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68

by

A. T. GOLDBECK

ENGINEERING DIRECTOR 1925-1956 and

J. E. GRAY

ENGINEERING DIRECTOR 1956-1967

Reviewed 1968

kA=

INCE the last printing of this manual in S 1966, one of its authors, the eminent Albert T. Goldbeck, has passed away. The other, Joseph E. Gray, is now enjoying life in retirement. The principles involved in this method of proportioning, first published in December 1942, have for so many , years formed the foundation for good concrete construction that it would be presumptuous to change any of the basic contents. Bulletin 11 is, therefore, reprinted again unchanged as a lasting tribute to these two honored members of the engineering profession. Unlike other proportioning methods, some of which contain inflexible rules regarding minimum cement factors or maximum watercement ratios, this method permits concrete to be truly engineered to fit the available aggregates and the strength and durability requirements of the job. "End result" rather than "prescription" type specifications may be employed. Often when high quality aggregate is available for both the coarse and fine fractions of the mix, a trial mix will indicate the economy that may be realized by using even lower cement factors than the average values suggested in Tables II and III. It is firmly believed and well substantiated by research data that if the proportioning method as described herein is followed, concrete possessing the desired characteristics will result with little needed adjustment in the field mix.

Engineering Director

F. P. Nichols, Jr.

66wrea& PART I

Page

Theory of Proportioning --------------------------------3 PART II Application of Theory Compressive StrengthStructural Concrete Section 1Non-Air-Entraining Concrete ---------12 Section 2Air-Entraining Concrete --------------16 PART III Application of Theory Flexural StrengthPaving Concrete Section 1Non-Air-Entraining Concrete ---------21 Section 2Air-Entraining Concrete --------------25 TABLES

Table I For Structural Concrete Placed Without Vibration Dry, Rodded Volume (b/b 0) of Coarse Aggregate (Any Type) per Unit Volume of Concrete ----------27 Table II Non-Air-Entraining Structural ConcreteC em e n t Factors (Sacks per Cubic Yard of Concrete) Required for 28-Day Compressive Strengths Listed__._ 28 Table III Air-Entraining Structural ConcreteCement Factors (Sacks per Cubic Yard of Concrete) Required for 28-Day Compressive Strengths Listed --------------

29

Table IV Properties of Concrete Having Suitable Strength and Durability for Different Classes of Work ------------30 Table V Pavement ConcreteDry, Rodded Volume of Coarse Aggregate, and Mixing Water Required -----------Table VI Approximate Voids in Stone and Gravel -------------

31 32

for

PART I THEORY OF PROPORTIONING

Adequate but not extravagant strength, workabilliy and durability are the Important qualities of most concretes. A remarkably simple method of proportioning which will produce the desired quality of concrete, irrespective of type or gradation of the aggregates Is here presented. It is founded on research, is easy to use, and is dependable and practical.

HE proportioning of concrete is the determination of the T quantities of water, cement, and aggregates which, when mixed together and properly cured, will produce concrete having the desired strength, workability, and durability. While up to the present time a great many methods for proportioning conciete have been advocated, none has found general acceptance, because either all of the factors which affect concrete design have not been taken into consideration or the design method has been too complicated for practical use. The method of proportioning that is being proposed not only utilizes the important factors which affect the design of concrete mixes, but it likewise makes their application easy and practical through the utilization of certain numerical design relationships which have been developed by research. When proportioned by the present described method, the resulting concrete generally will have the required strength, workability, and durability. On important and extensive work, preliminary

laboratory investigations should be made to establish the concrete proportions with the materials to be used on the job. Although properties of concrete other than strength, such as fire resistance, impermeability, absorption,. shrinkage, etc., frequently are of importance, they are not treated in the present discussion. Fire resistance depends upon the thermal properties of the aggregates and is controlled largely by the coarse aggregate. The property of impermeability is closely proportional to compressive strength. Absorption and shrinkage are properties which are essentially a function of the characteristics of the mortar. Fundamental Conceptions Involved in Concrete Proportioning Solid Volume It is important that certain fundamental conceptions used in the present method of concrete proportioning be thoroughly understood. The first of these is that of "solid volume." The solid volume in a given quantity, for illustration a cubic foot of aggregate, is the volume occupied by the pieces of aggregate alone, excluding the voids. The remaining portion is the volume of voids between the pieces of aggregate. Or conceived in another way, the solid volume of aggregate in a cubic foot of aggregate is the volume which the aggregate would occupy if it were melted into a solid piece without changing its density. The remaining volume, that of air in the cubic foot measure, would be equal to the volume of voids in the aggregate before it was melted into a solid mass. The solid volume in a quantity of aggregate may readily be calculated.' First, the "bulk specific gravity" must be known. This is simply the ratio of the dry weight of a substance to the weight of an equal volume of water.' To illustrate the term "specific gravity" more clearly, imagine a quantity of stone introduced into a vessel, Figure 1, previously filled with water up to the level of the overflow spout. When the stone, weighing W pounds, is carefully immersed in

'This statement, for simplicity, makes no mention of the different kinds of specific gravity or of the precautions necessary in testing. See Standard Method of Test for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate, ASTM Designation: C 127-42 and also Standard Method of Test for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate, ASTM Designation: C 128-42

FIGURE 1

the water, it displaces a volume of water, V, equal to its own solid volume and weighing W1 pounds. The weight of water (W1) displaced by the stone equals its volume in cubic feet (V) multiplied by the weight of a cubic foot of water (62.4 lb) or W 1 = V X 62.4 lb.

