[OH] Fig.1-2.

Page 12: GPRS logical architecture
•call routing and switching •charging (CDR) •database (subs. profiles) •security •mobility management

CH1. Introduction
CS TRANSPORT NETWORK
•call routing and switching •charging (CDR) •interface to external networks INCOMING CALLS

Abis BSC
RBS AXE RPP

VLR
PCU
Packet Control Unit

MSC
AXE

AXE

Base Transceiver Station

Visitor Location Register

GMSC
Intermediate exchanges
AXE

ISDN PSTN PLMN

Base Station Controller

Mobile Services Switching Center

Gateway MSC IN SDP
UNIX

GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network

Intelligent Network

Service Data Point

symmetry line SMS HLR
AXE AXE/UNIX

AUC

EIR

SCP
AXE/TSP

UNIX

GPRS for prepaid

Gb Gd Gr

Home Location Authentication Register Centre

Equipment Identity Register

Service Control Point Optional (specified). In practice not implemented – no mobile terminated data services

Internet

Gf

Ge

Iub RNC
CPP

Iu SGSN
WPP

~GMSC ~MSC IP BACKBONE NETWORK GGSN
WPP/J20

Corporate Intranet

B-Node
CPP

Radio Network Controller

•packet routing and switching •charging (CDR) •database (subs. profiles) •WPP: Wireless Packe Platform, AXE cabinet •security •mobility management compliant •J20: platform invented by JUNIPER (now ///) •session management •CIPHERING •CPP: Connectivity Packet Platform •compression (IP, payload) - /// features •TSP: Telephony Server Platform (in future replacement of AXE) •RPP: Regional Processor with PCI bus

UTRAN UMTS Terrestial Radio Access Network

Serving GPRS Support Node Routers

Gateway GPRS Support Node •packet routing and switching •charging (CDR) •session management •interface to external networks OUTGOING PACKET TRANSFERS

Streaming Services

Telemetry

software hardware (PLD implemented)

[OH] Fig.1-3. Page 13: Structure of BSS and interfaces Impact on RBS and A-bis OLD RBS 2000 cTRU
CS-1&2 – new software CS-3&4 – new hardware s cTRU classical (old) CS 1&2 sTRU single CS 1 - 4 + EDGE

NEW RBS 2000 dTRU dTRU PCM DXU 21 dTRU dTRU
Y link

NO Local Bus

dTRU double CS 1 - 4 dTRUe CS 1 - 4 + EDGE

cTRU cTRU

dTRU

DXU 11 PCM DXU 21 PCM
Local Bus

s

cTRU cTRU cTRU
s

dTRU

Um

A-bis

BSC/ TRC
… 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 30 31

0

1

2

3

4

CS 1&2 speech GPRS
0 1 2 3 4 5 … 30 31

CS 1-4 EDGE

SARA Service Oriented Allocation of Resources On A-bis Interface Problem with speech transmitted over TSs 4-7 – wastage of resources on A-bis

[OH] Fig.1-3. Page 14: Gb Interface Physical Connections to the PCU

Packet Control Unit CH.2
[OH] Fig.2-2. Page 19: The PCU in the BSC
PCU Description • Located in BSC. • Only One PCU per BSC. • Implemented in central software and regional hardware (RPP) with regional software. • GPRS packet data radio resource management in BSS. • Gb interface is terminated in PCU. • Handles Medium Access Control (MAC) and Radio Link Control (RLC) layers of the radio interface and the BSSGP and Network Service layers of the Gb interface.

[OH] Fig.2-3. Page 20: PCU using frame relay with more than One RPP (CS-1 and CS-2)
Group Switch

Regrional Processor with PCI Bus • A Power PC processor running at 333 MHz. • 64 MB of SDRAM • More than four times the CPU/memory capacity of the RPG • Dual 10/100 Base TX Ethernet • Two DL2 Group Switch interfaces • Communicates via other RPPs via ethernet (duplicated) • May work towards Gb and Abis RPP#1 or towards Abis only RPP#2 • Cell may be controlled by one RPP only

Ethernet

GS

Gb

RPP#1
Abis

SGSN

RPP#2
1 RPP ~ 4 RPG

SRS RPG
Subrate Switch (used for CS1 & CS2)

