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5077432293b6c 77.242.27.175 Albania

"

-)H"

St.

Alban's

Abbey
"By

The

Rev.

Edward
m.a.
Canon
Durham

Liddell,
Hon.

of

Illustrated F.

by

G.

Kitton

London
15

Isbister
Street

6f

Co.

Ltd.
Garden

16

Tavistock

Covent

MDCCCXCVII

r(\x^i

i^.- \-^

i
'"f

MOV

1837

St.

Alban's

Abbey

SUPPOSE
which, lands
the
St.

we

come

by
not

the
the

North-Western,
shortest
route,

though

us

upon
Ver

the
and
tower

old up
of
meets

road into
the
our

leading
the

ver

river iVlbans,

city

of

the

Abbey, eyes
to at

partly

hidden If
we

by

trees,

once.

go
come

down

green
the site

lane
of

the

left

we

shall
the

upon of the of

Verulam,

where

story
whatever

great
this with
is

church

begins.

Nothing

city
York

(which
the

in

Roman

times
a

shared

honour
a

of

being

municipium)
of
was

left

except

few

fragments
303,

its outer

walls.

From

it, in
a

the

year

dragged
9

Alban,

Roman

St.

Alban's

Abbey

civilian, Christian

who

had

given
and who

shelter
had

to

Welsh

priest,

himself After the

confessed

the

Christian
he
was

faith.
taken

being
ancient
across

scourged,
British
the

along

causeway,
Ver,

which and up the

still remains,
lane
to

river

the

top where

of

the
he

hill
was

afterwards
put
^^^
to
seen

called death. bricks

Holmhurst,
Many of his the the centuries

to

later

(in 1077)
the
now

^^U

city

followed
and
of
of

martyr

the

site

of

death, whole part

may
the the

be

composing
and

central
nave

tower

the

greater

and What

transept.
stories
one

of have and
to

these

red

Roman

tiles
form Like in site
a

could
of the human

tell !

They

witnessed
human day
are

every

suffering
which Black
they and of

glory.
found the

coins
called

this Grounds,
to

on

of of

.field Verulam,

speak
Nero.

us

of have

the

days heard

Claudius

They thousand

the who been

groans
are

of

the

seventy Dion

people
to
a.d.

said

by by

Cassius
in
10

have 61,
and

slaughtered

Boadicea

the

St.

Alban's

Abbey

angry

shouts

of

the

heathen

populace

during

the

reign
On
one

of

Diocletian.
the top
to

reaching
moment
once

of look

Abbey
at

Lane,

stop

for

the

beautiful
to

gateway,

the

grand

entrance
a

the

monastery,

and

successively
refractory

place
a

of

confinemen

for time
of

monks,
war,

prison
a

in for
use

the

the

French
now

and

gaol
the

criminals

; and

appropriated
Grammar relic of left. the The

for School.

of

the

St.

Albans only that


is
is

It

is

almost

the

conventual
rest

buildings

still

of

the

monastery

represented with
which the the

by

large
After

irregular looking
at

mounds
the
west

covered

grass.
has

at

end,
and from
enter

been
of

rebuilt
Lord

the

expense,
we

designs,
Abbey
is

Grim-

thorpe,
west

of
open

St.

Albans
the

by year

the

door,
lo

which
A.M.

all

round

after

It is best,
summer,

if possible,

to

see

the

church which
on

in

the

when drawn
in

the

heavy
is

curtain,

has

to

be

winter,

pulled
travel

one

side,

allowing

the

eye
13

to

past

the

St.

Alban's

Abbey

screen,

on

which

the of

organ
the

stands,

to

the
The

eastern

window

presbytery.
is

length
only

of by
that
nave

the of

whole

building
while by
that

exceeded

Winchester,

the
of
no

length
other

of

the

is surpassed

Gothic
As
we

church. shall
by
return

by

the

nave

again,
east

we

will
and

begin through

walking
the
at

towards
in

the

end,

glass-door

the
we

south
are

aisle.

But

even

the

first-glance
four, eyes. of the

struck

by

the

three,
meet

if not
our

styles
On

of
the

architecture left
are

which
round

the

rude

arches

first Norman somewhat


to

builder,
a;wk-

Paul

de

Caen, towards

1077,
the

joined
west

wardly

the
de

beautiful

Early

English

work
and

of of

John
W.
on

Sella

(or

of

Studham),
1214. the 1326, replaced of
the This Decorated
and

1195,
again

de

Trumpington,
the south side,

joins,
of
de

work

Richard

Wallingford,

Michael
the

Mentmore,

1335,
the sudden

which

ruin

caused in

by

fall

southern think,

arches Ruskin
14

1323.
has

It is, I

who

pointed

out

St.
that

Alban's

Abbey

the

difference
from derived, of

between

the

Byzantine
Norman

architecture,

which
and

the pointed

is
is

evidently
a

the

Gothic
Eastern
essence

reflection
Western

the

difference

between
The and and

and

Christianity.
faith
and is

of

the

Eastern
custom

repose

quiet,
its

unbroken

tradition, arch and

symbols

are

the

soft

rounded
lines.

the
of

prevailing
the
Western

horizontal
faith

The

essence

is constant
and its spirit

growth

and

endless

tion, aspirain

is wonderfully

reflected arches,

the

pointed

windows,
spires

the
of
at
two

soaring
the Gothic

and

the
Now

towering
the

builders.

worshippers
over

St. Alban's

Cathedral
have

(numbering
advantage
Are
we

thousand)
influences.

the

of

both

these

inclined

"

To For

strive mortal

to

wind
man

ourselves beneath
the

too

high
'*

sky

Then

we

look

while

we

pray of

at

the

calming,
with
to
us,

quieting
simple,

north massive

side

the
and

nave,

its
as

detail,
15

it says

St.