Then specific gravity W w W vx62.4 or V =_______ sp gr _ X62.4 solid volume in cubic feet of stone weighing W pounds

w

Volume of Concrete Is the Summation of the Solid Volumes of Its Components

The volume occupied by a concrete mixture is equal to the summation of the solid volumes occupied by its respective ingredients. To better understand the application of solid volume, consider the following practical problem. Let it be assumed that someone not familiar with modern concrete specifications and design methods has specified that the concrete shall be in the proportiois of 1:2:4 by loose volume. The ratio of water to cement by volume (W/C) also is

specified to be 8 gal per sack of cement. The materials are found to have the following characteristics:

Cement Sand Stone Water 'Weight, Bulk lb per cu ft Specific Gravity 94 (one sack) 3.15 98.0 (loose volume) 2.63 95.6 (loose volume) 2.73 62.4 (7.5 gal = 1 cu ft)

Then a batch of concrete containing one sack of cement will produce a volume of concrete calculated as follows:

Solid Volume, cu ft per sack of cement 94 Cement X 62.4 3.15 2 X98 Sand X 62.4 2.63 X 95.6 Stone X 62.4 = 2.73 Water (W/C) 8 0.48 1.20 2.25 1.07

5.00 Total Quantities required per cubic yard of concrete: 5.4 27/5.00 Cement, sacks - 2 X 5.4 X 98 = 1058 Sand, lb = 4 X 5.4 X 95.6 2066 Stone, lb 8 X 5.4 - 43.2 Water, gal

The percentage of sand by solid volume in the total fine and coarse aggregates is [1.20 - (1.20 + 2.25)] X 100 = 34.8 which generally is too little sand for proper workability unless the coarse aggregate is large in size.

Water-Cement Ratio Compressive

Strength Relationship In 1918, there appeared in Bulletin 1 of the Structural Materials Research Laboratory, Lewis Institute, Chicago, entitled "Design of Concrete Mixtures," by Duff A. Abrams, a statement of the important relationship between the compressive strength of concrete and the water-cement ratio. Professor Abrams stated as a result of extensive tests that, "With given concrete materials and conditions of test the quantity of mixing water used determines the strength of the concrete as long as the mix is of a workable consistency." (Note: The italics are ours.) 6

Unfortunately, very few engineers have realized what Professor Abrams evidently knew about the limitations of this relationship. They have attempted to apply a single. average water-cement compressive strength relationship to all cements and to all aggregates, apparently not realizing that different cements, different aggregate characteristics and sizes, and other variables also control the compressive strength of concrete to an appreciable extent. The fact is that the water-cement compressive strength relationship is not a single relationship, but is a family of relationships. These various relationships, expressed graphically, are sometimes separated to an important extent although paralleling one another. They differ because different cements frequently do have different strengths and also because both the fine and the coarse aggregates have a range in surface texture, absorption, shape, and chemical and other characteristi&Which may affect the compressive strength of the concrete. Briefly, then, there is only a general relationship between the watercement ratio and the compressive strength and it is very important to note that there are individual and specific watercement ratio compressive strength relationships for specific materials which can and frequently do depart from the average water-cement ratio compressive strength relationships. Water-Cement Ratio Affects Durability Especially with non-air-entraining concrete, the more severe the exposure conditions the less should be the water-cement ratio, but this statement does not mean that small differences in water, such as might be required because of differences in aggregate characteristics will surely result in disintegration in one case and durability in another, under service conditions. As a matter of fact, it frequently happens that the durability of two concretes is the reverse of what would be expected from the water-cement ratio relationships, due probably to the further influence of differences between thermal coefficients, surface texture, shape, and other characteristics of aggregates. Whenever concrete is to be subjected to frost action, airentraining concrete should be used. The method of proportioning air-entraining concrete, hereinafter described (see Part II, Section 2), gives reasonable assurance that the resulting concrete will be durable provided sound aggregates are used. (See Part II, Section 2, and Part III, Section 2)

The method of concrete proportioning herein described recognizes in principle the water-cement ratio compressive strength relationship, and it utilizes this relationship in a practical manner which is simple to apply. Effect of Amount of Coarse Aggregate in Concrete on Workability Workability is a measure of the ease with which concrete can be placed in forms .wihout segregation or honeycomb. It is an elusive property and at present its evaluation is largely a matter of judgment. Obviously, the amount of coarse aggregate in a concrete mixture has a most important influence on its workability. If the pieces of coarse aggregate were located as closely together in a concrete mixture as they exist when in stockpile, the concrete would have no plasticity or workability, for the coarse aggregate would be so interlocked that the pieces could not turn or move with respect to one another. When the pieces are separated by mortar they have opportunity for motion. Sufficient separation is accomplished by the use of sufficient mortar in the mixture and, in general, the greater the volume of mortar, the more plastic or workable will be the concrete. Obviously, however, since sand has great surface area, the greater the quantity of sand above that necessary for workability, the greater will be the amount of water required for a given consistency and therefore just enough sand to accomplish the desired workability should be used. One of the fundamental and highly important conceptions, then, in the proportioning of concrete for plasticity or workability is that the necessary film thickness of mortar must exist around the coarse aggregate pieces to keep them sufficiently separated so that they may move relative to one another. This is accomplished in a practical manner by using just the right volume of dry, rodded coarse aggregate in a unit volume of concrete. Determination of Quantity of Coarse Aggregate By trial and judgment, the quantity of coarse aggregate which will give sufficient workability without over-sanding has been determined and is expressed in Table I as the "Dry, Rodded Volume of Coarse Aggregate per Unit Volume of Con-

crete." This Table applies to angular and rounded coarse aggregates alike and is intended for use in proportioning structural concrete to be placed without vibration. Note that the quantities in Table I are in terms of dry, rodded volumes. Win' THE VOLUME or DRY, RODDED C.A. IN ONE Cu FT OF CONCRETE = b/b0 WH b = SOLID VOLUME OF C.A. n ONE Cu FT OF CONCRETE = SOLID VOLUME OF C.A. IN ONE Cu FT OF C.A.

k O2t

AoNE CU FT OF CONRTE

) AJ

J

AIR CY L0DC

AIR

PAW

Of

.8

SOLID CAl

The solid volumes are directlyproportional to the dry, rodded volumes and so b/Q = b0 /1 or Q b/b0

E

FIGURE 2

To obtain an understanding of how these values in Table I may be used for calculating concrete proportions in terms of weight, refer to Figure 2. Imagine a cubic foot of concrete as in A, with the coarse aggregate separated by the correct amount of mortar. If this mortar were washed out and the remaining coarse aggregate were rodded into place, B would result and this quantity, Q, of dry, rodded coarse aggregate is listed in Table I as b/b0 . If this coarse aggregate in B could be melted to a solid, C would result and is seen to consist of a solid mass, b, and a volume of air equal to the air voids in B. If a cubic foot measure is filled with dry, rodded coarse aggregate, it could be represented in D. If this coarse aggregate were melted to a solid, E would result and is seen to consist of a solid mass of stone, b0 and a volume of air equal to the air voids in the original cubic foot of stone. If these air voids were, say, 42 per cent in D, the solid volume of stone would be 0.58 cu ft. Of course, since the aggregate in B is compacted in

the same way as that in D, there must exist the same ratio of solid to compacted volumes in both cases and this fact can be expressed as Q/1 = b/b 0 or Q= b/b0 and so if b/b0 = dry, rodded volume of coarse. aggregate in a unit

volume of concrete b =solid volume of coarse aggregate in a unit volume of concrete b0 solid volume of coarse aggregate in a unit volume of coarse aggregate.

