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Functional Areas of Cerebral Cortex Sensory Areas 1. Primary Somesthetic/ Somatosensory Area 2.

Primary Visual Area/ Striate Cortex Brodmann Area 3, 1 and 2 Location Postcentral gyrus; posterior part of paracentral lobule Calcarine sulcus Function Integration of somatic sensibility Input VPL and VPM nuclei of thalamus Output Brainstem or spinal cord

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Integration of visual senses

3. Primary Auditory Area

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Anterior Transverse Temporal gyri Posterior Transverse Temporal gyri

Principal auditory receptive area

Auditory association area

Lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus; macula of retina Medial geniculate nucleus of thalamus;

Visual association area

Auditory association area

4. Primary Vestibular Area

Orientation and movement of the head

5. Gustatory Area

Ventral part of postcentral gyrus 6. Olfactory Area none Prepiriform and periamygdaloid regions in cerebral cortex Motor Areas Brodmann Location Area 1. Primary Motor 4 Precentral Area gyrus of frontal lobe Secondary Motor Areas: 2. Premotor Area 6 Lateral aspect of frontal lobe

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Relay taste sensations

Vestibular nuclei via VPM nuclei of thalamus Solitary nucleus via VPM nuclei of thalamus

Vestibular association area Gustatory association area

Function Voluntary Motor Activity

Input Secondary Motor Areas

Output Brainstem, spinal cord

Programming of complex motor activity Voluntary motor function dependent upon sensory stimuli; motor control of axial and proximal limb musculature; orienting the body and upper limbs in the direction of a target, planning movements Programming and planning of motor activities and perhaps their initiation, coordination of bilateral movements and mediates muscle contractions of trunk and proximal limb musculature Cerebellum via ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus Primary Motor Area

3. Supplementary Motor Area

Rostral to central sulcus

Globus pallidus, substantia nigra via ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus

Primary Motor Area

4. Frontal Eyefield

Caudal part of middle frontal gyrus

Movement of the eyes

Midbrain reticular formation , paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF)

5. Somatosensory association area

7 6. Language Area 7. Brocas Area Brodmann Location Area 44 Posterior part of inferior frontal gyrus

Tactile discrimination and stereognosis, as well as statognosis in relation to reaching and guiding movements involved with Movements that require visual guidance. Function functions in the initiation of a sequence of complex movements (via primary motor cortex), which are essential in the production of speech comprehension and formulation of language (left) auditory association area that serves to determine the emotional undertones of language (right) Function integration of sensory input from various sensory systems

Primary Somatosensory Area

Wernickes Area

Premotor cortex

8. Wernickes Area

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Parts of supramarginal gyri and angular gyri

Auditory association area, visual association area

Brocas area

Association Areas 9. Somesthetic Association Area

Brodmann Location Area 5, 7 and Superior 40 parietal lobule

Input Primary somesthetic area, VPL and VPM nuclei of thalamus Primary visual area

Output

10. Visual Association Area

identifying an object, determining its location and color, comparing it to prior visual experiences, and determining its significance 11. Auditory 22 and interpretation of sounds and the Primary association area part of 42 comprehension of language (via Auditory area Wernickes area) 12. Prefrontal cortex 9-12, 46- Frontal Lobe Related to the capacity of an Thalamus, basal 47 organism to weigh the ganglia consequences of future actions and to plan accordingly, being able to repeat task (working memory), appropriate behavioral response in a particular situation (orbital region) Source: Patestas & Gartner, A Textbook of Neuroanatomy. Andre Parent, Carpenters Human Neuroanatomy

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Tertiary visual area, Wernickes area Wernickes area Thalamus, basal ganglia

Source: Tortora and Derrickson, Introduction to the Human Body 8th edition Nice to know: Precentral gyrus Superior: Toes Inferior: tongue, mouth, and larynx Postcentral gyrus Medial: foot Superior: leg, thigh, trunk, shoulder, arm, and forearm Lateral: hand, head, teeth, tongue, larynx, and pharynx *A noticeable characteristic of the primary motor cortex in humans is that more than half of it is associated with the motor activity of the hands, tongue, lips, and larynxreflecting the manual dexterity and ability for speech that humans possess.

BY: Ma. Theresa Monje Medicine 1A West VisayaS State University