PCU Hardware Description

[OH] Fig.2-3. Page 22: RPPs in a GDM (BYB 501)
• RPPs are housed in Generic Device Magazines (GDM) Half-size • GS connection DL2 is distributed in the backplane by Digital Link Half-size Board (DLHB) • RP bus is distributed in the backplane by RP4 • Ethernet is distributed in the backplane by Ethernet Packet Switch Board (EPSB)

D E R L P RPP RPP P #1 H S #2 4 B B

E P S B

D R L P H 4 B

[OH] Fig.2-5. Page 23: Ethernet connection between magazines
• One RPP occupies 2 slots • Single GDM can house up to 7 RPPs

Slot

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

15

[OH] Fig.2-6. Page 24: GDM magazines equipped with RPPs (BYB501 hardware)
Function of DLHB DL 2 – 2Mb/s 0 1 2 3 4 5

GS

DL3 – 34 Mb/s 1 physical connection

D L H B

16 logical connections

14 15 16 physical connections in the backplane

PCU Limitations • Maximum number of RPP: 64 book, now 128. • Maximum number of Cells: 512. • Maximum number of PDCHs: 4096. RPP Limitations • Maximum number of PDCHs: 150 software limitation (6 DSP*25 PDCHs) • Maximum number of PDCHs: 64 hardware limitation for CS3&4, EDGE (64 Devices) Can work only towards Gb
0 1 2

RTGPHDV-0&&-31
29 30 31

DSP #1

DSP #2

DSP #3

DSP #4
32 33 34

RTGPHDV-32&&-63

GS
61 62 63

DSP #5

DSP #6

DSP #7

DSP #8 64 kb/s 1 RTGPHDV = 4 Logical PDCHs for CS1&2

LPDCH~PDCH

1 RTGPHDV = 1 Logical PDCHs for CS3&4 and EDGE

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

RADIO

Packet Data Channels (PDCHs)

2 Different RPP configurations RP working towards Gb and Abis • Max 150 PDCHs for CS 1&2 • Max 45 PDCHs for CS 3&4 and EDGE
0 1 2

GS # of Gb Devices = 19 (max 32) 18 19 20 GSL Devices
29 30 31

DSP #1

DSP #2

DSP #3

DSP #4
32 33 34

SGSN

GSL Devices

61 62 63

DSP #5

DSP #6

DSP #7

DSP #8

RP working towards Gb and Abis • Max 150 PDCHs for CS 1&2 • Max 64 PDCHs for CS 3&4 and EDGE Not used
0 1 2

GS GSL Devices
29 30 31

DSP #1

DSP #2

DSP #3

DSP #4
32 33 34

SGSN

GSL Devices

61 62 63

DSP #5

DSP #6

DSP #7

DSP #8

[OH] Fig.2-8. Page 26: RPP Capacity

GPRS Exchange Hardware (definition) CH.3
[OH] Fig.3-2. Page 31: BSC for 1500 TRXs
GS CS call

TRH
Compression S

S LLC frame

MSC

CS subscribers GPRS subscribers CS 1&2 are assumed

SGSN TRAU
Segmentation

S

RPP#1
S

RPP#1

RPP#2

RPP#2

SRS

[OH] Fig.3-3. Page 32: GSM call and GPRS call

COMMAND DESCRIPTION C – change, I – initiate, E – end, B – block. Activation of GPRS Support in BSC SYPAC: ACCESS=ENABLED, PSW=XXXXXX; DBTRI; DBTSC: Command changes access for updating the values of AXE parameters Access is enabled Access password must be given Initiates database transaction Changes data fields for an existing row in a table TAB=AXEPARS, Specifies table SETNAME=CME20BSCF, Specifies parameter set NAME=GPRS, VALUE=1; Specifies parameter, and value (1=active) NAME=GBCAPACITY, VALUE=2; Specifies Gb capacity (0-1023 in 64kb/s steps) Commits database transaction Database is updated automatically

DBTRE: COM; SYPAC: ACCESS=DISABLED; Enabling Ethernet in the PCU

Access is disabled

Definition of RP Intercommunication Group (RPIG) DBTRI; DBTSI: TAB=RPSRPIGROUPS, GROUP=CHARLIE, GROUPNO=1; DBTRE: COM; Inserts a row in a table Specifies table Specifies name of intercommunication group Specifies number of intercommunication group