Alban's

Abbey

plainly
in
to

as

stones

can

speak, be your

"In

quietness
"

and

confidence be
Are

shall

strength."

Study

quiet."
we

inclined
and Then

to

be

contented

with
with what
side,

what
we

we

are,

discontented
we

only
at

have
we

look
of

the
old

south

and

hear
"

the
The

echo
reward

the
of

Jewish
one

rabbi's
is the cry
mountain

saying,
power
to

doing
"

duty
the

perform
hero
"

another
as
"

or

of

Longfellow's
with

he
on

climbed
his the

the

Excelsior the
nave

flag.
we

Leaving
our

for beyond

present, the
screen,

make

way

eastward
St.

falsely really
the

called

Cuthbert's
which
the

screen,

but the where


are now

rood-screen

separated

choir
the in

of

the

monks
services

from
were

great

nave

public
a

held.
church the
were

We

part

of

the

great
for which

which

is purely of

Norman,

except rium,

blocked

windows in by

the of

trifo-

filled

John

Wheat-

hampstead,
It is at

1420.

this

point

that
or, as

the
we

visitor

can

trace
now,

the

whole

history,

should

say

St.

Alban's

Abbey

the

evolution form slab


of
can

of

the
seen

triforium.

The the

first

rude
a

be

just

behind
a

organ

as

stone

pierced

with
the
we

cross

pommee
over

to

admit of

some

light

to

passage
see

the

roof

the

aisle.

Then

the

arch

enriched

with
in the
are

smaller
north the and

arches
south

and

ringed

pillars, Then

as

transepts. and

there

Early
as

English
in

Decorated architecture, into


a

forms,

in

which,

all
is

good

necessary

structure

transformed

thing
In

of
the

beauty. north
a

transept, round-headed
cut

on

its

west

wall, is
marks
a

just

under black

window,
stone.

small

cross

in

This

traditional when
in this

site

of

the
was

martyrdom neither
town

of

St.
nor

Alban, abbey planted


Here,

there

place,
trees,
a

but
as

only

flowery

slope Bede. Alban's built. martyris

with within
in

described
after

by
St.
was

few the

years first

death
''

303,
est
"

church
et

Ecclesia

mirandi Bedcy and i. 7.

operis

ejus

condigna."
A
second

probably
17

larger

one

was

St.

Alban's

Abbey

built
years

by

Off

a,

King

of

Mercia,

in 793,

about murdered
and,

fifty

after

Bede's

death.
of

Offa
East

had

Ethelbert, the
to

King
of
a

the

Angles,

in

hope
found

expiating
monastery

his
in

crime,

determined
of
St. Alban.

honour
now

Of

Offa's
part
two

church
of

nothing
east

remains,

unless
in
seen

it be

the

wall

of

the

transept,
may be masonry

which
bricked

rude

Saxon

windows in
Saxon

up there

and
are

bedded

the

inside
Norman

ringed
and

pillars
the

with

capitals
north and

bases

in

triforium

of

the

south

transepts.
in
a

Pillars
lathe, of
at

like
were

these, discovered
Saxon

apparently

turned the
of
St.

during

restoration
Peter's
at

the

two

churches
and
were

Monkwear-

mouth
which

St.

Paul's

Jarrow-on-Tyne,
by

both the
of

founded
century.

Benedict

Biscop
inner

in

seventh the arch


is

On
to

the north of

side

leading
a

the

presbytery

aisle

there

curious

fresco

King
On
there

Offa.
the is
east

wall

of

the
It

north
is

transept

another

fresco.

intended

by

The

Abbey

from

Holywell

Bridge

the

artist
of
our

(unknown)
Lord
to

to

represent

the

ance appear-

St. Thomas. under the


in
our

St. Thomas Lord's


arm.

has
A

his scroll

hand

placed
from

issues the
are

Saviour's abbreviated
not of
seen

mouth
Latin,

bearing
"

inscription they
"

Blessed

that

have
out
"

and Thomas's and

yet

have mouth God." This

beUeved issue

while words,

St. Lord

the

My

my

formed History

part of the
the curious

of

series and

of

paintings
History is all of
explained

of the
the

Passion

Resurrection, in
a

object

of

which
of

description

the

St.

Alban's

Abbey in

altars
year

and 1429. much

tombs
It

in is

the

Abbey,

written
as

the

worth
was

quoting,
conveyed

it shows
in

how
Middle

teaching Ages,
by

the
and

pictures,

symbols,

carvings.

"

For

the

explanation
of the this

of the

same

pictures
be
noted

and that

mysteries like
our
as

altar
of
the

it is to

truth

Transfiguration
on

of
was

Lord

Jesus
plain
to

Christ five
two

Mount

Tabor namely,
so

made three

witnesses,

to

disciples of the

and

prophets,
the

the

salvation
thereof midst which of

world,
to

which

Saviour in the

vouchsafed the
earth in the

accomplish
is,

(that
the

in
of of

Jerusalem,
the Calvary,
of habitable by

is situate

midst

world),
the testimony

on

Mount

of

the

chief namely, chosen disciple

Prophets
and

His
and

Passion, of the

Jeremiah,
chief
and His
set

Isaiah, of

witness Thomas, midst


near

His
He

Resurrection, willed
to

forth
altar

in placed
20

the

of

our

church,

at

the

the

public

St.

