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R. Bernardini, G. Cortelazzo, G . A . Mian

Dipartimento di elettronica ed informatica Universitzi di Padova Via Gradenigo 6A 35131 Padova, Italy

Twiddle-factors elimination in multidimensional FFT has been approached using changes of basis, either in the signal or in the transform domain, as tools for generating FFT algorithms. This novel approach has brought a new technique for the computation of the twiddle-factor free multidimensional FFT which is applicable to a range of situations considerably broader than that allowed by the multidimensional Prime Factor F F T of Guessoum and Merserau. Moreover, the approach allows the determination of a family of F F T algorithm with computational complexity intermediate between that of the M-D Cooleytukey FFT and that of the M-D Prime Factor FFT.

of the algorithm of [4] requires that the periodicity matrix N (see the next section) be factorable into the product of two matrixes with determinants equal to (different) prime numbers. This works considers twiddle-factors elimination in multidimensional FFT from an original point of view. Changes of basis. either in the signal or in the transform domain, are used as tools for generating FFT algorithms. The main points of interest of this work are the following
a new tecnique for the computation of the twiddlefactor free multidimensional FFT which is applicable to a range of situations considerably broader than that allowed by the multidimensional primefactor FFT of [4];

the determination of the characteristics of N leading to the presence of the twiddle-factors and the conseThe extension of the algorithms originally proposed for the quent individuation of a family of multidimensional 1-D FFT to the multidimensional case received considerFFT algorithms with multiplicative complexity inable attention in the last decade. The hyst,orical develtermediate between t.he multidimensional Cooleyopment of multidimensional FFT, from the row-column Tukey algorit>hm arid the multidimensional Prime algorithm [l] to the vector-radix algorit.lim [2]-[3] and Factor FFT. the other more efficient computational schemes is clearly traced in (41. Here, it will suffice to recall that the 1D FYinograd algorithm was extended t,o the multidimen11. DEFINITIONS sional case by Auslander, Feig and Winograd [5] and by Nussbaumer. [6]-[7]. The latter extension is based on Signal c (n) is periodic on lattice polynomial theory. The Cooley-Tukey algorithm was esA D tended to the mult,idirnensionalcase by Merserau and Speake A(N) = {in : m = Nr, r E 2 } (1) in [81. Other a.lgorithw essentially accomplishing t'he N nonsingular D D integer lnatrix [4~-[9~,o r all iff same task, but closer to the t,erms of interest of the math- n, ni E zD emat.ica1community are referenced in [8]. The first extension of the 1-D prime-factor algorithm \vas presented by c (11) = z (n N m ) (2) Guessam and Merserau in ~l~~ of the twiddle factors, ill t h e t,echniq,lc, The Fourier transform pair associated to the signals IwriO d i c On of [-I], is obtained on the basis of a multiditnensionalestetision of the Chinese Remainder 'Theorem. The application


[ a t ] .

Work partially supportcrl by C.N.R. Progetto Finalizzato Telecomunicazioni. contract 91.01819.PF71

S (k) =

c (n)c:xpi-iL';rk'N-'n)


0-7803-1254-6/!23$03.00 1993 IEEE 0


z(n) =

I det NI

N ( k ) exp(i2rkTN-'n) (4)

kJ N

U = HlH2.. . H,I, or by a sequence of both types of elementary operations, i.e..

where IN and J,v represent a period of z ( n ) and X (k), respectively. Signal X (k) , k E ZD is periodic on A(NT), where superscript T denotes transposition. The number of elements in I N and JN is I det NI. It is useful to consider the following elementary matrix column operations: 1) addition t o column i of column j # i, multiplied by constant IC; 2) sign-inversion of column i; 3) exchange of column i with column j. Such operations will be respectively denoted as

111. A M U L T I D I M E N S I O N A L E X T E N S I O N O F THE P R I M E - F A C T O R FFT

The prime-factor FFT can be motivated in the one dimensional and multidimensional case by the following arguments using change of basis as algorithmic derivation tool. This section considers the computation of the Fourier transform X(k), k E Z D, of multidimensional signal I (n) , n E Z D , periodic on h(N). Assume N = PQ with P and Q integer matrixes. Define the D + D dimensional signal

