / 2.392.684km / 865.This phenomenon may seem like an impossibility . 3.684km / 865. or high ridges are all good vantage points to view this spectacular sight. Although the Sun is much bigger than the Moon they both have the same apparant size in the sky as viewed from the surface of Earth both having approximately the same degree of 0. Diameter of Sun. 1. mountains.5 arc in angular measurement Diameter of the Sun.476km / 2. Hills.5 arc in angular measurement. A selenehelion phenomenon is best observed from high ground with clear unobstructed vision towards both ends of the horizon. 3.374 miles.to be able to see both the Sun and Moon in the sky at the same time during a lunar eclipse. One or both bodies may actually be below the horizon but atmospheric refraction causes astronomical objects to appear higher in the sky than they are in reality.159 miles Although the Sun is much bigger than the Moon they both have the same apparant size in the sky both having approximately the same degree of 0.159 miles.392. How is it possible? Depending on the observer’s location there is short window of one to a few minutes when it is possible to simultaneously view the sun rising in the east and the eclipsed full moon setting in the west.374 miles Diameter of the Moon. . Diameter of Moon.

Other Planets and Moons can also have Eclipses - The moons of Mars - Phobos and Demois Mars two moons - Phobos and Deimos

Phobos is approximately 21km / 13 miles in diameter and orbits Mars in 7 hours, 39.2 minutes. A Martian day is 24 hours 37 minutes long and due to the rapid motion of Phobos, when conditions are correct, Phobos can create two eclipses per Martian day / Sols. The event is nevertheless still classified as an annular eclipse. An observer on the surface of Mars would never experience a solar eclipse for longer than about thirty seconds.

Deimos's diameter is approximately 12km / 7.5 miles and is too small and too far from Mars to cause an eclipse of any significance. The best an observer on Mars would see is a small object in transit across the surface of the Sun. Deimos would appear about as bright as the planet Venus looks from Earth and approximately the same size.

Mars does not have spectacular eclipses as occur on Earth and the motion of Deimos is regarded more of a transit rather than a true eclipse as observed from the surface of Mars. from the surface.

Et Cetera
Some key concepts/vocabulary not specifically addressed in other places.

Difference between rotation (above left) and revolution (above right).

Astronomical Unit (AU):
• • •

approximately 93 million miles distance from the Sun to the Earth common measurement unit for distances within the solar system

Tilt of Earth's Axis = 23.5 degrees

Chapter 5: Life Science What are the five characteristics of living things? Read: Classification of Living an Non-Living Things What are photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration? Read: Plants How do plants reproduce? What is the difference between reproduction: sexual (germination, fertilization) and asexual (bulbs, roots, cuttings)? Read: Plant Reproduction How do plant cells differ from animal cells? Some of the key elements include nucleus, cytoplasm, chromosomes, cell membrane, vacuole, chloroplasts. Read: Plant and Animal Cells

By definition. Considerations The line between living and non-living things isn't always so clear. Difference Between Living & Non-Living Organisms By Jessica Martinez. Movement Non-living things cannot move under their own power. Not all living things exhibit every commonly accepted "life" characteristic.com http://www. Reproduction Living things can reproduce themselves. Animals stop growing when they reach maturity. Print Article Discover the expert in you. Scientists have developed a number of criteria for determining whether or not something can in fact be considered a living being. They pass on their genetic information to their offspring. only living things are considered to be organisms. can turn themselves to 1 of 2 9/18/2012 8:00 PM . which seem stationary. and some non-living things have characteristics of living organisms. Even plants.ehow.. eHow Contributor The simplest classification of objects is that of living and non-living..com/print/facts_5790374_difference-between-living-no. Growth All living things grow. ensuring the propagation of their species.Difference Between Living & Non-Living Organisms | eHow. while plants grow indefinitely for the duration of their lives. Respiration Living organisms all have some form of respiration that is carried out within and regulated by their own bodies. whereas all living things can move deliberately.