Alban's

Abbey

path,
out,

where that

many

persons
and the

pass their
oftener

by

and

go

the

Scriptures may
be

life-giving
read and

testimonies
seen.
"

Now

there the
and

is

in

that

place

two

true

columns,
to

shafts
one's

whereof

denote

love

God

neighbour,
and
the of

whereby
;
one

hang
of

all

the of

Law

Prophets
the earth,
to

these,
our
'

the

colour

fies signipassage, and from with other,

humiliation
Remember

according
that
return,'

the
dust

thou
and

art

unto

dust base
turret

shalt of

reaches its

the

humility
of charity.

unto

capital
the

the
red

But

with

the
at

blood
His

of

our

Saviour, denotes

besprinkled
His

scourging,
:

victory is
unto

and extended the

honour from

its

shaft,
base
turret

as

above, virtue honour."

the

of
of

capital

of

the

On

these

columns
externally

(now
the
21

destroyed)
emblems
of

were

inscribed

the

St.
Passion
is in

Alban's

Abbey

in

the
:

following

verses

(the

original

Latin)

"

Bonds,

the
the

scourge,
and

the
the

threats, thorns.

the

column,

spitting,
the
cross

Derision

blows, nails. This

stripping,
with
cause

lance
and

and

The

reed

sponge.
to

(passion)

is the

of

praise

the

faithful.
''

And

lest any

one

(the
to

record

continues)
the

deceitfully God

attribute
in in
:

himself
of
turrets

gifts
standing
written

of

alone,

the

hands
said

angels
are

together
these
verses

the

**

Whatever

merit

man

has,

preventing

grace

gives.
God
crowns

nothing

in

us

except

His

own

gifts.

"

There
of Son

are

also

two
to

angels
comfort

sent

from

the

court

heaven of God

the

only

begott

the
to
22

Father relate

in the
to

agony
same

of

His

Passion,

and

the

St.

Alban's

Abbey

celestial salvation
tenth,

court

His
and order memory
may

glorious
the

victory,
of

the
the in

of

men

restoration

the
that of

lost the

of

angels.
of
more

And

order
love in
a

the

boundless firmly
and

Christ
minds
may

the

abide

the
man

of
most

His

worshippers,
admit

that
own

humbly
between of the

his
of

wretched
Resurrection

state,

the

History

the

and

Passion

it is thus

written

"

Mors

tua,

mors

Christi,
sint

fraus

mundi,

gloria

coeli

Et

dolor

inferi

memoranda

tibi."

(The

word

memoranda

can

now

be

deciphered

"*

In

cruce

sum

pro
:

te

qui

peccas

desine
;

pro
corono,"

me

Desine,

condono

pugna,

juvo

vince,

Which

may

be

thus

translated

"Thy deceit and the


of

death,
the

the world,
of

death the under

of

Christ, of

the

glory
world

heaven,
are

grief

the
thee.
23

to

be

remembered

by

St.
"

Alban's

Abbey

am

on

the
for

cross

for
sake.
I

thee

thou

who

sinnest,
"

cease

my

Leave
:

off

(thy sin),
I
crown."

pardon

light,

help
"

conquer, be

It is to
one

noted,"

continues

the

monk,

"that

attains

from

humility
of of of God and

by

the
one's

column

of
to

the the

love
turret

neighbour
virtue
the and

charity,
life
one

and
comes

by
to

uprightness
of honour,
so
as

turret
'

John
the
Son

says

in

his
He

Epistle,
sent

God only

loved

world
that
"

that
we

His

begotten
of

might

receive

the

adoption

sons.'

The

text

is

mixture

of

John

iii. i6

with

Gal. One
noted the

iv. 5.
or

two

interesting
record

points
of

may

be is

in mention

the

above

1429.*
The

One
numerous

of
to

public
Abbey

path.
probably

pilgrims
*

the

approached

Re-edited,
way

with
Lloyd, in of

excellent
1873
;

Notes,

by
we

the
fear

late

Ridge edition

though

the

is

now

out

print.
24

St.

Alban's

Abbey

the

shrine

by

the

Wax-house
from

Gate the for have

(now
where
at

an

archway

leading
could
Then

town),
offering
entered
see

tapers shrine. north


of
as

be

obtained they
must

the the

by in

transept the may


must

door,
back of

and the the

would

front

them
we

great
places
about

stalls.
cut

These,
receive feet

judge
have have either
or

by

to

them,

been

twenty

high,
public

and
in

effectually
transept
monks'

prevented

the
into

from choir. do

intruding

the

presbytery
Perhaps
we

cannot

better, than
now

as

pilgrims
this
to

of

the

nineteenth
even

century,
we are

follow
at

path,

though
of

liberty still The

enter

where

old dare
out to

no

layman,
venture.

less path in

woman,

might
to
we

leads

the

left

of

the
so

north

transept,
and

which
to

have back Both and


the

lingered
of

long,

brings
chantry

us

the

Abbot
and is

Ramryge's
back
are

tomb.

front

richly vaulted

carved,
stone.

inside

elaborately

in

Abbot

Ramryge

was

the
25

last

but

three

of

St.

Alban's

Abbey

the of

abbots,
him remains

1492-1530.
but before small this

Hardly
tomb, death.

any

record he
bably pro-

which

erected

his

Carved of the
the

in
door

clunch,
may of be
St.

in
seen

the

spandrels
and

the
In

scourging
the
latter

execution
is
a

Alban.
the the

there

tree

to
a

represent
cross

woodland

of

Holmhurst,
to

in
a

martyr's
;

hand

show
separate
an

that

he

was

Christian
by

the

head

is of

from

the
the size

body eye-ball of
a

one-sixteenth of the

inch, about

and

executioner,

the

pin's

head,

is

on

his
to

cheek,
the old
as

ment judgtion. tradiquoted

upon
The above, side
on

him,

according
of in

symbols
carved door,

the
minute
on

Passion, detail other

are

on

one

of

the

and
name

the

rebus
of
two

Ramryge's
heads rebus for
and

in
two

the

shape
or

rams'

ryges,

ridges.

similar
a

of

beck

(brook) running
is
to

into be
seen

barrel Wells. Opposite

Bishop

Bekington

at

to

Abbot
was

Ramryge's
dispossessed
26

tomb
to

(of
make

which

his

body

St.

