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Project Regarding Rare and Endangered Species of Plants in Nepal

January 27, 2012 Submitted to IDEA WILD Fort Collins, USA

Project Report

By: Laxmi Raj Joshi

Full Report An Overview of Some Rare and Endangered Plants of Nepal

Laxmi Raj Joshi


Student of M.Sc. Forestry Institute of Forestry Office of the Dean Pokhara

Supported by

IDEA WILD
420 Riddle Drive` Fort Collins, CO 80521 USA Telephone: (970) 482-6748 Email: ideawild@ideawild.org

www.ideawild.org

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Acknowledgement
The report entitled An Overview of Some Rare and Endangered Plants of Nepal has been prepared by Mr. Laxmi Raj Joshi with direct or indirect support of different organization and eminent personnel. Therefore, I would like to express my cordial thanks to following personnel and renowned organization. First, I am indepted to my parents and elder brothers whose encouragement, affection and continuous support made me possible to pave stone in the path of my life. Similarly, I would like to keep on record of their deep sense of thanks to Prof. Dr. Keshab Datt Awasthi, Prof. Dr. Abhoy Kumar Das and Associate Prof. Dr. Krishna Raj Tiwari for bringing me out since I.Sc. Forestry to M.Sc. Forestry and providing valuable advice regarding continuity of research work. In the same way, I suppose me lucky and love Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Pokhara in the sense that the institute provide me platform to develop my career and teach me bible of forestry in the last 8 years. Likewise my appreciation goes to Mr. Amar Adhikari, Dinesh Chaudhary, R.D. Chaudhary and Shambhu Paudel for their kind advice and information regarding this report. At last, but not least, during the process of preparing this report, all the necessary instruments like Laptop, Digital Camera and GPS is granted by Idea Wild, USA. In this regard, I would like to thank all the organizational members as well as Idea Wild organization for encouraging me to become a nature conservationist and providing reinforcement for biodiversity conservation. Therefore, I will remember Idea Wild forever as a source of inspiration of research of my life if I become a successful nature conservationist.

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Table of Contents

Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1 Study Area ................................................................................................................................ 5 A. Tropical-Subtropical Plants in the form of Herb/Shrub ..................................................... 6 B. Tropical-Subtropical Plants in the form of Trees .............................................................. 7 C. Temperate -Alpine Plants in the form of Herbs............................................................... 15 D. Temperate-Alpine Plants in the form of Trees ................................................................ 21

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Introduction
Nepal with its area of 147,181 sq. km. is situated between the latitude of 260 22N and 300 27 N and longitude of 800 04 E and 880 12 E occupies one third of Hinda Kush Himalayan region which is about 2500 km long. It has a length of about 885 km and an average width of 193 km. In altitude it ranges from about 70 m above sea level in the southeastern Terai to 8,848m at the summit of Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha), the highest point on the surface of the earth. Topographically Nepal is divided into six roughly parallel zones, from south to north. These are: the Terai, the Siwalik or Churia Hills, the Mahabharat Range or sometimes known as the lesser Himalaya, the middle Hills or Midland, the Main Himalayan Range and the Trans-Himalaya Valleys and Hills. Its physiographic diversity under five broad categories viz. Terai/Bhabar, the Siwalik/Churia, the middle mountain (midhills), the High Mountain and the High Himal accommodate six bioclimatic zones (Nival in High Himal above 5500m; Alpine-Upper from 4501-5500 m and Lower from 4001- 4500 m and Subalpine-Upper from 3501-4000 m, Lower from 3001-3500 m in High Mountain; Temperate-Upper from 2501- 3000 m, Lower from 20012500 m and Sub-tropical-Upper from 1501-2000 m, Lower from 1001-1500 m in Mid-Hills; Tropical: Siwalik and Terai-Upper from 501- 1000 m, below 500 m in Terai). Nepal0.09 percentage of worlds landmass is meeting point of Eastern and Western Himalaya where palearctic realm lies in Northern Part and Indo-Malayan Realm in southern part of the country. In terms of biodiversity, Nepals position is 9th in Asia and 21th in the world whereas 31th position in the world and 10th position in Asia w.r.t. flowering plants. Due to unique geography, diversity in altitude and climate, it is rich in biodiversity. Unique geography in the sense that it is the meeting point of 6 floristic regions i.e. south-east Malaysian, Sino Japanese, Irano Turkian, Sudan Jambian and Southern Indian and all the plants found in those region are also found in Nepal. In Nepal there are 35 Forest types, 75 vegetation types and 118 ecosystem types (T10, S13M, MH52, M38, and B5). According to Department of Plant Resources, 2006 has listed 10,098 species of plants in Nepal including 5848 species phanerogams among which 700 species are medicinal plants, 13 species