Enabling Ethernet in the PCU - concluded Connection of RP to Ethernet Group DBTRI; DBTSI: TAB=RPSRPIRPS, RPADDR=98, GROUP=CHARLIE; COM;

RP address Group name

DBTRE:

Deblocking of RP NET A and NET B in RPIG BLRCE: GROUP=CHARLIE, NET=A; Checking Ethernet status (working/not) DBTSP: TAB=RPSRPISUPERVS, GROUP=CHARLIE, Address for RP which is supervising the communication RPADDR1=98, RPADDR2=99, Address for the other RP in the supervision NET=A; Intercommunication network Deblocking of RP communication net Net identifier (A or B)

Checking which RPs have state UP DBTSP: TAB=RPSRPISUPERVS, GROUP=CHARLIE, STATE=UP; Desired RP state (UP or DOWN)

Checking PCU configuration RRPCP: RPINFO; Prints PCU Configuration Data Specific info about RPP state is included

Allocation of RP 1. Initiation of RP EXRPI: RP=99, TYPE=RPPS1; 6 4 RP address RP type 7 8 9 10 5

GS

SNT SNTP

EM 0 EM 1 EM 2
2. Software loading EXRUI: RP=99, SUID ="CXC 146 1002 R2A04"; Software Unit ID 3. Allocation of Extension Module EXEMI: SUID="CXC1461002R2A04", RP=99, EQM=RTGPHDV-0&&-63, EM=2; 4. Connection of Switching Network Terminal NTCOI: SNT=RTGPHDV-0, SNTV=1, SNTP=TSM-29-1; 5. Connection of Devices DEV=RTGPHDV-0&&-31; EXDUI: 6. Deblocking of EMs BLEME: RP=99, EM=0; 7. Deblocking of RP BLRPE: RP=99; 8. Deblocking of SNT SNT=RTGPHDV-0; NTBLE: 9. Taking devices into service EXDAI: DEV=RTGPHDV-0&&-31; 10. Deblocking of devices BLODE: DEV=RTGPHDV-0&&-31; 3

RPP
software 2

1 Equipment (devices for EM) EM address

RP bus

CP-A CP-B

SNT name and number SNT version Switching Network Terminal Point

Device name and number

Gb Interface CH.4
Gb BSC Base Transceiver Station Packet Control Unit PCU Base Station Controller SGSN

Abis

[OH] Fig.4-2. Page 45: Gb interface User Plane

Protocol Description user plane SNDCP – Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol • multiplexing of PDP Contexts (different IP/QoS) • IP packet segmentation (segment length is dynamically controlled by the network; good radio – longer segment) • IP header compression option, not implemented in all networks • IP payload compression

QoS #1

QoS#2
NSAPI 2

Clip browsing Clip streaming NSAPI 1 NSAPI 2

IP#1
NSAPI 1

IP#2 (max 5)
NSAPI 2

APN #1 NSAPI 1

APN #2 NSAPI 2

SNDCP

SNDCP

SNDCP

SNDCP

MS

GGSN

MS

GGSN

Protocol Description user plane continued LLC – Logical Link Control • sequence control (even if the cell has been changed) • error detection • error correction by retransmission (acknowledgements between MS & SGSN) • ciphering A5/3 GEA – option, not implemented in all networks • MS identity – TLLI (Temporary Logical Link Identifier) in 99,99% contains P-TMSI RLC – Radio Link Control • positive/negative acknowledgement for the received data (acknowledgements between MS & BSC) • retransmissions • measurement reporting – quality of the connection • dynamic power regulation and Coding Scheme selection MAC – Medium Access Control • controls access to common resources (1 PDCH many users) • TFI, USF allocation BSSGP – (BSS GPRS Protocol) • transfer of LLC frames passed between an SGSN and an MS with radio related information • negotiation of QoS profile (SGSN – BSS) • cell information for SGSN (BVCI) • node management (flush) • mobility management (paging) NS – (Network Service) • provides communication paths between remote NS user entities • load sharing between links (frame relay PVCs) • link establishment • detection if other links is down

