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ECT 1026 Field Theory

Chapter 3 Magnetostatic
3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

Derive Magnetic field boundary conditions:


Determine normal component boundary condition

Boundary

Boundary
Two isotropic homogenous linear materials with m1 and m2

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition


Consider the interface between two different materials with dissimilar permeabilities:

Say that a magnetic field and a magnetic flux density is present in both regions How are the fields in dielectric region 1 (H1 (r) B1 (r)) related to the fields in region 2 ((H2 (r) B2 (r)) ? They must satisfy the magnetic boundary conditions

Our first boundary condition states that the tangential component of the magnetic field is continuous across a boundary. In other words:

where rb denotes to any point along the interface (e.g., material boundary).

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition


The tangential component of the magnetic field on one side of the material boundary is equal to the tangential component on the other side ! We can likewise consider the magnetic flux densities on the material interface in terms of their normal and tangential components: The second magnetic boundary condition states that the normal vector component of the magnetic flux density is continuous across the material boundary. In other words:

where rb denotes to any point along the interface (e.g., material boundary).

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

Derive Magnetic field boundary conditions:


Determine normal component boundary condition

B1 BN1 Bt1 Recall: Gausss law of magnetism

Bt2
BN2

B2
S

B ds = 0

Boundary

*Bt1 and Bt2 are Perpendicular to S

BN1S BN2S = 0 BN1S = BN2S BN1= BN2

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

Derive Magnetic field boundary conditions:


Determine tangential component boundary condition

Boundary

H1
HN1 Ht2 HN2 H2 Ht1

Recall: Amperes law of magnetism

H d l = Ienc

*Assume surface current density is JS *Jn is normal component of JS

Ht1L Ht2L = JnL Ht1 Ht2 = Jn

Since B(r ) = H(r ), these boundary conditions can likewise be expressed as:

Note again the perfect analogy to the boundary conditions of electrostatics!

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

Derive Magnetic field boundary conditions:

BN1= BN2
BN1=m1 HN1 BN2=m2 HN2

m1 HN2= m HN1 2

Normal component boundary condition:


1) Normal component of B is continuous across the boundary

2) Normal component of H is discontinuous by ratio of

m1 m

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

To solve magnetic problem involving regions of different medias, the boundary conditions of magnetic flux density and magnetic field density at the boundaries of different medias must be satisfied. The boundary conditions for magnetostatic fields is similar to the boundary conditions for electrostatic fields. In Electrostatics:

D1t= 1E1t D2t= 2E2t

E1t = E2t
D 1t D 2t 1 = 2

D1n - D2n =

rs
rs

D1n= 1E1n D2n= 2E2n

1E1n 2E2n =

Electrostatic Boundary Conditions

Finally, recall that if a layer of free charge were lying at a dielectric boundary, the boundary condition for electric flux density was modified such that:

D1n - D2n =
In Electrostatics

rs rs

1E1n 2E2n =

There is an analogous problem in magnetostatics, wherein a surface current is flowing at the interface of two magnetic materials: In this case the tangential components of the magnetic field will not be continuous!

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

Derive Magnetic field boundary conditions:

Ht1 - Ht2 = Jn

Bt1=m1 Ht1

Bt2=m2 Ht2

Bt1 m1

Bt2 = Jn m2

Tangential component boundary condition:

1) Tangential component of the magnetic field is discontinuous across the boundary, if there is a current flow along boundary

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition


Derive Magnetic field boundary conditions:

Ht1 - Ht2 = Jn
Bt1=m1 Ht1 Bt2=m2 Ht2

Bt1 m1

Bt2 = Jn m2

Since surface current can only exist in perfect conductor or superconductor. For most materials, J = 0; And

Ht1 = Ht2
Tangential component boundary condition: 2) Tangential component of the magnetic field is continuous across the boundary, if it is not a super or perfect conductor.

Instead, they are related by the boundary condition:

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition


Example 3.7-1 A body is made up of two different magnetic materials with permeabilities m1 and m2 respectively. The magnetic field intensity within material 1 at a point on the boundary between the two materials is of magnitude H1. The field intensity makes an angle 1 with the normal to the boundary at that point. Find the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field intensity at a point just across the boundary in material 2.
Normal to Boundary

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

Normal to Boundary

Given that neither of the media is a perfect conductor, the tangential component of the magnetic field intensity must be continuous across the boundary (As Jn = 0). Thus:

HN1 = H1cos1 HN2 = H2cos2

Since; BN1= BN2 m1 H = HN1 N2 m2

m2 H2 cos 2 = m1 H1 cos 1

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition


Normal to Boundary

The magnitude of field intensity in medium 2 is H2 and assume that it makes an angle 2 with the normal to the surface as shown in the diagram. The boundary condition for the normal components of the field intensity on the two sides of the boundary leads to:

Since; Ht1 - Ht2 = Jn

Ht1 = Ht2

Ht1 = H1sin1 Ht2 = H2sin2

H1 sin 1 = H2 sin 2

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

By combining the two expressions:

m2 H2 cos 2 = m1 H1 cos 1 H1 sin 1 = H2 sin 2

Eq(1) Eq(2) Eq(3)

m2 tan 2 m2 -1 = 2 = tan ( Eq(2)/Eq(1): tan 1) 1 m1 tan m1


The angle 2 defines the direction of H2. The magnitude of H2 is: H2 = H2 + H2 = 2t 2n
2

Sub 2 in Eq(3):

H2 = H 1 [sin 1 + (

m1 2 1/2 cos 1) ] m

(H 2 cos 2 ) 2 + (H 2 sin 2 ) 2

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition


Example 3.7-2 Refer to figure, determine the angle between H1 and n2 = z if H2 = (3x + 2z), mr1 = 2, and mr2 = 8, Js = 0.

n2
Medium 1, m1

H1

x - y plane

H2

Medium 2, m2

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition


Example 3.7-2 Refer to figure, determine the angle between H1 and n2 = z if H2 = (3x + 2z), mr1 = 2, and mr2 = 8, Js = 0.

H2 = (3x + 2z),
H2t H2N

z n2
1 H1

x - y plane

H2t
Medium 1, m1

HN2

H2

Medium 2, m2

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition


Example 3.7-2 Refer to figure, determine the angle between H1 and n2 = z if H2 = (3x + 2z), mr1 = 2, and mr2 = 8, Js = 0.
H2t H2N Boundary Conditions 2: Boundary Conditions 1:

BN1= BN2 mr1HN1 = mr2HN2 HN1 = mr2/mr1(HN2) HN1 = (8/2) * 2 = 8

H1t= H2t H1t= 3

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition


Example 3.7-2 Refer to figure, determine the angle between H1 and n2 = z if H2 = (3x + 2z), mr1 = 2, and mr2 = 8, Js = 0. z n2
Medium 1, m1
1

H1
HN1

x - y plane

H1t
H2

Medium 2, m2

So, tan(1) = H1t/ HN1 tan(1) = 3/ 8 1 = 20.4