of plants are listed in CITES Appendices, 16 species are protected by Nepal Government and 60 species are threatened medicinal plants. Group of Organism No of species globally No of species in Nepal Nepals Floral diversity Representation in world (%) Lichens Fungi Algae Bryophytes Pteridophytes Gymnosperms Angiosperms 20,000 69,000 26,000 16,600 11,300 529 220,000 465 1,822 687 853 380 28 5,856 2.3 2.4 2.6 5.1 3.4 5.1 2.7

Source: Nepal Biodiversity Strategy, 2002 The Red Data Book categories used by IUCN have been used with the following interpretation as applicable to Nepalese conditions. 1. Extinct (EX) This category is only used for species which are no longer known to exist in the wild after repeated searches of the type localities and other known or likely places. As interpreted by IUCN, this includes species that are extinct in the wild but surviving in cultivation. This category is used for species which have not been reported from last one hundred years. It is not unlikely that this will also include some species which have uncertain taxonomic status. For example Wendlandia apppendiculata would fall in this category because of the fact that the latter collections were named otherwise. 2. Endangered (E) Taxa in danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue operating. Included are taxa whose numbers have been reduced to a critical level or whose

habitats have been so drastically reduced that they are deemed to be in immediate danger of extinction. A number of taxa whose distribution is sympatric to human occupation, have been seriously threatened by men. Talauma hodgsonii is an example this category. 3. Vulnerable (V) Taxa believed likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the causal factors continue operating. Species such as Paris polyphylla, Nardostachys grandiflora and many medicinal herbs do face great threats due to extensive collection for export. Similarly taxa like Allium przewalskianum, Podophyllum hexandrum are over exploited by local people for domestic uses. A number of epiphytic orchids have also been vulnerable due to over exploitation and extensive destruction of habitat. 4. Rare (R) Taxa with small world populations that are not at present Endangered or Vulnerable but at risk. These taxa are usually localized within restricted geographical areas or habitats or are thinly scattered over a more extensive range. A number of taxa which are restricted to narrow geographical areas and which are known only from the Type locality or the Type collection have been treated in this category. A number of endemic Saxifraga exemplifies this situation. A large number of endemic species occurring at high elevation beyond 3000 m do not seem to run into any risk because of the remoteness of the area. Nevertheless a plant which is restricted to a small valley or a small cliff is obviously more at risk than one which is more widely distributed. 5. Indeterminate (I) Taxa known to be Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable or Rare but where there is not enough information to say which of the four categories is appropriate.

Information on Nepalese taxa of plants especially the endemic do not have enough information to determine whether they are Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable or Rare. We have used our own judgment not to make a long list of indeterminate plants. 6. Insufficiently known (K) Taxa that are suspected but not definitely known to belong to any of the above categories because of the lack of information. Lack of adequate information on various species may quickly lead to categorize a plant into this group. Our judgment for this category also is more subjective and based on observation by various plant collectors. 7. Commercially threatened (CT) Taxa not currently threatened with extinction, but most or all of whose populations are threatened as a sustainable commercial resource, or will become so, unless their exploitation is regulated. A number of medicinal plants such as Aconitum spicatum, Acacia catechu, Dioscorea deltoidea have a long history of exploitation and export. This has resulted into the decline of the species in the wild. Such plants are treated under this category.