Alban's

Abbey

room

for
of

the

body

of

some

one

else)

is

the also

tomb

Wheathampstead,

containing
of Thomas of de

the

magnificent
for

brass
and
to

la Mare,

which

beauty hard
was

delicacy

design
This

it

would

be

match

anywhere.
executed

memorial
in the

probably
for
of

before
space has
in
or

his
to

death

1396,
close

the his

blank

left
never

record

life, "c., this

been

engraved.
be
tedious.
to
are

To

describe
It must

detail haps per-

would

be

seen,

"rubbed,"
But

be

appreciated. unnoted
features in

there chantry

curious,

the

of

Wheathampstead,
sake,
De

in
Mare's

which,
brass

for

security's

la

is

placed.
I.
a

The

curious

device the
Church. it is

inside vine,
a

and

outside of

of

beast

chewing
the that

symbol

Satan
II.

devouring
The fact of
on

in

the
Duke

shape

of

an

arch

like that
which is behind

Humphrey,
the the

ter, of Gloucesof the

south

side

Saint's

Chapel, Abbot

great

altar-screen.
was

John

of

Wheathampstead
29

twice

St.

Alban's

Abbey
Traces

elected,
work
can,

in
or

1420

and

1450.
could,
all

of

his

rather
be found
is
on

until
over

the the
in the

recent

alterations, His
of
"

Abbey.

own

symbol
wheatears, valleys
to

his

tomb the thick

design
Latin,
in

three
The

with stand

motto

in
corn,"

shall
his

with
which

allusion
famous
as

birthplace,
His

is

still

for

its seed-wheat. from


an

abbey-symbol-,
over

appears

inscription

the

arch
You

of
see

the

tower,

is the

lamb

and

the

eagle.
overhead,
the
nave,

this window
was

in

his
in

beautiful the north


on

ceiling
aisle of

in
and
use

it

engraved
Abbey.

basins,

"c.,

for

the

of

the Of altar

the

many

abbots

buried

near

the
two

high

the One

memorial is that

brasses
of Anthony with
a

of

but
de

remain

Grey,
on

who his

is in

full

armour,

gentle
which
the

smile

brass
carried married raine wife

face.

His

name-plate,
to
"

has

been
he
sov-

off, used
the fourth

record

fact
to

that
our

hole

sister

ladye,"
of Edward

namely,
IV.
30

Elizabeth
The other

Woodville,
is that

of

St.

Alban's

Abbey

Robert

Beauner, He
was

1470.
a

His

brass
servant

reads

ifs

lesson.

humble

of
He

the

monastery

for

forty-three
in
the in

years.

served
in

in

the

refectory,
He

kitchen, humble
prayer

and

the

infirmary.
faith,

died this last

penitence issues
crea

and

for

from
in
me,

his

mouth,
!
"

"Cor

mundum
in
me a

Deus

(Create
in six
sense

clean holds

heart,
a

God

!),and

his

hands
are

he

heart,
said
to

from

whjch
his
we

tears

dropping,

indicate
Before
we

of

sin.
this
at

leave look
We

central
the
a

part

of

the

Abbey
the

must

ceiling
series
of

westward

of

tower.

find

paintings
and about by

on

panels
were

of

date

between
in

1368
ix,y

1376.
five
dent, acci-

They

found

1876,

hundred under removed The

years
a

afterwards,
very

almost

inferior

painting,
and
care.

which

was

with

great

skill sixty-six

ceiling
bears

contains
a

panels,

each

of

which

coat-of-arms

beautifully
the
;
arms

emblazoned. Edmund
;

They
of
St.

comprise Alban
31

of

St.

of

St.

Oswyn,

St.

Alban's

Abbey

King
Edward
France

of

Northumbria
of
;

of and

St

George,
St. Louis
Romans,

St. of

England,
the
emperors

of

of
and

the the
a

the the

Emperor

Constantine, This
our

King

of
and

Jews.

last
Ix)rd

design
at

is

crucifix,
time

represents His
Him.

the
was

only

when
to

rightful

earthly

title

assigned

The peculiar of of Spain,

selection
one.

of They

arms

which
those of

follows the
of

is

are

Kings

of

England,
of

of Isle

Portugal,
of
Man,

Sweden,

Cyprus,

the

the the

shield shield

of of of the

Faith

(a

triple

Tau),

and
the

Salvation, the

representing
These in the it
are
a

instruments
two

Passion.
row

last

form
as

middle
remarks,

ceiling,
special

and,

Mr.

Lloyd

give
that last

dignity
instead

by

having

devices The
occupied

sacred,
rows

of
the the

heraldic.
west
are

five

towards
arms

by
of of of

the

of

Kings
of of
son

of

Aragon,
Dukes Thomas

Jerusalem,
Brittany, Woodstock
32

of

Denmark,

the
Lord of

of

Bohemia,

(youngest

St.