[OH] Fig.4-3. Page 46: Gb interface Control Plane (signaling)

Gb interface definition [OH] Fig. 4-4. Page 50: Frame Relay connection between the SGSN and PCUv
1. Network Service Entity Identifier NSEI • Uniquely identifies each BSC/PCU (as a collection of NSVCs) to the SGSN (and vice versa). • PCU may be connected to one SGSN only. • PCU can be connected to a SGSN via an intermediate transmission network (Frame Relay) or via point-to-point connection. • PCU can use one or more physical links to connect to a SGSN. NSEI definition RRNEI: NSEI=1;

[OH] Fig. 4-5. Page 51: NSEI definition
Definition of NSEI NSEI unique in SGSN

2. Data Link Connection Identifier DLCI • Identifies local connection in Frame Relay network. • Defined between two FR nodes. 3. Network Service Virtual Connection Identifier NSVCI • Identifies virtual connection between SGSN and BSC/PCU. DLCI and NSVCI definition RRNSI: NSVCI=1, DLCI=100, DEV=RTGLT-2, NUMDEV=5; RRVBE: NSVCI=1; Definition of NSVCI and DLCI NSVCI # unique in BSC/PCU DLCI # unique in BSC/PCU First RTGLT device Total # of consecutive RTGLT devices. After the definition, the NSVCI must be deblocked GS DEV=RTGPHDV-0&&-31
012 4

DEV=RTGLT-0&&-31 SNT=ETRTG-0
012 67

31

ETC

31

RPP
allocated automatically by the system

NUMDEV=5 DEV=RTGLT-2

[OH] Fig. 4-7. Page 53: Effect of the RRNSI command

4. BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier BVCI • Identifies a virtual connection between the SGSN and a cell in BSS. • Allocated immediately after activation of GPRS in the cell. RLGSI: CELL=C1AG11; GPRS functionality activation Cell specification

[OH] Fig. 4-6. Page 53: Gb interface commands
Checking Gb status RRGBP;
1

SUMMARY NSEI=1 BSC PCU

3 NSVCI=1 2 DLCI=106

1 CELL 1 4 BVCI=1

NSEI=2
3 NSVCI=2 FR switch DLCI=101

CELL 2

4 BVCI=2

BSC

PCU

2 DLCI=100

SGSN

CELL 3

4 BVCI=3 1

NSEI=3 BSC PCU

3 NSVCI=3 2 DLCI=103

2 DLCI=102 DLCI=104 DLCI=105

3 NSVCI=4

PCU Load Distribution
Procedure: • Selection of BVCs for redistribution. • Selection of target RPP. Ethernet not working
Ethernet

Ethernet working
Ethernet

GS
BVCI

SGSN
BVCI

GS

SGSN

RPP#1

RPP#1

BVCI

RPP#2

RPP#2

BVCI

RPP#3
Marked as blocked

RPP#3
Marked as deblocked

RP deblocking GS
BVCI

RP blocking/restart SGSN
BVCI

GS

SGSN

RPP#1

RPP#1

BVCI

RPP#2

BVCI

RPP#2

RPP#3
BVCI After deblocking of RPP3 Calculated Number of BVCs per RP = 2

BVCI

RPP#3

After blocking of RPP3 Calculated Number of BVCs per RP = 3

Configuration of BVC (activation of GPRS in a cell) GS
BVCI

Unsuccessful PDCH allocation due to GSL congestion (EDGE) GS
BVCI

RPP#1
NEW BVCI

No GSL dev for new PDCH

RPP#1

BVCI

RPP#2

BVCI

RPP#2

RPP#3
BVCI To which RPP allocate this cell?