As a result of investigations in the laboratory of the National Crushed Stone Association, the values for b/b 0 given in Table I have been determined as the desirable volumes of dry, rodded coarse aggregates to use per cubic foot of concrete. These values vary with the maximum size of coarse aggregate and with the gradation of the sand, but for practical purposes of design they may be taken as identical for different types of coarse aggregate. It is assumed that the coarse aggregate is reasonably well graded, that is, it has a fairly uniform distribution of sizes such that its gradation would conform with the Simplified Practice Recommendation R163-48. Fineness modulus is used as an index of the sand gradation and, as usual, it is defined as the sum divided by 100 of the total percentages of sand retained on the 3/8 in., No. 4, No. 8, No. 16, No. 30, No. 50, and No. 100 sieves. When the values for b/b0 given in Table I are used in the manner about to be explained, practically all differences in coarse aggregates which will affect the proportions are allowed for automatically. That fact makes the present method of proportioning result in just enough extra mortar to fill the extra voids. If coarse aggregates are graded differently, thus creating different percentages of voids, the method allows for that. If aggregates have different specific gravities, that difference is taken care of also.

Determination of Total Water and Cement Factor

One of the principles of concrete proportioning is that, for practical purposes, the total amount of mixing water required for a given consistency and given aggregates is a constant, regardless of cement factor. This principle has been applied and extended through numerous tests on concrete so that it is pos10

sible to state, with reasonable accuracy, the total water required for a given consistency and maximum size coarse aggregate. (See Tables II, III, and V) This statement may be thought to be neglectful of the fact that a fine sand requires more water than a coarse sand, everything else being the same. However, a study of the b/b0 values in Table I shows that less mortar is required with a fine than with a coarse sand with the result that the gradation of the sand has little effect on the total water requirements. The main difference in the total amount of water required, when consideration is given to the consistency and the maximum size of coarse aggregate, is in the types of coarse aggregate. Angular aggregates require more water than rounded aggregates and this fact appears in the tabulated data in Tables II, III, and V. The water-cement ratio compressive strength relationship is accepted as a general principle. If the total amount of thixing water required for a given consistency is a constant, then the water-cement ratio strength relationship can be expressed in terms of cement content and strength. This has been done in Tables II and III. Thus, the same cement factor is used for any type of coarse aggregate for a given consistency of the concrete and a given maximum size of coarse aggregate. True, there is a difference in the total water required for angular aggregates and rounded aggregates, but this difference is negligible in relation to the effect of the inherent characteristics of the coarse aggregates on strength. The cement factors for a given strength that are used in Tables II and III are conservative so that concretes properly designed, mixed, cured, and tested should have strengths equal to or greater than those given in the Tables. Entrapped Air All concrete contains some entrapped air in the form of relatively large bubbles. Entrapped air does not increase the durability of concrete so it must be differentiated from entrained air. Concrete design methods, usually, do not take into account the effect of entrapped air; however, if this is not done when proportioning by solid volume, the concrete will have a greater volume than calculated and a lower cement content than required in the design. The approximate percentage of entrapped air in concrete is given in Table II which permits

11

including its volume in the calculation of the proportions with sufficient accuracy for all practical purposes, thus Volume entrapped air, cu ft per cu yd of concrete =per cent entrapped air x 27 - 100

PART II APPLICATION OF THEORY COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHSTRUCTURAL CONCRETE

Section 1Non-Air-Entraining Concrete The foregoing principles and tabulated relationships which have been established by laboratory tests may be utilized for the practical proportioning of workable concrete having any desired strength and consistency. Briefly, the method involves the following steps.

Proportioning Procedure

1. USE OF TABULATED TEST VALUES

From the relationships given in Tables I and II, there is established: a. The volume of coarse aggregate required per unit volume of concrete so that the concrete will be properly workable (b/b0 values from Table I) b. The cement factor and total water required per cubic yard of concrete for a given strength, slump, size, and type of coarse aggregate (data from Table II)

2. TESTS ON THE PARTICULAR MATERIALS TO BE USED

The following test values must be obtained on the particular materials to be used: a. Bulk specific gravity of the coarse aggregate' (ASTM

C 127-42)

C 128-42)

c. Dry, rodded unit weight of coarse aggregate (ASTM C 29-42, also see Appendix)

1 These

12

d. Gradation and fineness modulus of sand and gradation of coarse aggregate (ASTM C 136-46) e. Assume specific gravity of cement equals 3.15 or determine the specific gravity

3. PRELIMINARY CALCULATIONS AND DETERMINATIONS

a. Calculate solid weights per cubic foot of the cement, of the coarse aggregate, and of the sand (Bulk specific gravity multiplied by 62.4 lb) b. Knowing the size of coarse aggregate and fineness modulus of sand, determine from Table I the proper value of b/b0 c. Calculate the solid volume of coarse aggregate per cubic foot of dry, rodded coarse aggregate (b0)

b - dry, rodded weight per cu ft solid weight per cu ft

d. Calculate b = b/b 0 x b0 e. Knowing the kind and size of coarse aggregate, and the 28-day strength and the slump of concrete desired, determine from Table lithe cement factor and the water content f. Knowing the maximum size of coarse aggregate, select from Table lithe percentage of entrapped air and calculate its solid volume per cubic yard of concrete:

Per cent entrapped air

REQUIRED PER CUBIC YARD OF CONCRETE

a. Sum up the solid volumes of cement, coarse aggregate, water, and air b. Twenty-seven cubic feet minus the solid volumes of cement, coarse aggregate, water, and air equals the solid volume of sand in a cubic yard of concrete c. Convert solid volumes of cement, sand, and coarse aggregate to weights using values calculated under item 3a above

13

It is required to determine the proportions of crushed stone concrete to have 3500 psi compressive streiith at 28 days and 6 in. slump.