Alban's

Abbey

Edward and

III.),of
France,
of

the
of

Kings

of of

Sicily,

Hungary,
of

John
the

Gaunt,

Duke

Lancaster,

Edward
of

Black

Prince,

and of

of

Edmond

Langley
Last
come

(the
the

fifth shields
and

son

Edward of

III.).
Norway,

of

the

King

of
are,

Navarre,

of

Scotland.
to

The

shields

therefore,
saints,

allotted
European

four

classes,

namely,

Sovereigns,
to

the
four
III.

divine
out

persons
of

of
seven

the

Trinity,
sons

and

the

of

Edward

Jt

is to omitted,

be

noted

that also
namely,
two

Russia
out

and of the of buried


Minster,

Greece six
sons

are

and
III.,
an

of

Edward died aisle


Duke date,

William
and
of is York

Hatfield,'
in
the and

who

infant,

north

of

the of

choir

Lionel,

Clarence, marks the

who

died

in

1368.
of the

This

then,

beginning
were

series

of

paintings,
before of the
de

which

probably

executed Three the


"

1402.

King's

sons

are
"

mentioned
as

in

Liber

Benefactoribus
to

having
Each

contributed

gifts

the
33

monastery.

St.

Alban's

Abbey

panel, shield, shield,

which
has

contains also
an

figure

bearing
above the Deum,

inscription portions of
out

consisting
to
;
are

of

the
of
two

Te

amounting
nine

twenty-three

twentyrows

clauses

but

in

the
from

first

the
in

inscriptions

taken Roman

the

antiphons
for

the

Sarum

and

breviaries

Trinity

Sunday.
In

his
Mr.
was

interesting
Lloyd made hymn
of in
we

and

elaborate

paper

of
"

1867, ceiling

happily
to

suggests
as

that
it
were

the

re-echo
praise

the,
monks

glorious
were

which
below."

the

chanting
From

their
now

stalls

where the
screen

stand
the

we

turn

to

look
was

at

of Abbot
to

high

altar,

which

erected

by

William unique,
nor

Walyngforde.
for

It
screen

is

believed
at
can

be

neither All

the

Winchester, equal

that in

at

Souls,
of all
size the

Oxford,
or

it either
And

point

of

grace
are

in

design.
and
to

though
of the

figures

modern, has and had

much be

nacle taberwith been

work such skill

renewed,

yet work

sympathy
34

has

the

St.

Alban's

Abbey

done

(by
days

Mr.

Hems,
screen

of
can

Exeter),
never

that
have

in looked

its

best

the

more

beautiful
destroyed and
as,

than
at

now.

All
of

the

statues

were

the

time

the

Reformation,
'*

with

the
known
Mr.

exception
what Hucks the
these

of

St.

Erasmus,''
were,

it is not
restorer,

figures
now

the

Gibbs,

Lord

Aldenham,
the

has

adopted
the

plan
of

trating of illus-

history earliest 303,


and

of

Church

England
with
St.

from

the

times,

beginning
with
St.

Alban
of

in

ending

Richard

Chichester

in who

1253.
are

The Calendar

saints
are

or

were

in

the the

English
smaller but upon the
St.
are cross
as

included the
the
centre

among
is the
our

figures.
yet

In

cross,

without
and

figure
the
On

of
two

Lord
of
are

it.

Above
are

below

arms

eight
St.

angels.

each

side

Mary

and

John.
of
the is
our

Below

these

again
in

the

figures
of whom

twelve
Lord about alabaster,

apostles,
seated

the

centre

in

majesty.
inches

The
are

latter,
in

eighteen
and
37
can

high,

white

be

identified

St.

Alban's

Abbey

by
has

the

symbols keys
and

which
book,

they
St.
a

bear.
Andrew
;

St. his St.

Peter
cross

his

and
the

book,
Less,

St. St.

Philip

T-square
St.

James
and

Bartholomew, bear

Thomas,
of

St.

Simon

the

instruments

their

passion.
Below reredos,
these

again,
is
to

and
a

forming

the

there
body
cross,

be
the

group
as

representing
taken
mother down
and

the from
the

sacred

of

Lord

the
two

attended with

by

His

Maries, in

soldiers

and

other

figures
The

the

background. figures
in

large
hand
are

the

upper

row

on

the

right
of of

those IV..

of and

the of

Venerable
St.

Bede,

Pope

Adrian

Hugh,

Bishop

Lincoln.
Bede

is

in his

his

monk's

dress, ecclesiastical all


our

and

holds
history,

in
to

his which

hand
we

famous nearly

owe

knowledge
the

of

English

Church

history

before

eighth

century. Adrian is famous


IV.,
as

who the

stands

to

the

left of
who

Bede,

only
38

Englishman

be-

St.

Alban's

Abbey

came

Pope.
a

His
one.

connection His father, be

with
already

St. Albans
a

is

curious that
But

monk,
to

asked Abbey. his

his

son

might

admitted
for

the such

Nicholas
was

Brakespear, considered of
that

was

name,

not

sufficiently
day.
rose

learned

by abroad,

the

Abbot
and

So
to

he be and

went

by-and-by

first

Abbot
Pope

of
in

St.

Rufus,

near

Valencia,
a

finally

1154.
of

It

is

curious is

fact sented repreat

that

the

family
in St.

Brakespear
and

still
a

Albans,
is still

that

farm

King's
Farm.

Langley

called

Brakespear's

St.

Edmund's in
was

statue

on

the and

upper
arrows

row

has in

sceptre
He
was

his

right

hand,
of East

his

left.

King
by

Anglia
in
on

in

855,
His

and

slain is
at

the

Danes

870.
the

martyrdom

represented
and
at
on
a

north
mural in

door

Wells, of

curious Church,

painting

1450

Pickering

Yorkshire.

Leaving
on

the the

altar

screen,

through
altar,
we

the

doorway

right
39

of

the

pass

St. into altar


Michael,
St. St.

Alban's

Abbey

the

Saint's
are

Chapel.
statues

On
of

the

back Stephen,

of

the
St.

screen

St.
and
is

and

St.