RPP#3
BVCI Move the cell to RP with sufficient GSL resources

GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTURE / NO POOL

Big City MSC IDLE MODE ACTIVE MODE IDLE MODE

Big City SGSN ACTIVE MODE

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

MSC

MSC BSC MSC

BSC

SGSN

SGSN BSC

SGSN

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

LA UPDATE

RA UPDATE Inter MSC HANDOVER Inter SGSN CELL CHANGE

- 19 -

GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTURE / POOL

Big City MSC IDLE MODE ACTIVE MODE IDLE MODE

Big City SGSN ACTIVE MODE

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

MSC BSC MSC BSC MSC BSC

SGSN SGSN BSC SGSN

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

No LA UPDATE

No Inter MSC HANDOVER

No RA UPDATE

No Inter SGSN CELL CHANGE

- 20 -

GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTURE
NO POOL Network utilization is geographically dependent. Problem with dimensioning. POOL Easy dimensioning. Average traffic distribution over the Whole geographical area.

BSC

BSC

BSC

BSC

LONDON BUSINESS
BSC SGSN SGSN

LONDON SOHO
SGSN BSC SGSN BSC SGSN SGSN SGSN BSC MSC BSC BSC BSC

BSC

BSC

Addition of MSC requires redesigning of radio network. MSC failure/upgrage causes loss of service area.

To add MSC, data transcript from existing one may be used. MSC failure/upgrage only causes problem with capacity.

- 21 -

HOW CORE NODE (MSC/SGSN) IS SELECTED AT SWITCH-ON ?
LOAD SHARING FUNCTIONALITY CAP = 10
1 IMSI

MSC/ 25%~CAP SGSN NRI – Network Resource Identifier MSC/ 25%~CAP SGSN NRI
2

BSC

CAP =10
IMSI 2

3

TMSI/P-TMSI have specific CAP = 20 Structure containing NRI

MSC/ SGSN
RA/LA UPDATE 1 TMSI/P-TMSI RA/LA UPDATE NRI UPON OLD NRI

50%~CAP NRI

BSC

NETWORK RESOURCE IDENTIFIER BASED ROUTING

[OH] Handout 115 - Structure of P-TMSI

PROBLEMS WITH POOL
MSC/ SGSN MSC/ SGSN MSC/ SGSN

BSC

Additional resources must be added to provide the same GoS No such problem with SGSN because SGSN in POOL requires Gb over IP Solution A over IP
- 22 -

[OH] Handout 116 - Use of concepts on the Gb when SGSNs in Pool

Radio Interface CH.5
GSM Basic Physical Channels Dedicated (Fixed) Packed Data Channels On Demand Packet Data Channels permanently reserved for GPRS

0 B,C

1 D D

2

3

4

5

6

7

temporarily used by GPRS (dynamic allocation)

If no GSM traffic more PDCHs are allocated – higher GPRS throughput. It is possible to specify priorities, e.g. GSM can preempt all GPRS channels on congestion or take only Idle ones. If On Demand PDCH becomes idle it is returned to CS domain after PILTIMER ( Packet Idle List Timer) expiry.

[OH] ------. ------: On Demand PDCH preemption

TBF (Temporary Block Flow) – transmission of data (radio blocks) over GPRS air interface • signaling and traffic TBF TBF (new) • released if idle (classic approach) TBF 5s • release after 5 s (in practice) • transmission over one or more TSs

TBF is unidirectional (independent control of UL and DL radio resources) • 1MS 1 UL ( ) TBF • 1MS 1 DL ( ) TBF • 1MS 1 UL ( ) TBF + 1 DL ( ) TBF

More than 1 MS per single PDCH

DL
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

More than 1 PDCH per single MS (but only one TBF)

UL
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

DL Transfer TFI (Temporary Flow Identity) – TBF ID (VALUES 0-31) MSs listen to all PDCHs allocated to them. Moreover they read all radio blocks. However, only radio blocks allocated to them (proper TFI) are processed. Without QoS resources are divided evenly among all MSs. (MSs
TFI=1

DL
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

and

will use TS4 alternately.