They can be altered by external forces in their environment. Environmental Adaptation and Response Non-living things can neither respond nor adapt to their environment..Difference Between Living & Non-Living Organisms | eHow.ehow. Resources Read this Article in Spanish Read this Article in UK English 2 of 2 9/18/2012 8:00 PM . but only living things can change their habits or metabolisms to adapt to ambient changes.com http://www. better reach the sun.com/print/facts_5790374_difference-between-living-no..

carbohydrates. page 1 Respiration. In photosynthesis. Respiration. and carbon dioxide from the air. 141-1 . carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil react with the sun’s energy to form photosynthates (sugars. with the sun’s energy to create photosynthates. Oxygen is releases as a byproduct. and other life processes Transpiration – The loss of water vapor through the stomata of leaves Photosynthesis A primary difference between plants and animals is the plant’s ability to manufacture its own food. page 3 Thought question Explain the science behind the following question 1. and proteins) and release oxygen as a byproduct. starches. In photosynthesis. What’s the impact on air temperatures when restrictions in landscape irrigation create droughty urban landscapes? The three major functions that are basic to plant growth and development are: • • • Photosynthesis – The process of capturing light energy and converting it to sugar energy. in the presence of chlorophyll using carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). and Transpiration Outline: Photosynthesis. [Figure 1] Figure 1.Colorado Master Gardenersm Program Colorado Gardener Certificate Training Colorado State University Extension CMG GardenNotes #141 Plant Physiology: Photosynthesis. reproduction. Respiration – The process of metabolizing (burning) sugars to yield energy for growth. page 2 Transpiration. the plant uses water and nutrients from the soil.

The chemical equation for respiration shows that the photosynthates are combined with oxygen releasing energy. plants (and animals) convert the sugars (photosynthates) back into energy for growth and other life processes (metabolic processes). Plant growth comes to a stop and produce loses its sweetness. In the winter. when temperatures rise above 96°F the rate of food used by respiration rises above the rate of which food is manufactured by photosynthesis. It occurs only in the chloroplasts. Notice that the equation for respiration is the opposite of that for photosynthesis. When compounds combine with oxygen. The rate of photosynthesis is somewhat temperature dependent. An implication of drought or severe restrictions on landscape irrigation is a reduction in photosynthesis and thus a decrease in plant vigor and growth. and carbon dioxide.Photosynthesis literally means to put together with light. thus limiting plant growth. and water. light. carbon dioxide. rates of photosynthesis and respiration both increase with increasing temperatures. Respiration In respiration. with tomatoes. tiny sub-cellular structures contained in the cells of leaves and green stems. while the rate of respiration continues to rise. Limiting any one of the factors on the left side of the equation (carbon dioxide. As the temperature approaches 96°F. A simple chemical equation for photosynthesis is given as follows: carbon dioxide + water + light energy = glucose 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 . A simple chemical equation for respiration is given below. In a tightly closed greenhouse there can be very little fresh air infiltration and carbon dioxide levels can become limiting. glucose + oxygen = energy + carbon dioxide + water C6H12O6 + 6O2 = energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O Chemically speaking. the rate of photosynthesis levels off. For example. the process is 141-2 . the process is similar to the oxidation that occurs as wood is burned. + oxygen + 6O2 This process is directly dependent on the supply of water. producing heat. For the tomato plant. [Figure 2] Figure 2. or light) can limit photosynthesis regardless of the availability of the other factors. Most other plants are similar. many large commercial greenhouses provide supplemental carbon dioxide to stimulate plant growth. water.

as well as the decomposition processes carried out by microorganisms in the soil. Turgidity is also important for the functioning of the guard cells. Water will continue to flow in the direction of the highest salt concentration until the salts have been diluted to the point that the concentrations on both sides of the membrane are equal. Athletes take up oxygen through their lungs. The harder they exercise. 141-3 . Turgidity is important so the plant can remain stiff and upright and gain a competitive advantage when it comes to light.often referred to as “burning”. Transpiration uses about 90% of the water that enters the plant. respiration is the burning of photosynthates for energy to grow and to do the internal “work” of living. Transpiration serves three essential roles: • • • Movement of minerals up from the root (in the xylem) and sugars (products of photosynthesis) throughout the plant (in the phloem). giving the non-woody plant parts form. athlete’s “burn” energy (sugars) as they exercise. Turgor pressure – Water maintains the turgor pressure in cells much like air inflates a balloon. Plants take up oxygen through the stomata in their leaves and through their roots. Comparison of photosynthesis and respiration Photosynthesis Produces sugars from energy Energy is stored Occurs only in cells with chloroplasts Oxygen is produced Water is used Carbon dioxide is used Requires light Respiration Burns sugars for energy Energy is released Occurs in most cells Oxygen is used Water is produced Carbon dioxide is produced Occurs in dark and light Transpiration Water in the roots is pulled through the plant by transpiration (loss of water vapor through the stomata of the leaves). for example. It is very important to understand that both plants and animals (including microorganisms) need oxygen for respiration. Water movement in plants is also a factor of osmotic pressure and capillary action. the more sugars they burn so the more oxygen they need. Again. This benefits both plants and humans. The same principles regarding limiting factors are valid for both photosynthesis and respiration. Osmotic pressure is defined as water flowing through a permeable membrane in the direction of higher salt concentrations. Turgidity also is the force that pushes roots through the soil. That is why at full speed. which surround the stomata and regulate water loss and carbon dioxide uptake. Cooling – 80% of the cooling effect of a shade tree is from the evaporative cooling effects of transpiration. The other 10% is an ingredient in photosynthesis and cell growth. they are breathing very fast. Water serves as both the solvent and the avenue of transport. This is why overly wet or saturated soils are detrimental to root growth and function.