Study Area

A. Tropical-Subtropical Plants in the form of Herb/Shrub


1. Rauwolfia serpentine
Family: Apocynaceae Photo taken from Manung Nursery , Tanahu Rauwolfia serpentine English name: Serpentine Nepali name: Sarpagandha Status: Endangered It has been wiped out from natural habitat due to excessive collection of roots for export and due to habitat destruction from human encroachment. Distribution Central and Eastern Nepal; 100m-1150m altitude of subtropical zone. Habitat and Ecology: An erect, evergreen perennial undershrub found on moist and shady place and inside forest. Flowering time: May August Fruiting period: October-November Uses: The drug Rauvolfia is important therapeutic agents both as anti-hypertensive and sedatives. It is also employed for relief of various central nervous system disorders like anxiety, excitement and psychosis, schizophrenia, insanity, insomnia and epilepsy. The extracts of the roots are used for treatment of intestinal disorder, particularly diarrhea and dysentery and treatment of cholera, colic and fever. Root paste is applied to affected parts of snakebite and root juice is used to get relief from malarial fever.
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2. Swertia chirayita
Family: Gentianaceae English name: Gentiana chirayita Nepali name: Chirayita Status: Vulnerable The plant is threatened due to reduction of forest cover and over exploitation by human. Distribution: Central and Eastern Nepal; 1500m-2500m altitude of temperate to sub alpine region of Nepal. Habitat and Ecology: Chiraito is a biannual herb found on open and moist sites. Flowering time: May-October Fruiting time: October-December Propagation: Chiraito can be propagated by seed, root, leaf, stem/shoot cuttings. Uses: It is used in ordinary fever and malarial fever. Swertia chirayita Photo taken from Dhampus, Kaski Acacia catechu Photo taken from I.O.F., Pokhara

B. Tropical-Subtropical Plants in the form of Trees


3. Acacia catechu
Family: Leguminosae English name: Khair Nepali name: Khair Status: Commercially threatened

Distribution: Middle sized multipurpose tree for Terai and Lower Hills. Found in Western, Central and Eastern Nepal; 200m-1400m altitude. Habitat and Ecology: It is found n open and sandy place along river terraces. Regeneration: The pods ripen from end of November to early January. The ripens seeds are collected in January and February. Khair is regenerated by seeds. Flowering and Fruiting: May-December Uses: Khair is used for fuel wood, small timber and fodder. The most important commercial products from it are Katha and Cutch. Katha, an impure form of Catechin, is used for chewing with betel nut and Pan. Cutch, catechu tannic acid is used in tanning and dyeing ships sails.

4. Alstonia scholaris
Family: Apocynaceae Indian Devil tree Nepali name: Chhatiwan Status: Rare Bark is extensively collected for traditional medicines. Distribution: It is found on Central, Eastern and Western Nepal; 100m-1270 m altitude of Tropical zone and Low land Nepal. Alstonia scholaris Habitat and Ecology: An evergreen glabrous tree found on open ground, hill slope. Also found mixed with Schima-Castanopsis forest. Flowering period: March-April Fruiting period: May

Photo taken from near Rupa Lake, Kaski

Use: Bark is acrid, bitter, healing astringent, tonic, alterative and febrifuge. Bark is used to treat malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, chronic ulcers, dental caries and snake bites. It is reported to be employed in heart diseases, asthma and to stop bleeding of wounds. Photo taken from Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve Butea monosperma

5. Butea monosperma
Family: Leguminaceae English name: Butea Gum Tree Nepali name: Palans Status: Endangered Habitat reduced due to human encroachment for agricultural extension. Distribution: Western, Central and Eastern Nepal; 150m-1200m altitude. It occurs in subtropical

foothills along Sal forests. It is found in Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve of Nepal. Habitat and Ecology: A deciduous tree found on riverside tropical forest along Savana grasslands in the Terai. Flowering period: February-March Fruiting period: May-August Uses: The red juice exudes from natural crack is applied to ulcers and congested and septic sore throat. Butea gum is a powerful astringent which is given internally for diarrhea and dysentery. The gum is also used for dyeing and tanning. The bark is used in tumors, bleeding piles and ulcers. Roots are used in elephantiasis and curing night blindness. The root bark is used as an aphrodisiac and as analgesic and anthelmintic. Leaf possesses astringent, tonic, diuretic and aphrodisiac properties. The flowers are effective in leprosy, leucorrhoea and gout.