TFI=3 TS=3&4

TFI=1 TS=4&5

TFI=7 TS=6&7

DISCARD (not my TFI)

OK (my TFI, process)

UL Transfer USF (Uplink State/Status Flag) – (VALUES 0-7) • transmitted downlink • designates the MS that is allowed to transmit in UL direction on the particular TS

DL
0 1 2 3

USF=1 4

USF=1 5

USF=4 6

USF=5 7

content addressed for

UL
0 1 2 3 2 4 5 6 7

1 TS USF 4 1 5 3 TS USF 5 1 6 4 TS USF 6 2 7 3 TS USF 7 5

[Hint] Parameter TBF Granularity enables transmission of more UL Radio Blocks upon reception of proper TFI (TBF Granularity =4 4 Radio Blocks may be transmitted)

Basic Physical Channel may carry different types of information BCH:

Logical Channels GSM FCCH SCH BCCH CCCH: PCH RACH AGCH DCH: SDCCH FACCH SACCH PACCH PTCCH TCH PDTCH Option which requires Master PDCH. (GPRSNWMODE parameter) MPDCH - first of dedicated PDCH, carry DATA + SIGNALING (80-90%) (10-20%) GPRS

0 B,C

1 D D

2

3

4

5 M

6

7

PBCCH

PPCH PRACH PAGCH

[OH] Fig. 5-2. Page 76: Logical channels in GSM [OH] Fig. 5-3. Page 76: Logical channels in GPRS

[OH] ------. ------: Cell without MPDCH [OH] ------. ------: Cell with MPDCH
Presence of MPDCH depends on Network Operation Mode

NETWORK OPERATION MODES
NOM I no MPDCH parameter GPRSNWMODE=0
CS PAGING MULTIPLEXED WITH USER DATA MSC BSC Gs SGSN BSC PCH SGSN MSC NO Gs

NOM II (no MPDCH) GPRSNWMODE=2

ACTIVE DATA TRANSFER MS LISTENS ONLY TO PCH

PCH

CS PAGING PS PAGING

MS LISTENS ONLY TO PCH -NO PAGING COORDINATION WITH DATA TRANSFER

-COMBINED RA&LA UPDATE -COMBINED GPRS/IMSI ATTACH -PAGING COORDINATION

NOM I, MPDCH exists GPRSNWMODE=1
CS PAGING MULTIPLEXED WITH USER DATA MSC BSC Gs SGSN PCH

NOM III (MPDCH exists) GPRSNWMODE=3

MSC NO Gs BSC SGSN

ACTIVE DATA TRANSFER MS LISTENS ONLY TO PPCH

PPCH MS LISTENS TO PCH AND PPCH -NO PAGING COORDINATION WITH DATA TRANSFER

PPCH PCH FOR NON GPRS MSs PCH

DUAL TRANSFER MODE
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

MS Classes A DTM (simplified A) B C PAGING BSC is responsible for paging coordination.
DATA TRANSFER FACCH MSC CS PAGING PS PAGING

GSM and GPRS channel allocation must be coordinated. (GPRS channel administration is responsible for this).

BSC

NO Gs

MS must support DTM. However, paging coordination works for all MSs (session must be suspended)

SGSN

RA/LA UPDATE BSC is responsible for RA/LA update coordination.
LA UPDATE SDCCH

MSC

RA UPDATE TUNNELED

BSC

SGSN

Allocation of FPDCH RLGSC: CELL=KISTA, FPDCH/SPDCH=3, MPDCH=YES/NO; RLCLC: Changing of GPRS cell parameters Cell name Number of Fixed/Semi-dedicated PDCHs (max 16) Allocation of MPDCH in the cell No selection preference. No selection preference for CS and select TCHs first for PS. No selection preference for CS and select TCHs last for PS.

CELL=KISTA, CSPSNOPRF CSPSALLOC= CSNOPRFPSFIRST CSNOPRFPSLAST

Setting the Network Operation Mode RAEPC: Changing exchange properties (many different properties are changed with this command) PROP=GPRSNWMODE–1; Choosing appropriate NOM

[OH] ------. ------: 1 & 2 & 3 & 4

Coding Schemes [OH] Fig. 5-15. Page 87: Coding schemes
Selection of default coding scheme for the whole BSC/PCU RAEPC: PROP=CHCODING–1; Choosing appropriate channel coding 1 – CS1 , 2 – CS2 (UL,DL)

Selection of dedicated coding scheme for the particular cell RLGSC: CELL=KISTA, NA CS1 CS2, CS3 CS4 Cell name

CHCSDL=

CS downlink for the particular cell. If NA is selected, the exchange property CHCODING is used

LA = ON/OFF;

Activation of Link Adaptation feature. CS specified by CHCSDL will be taken as initial value.

