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TABLE OF CONTENT BIL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CONTENT ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW OBJECTIVE METHODOLOGY RESULT AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES APPENDICES PAGE NUMBER 2 3 5 6 7 10 22 23 24

ABSTRACT The experiment conducted is to study on dynamics of first order system using furnace. The objectives of experiment are to demonstrate the properties of a first order system for various values of the system gain and time constant and also to illustrate the dynamic response of a first order to different input signals. Firstly, software Mat lab must be open, and then Furnace module was selected. The input and output graphs and furnace process flowsheet window is opened. The simulation was started. The fuel gas purity was decrease from 1.0 to 0.95, and then output was changing with time. The fuel gas purity was change to its original value. The initial state values for each inputs and outputs were recorded. The air flow rate was set to 17.9 and allowed the system reach steady state. Reading value at the hydrocarbon outlet temperature and oxygen exit concentration was recorded at 40 simulation minutes. The step repeated for air flow rate 18.1, 18.3, 18.5 and 18.7. After that, the fuel gas flow rate was set at 1.21 and the hydrocarbon outlet temperature and oxygen exit concentration was recorded after reach steady state. The step repeated for 1.22, 1.23, 1.24 and 1.25. Next, the hydrocarbon flow rate was set at 0.0350 and the reading of hydrocarbon outlet temperature and oxygen exit concentration was recorded after reach steady state. The step was repeated for 0.0355, 0.0360, 0.0365 and 0.0370. Last but not least, the fuel gas purity was set at 1.00, the hydrocarbon outlet temperature and oxygen exit concentration was recorded after reach steady state. The step repeated for fuel gas purity at 0.99, 0.98. 0.97 and 0.95. The nominal Air Flow Rate by was increased to 20% and the whole procedure was repeated. As a conclusion, a change in the fuel gas flow rate resulting by the highest hydrocarbon outlet temperature and also the exit oxygen temperature. In other hand, by increasing 20% of the nominal flow rate would causes the increasing of the exit oxygen concentration but on the same time will reduces the peak or patern of the hydrocarbon outlet temperature.

INTRODUCTION

In the study of transfer function models, the dynamic models derived can be put into standard transfer function typically first order and second order processes. The unit operation in this experiment was represented by a furnace fueled by natural gas which preheats high molecular weight hydrocarbon feed to a cracking unit at a petroleum refinery. The assumed combustion of the fuel followed the following mechanism:

3 CH 4 O2 CO 2 H 2 O 2 1 CO O2 CO 2 2
There are a few inputs to be manipulated and outputs to be controlled so that the combustion inside the furnace is complete and the stream delivered at the desired temperature. To be able to obtained the desired output, the furnace inputs was manipulated. The output was recorded. The system gain for all the manipulated inputs were calculated and substituted into the stadard transfer function. From the function, the desired output was determined and the input according to the function was obtained. The obtained inputs were the values to allow the furnace to achieve its objective. In this section, you will obtain steady state models for a process system to determine the effect of manipulated and load variables on the controlled variables of a process.This data is useful for approximating the changes in the manipulated variablesnecessary to keep the controlled variables at their desired setpoints.The steady state gain of a system characterizes the effect that a change in aninput variable has upon an output variable. The gain is mathematically described as follows:

It is important to note that the gain is defined on the basis of the incremental change in the respective variables. An implicit assumption in such a calculation is that changes in the
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controlled variables can be calculated by summing the changes in all the manipulated and load variables multiplied by constant gain coefficients.This is known as the principle of superposition and is strictly valid only for linear processes. The furnace and column are nonlinear systems; consequently, this approximation is valid only over a small region around the operating point where the system behaves in a nearly linear manner.The steady state gains can be used for many purposes, some of which are listed below: (a) to determine the value of a manipulated variable necessary to change the setpoint of a controlled variable (b) to predict the effect of a change in a load variable upon a controlled variable (c) to predict the change in a manipulated variable necessary to counteract a load variable change The first order transfer function is: G(s) = K/(s + 1) Time behavior of a system is important. When design a system, the time behavior may well be the most important aspect of its' behavior. The points :
1.

How quickly a system responds is important. If control system that's controlling a temperature, how long it takes the temperature to reach a new steady state is important.

2.

Control systems designers worry about overshoot and how close a system comes to instability. Many different aspects of time behavior of a system those are important in control system design. The examples above really are talking about aspects like:

1. 2. 3.