Preliminary Determinations

Stone

Size, No. 4 to 1 in. 2.72 Specific gravity Solid weight, lb per cu ft 2.72X62.4 = 169.7 Dry, rodded weight, lb per cu ft=100.4 b 0 = 100.4/169.7 0.591

Sand

2.63 Specific gravity 2.63X62.4 164.1 Solid weight, lb per cu ft = Gradation: Total Retained, Sieve Size per cent 0 3/8 in. 1 No. 4 12 No. 8 27 No. 16 48 No. 30 72 No. 50 97 No. 100 = 2.57 Fineness modulus

Cement

- 3.15 Specific gravity Solid weight, lb per cu ft = 3.15X62.4 196.6 = 94 Weight per sack, lb 0.48 Solid volume per sack, cu ft 94/196.6 Calculation of Proportions From Table I b/b0 for sand of 2.57 F.M. and No. 4 to 1 in. stone 0.69 = 0.69X0.591 - 0.408 b=b/b 0 Xb. From Table II Cement, sacks per cu yd Water, gal per cu. yd - 5.6 40 Quantities, lb per Solid Volume, cuydof cuft per cu. yd concrete of concrete Cement 5.6X0.48 = 2.69 X 196.6 - 529 Stone 0.408X27 = 11.02 X 169.7 - 1873 Water 40/7.5 = 5.33 X 62.4 = 333 Air .015X27 0.40 = 19.44 Total Sand 27-19.44 = 7.56 X 164.1 1241 14

The above are dry weights of sand and stone, and therefore corrections in the proportions of sand, stone, and water must be made, depending on the moisture conditions of the aggregates on the job.

1. Both Sand and Coarse Aggregate Are Dry

If the sand has an absorption at the end of 30 min in water of 0.5 per cent, add 0.5 per cent of 1241 lb, or 6.2 lb to the weight of the mixing water, equivalent to 6.2/8.33 lb = 0.7 gal. If the stone has an absorption of 0.3 per cent at the end of 30 mm, add 0.3 per cent of 1873 lb, or 6 lb to weight of the mixing water, or 0.7 gal. The total increase in mixing water is then 0.7 + 0.7 = 1.4 gal per cu yd of concrete.

2. Both Sand and Coarse Aggregate Are Wet

If the above materials are both wet and have 3 per cent of free water on the sand and 1 per cent on the stone, and, in addition, 1 per cent absorbed water in the sand and 0.5 per cent in the stone, add 4.0 per cent of 1241 lb, or 50 lb to 1241 lb, which equals 1291 lb of wet sand. Due to 3 per cent free water on the sand, the weight of mixing water must be decreased by 3 per cent of 1241 lb, or 37 lb. Due to 1 per cent free water on the stone, in addition to its absorbed water of 0.5 per cent, add 1.5 per cent of 1873 lb, or 28 lb to the weight of stone, making the total weight of stone 1873 lb plus 28 lb, or 1901 lb. Due to free water on the stone of 1 per cent, the mixing water must be decreased by 1 per cent of 1873 lb, or 19 lb. The total gallons per cubic yard of mixing water, then, equals 40 - [(37 + 19) /8.33] = 40 - 7 = 33.0 gal. The batch weight of the materials and the unit weight of the concrete are as follows:

529 lb per Cu yd Cement Stone 1873 + (1873 x .015) 1901 lb per cu yd Sand 1241 + (1241 X .04) 1291 lb per cu yd 275 lb per cu yd Water 33.0 x 8.33 3996 lb per cu yd Total

The proportions thus obtained will give, very closely, the kind of concrete desired. The strength values tabulated in Table II are the minimum to be expected and the actual values

15

obtained may range somewhat above these tabulated figures. Possibly slight adjustments in the field proportions will have to be made after the work is started, but if the preliminary determinations and calculations have been made correctly, these adjustments will be very small in amount. Section 2Air-Entraining Concrete Air entrainment is the incorporation of air into the concrete during the mixing operation in the form of minute individual spheroids. This is accomplished either by adding an airentraining agent to the mix at the time of mixing or by the use of cement having an air-entraining agent interground with it at the time of manufacture. Since air entrainment increases the durability of concrete exposed to natural weathering by several hundred per cent, it is being used extensively in concrete which may be subjected to frost action. However, the degree of improvement in relation to either water-cement ratio or cement content has not been established. A suggested basis for selecting a class or grade of concrete for a given use is given in Table IV. The early use of air-entraining concrete was primarily for highway pavements. It was found for this use that about 3 per cent entrained air was the minimum for durability and that excessive amounts caused a significant reduction in strength without increasing the durability. This culminated in a limited range of air contents of from 3 to 6 per cent in most specifications. The facts are that air is entrained only in the mortar portion of concrete and that the ideal air content for the mortar has been established at about 9 per cent. The following optimum percentages of air in concrete proportioned by this method will result when the mortar is assumed to have 9 per cent air:

Maximum Size Optimum Air Content, Suggested Permissible of Coarse Aggregate per cent by volume Range, per cent 1/2 in. 6.0 1.5 3/4 in. 6.0 1.5 5.5 1.5 1 in. 5.0 1 1/2 in. 1.5 2 in. 5.0 1.5 21/2 in. 4.5 1.0

Many factors affect the amount of air entrained in a given mix such as the gradation of the sand, type of mixing equipment, time and temperature of mixing, etc., so that the control of the air content becomes important since it affects the

16

strength. To assure that the proper amount of air is being entrained whenever air-entraining concrete is being placed, an air meter (a device for directly measuring the amount of air) should be used. There are two approaches to the problem of controlling the air content: one, when an air-entraining agent is added at the mixer, the quantity of air entrained is controlled by the quantity of air-entraining agent added to the mix; two, when the air-entraining agent is interground with the cement and insufficient air is being entrained, an air-entraining agent must be added at the mixer; if an excess of air is being entrained, normal non-air-entraining cement of the same brand must be used to replace the interground cement in amounts to give the proper air content. Air entrainment increases the durability and workability of concrete, less water is required, and the compressive strenths are increased for lean concrete and decreased for rich concrete. Also, the entrained air occupies significant space and so must be considered as a component material in designing mixes. Through research, data have been developed which give the relationship between compressive strength and cement factor for concretes with optimum air contents, as well as the total water required for a given consistency. On the basis of these data, Table III has been set up for designing air-entraining concrete for a given strength, consistency, and air content. The b/b0 values are the same for both non-air-entraining and airentraining concretes. In designing air-entraining concrete, the procedure is to calculate the volume of coarse aggregate based on b/b 0 values from Table I as previously described. From Table III are selected the cement factor, air content, and water content for a given strength, slump, and maximum size of coarse aggregate. The volume of sand per cubic yard of concrete is equal to 27 minus the sum of the volumes of coarse aggregate, cement, air, and water.