Colorado Master Gardener training is made possible. Consumer Horticulture Specialist. U. Colorado State University Extension.cmg. These forces that link water molecules together can be overcome by gravity. Colorado State University Extension. CMG GardenNotes may be reproduced. without change or additions. No endorsement of products mentioned is intended nor is criticism implied of products not mentioned. So what should you do if you accidentally apply too much fertilizer to your lawn? Capillary action refers to the chemical forces that move water as a continuous film rather than as individual molecules. All Rights Reserved.colostate. You have observed this as water forms a meniscus on a coin or the lip of a glass. Copyright 2003-2010. Department of Agriculture and Colorado counties cooperating. Inc. Water molecules in the soil and in the plant cling to one another and are reluctant to let go. by a grant from the Colorado Garden Show. Thus when one molecule is drawn up the plant stem.S.A classic example is pouring salt on a slug. Additional Information – CMG GardenNotes on How Plants Grow (Botany): #121 #122 #131 #132 #133 #134 #135 Horticulture Classification Terms Taxonomic Classification Plant Structures: Cells. Minor Revisions December 2011 141-4 . and Structures Plant Structures: Roots Plant Structures: Stems Plant Structures: Leaves Plant Structures: Flowers #136 #137 #141 #142 #143 #144 #145 Plant Structures: Fruit Plant Structures: Seeds Plant Growth Factors: Photosynthesis. Line drawings by Scott Johnson and David Whiting. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination. for nonprofit educational use. with Michael Roll and Larry Vickerman (former CSU Extension employees). Colorado State University. The salt level in the soil’s water becomes higher than in the roots. Because the salt concentration outside the slug is highest. The poor slug becomes dehydrated and dies. in part. the water from inside the slug’s body crosses the membrane that is his "skin”. Respiration and Transpiration Plant Growth Factors: Light Plant Growth Factors: Temperature Plant Growth Factors: Water Plant Growth Factors: Hormones o o o o o o o Authors: David Whiting. and water flows from the roots into the soil’s water in an effort to dilute the concentration. Colorado Master Gardener GardenNotes are available online at www. Tissues. Envision this same scenario the next time you gargle with salt water to kill the bacteria that are causing your sore throat. Fertilizer burn and dog urine spots in a lawn are examples of salt problems. it pulls another one along with it.edu.