6. Choerospondias axillaries
Family: Anacardiaceae English: Nepali Hog Plum Nepali name: Lapsi Status: Rare The fruit is widely collected in Neapl. Except Arun valley, it does not occur naturally in Nepal. Distribution: Found on Central and Eastern Nepal; 1200m-1500m altitude. Choerospondias axillaries Habitat and Ecology: Medium to large deciduous tree grown on open places. Regeneration: Fruit ripen between October and January which contain single hard stone in which there are five seeds. The depulped seed is sown in trays or beds which contain up to 5 seedlings that can be pricked out. Flowering time: March-April Fruiting time: September-October Uses: The fruit is used as pickle. The finer bark is chewed as a substitute for areca nut. Photo taken from I.O.F., Pokhara

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7. Dalbergia latifolia
Family: Leguminosae Nepali name: Satisal Trade name: Indian Rosewood Status: Vulnerable It is highly subjected for timber collection and suffers from encroachment. Dalbergia latifolia

Distribution: Found on Western, Central and Eastern Nepal; 300m-1000m altitude. Habitat and Ecology: A deciduous tree found in riverine mixed forest. Regeneration: Pods turn brown between December and April. Direct sowing, stump planting and sowing in pot or bed is recommended. Flowering time: October Use: It is excellent fuel and used for timber.

Photo taken from I.O.F., Pokhara

8. Elaeocarpus sphaericus
Family: Ealeocarpaceae English name: Bead tree Nepali: Rudrakshiya Status: Vulnerable The forest is limited in the wild.

Elaeocarpus sphaericus
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Photo taken from I.O.F., Pokhara

Distribution: Found on Central and Eastern Nepal; 650-1700 m altitude. Habitat and Ecology: On open slope, open field and cultivation terraces. Regeneration: Germination takes place by cracking stones and treatment with sulphuric acid. Flowering and Fruiting period: May- December Uses: The fruit stone is used in rosaries. The fruit pulp is used for treating diseases of the head and epileptic fits. Photo taken from Vindabasani temple, Pokhara Mesua ferra Habitat and Ecology: A medium-sized to large evergreen tree Uses: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant excluding root show antibacterial activity. Its flowers are acrid, anodyne, digestive, constipating, and stomachic. They are used in treating asthma, leprosy, cough, fever, vomiting and impotency. The seed oil pacifies vata, and also good for skin diseases and rheumatism. Dried flowers are again used in treating bleeding hemorrhoids and dysentery with mucus, applied externally for itchiness, taken internally for nausea, erysipelas, bleeding piles, metrorrhagea, menorrhagea, excessive thirst and sweating.

9. Mesua ferra Family: Guttiferae English name: Iron wood tree Nepali name: Nageswori Status: N/A Distribution: It grows in the Himalaya from Nepal eastward, in north-eastern India, ascending to an altitude of 1500m.

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Family: Magnoliaceae English name: Champak Nepali name: Champ Status: Endangered It is threatened due to wood collection for furniture in hills and forest clearing in Terai and Dun Valleys of Nepal. Distribution: Found in Central and Eastern Nepal; 600m1300 m altitude. Michelia champaca

Habitat and Ecology: It is a large evergreen tree found in forest i.e. shorea robusta forest and Schima-Castanopsis forest. Regeneration: The seeds ripen between August and Mid-November. Seeds should be sown in beds or trays rather than directly into polypots. Fruiting time: August and Mid-November Uses: It is used for timber. Plant pacifies vitiated tridosha, Detoxify poison, worm infestation, increase digestive power, diuretic and cures fever. Flowers reduce burning sensation, cures skin disease and ulcer. Dictation of the bark acts as remedy for amenorrhea.

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Photo taken from P.N. Campus, Pokhara

10. Michelia champaca

11. Oroxylum indicum (Bigonia indica)


Family: Bignoniaceae English name: Indian Trumpet tree Nepali name: Tatelo Status: Vulnerable It is drastically reduced due to habitat destruction. Oroxylum indicum Distribution: Found in Western, Central and Eastern Nepal; 200m-1400 m altitude. Habitat and Ecology: It grows on open places and sometimes found mixed with forest. Flowering and Fruiting period: June-October Uses: Plant pacifies vitiated vata, kapha, inflammation, rheumatic arthritis, sprains, edema, neuralgia, colic, splenomegali, diarrhea, wounds and gouty arthritis.