Speed of response Relative stability of the system Stability of the system

Literature Review The experiment is about the study on dynamics of first order system using furnace. The properties of first order system are shown by altering the values of the system gain and time constant. The dynamic response of first order to different input signals is determined. The inputs are hydrocarbon flow rate, hydrocarbon inlet temperature, air flow rate, air temperature, fuel gas flow rate, fuel gas temperature and fuel gas purity. The inputs variables can classify as manipulated or disturbance variables. The inputs may change continuously or at discrete intervals of time. The outputs are hydrocarbon outlet temperature, furnace temperature, exhaust gas flow rate and oxygen exit concentration. The outputs variables can classify as measured or unmeasured variables which measurements may be made continuously or at discrete intervals of time.

Figure 1: Input/output representation

Figure 2: Control representation A manipulated input can be adjusted by the control system or the process operator. A disturbance input can affect the process outputs but cannot adjust by the control system. The control can be classified to two classes which are feed forward and feedback. A feed forward controller measures the disturbance variable and transmit the value to the controller which adjusts the manipulated variable. A feedback control system measures the output variable and compares the value to desired output value and uses the information to adjust the manipulated variable. In figure below shown that the process is a first-order process when the responses of the process variable to a step change in the manipulated variable.

According Seaborg et al. (2011), the transfer functions can be used conveniently to obtain output responses to any type of input. By manipulating the input values in this experiment, the output values can be obtained. When theoretical models are not available or are very complicated, empirical models providing a viable alternative. Experimental data obtained is sufficient to develop a model for the control system design. In this experiment, we obtain the experiment data by manipulating the input. The data obtained then is analyzed and model is developed to fit the data. First order transfer function model can be obtained by analyzing the data graphically or nonlinear regression. To be able to develop a model for the furnace, the system gain and time constant were calculated then the models were developed. Doyle et al. (1999) also stated that the steady gain obtained can be used for various purposes. First, the value of manipulated variable can be determined to change the set point of a controlled variable. Second, the effect changes in load variables can be predicted upon controlled variables. Lastly, the changes in load variable can be counteracted to predict the changes in manipulated variables. Nonlinear systems can behave in a nearly linear manner when the principle of superposition is applied. The steady gain for the nonlinear system can be gained.

OBJECTIVE The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate the properties of a first order system for various values of the system gain and time constant. This module also illustrates the dynamic response of a first order to different input signals.

METHODOLOGY

Select the distillation column from the Main Menu for starting. Clicking the left mouse button once on the furnace modules. This opens the menu window for the furnace modules. On the Furnace button, Click the left mouse button. Two additional windows should open, one for the input and output graphs and one for the furnace process flow sheet.

Under the Simulation menu, select Start. This command should be executed once during a lab session. It is the simulated equivalent to a perfect process start-up. The process output graphs are located on the window labelled Furnace Process Monitor. Notice how the outputs remain unchanged with time.

Next, try decreasing the fuel gas purity. This will act as a disturbance to the system. By double clicking on the Fuel Gas Purity box, change the value from 1.0 to 0.95 by clicking on the value box and using the backspace key to erase the old value. When you have entered a new value, click on the Close button. Again, notice how the outputs on the process monitor are changing with time. Now return the Fuel Gas Purity to 1.0 by double clicking on Fuel Gas Purity box and adjusting the value as done before.

Start the furnace. Record the initial steady state values for each of the inputs and outputs of the furnace:

Make the following sequence of increases in the air flow rate by double clicking the left mouse button on the Air Flow Rate box. The remaining inputs (the six other inputs) should be kept at their initial steady state values. After each change in the air flow rate, allow the system to reach a new steady state (approximately 40 simulation minutes) and then record the values of the output variables obtained using the pointers on the output graphs. Record the steady state values: Return the Air Flow Rate to its initial value allows the furnace to reach steady state

Make the following sequence of increases in the fuel gas flow rate by double clicking the left mouse button on the Fuel Gas Flow Rate box. The remaining inputs (the six other inputs) should be kept at their initial steady state values. After each change in the fuel gas flow rate, allow the system to reach a new steady state (approximately 40 simulation minutes) and then record the values of the output variables obtained using the pointers on the output graphs. Record the steady state values: Return the Fuel Gas Flow Rate to its initial value allows the furnace to reach steady state.