Example of Method of Proportioning

Suppose that the given conditions of the previous example are assumed except that the concrete is to be air-entraining. It is required to determine the proportions of crushed stone concrete to have 3500 psi compressive strength at 28 days with 6 in. slump and a maximum size of stone of 1 in.

17

Preliminary Determinations

Stone

Size, No. 4 to 1 in. = 2.72 Specific gravity Solid weight, lb per cu ft 2.72X62.4 = 169.7 Dry, rodded weight, lb per cu ft = 100.4 b0 = 100.4/169.7 = 0.591

Sand

= 2.63 Specific gravity Solid weight, lb per cu ft = 2.63X62.4 = 164.1 Gradation: Total Retained, per cent Sieve Size 0 3/8 in. 1 No. 4 No. 8 12 27 No. 16 48 No. 30 72 No. 50 No. 100 97 Fineness Modulus = 2.57

Cement

Specific gravity = 3.15 Solid weight, lb per cu ft 3.15X62.4 = 196.6 Weight per sack, lb - = 94 Solid volume per sack, cu ft = 94/196.6 = 0.48 Calculation of Prportions From Table I b/b0 for sand of 2.57 F.M. and No. 4 to 1 in. stone 0.69 b b/b0 x b0 = 0.69 X 0.591 0.408 From Table III Cement, sacks per cu yd = 6.0 Air, per cent = 5.5 Water, gal per cu yd 36 Quantities Solid Volume, lb. per cu ft per cu yd cu yd of concrete of concrete Cement 6.0X0.48 = 2.88 X 196.6 = 566 Stone 0.408X27 = 11.02 X 169.7 1870 Air .055X27 = 1.48 Water 36/7.5 = 4.80 X 62.4 300 = 20.18 Total Sand 27-20.18 = 6.82 X 164.1 1119

If both aggregates are wet and have the same absorbed and free moisture contents as in the example of non-air-entraining concrete, then the unit weight is:

Cement 566 lb per cu yd Stone 1870+(1870X.015) 1898 lb per cu yd Sand 1119+(1119X.04) = 1164 lb per cu yd Water 300[(1870X.01)+(1119X.03)] = 248lb per cuyd Total = 3876 lb per cu yd 18

Concretes Suitable for Different Classes of Work In Table IV are given the essential characteristics of typical concretes suitable for different classes of work. Suggested Specifications for Concrete Proportions A specification for concrete proportions may be written to best utilize the present method of proportioning. It permits any standard type of aggregate to be used and requires no information regarding the aggregates at the time the specification is written.

Specification for Concrete Proportions All concrete shall be proportioned as indicated in the following table.

Estimated I Cement Factor, I Coarse I I Class of 28-Day sacks of AggregateII Air Content, I Maximum Size Range Concrete Compressive I cement I Square open- per cent Slutno. in Strength, I (94 lb) per I psi cu yd ing Sieves

The concrete shall be proportioned by weight to contain that particular dry, rodded volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete (b/b0 ) designated in Table I for the size of coarse aggregate and fineness modulus of the sand to be used on the work. Upon written permission from the engineer minor changes in the concrete proportions may be made to obtain the desired strength, consistency, or workability. Should a change in cement factor be ordered to attain the estimated strength, due allowance shall be made in the contract price equal to the actual difference in cost to the contractor of the aggregates and cement. (Include Table I from page 27 as a part of this specification.)

It is intended that the architect or engineer will insert the required values in the above specification. Table I is a part of the specification. Table II and/or Table III should be appended for convenience in proportioning concrete depending upon whether non-air-entraining or air-entraining concrete is required.

Let it be emphasized that nothing need be known about the concrete materials when writing such a specification. Their characteristics need not be known until it finally is necessary to determine the concrete proportions. At that time the size

rodded weight per cubic foot, and bulk specific gravity of the coarse aggregate, and the specific gravity and gradation of the sand must be known to properly proportion the concrete. Gen-

erally, the specific gravity values are already known, leaving only the dry, rodded weight of coarse aggregate" and gradations of the aggregates to be determined.

It is desired to specify concrete suitable for thin reinforced beams and slabs not exposed to the weather. The coarse aggregate should be No. 4 to 3/4 in in size for this class of work. The other values (from Table II) to be inserted in the above specifications would be 2500 psi compressive strength at 28 days, 6 in slump, and 5.0 sacks of cement per cu yd. The class of concrete can be given an appropriate designating number or letter. Assuming the use of crustlect stone as the coarse aggregate, the following are calculations which will be necessary to determine the proportions in the above illustration.

