You are on page 1of 3

June 9, 1980

NEW SOLIDARITY

Page 7

PRESS PASS: Fay Sober

The Conspiracy of Walter Lippmann
When most Ame !"ans hea the name Wa#te L!$$mann, the% th!n& o' the ()ean o' Ame !"an *ou na#!sm,( an) h!s $o$u#a a)!o "ommenta !es+ ,an% othe s !)ent!'% L!$$mann as a #!-e a# $h!#oso$he .ho autho e) nume ous -oo&s on Ame !"an 'o e!gn an) st ateg!" $o#!"%, the e)!to o' Ne. Re$u-#!" maga/!ne, an) the s$o&esman 'o the Woo) o. W!#son a)m!n!st at!on .ho o gan!/e) W!#son0s League o' Nat!ons an) !ts (11 Po!nts( "ha te + In 'a"t Wa#te L!$$mann .as a## these th!ngs+ As su"h, mo e than an% othe man !n Ame !"an h!sto %, he " eate) the not!on o' ($u-#!" o$!n!on( an) )e2e#o$e) the too#s use) to man!$u#ate !t to)a%+ Th oughout the e"ent#% $u-#!she) 2o#ume, Aquarian Conspiracy -% ,a !#%n 3e guson, an) the .o &s o' the $ o$agan)a e4$e t .ho "o##a-o ate) .!th 3e guson an) the A5ua !an "ons$! ato s to s$ ea) the! !)eas, 3 e)e !"& Eme %, the e !s not a s!ng#e !)ea on man!$u#at!on th ough the mass me)!a .h!"h )oes not )e !2e ' om L!$$mann0s .o &+ L!$$mann !n 'a"t .as the s"!on o' the same "! "#es ' om .h!"h to)a%0s A5ua !ans )es"en)+
Walter Lippmann, father of public opinion.

Lippmann s Roots L!$$mann0s 6a 2a ) 7n!2e s!t% tea"he s !n the ea #% 1900s !n"#u)e) the athe!st (theo#og!an( an) $h!#oso$he W!##!am James, m%st!" ) ug $ushe 8eo ge Santa%ana, an) 8 aham Wa##as+ 6e .as a#so an !nt!mate o' John De.e%, 6en ! 9e gson, Tho ste!n :e-#en, an) Jane A))ams+