Make the following sequence of increases in the hydrocarbon flow rate by double clicking the left mouse button on the Hydrocarbon Flow Rate box. The remaining inputs (the six other inputs) should be kept at their initial steady state values. After each change in the hydrocarbon flow rate, allow the system to reach a new steady state (approximately 40 simulation minutes) and then record the values of the output variables obtained using the pointers on the output graphs. Record the steady state values: Return the Hydrocarbon Flow Rate to its initial value allows the furnace to reach steady state.

Make the following sequence of increases in the fuel gas purity by double clicking the left mouse button on the Fuel Gas Purity box. The remaining inputs (the six other inputs) should be kept at their initial steady state values. After each change in the fuel gas purity, allow the system to reach a new steady state (approximately 40 simulation minutes) and then record the values of the output variables obtained using the pointers on the output graphs. Record the steady state values: Return the Fuel Gas Purity to its initial value allows the furnace to reach steady state.

Increase the nominal Air Flow Rate by 20% and repeat Procedure 4-8.

For the ended of this session, select Stop under the Simulation menu, then select Yes under the Quit menu from the Main Menu window. This will return you to the MATLAB prompt. At this prompt, type quit to exit MATLAB.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Initial steady state values for each of the input and output of the furnace Inputs Hydrocarbon Flow Rate Hydrocarbon Inlet Temperature Air Flow Rate Air Temperature Fuel Gas Flow Rate Fuel Gas Temperature Fuel Gas Purity 0.035 310 17.9 310 1.21 310 1.0 m3/min K m3/min K m3/min K mol CH4/mol total

Outputs Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature Furnace Temperature Exhaust Gas Flow Rate Oxygen Exit Concentration 610.1316 1426.0309 43.2895 0.9190 K K m3/min mol O2/min

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Change in Air Flow Rate: Air Flow Rate Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature 17.9 (nominal) 18.1 18.3 18.5 18.7 610.2136 607.2863 605.4827 601.9637 600.3682 Oxygen Exit Concentration 0.9190 0.95066 0.97961 1.0078 1.0335

Change in Fuel Gas Flow Rate: Fuel Gas Flow Rate 1.21 (nominal) 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature 609.8684 612.2368 615.1316 616.9737 618.9962 Oxygen Exit Concentration 0.9204 0.9000 0.8796 0.85855 0.8390

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Change in Hydrocarbon Flow Rate: Hydrocarbon Flow Rate 0.0350 (nominal) 0.0355 0.0360 0.0365 0.0370 Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature 610.1316 605.9610 602.7225 599.3346 595.3203 Oxygen Exit Concentration 0.9207 0.9207 0.9207 0.9207 0.9207

Change in Fuel Gas Purity: Fuel Gas Purity Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature 1.00 (nominal) 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95 610.1316 607.2368 604.3421 601.1842 595.3947 Oxygen Exit Concentration 0.9230 0.9493 0.9743 1.0032 1.0585

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Results after nominal Air Flow rate increased by 20%: Initial steady state values for each of the input and output of the furnace Inputs Hydrocarbon Flow Rate Hydrocarbon Inlet Temperature Air Flow Rate Air Temperature Fuel Gas Flow Rate Fuel Gas Temperature Fuel Gas Purity 0.035 310 21.48 310 1.21 310 1.0 m3/min K m3/min K m3/min K mol CH4/mol total

Outputs Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature Furnace Temperature Exhaust Gas Flow Rate Oxygen Exit Concentration 568.2675 1273.2717 45.0563 1.4379 K K m3/min mol O2/min

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Change in Air Flow Rate: Air Flow Rate Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature 21.48 (nominal) 21.72 21.96 22.20 22.44 568.2675 564.9672 562.5378 561.8265 558.4472 Oxygen Exit Concentration 1.4379 1.4534 1.4965 1.5278 1.5735

Change in Fuel Gas Flow Rate: Fuel Gas Flow Rate 1.21 (nominal) 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature 568.2675 570.2837 572.1929 574.0650 575.8970 Oxygen Exit Concentration 1.4379 1.4129 1.3931 1.3670 1.3429

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Change in Hydrocarbon Flow Rate: Hydrocarbon Flow Rate 0.0350 (nominal) 0.0355 0.0360 0.0365 0.0370 Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature 568.2675 565.2574 561.5518 559.0314 556.0783 Oxygen Exit Concentration 1.4379 1.4379 1.4379 1.4379 1.4379

Change in Fuel Gas Purity: Fuel Gas Purity Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature 1.00 (nominal) 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.95 568.2675 565.3581 562.3821 560.1134 555.4262 Oxygen Exit Concentration 1.4379 1.4774 1.5058 1.5309 1.6033

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DISCUSSION

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Using the information from Procedure 5-8, calculate the steady state gain for

each of the following input-output pairings. This can be accomplished by graphically by plotting the output versus input values from the tables and calculating the best linear fit to the data. *Hint: There are 8 steady state gain.