12. Pterocarpus santilanus


Family: Leguminosae English name: Red Sandal wood Nepali name: Rakta chandan Status: Endangered
The tree is commercially valuable for its timber and for the extraction of dye, medicine and cosmetics. It has been overexploited in the past.

Pterocarpus santilanus

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Photo taken from Manung Nursery, Tanahu

Photo taken from I.O.F., Pokhara

Distribution: Found in Tropical zone at an altitude of 900 m. It is only found in south India in Kadapa and Chittoor on the Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh border. However, it is planted in private farm land (e.g. K.B. Gurung Nursery, Tanahu) in Nepal. Habitat and Ecology: Found on dry deciduous forest. Flowering Period: June-July Fruiting Period: August-September Uses: The ground wood is used for dyeing wool, cotton and leather and staining other woods. The wood is considered astringent, tonic and diaphoretic. It is also useful in bilious affections and skin diseases. A decoction of the fruit is used as an astringent tonic in chronic dysentery. Wood is diaphoretic and used for treatment of scorpion sting.

C. Temperate -Alpine Plants in the form of Herbs


Family: Ranunculaceae English name: Aconite Nepali name: Atis Status: Rare The tuber is extensively collected for its nonpoisonous medicinal properties and its demand is high. It is one of the most expensive crude drugs in Nepal. Aconitum heterophyllum Distribution: Found in Central Nepal; 2400m-4000m altitude of sub-alpine region. Habitat and Ecology: A herb that grow on wet and open place, in riverbed forest. Flowering period: July-September Photo taken from Patmara Gaun, Jumla

13. Aconitum heterophyllum

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Fruiting Period: October-December Uses: The plant root is used for the treatment of hysteria and throat diseases. Roots are taken as anti-periodic, anti-diabetic and aphrodisiac.

14. Berginia ciliate


Family: Saxifragaceae English name: Rockfoil Nepali name: Pakhanbed Status: Commercially threatened It is collected as a crude drug for its export value. Distribution: Found in Western and Central Nepal; 900m-4300m altitude of subtropical and temperate zone. Berginia ciliata Habitat and Ecology: Perennial rhizomatous herb found on moist rock legdges and shady places. Flowering period: March-April Fruiting period: June-July Uses: The dried rhizomes contain drugs Paashaanabheda which possess astringent, tonic, antiscorbutic and laxative properties. The drug is given in pulmonary affections, dysentery, ulcers, dysuria, spleen enlargement, cough and fever. The drug is used in folk-lore medicine against vertigo and headache. It is reported to be helpful in dissolving kidney stones. Rhizome is bitter, astringent, diuretic, aphrodisiac and tonic. Juice from the rhizome is taken to get relief from fever and decoction of root is used as an anti-diarrheal.

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Photo from Thamtholedimba CF, Okhaldhunga

15. Dactylorhiza hatagirea


Family: Orchidaceae English: Salep Nepali: Panchaunle Status: Endangered Distribution: Found in western and Central Nepal; 2400-3600m altitude of subalpine and alpine region. Dactylorhiza hatagirea

Habitat and Ecology: Perennial herb with five fingered tubers found on open sloppy moist fields. Propagation: The plant is propagated by sowing seed in nursery and from tuber also. Flowering period: June-July Fruiting period: August-September Uses: Root tuber is taken as expectorant, astringent, demulcent and aphrodisiac and is highly nutritious. Root power or paste of the rhizome is applied on cuts and wounds for speedy healing. Tuber is used to get rid from headache, fever, cough and cold.

16. Nardostachys grandiflora


Family: Valerianaceae English name: Spikenard Nepali: Jatamasi Status: vulnerable

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Nardostachys grandiflora

Photo from Patmara Gaun, Jumla

Photo from Patmara Gaun, Jumla

It is widely collected by villagers and shepherds who visit alpine region in late summer. It has been restricted for export by the government. Distribution: Found in Western, Central and Eastern Nepal; 3200m-5300m altitude of alpine zone. Habitat and ecology: An erect perennial herb found on open place, open and moist slope, and mossy rock. Flowering period: June-August Fruiting period: August-September Uses: The root is used as cooling, tonic, antipyretic and alexipharmic. It helps to cure cough, biliousness, blood diseases, burning sensation, leprosy, throat troubles and ulcers and improve the complexion. The root promotes the growth and blackness of hair. Root is carminative, stomachic and laxative and used in hysteria and cholera. Rhizome paste is used to treat pile.

17. Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifolia


Family: Scrophulariaceae English name: Picrorhiza Nepali name: Kutki Status: Vulnerable It is a medicinal plant of greater repute in Ayurvedic medicine. Distribution: Found in Western, Central and Eastern Nepal; 3500m-4800m altitude. Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifolia Photo from Patmara Gaun, Jumla

Habitat and Ecology: A perennial herb that grows on alpine pasture, grass and rocks and moist slope.

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Propagation: The natural regeneration of Kutki takes place by seeds and rhizomes. The plant can be propagated by seeds or by division of roots. Flowering period: May-September Fruiting period: October-November Uses: The root is used in fever, cough and cold, anemia, diabetes, hepatitis, leprosy, snake and scorpion bites, blood pressure etc. Photo from Thamtholedimba C.F. Okhaldhunga Panax pseudo-ginseng wall

18. Panax pseudo-ginseng wall


Family: Araliaceae English name: False ginseng Nepali name: Mangan Status: Vulnerable Flowering period: May-July Distribution: The plant is reported in Eastern and Central Nepal. Habitat and ecology: Perennial herb that is cultivated in cold climatic condition.

Uses: The root possess haemostatic, tonic, hormonal and circulation promoting properties and have a beneficial effect in haematemesis, metrorrhagia, menorrhagia, post-partum haematometra, ocular congestion, bloody stools, epistaxis, rheumatism, phlegmon and contusions. Root is also effective in anemia and general debility.

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19. Paris polyphylla


Family: Liliaceae English name: Satuwa Nepali name: Satuwa Status: Vulnerable It is very rare herb occurring on the humus rich floor of Oak forest. Rhizomes are widely collected for local medicinal use and also for export. Distribution: Found in Central and Eastern Nepal; 1800-3500m altitude. Habitat and Ecology: A perennial glabrous erect herb found on shady and cold places and inside forest. Flowering Period: April-May Fruiting period: June-July Uses: The rhizome possesses anthelmintic properties and considered as a vermifuge. Its powder is taken with hot water is used as tonic. Root paste is applied as wound healing. Powder from the rhizome is used for fever and food poisoning. Root paste is also applied as an antidote to the snake bite and poisonous insects. Paris polyphylla

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Photo from Thamtholedimba CF, Okhaldhunga

D. Temperate-Alpine Plants in the form of Trees


20. Abies spectabilis
Family: Pinaceae English name: Himalayan Fir Nepali: Talis Patra or Bunge Salla Status: Near Threatened
The tree is depleted due to logging and deforestation.

Distribution: Found in Central and Western Nepal between 2400m and 4400m altitude. Abies spectabilis Habitat and ecology: Abies spectabilis is the dominant tree in the forests of the central and western Himalaya, especially from c. 3,000 m to 4,000 m, with occasional occurrences on ridges below this height. It grows on cool moist sites on north facing slopes. Regeneration: Direct sowing and use of natural seedlings (wildings) collected from forest and transplanted into container gives successful results. Use: The essential oil is obtained from the plant. The dried leaves, mixed with other ingredients, Photo taken from Chandanbari, Langtang NP are used in making incense. The wood is used for fuel, construction and thatching roofs.

21. Larix himalaica


Family: Pinaceae English name: Langtang Larch Nepali name: Langtang sallo

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Larix himalaica

Photo taken from Langtang National Park

Status: Insufficiently known It occurs only in Langtang National Park and along Bhudi Gandaki. Its range of distribution is very narrow. It is naturally rare and is a border endemic. Distribution: Found in Central Nepal; 2400m-3600m altitude and Nepal and Tibet are its range countries. Habitat and ecology: It grows on southern slope and moraines. Botany: A medium size deciduous tree with spreading yellowish-grey drooping branchlets. Leaves numerous, in cluster, blade acicular, to 3 cm. Cone 4-5 cm long, light brown when ripe, with broad minutely irregularly toothed scales, and with erect bracts which are about as long as the scales and abruptly narrowed into a rigid tooth. Flowering and fruiting time: June-September Uses: It is used for firewood Photo taken from Kotila, Bajura Olea cuspidata
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22. Olea cuspidata Family: Oleaceae English name: Wild Olive Nepali name: Jaitoon Status: Rare

An eminent threat for wild olive in

Nepal is from local people for fire wood collection (Shrestha et al, 1996). Paudel, 2009 recorded that the major threat to wild olive in Bajura district are overgrazing, illegal firewood and timber collection, excessive logging of olive for building and other infrastructure construction.