Peter,

Virgin
Here

Child, shrine
it

and of
was

John
Alban.

the

Baptist.
In

the

the

sixteenth
for found
with

century

destroyed
But

and

used

building
bedded

material.
in and
a

from put

fragments together
by
Mr.

wall,

and

great

skill
it

severa per-

Chappie, The
shrine
once

has

recently
in

been

restored.

is

carved

clunch-slone,
and
seen

and
On

was

richly
end
can

painted

gilt.
the

the

western

still
on

be the

martyrdom
face, and the

of

St.

Alban,

eastern
or

Transfiguration.
are

Whether
doubts
on

not

"

there
ever

grave
the

the St. the

matter

"

it

contained

relics

of

Alban,
makers.
was

it beautifully

suggests
mixture

the of

faith

of

What added
to

puerile
be
seen

fable
in

their
the
were
"

faith Gesta

may

the

stones

told
the

in

Abbatum."
found

First, in

how
the
came

bones
at

miraculously
:

wall
and

Verulam

then

how

the
how
a

Danes

carried

them
40

off

monk

from

Watchers'

Gallery

St.

Alban's

Abbey
"

dreamed
to

dream

:
"

St.

Alban
complained
and bade the and intention

came/'
of
me

he his

said

the

Abbot,
in

and

resting-place
relics
to

Denmark,
thence
''

fetch

his leave

from

how

monk
enter

got
the

go

to

Denmark,

monastery

there of the in

with

the

of

getting
how he with

hold

bones

of

the and
to

saint:

succeeded his precious


by

escaping
proved

returning
be
at

burden,
the

the

genuine
shrine.
to

relics
No

miracles
that
it

wrought
was

the

wonder
a

found

necessary

keep
For

watch this

night
purpose
to

and
the the the

day.
beautiful
north upper lower of for
for
a

lery watch-galthe the the spur


or

was

erected
two

shrine monk relics, from

it who

has

storeys, and still


a

watched,
are

the
few

where the
a

curiosities
St.

"

battle-field
of
a

of

Albans, with in
a

1455
part
stone

1461
monk's and

piece

hazel
was

wand,

of

dress
a

which
pieces

found
Roman
was

coffin,

few The

of

pottery.

martjrdom
it has, alas

here

carved

in

wood,
In

but

1 been
43

nearly

destroyed.

St.

Alban's

Abbey

the

watch-gallery great
force

are

numerous

figures,
a

some

of

and
a

spirit

"

man

and

woman

seated,

with
cakes,
a

basket
a man

between

them

heaped
a

up

with

mowing
milkmg
the
ear,
a

barley,
a

stag
dog
rat
mare

couchant,

woman

cow,

holding
her

boar
two

by

cat

with and

in

mouth, her

men

wrestling,

with The
on

foal.
shrine north of of
St.

Amphibalus watch

(now -gallery)

placed has
is

the

the

also
the

been

reconstructed.
name

Amphibalus
of

traditional converted
screen

the

Welsh His
on

cleric
statue
on

who

St.

Alban.

the of is

is altar

noble
one

figure
looks
Celtic

the

right
His
in

hand

the

as

eastward. and
not

head
Roman

tonsured fashion.

in

the

the

Re-entering through
step
iron
on

the

Saint's

Chapel,
we

and
see

passing
the very the

to

the

south the

aisle,

which

pilgrims
blue and rich

knelt,

and

grille,
they

coloured

gold,
treasures

through
within.

which The

gazed
tomb

at

the
is

arched

that
44

of

Humphrey

of

Shrine

of

St,

Amphihalus

St.
built

Alban's

Abbey

Gloucester,

by

Abbot

John
by
on

Stoke

in

1447,

probably
Close
is
on

from
to

designs
step

Wheathampyou
are

stead.

the

which marked slab


was,

kneeling

an

altar-tomb, top. of
St.

with

five

crosses

the altar

This

perhaps,
An

part

of

the

Cuthbert's
de Albini,

Chapel.
or

early

abbot,

Richard

Exaquius,

i,e,,

Essay by
a

in

Normandy,
a

believing
relic Hostry, the
from We
can

himself
Cuthbert, called which
in it

cured

touching
for

of

St.

built

chapel

the

and slab,

St.

Cuthbert's,
Frosterley of

conveying
marble,

is the

of

Stanhope, hardly such


were
a

county

Durham.
of

imagine
mass

the

difficulty

conveying
when
save

of

stone

in the
no

days

there the

no

railways the old

and

roads

remains

of

Roman

highways.
Lady

The

Chapel

we

now

enter
on

through
we

the

glass
was

door.

The

part de

which
Norton

first

stand

built by

by

Roger
of
1301

in

1260who

1290

part

John

Berkhamstede,

was

buried

about

opposite
he

the

high
forty

altar,

where,

in

old

French,
47

promises

St. forty

Alban's

Abbey
to
one

years

and

days

of

pardon
; and

any
by

who
de

will pray Marinis

for

his soul
1

part

John

about

302-1

308.
of

After

the

dissolution
broke
a

the
in
a

monastery

the
and

townspeople
south

hole
made

the

north

walls,

and

so

public
a

footpath, years

which
By
a

remained charter chapel

in

use

till

few

ago.
May, mayor

of

Edward
was

VI.,

of 12th
to

1553,
and

this

granted
the
use

the

burgesses

for

of

the

Grammar

School.
Not

only

has

the

footpath

been

stopped
but by the

and

the

Grammar

School beautifully
The

removed, restored
roof,
once

chapel

has

been

Lord
time

Grimthorpe.
of Eversdon,

vaulted

of

the

1308-13 is
now

26,
of
"

only
stone.

in imitation The

of stone,

real

enrichm

of the and
fruits in
"

chapel

carvings

of flowers

include
the

nearly

all the w^ell-known Buttercups, holly, finds


Two

species
daisies,

neighbourhood.
whitethorn,

brambles,

lime,

rvy, convolvulus,
on

beech,
cusp,
or

each

its place
bosses

capital,

boss,

label.