I+ ( n , n l ) = I ( n )
where the square brackets indicate a generic matrix. The corresponding elementary matrix row operations can be similarly defined. They will be denoted by symbols of the type used for the column operations, but placed, not underneath the matrix, but at the right-side of the matrix. The just considered elementary matrix operations correspond to suitable matrix products. It should also be noted that the inverse of 1) is again an operation of t>ype 1) (simply using - I C ) ; and the inverses of 2) and 3) are again operations of type 2) and 3). Elementary matrix operations of the above types can also be defined for block-matrixes. The elementary operations of the block-matrixes will be denoted by the same symbols introduced for the matrix operations with the arrow replaced by the double arrow 3 and with matrix quantities replacing scalar quantities. Also, the elementary operations of the block-matrixes can be oht,ained by suitable matrix multiplicat,ion (since they can be obtained by the it.erate applicat,ion of elementary matrix operations). It is useful to consider the effects on the Fourier transform of the changes of basis by the unimodular matrixes, i.e., by the integer matrixes with determinant equal to plus or minus one. A change of basis by unimodular matris H on ~ ( n does not alter the signal definition lattice but. ) changes signal's period I N int.0 new period I(, = H - ' I N [4] (still formed by I det NI points). Interest,ingly enough, the cha.nges of basis by H and K on definition lattices of, respectivaly, r ( n ) and S ( k ) lead to the substitution of N - ' in (8) with ( H - l N K - T ) - l . Superscript -T denotes matrix inversion and transposition. It is worth observing that every uniniodular matrix U can be obtained from the identity matrix I, by elementary matrix-column operations. i.e., U = I H l H ? . . . H,,,or by elementary matrixrow operations. i.e.,

n, nl E



Signal c+ ( n , n l ) is defined on Z20 and it is periodic on A(N+) where


I ]

The Fourier transform of x+ (n. nl) is

X+ (k, k t ) = X (k) k , k i E Z" (9) which is periodic on L I ( N + ~ ) . The multidimensional extension of the algorithm of Cooley-Tukey [8] can be derived from the following blockmatrix elementary operations on N+

Matrix N+,1 is related to N + by N + , l = R+N+C+ where R+ and C+ are suitable 2 0 x 2 0 unimodular matrixes. Consider signal


I'+ (E) C+ (RT'E) =

with transform


The following relationship holds

Theorem 1 For P and Q tnteger m a t n x e s such that PQ = K N H , wath K and H unimodular matraxes, matrix N +
of (8) can be put, b y block-matrix elementary operations. in the form N+,2 of (15), if and only if there are integer matrtxes A and B such that


(E) = ' + ( C y Q Y

= CzEsN+,, 2:+ (RT'ii) exp (-i2aET(R+N+C+)-'ii)

(13) ~ where S N + ,is a period of c+ ( n ) . From (7), (9) and (13) one obtains for the transform of x ( n )



T I .

xexp ( - i 2 a [






l :


C1E g E I, S


+ Rlanl) exp(-i2nkTQ-'nl)

The proof of Theorem 1 and a procedure for determining matrixes P and Q such that PQ = KNH are omitted for brevity's sake [lo]. It is worth observing that, by Theorem 1, the elimination of the twiddle-factors may be possible also for matrixes N = PQ whose determinant is not the product of two prime numbers, as long as P and Q satisfy diophantine equation (17). Examples showing that multidimensional F F T of prime-factor type may be obtained also for matrixes P and Q having determinants with common factors can be found.

(14) with C,, and R, blocks of block-matrixes CYT and R ' ;, L respectively, and Sp = {n : n = PL, P E Z D , L E [ O , l ) O } , SQ = {n : n = QL. Q f E Z D , E [0, l ) D } . L Note that Sp x SQ = S.V+,~, where x is the Cartesian product operator. Expression (14) can be recognized as the first iteration of the multidimensional Cooley-Tukey algorithm of [e]. The twiddle factors are due to terms exp(-i2akl ( P Q ) - ' n ) in (14);their elimination requires one to bring matrix N+ into form

A striking difference between the one-dimensional primefactor FFT and its presented multidimensional extension is worth pointing out. The one-dimensional prime-factor FFT requires factorization N = p q . The multidimensional prime-factor FFT may be possible also when the multidimensional counterpart of such a factorization, i.e., P Q = K N H does not hold. As a simple example of such an occurrence consider the F F T of 2: (n)periodic on A(N) with
N = [ o

N+.2 =

[ ;;]

by block-matrix elementary operations. In such a case from ('i), and (13) with (9) the Fourier transform of P ( n ) > N+,1 replaced by N+,z,can be computed as

12 0 6 1

Matrix N+ can be brought into the following N+,z matrix N O N t = [ 0 I ]

exp( -i2*kTQ-'nl)

which is a multidimensional F F T without twiddle-factors. As well known, the first. algorithm of type (16), which can be called a multidiniensional F F T of prime-fact.or type, was introduced in [4]. In the one-dimensional case the prime-fact,or FFT requires that integer factors p and q be relatively prime. In the multidimensional case t h e conditions on N + stated in [4]for obtaining the mult,idimensional FFT of prime-factor type, reminiscently of the one-dimensional condit,ions. are that N = PQ wit,li I det PI = p anti I det QI = ii being two (different) prinic, riumbers. Such very restrictive conditions can he consicierably relaxed as the ncxt theorem states.