K = ( y2 y1 ) / (x2 x1 )

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Air Flow Rate versus Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature

Gain, K = 12.182

Air Flow Rate versus Oxygen Exit Concentration

Gain, K = 0.146

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Fuel Gas Flow Rate versus Hydrocarbon Temperature

Gain, K = 220.43

Fuel Gas Flow Rtae versus Oxygen Exit Concentration

Gain, K = 2.132

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Hydrocarbon Flow Rate versus Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature

Gain, K = 7425.65

Hydrocarbon Flow Rate versus Oxygen Exit Concentration

Gain ,K = 0

Fuel Gas Purity versus Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature

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Gain, K = 301.34

Fuel Gas Purity vesus Oxygen Exit Concentration

Gain, K = 2.823

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2. Compared with results from (1), is the nonlinear behavior of the furnace

apparent? How this behavior manifested? -The nonlinear behavior of the furnace is not obvious and mostly linear. According to the graph, the value of R2 is mostly almost 0.99. Thus, the nonlinear behavior of the furnace is not apparent.

3. Using the gains obtained in (1), determine the values of the Air Flow Rate and

Fuel Gas Flow Rate that are necessary to increase the Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature by 7 C and decrease the Oxygen Exit Concentration by 0.05 mol O2/m3 by assuming the load variables remain constant. Calculate the new value of the Fuel Gas Flow Rate and Air Flow Rate. - The increase of Air Flow Rate causes the temperature to decrease and the Exit Oxygen Concentration to increase. Therefore, the air flow rate is remain at steady state which is 17.9 m3/min. - By increasing the Hydrocarbon Outlet Temperature by 7 0C and decreasing the Oxygen Exit Concentration by 0.05 mol O2/ m3, Hence, to manipulate both outlet variables the inlet variable must be changed as below calculated value ; Increase of hydrocarbon outlet temperature 235 235 X X = T / Fuel Gas Flow Rate = 7/ (X 1.21) = 7/235 + 1.21 = 1.2397 m3/min

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Decrease of Oxygen Exit Concentration 2.145 2.145 X X = Exit Oxygen Concentration / Fuel Gas Flow Rate = 0.05 / (X 1.21) = 0.05/2.145 + 1.21 = 1.2333 m3/min

the value for both Fuel gas Flow rate is 1.2397 m3/min and 1.2333 m3/min respectively. Which is approximately equal to 1.23 m3/min.

CONCLUSION As a conclusion, a change in the fuel gas flow rate resulting by the highest hydrocarbon outlet temperature and also the exit oxygen temperature. Besides that, any other factors almost give similar in values or effect. Furthermore, hydrocarbon flow rate gives the smallest change of value to the hydrocarbon outlet temperature and to the exit oxygen concentration. Thus, the manipulated of the fuel gas flow rate should be done to give a great impact to the yield. In other hand, by increasing 20% of the nominal flow rate would causes the increasing of the exit oxygen concentration but on the same time will reduces the peak or patern of the hydrocarbon outlet temperature. Lastly, the higher input of air causes the higher remaining oxygen in the exit and increasing the air flow rate causes cooling to the hydrocarbon.

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RECOMMENDATION

For the recommendation to get better result the excess air can be increase more up than 20% in order to make the reaction to be complete combustion. The second recommendation is we should decrease the oxygen exit concentration to increase the air flow rate as we know that more air flowrate will make the reaction complete.

REFERENCES 1. Seborg, D. E., Edgar, T. F. and Mellichamp, D. A. (2004).Process Dynamic and Control (2nded.). United States: John Wil 2. 3. 4. 5. F.J.Doyle III , E.P.Gatzke , R.S.Parker , Process Control Design, 1996. Seborg, D.G,Edgar, Process Dynamics and Control , 1989. Bequett, B.W., Process Dynamics: Modelling,Analysis and Simulation ,1998. Mahoney,D.P., A Real-Time Approach to Process Control,2006.

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