48

School
,r

in

the

Lady

Chapel

St.

Alban's

Abbey

are

adorned
and
to

with

orchids,

the

Odontoglossum
perhaps orchid of
the in

Mandelli

Cattleya
Mr.

vexillaria,

allusion
nursery.
*

Sanders's

famous
end,
some

Towards
and the vine, and
Nature,

the
are

east

flowers

fruits
the

symbolical. the
have

The

wheat,

olive,

passion-flower,
a

the

apple,

the
it is

lily

lesson
a

to

convey.

suggested,
Christ
to

is

book
over

of

parables,

of

which leaves

Jesus
in
order

turned

the

first few continue


In

encourage

us

to

the

study.
we are

the of
number
the

ante-chapel

again
may
know in

on

the

track

the

pilgrims,
of

as

we

from
part
fact

the

shrines

grouped
It

that

before
in

Reformation.
monks'

is

curious
no

that

the

choir
;

there

were

altars path
of
to

save

the

high

altar above

whereas,

in

the

the

pilgrims
met at

mentioned,
turn
;

they

were

be

every

possibly
as

because adapted the

the
for

monks

considered
than

them

more

gain

for

godliness. through
of
51

To

ladies
Scott,

of
is

Hertfordshire, the

Sir the

Gilbert
windows

due

restoration

of
D

the

St.
Lady Chapel, tracery. At leads
now

Alban's

Abbey

in

exact

accordance

with

the

old

the

south-east the Chapel


as
a

end of

of

the

chapel

door

into adapted

the

Transfiguration,

vestry.
our

Let

us

retrace

steps
At the

by
east

the

south of Tapers side

aisle

of the the
St.
the

the

Presbytery.
of St.

end

it

was

altar

Mary

of place

the
on

Four the

;
was

in

corresponding
Michael's ante-chapel
"

north
western

altar,
were

aod

in the

end

of

the
and that

altars
St.

of

St. In

Edmund,
a

St. of

Amphibalus,"
it is said

Peter.

record
to

1428

the

people
on

flocked the south

these
of

shrines

with

great
saints.

devotion
At

days
side

their

respective

the

of the
we see

tomb

of Humphrey,
covered be it is

Duke

of Gloucester,

how
to

with

figures,
On

which
the
to

are

said the

kings
of
no
a

of

Mercia.

left the

are

remains

stairway

leading
exists. north dedicated

Treasury,
In

which south
two

longer
the
one

the

transept

side
to

once

contained

chapels,

SS,
the

Mary

and

Blaise

(after
52

the

building

of

St.
Chapel
the

Alban's

Abbey
St.

Lady

this

was

transferred
to

to

John)
The

and

other
of

devoted the On
three

St.

Stephen.
can

window
seen.

watching-chamber
the south side of
are

still
recess

be

is

containing
of

cupboards
II.,

about

the
used

time

Charles

which

still

for

their

original
are

purpose. with
are

On

Saturday

night

they

filled

loaves,

which
to

on

Sunday

afternoon

given

certain

widows.

The
the

doorway beautiful

out

of

the

south
it it
are

transept worthy found


"

and

arcading
About
a a

above
third wall
of in

of in
or

attention.

was

taking
porch,
seems

down south
to

brick of the

the

slype,"
No

south
the

transept. of
the
so

one

know

derivation found
structure

the

word

"slype," and
a

but

it

is

in is

old

chronicles,
at

similar

called chester Winit led and which


:

Canterbury, and

Norwich, Gloucester.
to

Peterborough,
At St.

Albans

in

old

days
to

the

monks'

cemetery,

perhaps

the

sumpter's

yard,
to
53

through
the

supplies

were

brought

monastery

Doorway,

Soulh

Transept

and

it

had

door

leading

into

the

great

cloister. It
now

contains
at

number times, richness

of which of On

fragments,
serve

discovered show
the

various

to in

the Abbey
be

wonderful before
an

ornament

1535.

the

arcading but
never

may

seen

enrichment

begun

St.
These

Alban's

Abbey

finished.

last

words
It
was

apply

to

all
and
was

mediaeval

architecture.
but
some never

begun
There

completed,

perfected.
to

always

improvement
feature
to

be

made,

some

beautiful
Such of
a

be

added.

feature

is

much
the

needed
western

in

the

choir,

which
by place

only
Bishop they been

return
are

stalls,

erected of has

Claughton,
occupy. converted doors, the said, picture
Dean

worthy

the

The

north

aisle
vestry. Charles
^'

recently The
II.

into
and of
Kennett

old pulpit,
with,

Abbey
and
it is

the the

Last

Supper,"
of

the

guise
of
As
we

Judas,

will

well

repay

the

nation exami-

the
pass

visitor.

again
we
see

into
on

the
our

nave

through
the

the

glass
of

door,
two

left
and

joint
of

tomb
whose in the

servants,

Roger
are

Sigar,
accounts

manner
"
"

of of

life there the

long
as

Gesta and who

Abbots,
of
a

also

of named of
of

the

visions
Christina, day by

austerities

disciple abbot

frightened
supernatural
55

the

that
his

her

knowledge

St.

Alban's

Abbey

misdoings. eighteenth
marble
marble with

Here,

also,
art,

are

traces

of
two

century
monuments.

in On

the
one

form

of of

these,
tears

cherubs

are

wiping

marble
He

marble
for

pocket-handkerchiefs.
they weep

or

she

whom

shall

be

nameless.