Preliminary Determinations Characteristics of aggregates and cement to be used:

Stone

Specific gravity 2.60 Solid weight, lb per cu ft 2.60 X62.4 162 Dry, rodded weight, lb per cu ft = 90 b0 90/162 = 0.556 Sand Specific gravity 2.65 Solid weight, lb per cu ft 2.65X62.4 = 165 Fineness modulus 2.90

Cement

Specific gravity = 3.15 Weight per sack, lb = 94 Solid weight, lb per cu ft = 3.15X62.4 196.6 Solid volume per sack, cu ft 94/196.6 0.48 Calculation of Proportions Cement, from Table II, sacks per cu yd = 5.0 Water, from Table II, gal per cu yd 42 b/b0, from Table I, for sand of 2.90 F.M. and No. 4 to 3/4 in. stone = 0.61 = 0.556 b = b0 Xb/b0 = 0.556X0.61 = 0.339 2 Entrapped air, from Table Ir, per cent 20

Quantities, Solid Volume, lb per cu ft per cu yd cu yd of Concrete of concrete Cement 5.0XO.48 = 2.40 X 196.6 472 Stone 0.339X27 = 9.15 X 162 1482 Water 42/7.5 5.60 X 62.4 = 349 Entrapped air .02 X27 .54 = 17.69 Total Sand 27-17.69 9.31 X 165 1536

PART III APPLICATION OF THEORY FLEXURAL STRENGTHPAVING CONCRETE Section 1Non-Air-Entraining Concrete A concrete pavement slab for highways or airports is essentially a wide beam and the stresses which are critical and which control the design are the tensile stresses created by changes in temperature and moisture and by traffic loads. Unlike structural concrete for buildings, which is proportioned to have a high degree of workability, adequate compressive strength, and durability for the particular portion of the structure it must serve, pavement concrete should be proportioned to have high beam strength, adequate durability, and with no more sand than is necessary to create a thin layer of mortar on the surface of the finished slab. Paving concrete is not as workable as structural concrete; it contains more coarse aggregate and less sand and is of drier consistency, with a slump preferably between 11/2 and 3 in. Therefore, the b/b 0 values must be 'Increased for the desired change in workability and the water content reduced for the change in consistency. The revised value of b/b 0 and of the water content for highway concrete are given in Table V. Proportioning With a Required Cement Factor If it is desired to proportion pavement concrete to have a specified cement factor, this is accomplished with the use of Table V by the following procedure: 1. By tests, using the standard methods of the ASTM, obtain the bulk specific gravities of the fine and

21

coarse aggregates and cement, the gradations of the aggregates and the dry, rodded weight per cubic foot of the coarse aggregate. 2. Calculate the solid weight per cubic-foot of the fine and coarse aggregates and of the cement. (Bulk specific gravity multiplied by 62.4 lb) 3. Calculate the fineness modulus of the sand. (Total percentage retained on the Nos. 4, 8, 16, 30, 50, and 100 sieves divided by 100) 4. From Table V select the proper value for b/b 0 which depends on the size of coarse aggregate and the fineness modulus of the sand. 5. Calculate the values for b 0 and b; b0 equals the dry, rodded weight per cubic foot of the coarse aggregate divided by the solid weight per cubic foot of coarse aggregate (see item 2); then b = b/b0 X b0. 6. From Table V elect the amount of mixing water per cubic yard of concrete, depending upon whether the coarse aggregate is angular or rounded in shape. 7. For the given cement factor calculate the solid volumes of the cement, the coarse aggregate, the water, and the entrapped air per cubic yard of concrete. Subtract the sum of these values from 27 cu ft and the result will be the solid volume of the sand per cubic yard of concrete. Solid volume of cement equals the number of pounds of cement in a cubic yard of concrete divided by the solid weight of cement per cubic foot. The solid volume of coarse aggregate equals 27 multiplied by b. The solid volume of water equals the number of gallons per cubic yard in Table V divided by 7.5. 8. Multiply the respective solid volumes by the solid weights per cubic foot to obtain the weights of materials required per cubic yard of concrete. 9. Calculate the field mix by correcting the weights of sand, coarse aggregate, and mixing water to compensate for the water in the aggregates.

22

Example A cement factor of 6 sacks of cement per cu yd of concrete is to be used. What are the required concrete proportions for use in the field mix?

Preliminary Determinations

Stone

Size, No. 4 to 2 in. Specific gravity Solid weight, lb per cu ft = 2.70 X 62.4 Dry, rodded weight, lb per cu ft b0 = 103/168.5 b/b0 from Table V bb/b0 x b0 0.78 X 0.61

Sand

= 2.70 168.5 103 = 0.61 0.78 0.476 = 2.'65 = 165.4 Z.s0 = 3.15 = 196.6 0.48 32

Cement

Specific gravity Solid weight, lb per cu ft = 3.15X62.4 Solid volume per sack, cu ft 94/196.6

Water

Quantities, lb per Volume, cu yd cuft per cuyd of concrete of concrete Cement 6X0.48 2.88 X 196.6 = 566 Stone 0.476X27 12.85 X 168.5 = 2165 Water 32/7.5 4.27 X 62.4 266 Entrapped air .01X27 = .27 = 20.27 Total Sand 27-20.27 - 6.73 X 165.4 = 1113

The quantities of sand and stone given above are calculated on a dry basis; therefore, corrections must be made for the actual field moisture conditions. Suppose tests show the sand has 0.5 per cent absorption and 4.0 per cent free water and the stone has 0.3 per cent absorption and 0.5 per cent free water,

23

then the field quantities per cubic y ard of concrete are as follows:

Field Quantities, lb per cu yd of concrete Cement 566 Stone 2165+(2165X.008) 2182 Sand 1113+(1113X.045) 1163 Water 266 [(2165 X. 005) +(1113 X. 04)] 211

The flexural strength of concrete, expressed in terms of modulus of rupture, is influenced greatly by the characteristics of the coarse aggregate as well as by other factors. Hence, at present, to determine the proportions of concrete required to produce a given flexural strength, a laboratory test procedure is necessary. The test mixtures are first calculated as just described, using at least four different cement factors; for illustration, 5 1/2, 6, 6 1/2, and 7 sacks per cu yd. Beam specimens are then made according to standard ASTM methods. (ASTM Designation: C 192) The specimens are tested at the desired age and the resulting values for modulus of rupture are then

Cr)

0

ID

0 (1) J 0 0

LL

FIGURE 3 24

plotted, together with the cement factors used, in the manner shown in Figure 3. A horizontal line is drawn to represent the required modulus of rupture and where this line intersects a smooth curve drawn through the test values, the cement factor required can be read on the curve. Using this cement factor the concrete proportions should then be calculated in the manner previously described. As a typical illustration, assume that the test values for modulus of rupture plot as shown in Figure 3. If the modulus of rupture desired is 700 psi, by interpolation it is seen that 6.8 sacks of cement will be necessary. Section 2Air-Entraining Concrete When air-entraining cement or an air-entraining admixture is used for pavement concrete, it is the general practice to require either a minimum cement factor or a minimum flexural strength. Since the procedure for proportioning air-entraining concrete for a given flexural strength is the same as given previously for non-air-entraining concrete, the problem resolves itself into designing air-entraining concrete with a given cement factor. Under these conditions, the correct amount of mixing water for air-entraining concrete should be used as shown in Table V. Thus, using the previous example and designing for 4.5 per cent air, the calculations for quantities per cubic yard are:

Quantities, lb per Solid Volume, cu yd cu ft per cu yd of concrete of concrete Cemept 6X0.48 = 2.88 X 196.6 = 566 Stone 0.476X27 12.85 X 168.5 = 2165' Water 28/7.5 - 3.73 X 62.4 = 233 Air .045X27 = 1.22 Total = 20.68 Sand 27-20.68 = 6.32 X 165.4 = 10451 'Aggregates in oven dry condition

The air merely replaces a portion of the sand and of the mixing water. In order not to have an excess of mortar, the value of b/b0 should not be changed when air entrainment is being used. 25

Final Adjustments Some final adjustments of the field mix may be necessary. Thus, if the consistency of the concrete requires a change in the water content, continue to use the value for b/b0 designated in Table V, assume the desired quantity of water and recalculate the mix which will result in changing the solid volume of the sand by the change in volume of water. If the workability needs correction, this is accomplished by a change in the b/b0 value, a decrease resulting in more mortar and consequently greater workability. The necessary calculations for these slight changes in proportions in the field mix are simple and can be done in a short time.

26

TABLE I

For Structural Concrete, Placed Without Vibration Dry. Rodded Volume. (b/b 0) of Coarse Aggregate (Any Type) per Unit Volume of Concrete

Fine Sand I Medium Sand Size of Coarse Aggregate, Square Opening Laboratory Sieves Coarse Sand

Fineness Modulus of Sand 2.40 1 2.50 2.60 1 2.70 1 2.80 1 2.90 Values for b/b. 3.00 3.10

No. 4 to 1/2 in. No. 4 to 3/4 in. No. 4 to 1 in. No. 4 to 1 1/2 in. No. 4 to 2 in. No. 4 to 2 1/2 in.

.59

.58

.57

.66 .65 .64 .71 .70 .69 .75 .74 .73 .78 .77 .76 .80 .79 .78

.56 .55 .54 .63 .62 .61 .68 .67 .66 .72 .71 .70 .75 .74 .73 .77 .76 .75

.53 .52 .59 .60 .64 .65 .69 .68 .72 .71 .74 .73

b = solid volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete b0 = solid volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of coarse aggregate b/b 0 = dry, roddod volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete Note: For concrete which is to be assisted in place by internal vibration under very rigid inspection, increase tabulated values of b/b 0 approximately 10 per cent

TABLE II

Non-Air-Entraining Structural Concrete Cement Factors (Sacks per Cubic Yard of Concrete) Required for 28-Day Compressive Strengths Listed Size of Coarse Aggregate, Square Opening Laboratory Sieves Slump, in. Water,' I Angular Coarse Aggregate gal per cu yd I of concrete Rounded Coarse Aggregate 28-Day Compressive Strength, 2 psi 2000 2500 3000 8500 4000 4500 5000 Entrapped Air, approximate per cent

1

No. 4 to No. 4 to No. 4 to No. 4 to No. 4 to 1/2 in. 3/4 in. 1 in. 1 1/2 in. 2 in. 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 42 44 40 42 38 40 36 38 35 37 38 40 36 38 34 86 32 34 81 33 Cement, sacks per cubic yard of concrete

4.6 4.8 4.4 4.6 4.2, 4.4 4.0 4.2 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.9 5.0 5.2 4.8 5.0 4.5 4.8 4.2 4.5 4.1 4.3 4.0 4.2 5.4 5.7 5.2 5.4 4.9 5.2 4.6 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.3 4.6 5.9 6.3 5.6 5.9 5.3 5.6 5.0 5.3 4.9 5.2 4.8 5.0 6.5 6.9 6.2 6.5 5.8 6.2 5.5 5.8 5.4 5.7 5.2 5.5 7.2 7.5 6.8 7.1 6.4 6.8 6.1 6.4 5.9 6.3 t S.? 6.1 8.1 8.5 7.7 8.1 7.3 7.7 6.9 7.3 6.7 7.1 6.5 6.9 2.5 2 1.5 1 1 1

This is the water actually effective as mixing water. See example on page 15 for method of taking into account free water on wet aggregates and absorption of dry aggregates 2 The 28-day compressive strengths shown are the minimum values to be expected and should be used for design purposes. Laboratory specimens cured under ideal conditions will generally have higher strengths Note: For concrete to be assisted in place by internal vibration, use 3 in. slump and decrease tabulated water contents by approximately 4 gal. No reduction in cement factor is suggested

TABLE III

Air-Entraining Structural Concrete Cement Factors (Sacks per Cubic Yard of Concrete) Required for 28-Day Compressive Strengths Listed This Table Should Always Be Used to Proportion Concrete to Be Subjected to Freezing Size of Coarse Aggregate, Square Opening Laboratory Sieves Slump, in. Water,' gal Angular Coarse Aggregate per cu yd of concrete Rounded Coarse Aggregate No. 4 to No. 4 to No. 4 to No. 4 to No. 4 to 1/2 in. 3/4 in. 1 in. 1 1/2 in. 2 in. 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 38 40 36 38 34 36 32 34 31 33 35 37 33 35 31 33 29 31 28 30 Cement, sacks per cubic yard of concrete 4.4 4.7 4.2 4.4 3.9 4.2 3.7 3.9 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.7 4.9 5.2 4.6 4.9 4.4 4.7 4.2 4.4 4.0 4.3 3.9 4.2 5.6 5.9 5.3 5.6 5.0 5.3 4.7 5.0 4.5 4.8 4.3 4.7 6.3 6.7 6.0 6.3 5.6 6.0 5.3 5.6 5.1 5.4 4.9 5.3 7.2 7.5 6.8 7.2 6.4 6.8 6.0 6.4 5.8 6.2 5.6 6.0 8.1 8.5 7.6 8.1 7.2 7.6 6.8 7.2 6.6 7.0 6.4 6.8 9.2 9.7 8.7 9.2 8.2 8.7 7.7 8.2 7.4 8.0 7.2 7.7 5 0 6.0 4.5 6 0 5.5 . No. 4 to 2 1/2 in. 3 6 30 32 27 29