Definition of required number of PDCH RLBDC: CELL=KISTA, CHGR=0-15, NUMREQBPC=8-128, NUMREQCS3CS4BPC=0-128 NUMREQEGPRSBPC=0-128, TN7BCCH=GPRS/EGPRS; Changing configuration of BPDCH Cell name Channel Group number Number of required BPCs, if not given all TSs are GPRS capable Number of required GPRS CS-3 or CS-4 BPCs Number of required EGPRS BPCs This parameter indicates if Timeslot Number (TN) 7 on the BCCH frequency can be configured with Traffic Channels (TCHs) supporting EGPRS or GPRS only.

Activation of Dual Transfer Mode in the cell RLDUI: CELL=KISTA, Changing configuration of BPDCH Cell name

Throughput

CS4 CS3

MS TCH 22.8 kb/s

RBS 13 kb/s user data Channel Coding

BSC

CS2 CS1

C/I

GSM
50%/50% 50%/50% CS4 – 20K

GPRS
CS3 – 14.4K CS2 – 12K CS1 – 8K

Not enough coding

Too much coding

RBS

Coding is dynamically changed

C/I

distance

distance

Selection of Max # of TBFs UL and DL
[OH] -----. -----: Channel reservation strategy

RAEPC: PROP=TBFDLLIMIT–2; PROP=TBFULLIMIT–2; PROP=PILTIMER–20; Desired max # of DL TBFs sharing one PDCH. Value range is 1 – 8 Desired max # of UL TBFs sharing one PDCH. Value range is 1 – 6 PILTIMER value. Protection of PDCHs from returning to CS domain

Specification which on-demand PDCHs that are possible to pre-empt to be used for circuit switched calls. RLGSC: CELL=KISTA, 0 All on-demand PDCHs are possible to preempt 1 On-demand PDCHs not used for Dual Transfer Mode (DTM) are possible to preempt 2 On-demand PDCHs not used for Streaming are possible to preempt 3 On-demand PDCHs not used for DTM nor for Streaming are possible… 4 ; On-demand PDCHs that are not essential are possible to preempt 5 On-demand PDCHs that are not essential nor DTM PDCHs are … 6 On-demand PDCHs that are not essential nor Streaming PDCHs … 7 On-demand PDCHs that are not essential nor DTM nor Streaming … 8 Idle on-demand PDCHs are possible to preempt

PDCHPREEMPT=

[OH] Fig. 5-17. Page 90: Location Area (LA) and Routing Area (RA)

MSC/VLR service area LA#1
Paging inside RA/LA

SGSN service area RA#1 RA#2

LA#2 RA#4

Location update

LA#3

Routing Area update

RA#3 RA#5

LA – Location Area

RA – Routing Area

CGI containing Location Area Code is defined with RLDEC command

RA ” LA in /// RA=LA RA cannot be divided between many LAs

EDGE Solution Description CH.6
[OH] Tab. 6-1. Page 100: GPRS and EDGE: EDGE/GPRS technical data. [OH] Fig. 6-3. Page 102: EDGE Introduces New Modulation
1/The same bit 3,7 s 0,1,0 0,0,0 3 amplitude (const.) phase 0,0,1 Q Q 1 0,1,1 amplitude (var.) 1,1,1 I 1 2 3

011 110 000

GMSK
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keyiing

8-PSK
8 - Phase Shift Keyiing

0/Different bit

1,0,1 2 1,0,0 Problem amplitude = 0 Solution – axis rotate

1,1,0

I

SS

SS

time Class C amplifier required. Simple and cheap

time Class A amplifier required. Expensive and complicated

[Q] Why transmission power in EDGE is lower, comparing with GMSK ? PPEAK GMSK PAV GMSK = > ~3dB PPEAK EDGE PAV EDGE MS measures average power.

Different power causes problem with stability at the cell border.
Cell border changes depending on transmission method.

EGPRS 8PSK Unstable region

GPRS GMSK

Solution – no 8PSK on BCCH carrier or no 8PSK on TS 0 & 7 of BCCH carrier GMSK vs 8PSK
TX interference interference RX TX RX

large distance

small distance

Lower bitrate. High resistance to interferences thanks to large distances between symbols.