the plant develops the structures necessary to produce more plants.contains the ovule (egg cell) Sexual Reproduction: Seed Production Seeds are structures that contain a young plant inside a protective covering. Examples: Onion Tulip Iris Asexual Reproduction: Runners Runners are stems that run along the ground. Examples: African violets Life Cycle of plants Annuals are plants that complete their entire life cycle in one year Biennials are plants that complete their entire life cycle in two years Perennials are plants that take more than two years to grow to maturity and complete their life cycle . Sexual Reproduction: Life Cycle All flowering plants have similar life cycles. 5 plant parts used for vegetative propagation: Bulbs Runners Stem cuttings Roots Leaves Asexual Reproduction: Bulbs Bulbs are underground stems. Examples: Fruit trees Sweet potatoes Asexual Reproduction: Leaves Some houseplants produce little plants right on their leaves. flowers often have colorful petals or produce a scent. Wisteria Asexual Reproduction: When and Why? Plants do not naturally reproduce asexually. Germination begins when the seed absorbs water from the environment. Bulbs are not connected to the parent. The 4 ways that pollination can occur are wind. Asexual reproduction is a process that involves only one parent plant and produces offspring identical to the parent plant. The ways that plants disperse their seeds: Animals : fur (“hitch hikers”). The transfer of pollen from the male part of the plant (stamen) to the female part (pistil) of the plant is called pollination. the sperm cell and egg cell join together in the flower’s ovule. called “suckers”. Runners are connected to the parent. Dandelions Exploding pods: Witch hazel. Water is the main ingredient for germination to occur.knob at top of stalk Sexual Reproduction: Flowers The female part is called the pistil and consists of: Stigma . Plants reproduce asexually when there are no partners nearby or when they are damaged. The main advantage of sexual reproduction is that the best traits of both partners can be used in the new organism (offspring). the roots begin to grow down. In time. Some plants can produce new plants from root pieces. Sexual Reproduction: Fruits Plants produce fruits to help disperse their seeds. round buds made of a stem and special types of leaves. The zygote develops into the embryo part of the seed. pollen falls on a flower’s stigma. During plant development. burying seeds and ingestion of fruit Water: Coconuts Wind: Cotton plants.thin stalk Anther . During germination. The 4 main stages of a plant’s life cycle are: Germination Plant development Fertilization Seed Production Reproduction in Angiosperms First. The protective covering is called a seed coat. and insects. Sexual Reproduction: Fertilization Fertilization is the joining of a sperm cell (pollen) and an egg cell (ovule). Bulbs are big. These reproductive structures are called flowers. Then a full plant develops. Asexual Reproduction: Vegetative Propagation Vegetative propagation is the process of growing new plants from plant parts.sticky top where pollen grains land Style . or insects). while the stem and leaves grow up (gravitropism). The Structure of Flowers The Structure of a Flower Activity Sexual Reproduction: Flowers Flowers have male and female parts. The male part is called the stamen and consists of: Filament . Sexual Reproduction: Plant Development Plant development is when the seed grows into a mature plant. bats.stalk down which pollen tube grows Ovary . Examples: Grass (centipede) Ivy Strawberries Asexual Reproduction: Stem Cuttings When a piece of cut stem is planted. birds. Sexual Reproduction: Germination Germination is the early stage of seed growth. Sexual Reproduction: Flowers Flowers are the reproductive structures of some plants. Examples: Sugar cane Pineapple Asexual Reproduction: Roots Roots send out new shoots. bats. roots may form from the cutting. Runners are long and skinny. In order to attract pollinators (birds.Plant Reproduction Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Two Types of Reproduction in Plants Sexual reproduction is a process that involves two parent plants to form a new organism which differs from both parents.

. which are microscopic channels that traverse the cell walls and are considered to be communication pathways.do not have centrioles (except for lower plant forms). meaning light-absorbing pigments that help them in the photosynthesis process. . .have centrioles. However. .net/how-are-animal-cells-different-from-plant-cel. Golgi apparatus. <iframe width=”560″ height=”315″ src=”http://www.are either circular or irregular. Here are the main differences between them. . as well as cilia.have plasmodesmata. they do not take up the volume that the central vacuole in plants does.animalcells. they only have the cell membrane. which enables them to make their own food. and nucleus. microtubules and microfilaments.have a cell wall over the cell membrane.. . Source Plant Cells . but essentially they are the same and share the same functions. Flagella may be found is some cells. since their spindle fibers connect to the cell wall. . but they are mostly circular. (10 votes) 1 of 1 9/19/2012 3:24 PM . and many other materials. as they do not have a cell wall.have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls.do not have plasmodesmata. hemicellulose.do not have chloroplasts. cilia is quite rare in plant cells. Except for these particular features. they share the same organelles: endoplasmatic reticulum (smooth and rough). Both plants and animals have them.have one or more vacuoles.11 Jul 2012 | Spread the word ! How Are Animal Cells Different from Plant Cells How are Animal Cells Different From Plant Cells Cells are the functional and structural units of all living organisms. . animal cells have more dynamic shapes. Filed under: Animal Cells . but animal cells are different from plant cells in some respects.youtube.How Are Animal Cells Different from Plant Cells | Animal Cells http://www. even though there are many more vacuoles in the animal cell. .do not have a cell wall.com/embed/HO7w_bC1KJA” frameborder=”0″ allowfullscreen></iframe> These are the main differences between plant and animal cells. Animal Cells . central vacuole that usually takes up 90% of cell volume.are more square shaped. lysosomes.. which supports a rigid. ribosomes. plasma membrane. . plants do not need to have these organelles. There are certain characteristics that clearly set them apart.have a single large. typically rectangular structure that is composed of cellulose. mithochondria.

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