Distribution: Olea fall under Trans Himalayan High Alpine Vegetation (TISC, 2002 cited in Paudel, 2009). Olive is found at an altitude of 500-2600 m above mean sea level in the TransHimalayan region. It is found naturally in different district of Far-western and Mid-Western Development region like Bajura, Dolpa, Rukum, Humla, Bajhang and Mugu Districts (Bartolucci et al, 1999). Habitat and Ecology: An evergreen tree that grows on open dry slopes. Flowering and fruiting period: March-September Uses: Olive oil offers protection against heart disease by controlling LDL (the bad cholesterol) levels while raising HDL (the "good" cholesterol) levels. Olives oil has a beneficial effect on ulcers and gastritis. It activates the secretion of bile and pancreatic hormones much more naturally than prescribed drugs. Consequently, it lowers the incidence of gallstone formation. There is also evidence that olive oil consumption may reduce the risk of breast cancer (Trichopoulou et al., 1995) and a high intake of olive oil may offer protection against a number of cancers (Gerber, 1994). In Bajura district, the tree is mainly used for firewood, fodder and oil purpose.

Family: Taxaceae English name: Himalayan yew Nepali name: Lauthsalla Status: Endangered Distribution: It is found in temperate to sub-alpine Himalayan zone between 1800m-3000m altitude. Ecology and Habitat: An evergreen tree found on moist site. Propagation: It is propagated by both seed and branch cutting.
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Taxus baccata

Photo taken from Fuwa Ban, Bajura

23. Taxus baccata

Flowering period: March-May Fruiting period: September-November Uses: Leaves and twigs are source of Taxol that is used in treatment of breast and uterus cancer. Leaves are used in asthma and bronchitis. Shoot tincture is applied in headache, falling pulse and diarrhea. Red juice of the bark is used as an inferior dye and staining.

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References
1. Adhikari, M. P. & Dahal, Y. 2067. Goods and Services available from Forest Ecosystem. Forest of Nepal (Nepali Version). GON/ MFSC, Department of Forest, Kathmandu. National Mansarobar printing Press Pvt. P.30-31. 2. Dutta, I.C. 2007. Non-Timber Forest Products of Nepal: Identification, Classification, Ethnic Uses and Cultivation. P. 3-267. 3. Dutta, I.C. 2001. A Teaching Manual on Forest Utilization: Non-Timber Forest Product Management. P. 1-2. 4. Tirtha B. Shrestha and Rabindra M. Joshi. 1996. Rare, Endemic and Endangered Plants of Nepal. WWF Nepal Program, Kathmandu, Nepal. P. 183-208. 5. Department of Plant Resources (DPR). 2007. Medicinal Plants of Nepal (Revised.), Bulletin of the Department of Plant Resource No. 28, Kathmandu, Nepal. 6. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Department of Plant Resources, 2006. Plants of Nepal: Fact Sheet. 7. His Majestys Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, 2002. Nepal Biodiversity Strategy. P. 44-45. 8. Jackson, J.K. 1994. Manual of Afforestation in Nepal. Vol. 2. Forest Research and Survey Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal. P. 338-718. 9. Paudel, S. 2009. Current Status of Wild Olive (Olea cuspidata Wall.ex G. Don) in Bajura District of Nepal. A thesis submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirement of Bachelor of Science in Forestry degree, Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Kathmandu Forestry College, Kathmandu, Nepal. 10. http://www.conifers.org/pi/Larix_himalaica.php 11. http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_mesuaf.htm 12. http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/files/pub/70/277a.pdf 13. http://www.aminaherbs.com/product.php?id_product=180 14. http://ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/434.html 15. http://ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/383.html 16. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/32104/0 17. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/42300/0 18. http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net/herbs/a/abies-spectabilis=himalayan-fir.php

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