L!$$mann too& o2e the e)!to sh!$ o' J+P+ ,o gan0s New Republic maga/!ne !n 191;, to ma&e !t the 2o!"e o' these 3a-!an "ons$! ato s+ 6e - ought to the maga/!ne as "ont !-uto s, A#)ous 6u4#e%, 'athe o' the 19<0s o"&=) ug "ounte "u#tu e mo2ement, 6+8+ We##s, .hose tu n=o'=the="entu % ('!"t!on( )es" !-e) the su-"u#tu e $ushe) -% the A5ua !an "ons$! ato s to)a%, an) S!)ne% an) 9eat !"e We--, .ho o2e sa. the " eat!on o' the Roun) Ta-#e so"!a# "ont o# a$$a atus !n 8 eat 9 !ta!n+ John ,a%na ) >e%nes an) John De.e% .e e a#so "ont !-uto s+ It .as New Republic .h!"h an Woo) o. W!#son0s 191? $ es!)ent!a# e#e"t!on "am$a!gn an) ma)e $o#!"% 'o the W!#son a)m!n!st at!on !n o''!"e+ Its e)!to !a# sta'' .ou#) #ate #a ge#% "om$ !se W!#son0s Wo #) Wa I Wa De$a tment+ The War !ears Du !ng the .a , L!$$mann .as ass!gne) to s$e"!a# !nte##!gen"e $ o*e"ts, .o &!ng .!th W!#son0s 9 !t!sh a)2!se an) "ont o##e @o#+ E).a ) ,+ 6ouse, an) .!th a carte blanche 'o e4$e !ments !n $s%"ho#og!"a# .a 'a e an) mass m!n) "ont o#+ 6e a#so ha) at h!s )!s$osa# the Inte =A##!e) P o$agan)a @omm!ss!on, un -% 9 !t!sh=@ana)!an $ ess magnate Lo ) 9ea2e - oo&, ' om Lon)on+ W!th the "oo$e at!on o' the "omm!ss!on, L!$$mann .as a-#e to use the Eu o$ean A##!e) $o$u#at!ons as gu!nea $!gs 'o the e4$e !ments !n $ o$agan)a e''e"ts+ The esu#ts o' th!s test!ng o' h!s theo !es .e e s$e##e) out !n L!$$mann0s 19?? $s%"ho#og!"a# .a 'a e manua#, Public Opinion+ Th!s g oun).o & on the theo % o' mass man!$u#at!on !s the -!-#e o' *ou na#!sm s"hoo#s to)a% an) the ea#!t% -eh!n) the mo)e n ne.s me)!a sham "a##e) (o-*e"t!2e *ou na#!sm+( It !s a "#!n!"a##% teste) an) $ o2en metho) 'o !n)u"!ng $a ano!) s"h!/o$h en!a !n an ent! e $o$u#at!on+ L!$$mann . !tes !n Public Opinion on the - a!n.ash!ng metho) he )e2e#o$e)A I must )!sentang#e the !)ea .!th a name o' !ts o.n an) an emot!on that has -een s" ut!n!/e) + + + -e e't o' a''!#!at!ons+ The !)ea !s no #onge me -ut that, !t !s o-*e"t!'!e), !t !s at a m0s #ength+ Its 'ate !s no #onge -oun) u$ .!th m% 'ate -ut .!th the 'ate o' the oute .o #)+ BEm$has!s !n o !g!na#C+

Ree"ucatin# Public $pinion Th!s "#!n!"a# )!sasso"!at!on, L!$$mann !ns!ste) !n 19??, ha) to -e the -as!s 'o ( ee)u"at!ng( a ($u-#!" o$!n!on o' the "ommon .!##(D.hat he "a##e) a ($u-#!" $h!#oso$h% o' natu a# $h!#oso$h%( to )ete "!2!#!/at!on ' om !ts !nhe ent ($ o$ens!t% to )e angement+( L!$$mann "a##e) 'o the esta-#!sh= ment o' *ou na#!sm s"hoo#sD (t a!n!ng s"hoo#s( !n th!s $h!#oso$h% an) te"hn!5ue+ Lippmann s %eirs To)a% 3 e)e !"& Eme %, a sen!o $s%"h!at !st o' the Ta2!sto"& "#!n!" an) the A5ua !an "ons$! a"%0s $ o$agan)a "h!e', no. tea"h!ng at the Nat!ona# 7n!2e s!t% o' Aust a#!a, has a$$#!e) L!$$mann0s !)eas to the use o' te#e2!s!on as an a))!"t!2e mass me)!a that "an -e $ og amme) 'o the $u $ose o' ("#os!ng )o.n the "ent a# ne 2ous s%stem o' man+( The $ o"ess he )es" !-es !s a th ee='o#) $ o"ess o' (su$e '!"!a#!t%, ' agmentat!on, an) )!sasso"!at!on,( .h!"h !n stages - ea&s )o.n man0s (ego !n2estment( !)ent!t% .!th the (outs!)e .o #)(Do L!$$mann0s (o-*e"t!'!"at!on( o' the !)ea ' om the !n)!2!)ua# th!n&!ng that !)ea+ I' %ou a e one o' the m!##!ons o' 'ans o' the $ og amm!ng o' the th ee ma*o te#e2!s!on net.o &s, o' the n!ght#% ne.s - oa)"asts, o the -!-#e o' the $ !nte) .o ) !n %ou o.n )a!#% ne.s$a$e , %ou a e a#so the 2!"t!m o' a "ont o##e) e4$e !ment !n " eat!ng (Pu-#!" O$!n!on(D-% )est o%!ng %ou m!n)+