Co

2000

'This is the water actually effective as mixing water. See example on page 18 for method of taking into account free water on wet aggregates and absorption of dry aggregates 1 The 28-day compressive strengths shown are the minimum values to be expected and should be used for design purposes. Laboratory specimens cured under ideal conditions will generally have higher strengths This optimum entrained air content provides for approximately 9 per cent air in the mortar

TABLE IV

Properties of Concrete Having Suitable Strength and Durability for Different Classes of Work Expected Slump, 28-day in. Strength, psi 2-3 3000

Typical Classes of Work for Which Recommended Heavy sections. such as dams. foundations, heavy walls

C.,

I 2-3 I

3-6

2-3 4000

I 3-6 I

2-4

4500 Severe exuosure at water-line

3-6 5000 Concrete for depositing under water Note: Use cement factors given in Table II or Table III Whenever concrete is to be subjected to frost action, air-entraining concrete should be used

TABLE V Pavement Concrete Dry, Rodded Volume of Coarse Aggregate. and Mixing Water Required Fine Sand Medium Sand Coarse Sand Size of Coarse Aggregate, SQuare Opening Laboratory Sieves Fineness Modulus of Sand 2.40 12.50 12.60 12.70 12.80 12.90 13.00 13.10 Water,' gal per cu yd of concrete for 2 in. slump AirNon-Air- Entraining Entraining2 Coarse Aggregate Values for b/b. Angular Rounded Angular Rounded

No. 4 to 1 in. .75 .74 .73 .72 .71 .70 .69 .68 35 31 31 28 No. 4 to 1 1/2 in. .79 .78 .77 .76 .75 .74 .73 .72 33 29 29 26 No. 4 to 2 in. .82 .81 .80 .79 .78 .77 .76 .75 32 28 28 25 No. 4 to 2 1/2 in. .84 .83 .82 .81 .80 .79 .78 .77 31 27 27 24 b = solid volume of coarse aggregate per cubic foot of concrete b0 solid volume of coarse aggregate per cubic foot of dry, rodded coarse aggregate b/b0 = dry, rodded volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete I This is the water actually effective as mixing water Since the maximum size of coarse aggregate used in highways is 1 1/2 in. or larger, a constant value of 1 per cent may be taken for entrapped air, or 0.27 cu ft per cu yd of concrete

TABLE VI Approximate Voids in Stone and Gravel Guide for Designing Mixes in the Absence of a Unit Weight Test on the Particular Coarse Aggregates Under Consideration' Size of Coarse AggregateStone Gravel

b0

7 No. 4 to 1/2 in. 44 .56 35 .65 67 No. 4 to 3/4 in. 42 .58 34 .66 57 No. 4 to 1 in. 41 .59 33 .67 467 No.4 to 11/2 in. 40 .60 32 .68 357 No. 4 to 2 in. 39 .61 31 .69 'Data were obtained by making unit weight tests on a crushed stone and a gravel graded to the average of 2 Sample rodded in cubic foot measurethe Simplified Practice sizes

32

APPENDIX Method of Test for Unit Weight of Aggregate The unit weight of coarse aggregate as used in this text should be determined in accordance with the ASTM method of test (Designation: C 29-42) using the rodding procedure which is as follows:

Scope 1. This method of test covers the procedures for determining the unit weight of fine, coarse, or mixed aggregates. Apparatus 2. The apparatus shall consist of the following: (a) Balance.A balance or scale sensitive to 0.5 per cent of the weight of the sample to be weighed. (b) Tamping Rod.A straight 5/8 in. round metal rod, approximately 24 in. in length and tapered for a distance of 1 in. to a spherically shaped end having a radius of approximately 1/4 in. (c) Measure.A metal measure, cylindrical in form and preferably provided with handles. It shall be watertight, with the top and bottom true and even, preferably machined to accurate dimensions on the inside, and of sufficient rigidity to retain its form under rough usage. The 1/2 and 1 cu ft measures shall be reinforced around the top with a No. 10 to No. 12 gage steel band 1 1/2 in. in width. The measures required, depending upon the maximum size of the coarsest particles in the aggregate to be tested, shall have capacities of 1/10, 1/2, or 1 cu ft and shall conform to the following dimensional requirements: Inside Inside Capacity, Diameter, Height, cu ft in. in. 1/10 6.00 6.10 1/2 10.00 11.00 1 14.00 11.23 Thickness Size of of Metal, Largest Particles U. S. Gage of Aggregate, in. No. 10 to No. 12 1/2 No. 10 to No. 12 1 1/2 No. 10 to No. 12 4

Calibration of Measure 3. The measure shall be calibrated by accurately determining the weight of water at 16.7 C (62 F) required to fill it. The factor for any unit shall be obtained by dividing the unit weight of water at 16.7 C (62 F) (62.355 lb per cu ft) by the weight of water at 16.7 C (62 F) required to fill the measure. 33

Sample 4. The sample of aggregate shall be room' dry and thoroughly mixed. (Authors' note: To be consistent with the proportioning method, this weight should be reduced to an oven dry basis but the error is generally negligible.) Rodding Procedure 5. The rodding procedure is applicable to aggregates having a maximum size of 2 in. or less. (a) The measure shall be filled one-third full and the to leveled off with the fingers. The mass shall be rodded with the tamping rod with 25 strokes, evenly distributed over the surface. The measure shall be filled two-thirds full and again rodded with 25 strokes as before. The measure shall then be filled to overflowing, rodded 25 times, and the surplus aggregate struck off, using the tamping rod as a straight edge. (b) In ro4ding the first layer, the rod shall not be permitted to forcibly strike the bottom of the measure. In rodding the second and final layers, only enough force shall be used to cause the tamping rod to penetrate the last layer of aggregate placed in the- measure. (C) The net weight of the aggregate in the measure shall be determined. The unit weight of the aggregate shall then be obtained by multiplying the net weight of the aggregate by the factor found as described in Section 3. (Authors' note: Sections 6 and 7 not applicable.) Reproducibility of Results 8. Results with the same sample should check within 1 per cent.

34

NOTES

35

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