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Chapter 3 Magnetostatic

3.8 Magnetic Boundary Condition

Determine normal component boundary condition

Boundary

Boundary

Two isotropic homogenous linear materials with m1 and m2

Consider the interface between two different materials with dissimilar permeabilities:

Say that a magnetic field and a magnetic flux density is present in both regions How are the fields in dielectric region 1 (H1 (r) B1 (r)) related to the fields in region 2 ((H2 (r) B2 (r)) ? They must satisfy the magnetic boundary conditions

Our first boundary condition states that the tangential component of the magnetic field is continuous across a boundary. In other words:

where rb denotes to any point along the interface (e.g., material boundary).

The tangential component of the magnetic field on one side of the material boundary is equal to the tangential component on the other side ! We can likewise consider the magnetic flux densities on the material interface in terms of their normal and tangential components: The second magnetic boundary condition states that the normal vector component of the magnetic flux density is continuous across the material boundary. In other words:

where rb denotes to any point along the interface (e.g., material boundary).

Determine normal component boundary condition

Bt2

BN2

B2

S

B ds = 0

Boundary

Determine tangential component boundary condition

Boundary

H1

HN1 Ht2 HN2 H2 Ht1

H d l = Ienc

Since B(r ) = H(r ), these boundary conditions can likewise be expressed as:

BN1= BN2

BN1=m1 HN1 BN2=m2 HN2

m1 HN2= m HN1 2

1) Normal component of B is continuous across the boundary

m1 m

To solve magnetic problem involving regions of different medias, the boundary conditions of magnetic flux density and magnetic field density at the boundaries of different medias must be satisfied. The boundary conditions for magnetostatic fields is similar to the boundary conditions for electrostatic fields. In Electrostatics:

E1t = E2t

D 1t D 2t 1 = 2

D1n - D2n =

rs

rs

1E1n 2E2n =

Finally, recall that if a layer of free charge were lying at a dielectric boundary, the boundary condition for electric flux density was modified such that:

D1n - D2n =

In Electrostatics

rs rs

1E1n 2E2n =

There is an analogous problem in magnetostatics, wherein a surface current is flowing at the interface of two magnetic materials: In this case the tangential components of the magnetic field will not be continuous!

Ht1 - Ht2 = Jn

Bt1=m1 Ht1

Bt2=m2 Ht2

Bt1 m1

Bt2 = Jn m2

1) Tangential component of the magnetic field is discontinuous across the boundary, if there is a current flow along boundary

Derive Magnetic field boundary conditions:

Ht1 - Ht2 = Jn

Bt1=m1 Ht1 Bt2=m2 Ht2

Bt1 m1

Bt2 = Jn m2

Since surface current can only exist in perfect conductor or superconductor. For most materials, J = 0; And

Ht1 = Ht2

Tangential component boundary condition: 2) Tangential component of the magnetic field is continuous across the boundary, if it is not a super or perfect conductor.

Example 3.7-1 A body is made up of two different magnetic materials with permeabilities m1 and m2 respectively. The magnetic field intensity within material 1 at a point on the boundary between the two materials is of magnitude H1. The field intensity makes an angle 1 with the normal to the boundary at that point. Find the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field intensity at a point just across the boundary in material 2.

Normal to Boundary

Normal to Boundary

Given that neither of the media is a perfect conductor, the tangential component of the magnetic field intensity must be continuous across the boundary (As Jn = 0). Thus:

m2 H2 cos 2 = m1 H1 cos 1

Normal to Boundary

The magnitude of field intensity in medium 2 is H2 and assume that it makes an angle 2 with the normal to the surface as shown in the diagram. The boundary condition for the normal components of the field intensity on the two sides of the boundary leads to:

Ht1 = Ht2

H1 sin 1 = H2 sin 2

The angle 2 defines the direction of H2. The magnitude of H2 is: H2 = H2 + H2 = 2t 2n

2

Sub 2 in Eq(3):

H2 = H 1 [sin 1 + (

m1 2 1/2 cos 1) ] m

(H 2 cos 2 ) 2 + (H 2 sin 2 ) 2

Example 3.7-2 Refer to figure, determine the angle between H1 and n2 = z if H2 = (3x + 2z), mr1 = 2, and mr2 = 8, Js = 0.

n2

Medium 1, m1

H1

x - y plane

H2

Medium 2, m2

Example 3.7-2 Refer to figure, determine the angle between H1 and n2 = z if H2 = (3x + 2z), mr1 = 2, and mr2 = 8, Js = 0.

H2 = (3x + 2z),

H2t H2N

z n2

1 H1

x - y plane

H2t

Medium 1, m1

HN2

H2

Medium 2, m2

Example 3.7-2 Refer to figure, determine the angle between H1 and n2 = z if H2 = (3x + 2z), mr1 = 2, and mr2 = 8, Js = 0.

H2t H2N Boundary Conditions 2: Boundary Conditions 1:

Example 3.7-2 Refer to figure, determine the angle between H1 and n2 = z if H2 = (3x + 2z), mr1 = 2, and mr2 = 8, Js = 0. z n2

Medium 1, m1

1

H1

HN1

x - y plane

H1t

H2

Medium 2, m2

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