o o 01

It can be readily seen t.liat




12 0



for any choices of unimodular matrixes K and H as both PQ and N are in Smith normal form [ll]. This example shows the generality of the proposed technique for twiddle-factors elimination with respect to [4]. It is instructive to examine the origin of the twiddle factors within matrix N+ given by (8). Let U and V be integer D x D matrixes such that, by matrix elementary operations, N+ can be brought into the form


[l] D.E. Dudgeon and R.M. Alersereau, Multidzmensional Digital Signal Processang . Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1984.


D.B. Harris, J . H . McClellan. D.S.K. Chan, and H.W.

Schuessler, Vector Radix Fast Fourier Transform, Proc. ICASSP 1977, 548-557.


0 [U v ]

where Z is a suitable D x D integer matrix, resulting from the manipulations of N,. The inverse of (21) is

[3] G.L. Anderson, A stepwise approach to computing the multidimensional fast Fourier transform of large arrays, IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech and Signal Processing, vol. ASSP-28, June 1980, 280-284.
[4] A. Guessoum. R.M. Merserau, Fast Algorithms for the Multidimensional Discrete Fourier Transform , IEEE Trans. on Acoust. Speech and Signal Proc., ASSP-34, Aug. 1986, 937-943.

By replacing in (13) and (14) NY:l with N;,;, it can be seen that Y , which in Ni:3 takes the place of (PQ)- in N+,1,directly determines the twiddle factors. The inspection of (14) with N+,3 in place of N+,1 shows that the corresponding FFT will be without twiddle factors if and only if matrix 4 . Y is an integer D x D matrix. The FFT algorithms (14) with N+,z of the type considered in Theorem 1 are special cases of (14) with N+,B having Y = 0. It is worth noting that if N+ can be brought into the form N+,3,then I det(U).det(V)I = I det NI. This can be seen since matrixes U and V can be put into lower 1 I triangular form. hence I det N+,31 = I det U 1 det V and I det N+ I = 1 det NI = I det N+,31. Sufficient conditions on N , implying the trasformation of N+ into the form N+,B with 4 .Y integer matrixes are not known by the authors. Consequently. a priori conditions allowing to establish. for a given integer D x D matrix N , whether matrix 4 . Y in the corresponding 2 0 x 2 0 matrix N+,3,is integer or null, are not available. It seems reasonable bringing matrix N+ into the form N+,3 by elementary operations and a posteriori verifying t,he characteristics of Y . 14 multiplication-number reduction with respect to the use of N,, can be attained also for Y not null or such that 4 Y is not integer. The multidimensional Cooley-Tukey FFT (in its traditional form) is based on the use of matrixes of type N+,1 given by (IO) and (14). The multidimensional FFT based on matrixes of t,ype N+,3 can be regarded as an extension of the multidimensional Cooley-Tukey FFT. with matrix 2 in N+,3 taking the place of -I in N + , l . As mentioned above, sufficient conditions for the existence of the form N+,3 are not available, instead necessary existence conditions are given by 1 det U / /det,VI = 1 det NI.

[5] L. Auslander, E. Feig, and S. Winograd, New Algorithms for the Multidimesional Fourier Transform, IEEE Trans. Acousi., Speech and Signal processtng, vol. ASSP-31, Apr. 1983, 388-403.

[6] H.J. Nussbaumer and P. Quandalle, Fast computation of discrete Fourier transforms using polynomial transforms, IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, vol. ASSP-27, Apr. 1979, 169-181.

[7] H.J. Nussbaumer, Fast Fourier Transforms and Convolution Algorithms. New York/Berlin:SpringerVerlag, 1981.

[8] R.M. Merserau and T.C. Speake, A unified treatment of Cooley-Tukey algorithms for the evaluation of the midtidimensional DFT, IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech and Signal processing, vo1.ASSP-29. Oct. 1981, 1011-1017.

[9] E. Dubois, The Sampling and Reconstruction of Time-Varying Imagery, Proc. of the I E E E , 73, Apr. 1975, 502-22 [lo] R. Bernardini and G.M. Cortelazzo and G.A. Mian A new technique for twiddle-factor elimination in
multidimensional FFT, subbmitted for publication.

[Ill hl.

Newman, Integral York:Academic Press, 1971