The

remains
a

of

frescoes

discovered
Rector
to

by of

Dr.

Nicholson,

former

learned

St.

Albans,
They
western

are

too

interesting
of of six

be

unnoticed.
on

consist side
under
on

crucifixions
Norman

the
with
of

the
them.

piers,
most

paintings
these
west.

The
nave

curious from
our

is that
Here
a

the
a

fourth

pier
of

the
Lord

is

crowned

figure green,

upon

cross

coloured
Mary the
of
on

with

lopped
left
and

boughs,
St.

St.
on

the

spectator's

John

right,
the
a

while

beneath

is and
once

representation beneath
stood
a

Annunciation,
on

that

again
of

bracket, Richard Richard


to
56

which
of

figure
name

St.

Chichester.

The

Latin has

for made

is

Ricardus,

which

been

indicate

the

saint's

St.
in

Alban's

Abbey

character
'"

the

"Acta

Sanctorum/'
;
'car
*

thus

Ri
'

'

signifies

'ridens/ smiling
'

fies signi'

carus/
!

dear

dus

'

is short

for

dulcis/

sweet

"

Nominis Si

in

primo quaeris,

rides, dulcis

dulcescis
amicus

in

imo,

medium

eris."

The

four "Three

frescoes Wise
of

facing
Men
"

south

are

those Osyth, St.

of of

the St.

(?)

of

St.

Thomas

Canterbury,

and

of

topher. Chris-

The

first

of

these

has

the

remains bids
us

of

an

inscription

in
of

black
"

letter,

which

pray

for

the

soul

Willelme

jadis
above

bal

johanne

sa

femme."

The Both
of

painting
the
as

is variously
are

interpreted.
those
to

figures
their The
crown,

meant

to
extends

be

males, ankles.
vandyked

drapery

only
of the
a

the
a

head

left

figurjB
is

has

while

third, The
was

who

apparently
refer
town

bald,
to

is
Mr.

just
W.
1.

visible.
who

black

letters of the

Tod,
This
west.

bailiff the

in from
57

142

design

is

on

seventh

pier

the

St.
On be
the

Alban's

Abbey

sixth
of
St.
own

is

large
who
after

figure
is
it
was

supposed
said
cut to

to

that

Os5rth,

have

carried

her

head
the

off

by
Her

the altar
on

Danes,
was

in
in

seventh

century.

the
screen.

north

transept,

her

statue

is

the
On

altar the
a

fifth
Becket,

pier
as

from
an

the

west

is

St.

Thomas alb, shoes,

archbishop,
maniple, in

wearing gloves,
and

dalmatic, with with


MS.
a

chasuble, cross-staff

his

hand,
In

and

blessing
Cotton
a

three
at

uplifted British
of

fingers.
Museum

the

the

there

is

record abbacy
fresco

of

the

painting
Thomas
St.

this

figure
1349
be

during
"

the The

of of

de

la

Mare,

9^-

Christopher
of

may

nised recogin

by

the
as

figure
recorded

the in

infant

Saviour

his
It

arms,

the
on

famous the

legend.
face
of St.

was

lucky

thing
As
an

to

look

Christopher.
the

old known,

Latin

distich, informs
us,

under

earliest

woodcut

"

On

the day

day
you

you

look

at

the

face
not

of
an

Christopher, evil
death."

on

that

will

assuredly
58

die

St.
The

Alban's

Abbey

slight
the

sketch interest of

here
of

given
the

by

no

means

exhausts if the this


to
once

cathedral
came

church,
to

for

Queen
account,

Sheba
and of
St.
were

life
to

and
a

read

then

pay would

visit

the

Abbey
more,
"

Albans,
said had' of

she

say

as

she

the

glory
been

of told

Solomon,

that

the

half

not

her."

Printed

by

Ballantyne,

HANSON Or Edinburgh.

""

C6.

London

"ndUdb
Crown
8vo,

Catbebrals.
is.

net

eack.

{Post free,

is.

2d,

each)

WESTMINSTER
Canterbury.

ABBEY.

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of

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The

DAILY
"

TELEGRAPH

says:
books
over

One
.

cf
.

those These
.

which
show
the

the

antiquary

will
in

linger,
which the

excerpts
^

impartial
do
not

spirit
the

work
^

is written
the

hut

they

show
the

genial
dwell

reminiscences
on

loving

spirit

in

which historic

writers

each

interesting
they and recall. story

part

of
With

the

fabrics
page
'I he
over

and
abounds,

the

memories

these

every

description
are

being
.

alike
.

admirable.
all

tions illustrawork
are

delightful;
engravings
architectural

scattered
towers,

the

artistic
and

of chapels,
morsels,
art
can

gateways,
(verybody

windows,
with
a

little

which

soul

for
The

things

of

ancient

appteciafe.*'

MORNING
* *

POST
richly

says:
and
and the
be

illustrated

well-written
the excellence

work.

The

many and but


its

beautiful
type, add

engravings,
much
to

of
the

the

paper

attractiveness

of
its

volume,

chief
its
and

interest

will

found
its

in

historical lore^
the

information^
its

biographical
its

notices, in centuries

antiquarian with

statistics,
have

anecdotes

connection

pa!ac{s

which

domiciled

for

the

Bishops

and

Archbishops

of

the

Anglican

Church.'"

The

SCOTSMAN
**

says:
as

Without

within,

the that

book
are

is
bound

worthy

of
with

the
the

theme.

Lovers
names

of
and

the

memories
sites

up
the

great

great

in

the
a

history
nd

of

Anglican

Church,
will
turn

and
over

admirers with

ofgraxeful
peculiar

spirited
the

drawing,

pleasure

pages

of

this

beautiful

work,*'

IsBisTER

"

Co.

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