High bitrate. Lower resistance to interferences (symbols are close). Solution – good radio, dynamic adaptation of coding and modulation (back to GMSK)

[OH] Fig. 6-5. Page 105: Coding Schemes for GPRS and EDGE (standard improvement) [Q] What is coverage area for GPRS ?
Coverage Area for GPRS – bitrate achieved from 1 TS is at least 8 kb/s

GPRS

8PSK

EGPRS Coding Scheme Modulation

GMSK

Mobile Coding Scheme MCS

[Q] Why coverage for EGPRS with GMSK is greater than GPRS with GMSK ?
~3dB Processing Gain. Result of better coding schemes and more efficient protocols.

Improvements in EDGE [OH] Fig. 6-6. Page 106: Retransmission in EGDE in comparison to GPRS
In GPRS retransmission is allowed only with the same coding scheme. coding user data #1 NOT ACK #2 #3
#1 ACK, #3 ACK, #2 NOT ACK

In EDGE retransmission is allowed with different coding scheme and modulation.

#1 sequential number CS 4

#2

MCS 9

#1 MCS 6 #2 NOT ACK NOT ACK #1.1 #1.2 #2.1 GPRS protocols do not allow splitting one block into smaller parts due to problems with numbering. No space In protocol header for 2.1 & 2.2. Transmission window 64 frames (stall if exceeded) #2.2 MCS3 (GMSK)

#2 retransmission, more coding required #2 CS 2 #???

Transmission window 1024 frames

[OH] Tab. 6-2. Page 106: Coding schemes (Link Adaptation)

INCREMENTAL REDUNDANCY enables utilization of less robust codec (MCS 9) in radio conditions suitable for more robust codec (MCS 5)

[OH] HANDOUT: Incremental Redundancy [OH] HANDOUT: MCS-9 and MCS-5 - comparison [Q] Why to introduce Incremental Redundancy ?
C/I

1 transmission 2 transmissions

3 transmissions

Radio conditions are changing constantly. In some cases only one or two transmissions are sufficient for proper decoding of the transmitted signal with incremental redundancy. Throughput is increased. Incremental redundancy requires MS buffer for soft combining. If buffer is exceeded link adaptation is utilized.

[Hint] In GPRS 10% of the whole transmitted data are retransmissions (for good network) In EDGE 40% of the whole transmitted data are retransmissions (for good network)

Selection of Default Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) DL/UL RAEPC: PROP=LQCDEFAULTMCSDL–5; Changing exchange properties Default MCS downlink. Values 1-9 ~ MCS1MCS9 (valid if LQCACT1 or 3, no EGPRS Link Quality Control DL) Default MCS upnlink. Values 1-9 ~ MCS1- MCS9 (valid if LQCACT2 or 3, no EGPRS Link Quality Control UL)

PROP=LQCDEFAULTMCSUL–5;

Activation/Deactivation of EGPRS Link Quality Control (ELQC) RAEPC: PROP=LQCACT– 0 1; 2 3 ELQC deactivated ELQC activated for DL TBFs only ELQC activated for UL TBFs only ELQC activated for DL and UL TBFs

Limiting the highest MCS than can be selected by the system in LQC procedures (UL/DL) RAEPC: PROP=LQCHIGHMCS–9; Values 1-9 ~ MCS1- MCS9

Link Adaptation and Incremental Redundancy (LA/IR/BLER) activation RAEPC: PROP=LQCMODEDL/UL 0 1; 2 LA mode LA/IR mode LA/IR BLER mode

Traffic Flow Description CH.7
[OH] Fig. 7-2. Page 113: Call to a CS mobile [OH] Fig. 7-5. Page 117: GPRS transaction (CS-1 and CS-2) with On-demand or Fixed PDCH [OH] Fig. 7-6. Page 117: EDGE or GPRS transaction (CS-3 and CS-4) with Ondemand or Fixed PDCH [OH] Fig. 7-7. Page 118: GPRS transaction with Master PDCH

BSC Exchange Properties for GPRS and EGPRS CH.8
Discussed during previous chapters

OSS RC for GPRS CH.9
[OH] Fig. 9-2. Page 145 --- Fig. 9-11. Page 159

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