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Leah Burgmeier CI 335 Dr. Lindsay Fall 2003
Table of Contents
I. Opening Information • Name (changed for confidentiality) • Testing Date • Student’s Age • Grade • School (changed for confidentiality) General Observations Graded Word List Results • Designation of Grade Level • Phonic/Structural Analysis • Description of Strengths, Weaknesses, and Global Plan • Charts for Each Grade Level Testes Summary of Phonic/Structural Analysis • Designation of Grade Level • Phonic/Structural Analysis • Description of Strengths, Weaknesses, and Global Plan Summary of Comprehension Performance • Designation of Grade Level • Comprehension • Description of Strengths, Weaknesses, and Global Plan Page 2
Page 2 Pages 3—4
Recommendations Pages 8—14 • Listing of 20 Specific Recommendations • Narrative and Descriptive Listing of Each Recommendation Test Forms • Performance Record • Summary of Oral Reading Performance • Miscue Tally Summary Chart • Qualitative Summary of Miscues • Summary of Comprehension Performance • • • Graded Word Lists 23 Oral Reading Passages 31 Silent Reading Passages 37 2 Pages 9—41 15 16 17 18 19 20— 24— 32—
Listening Passages 41
Abbreviated Basic Reading Inventory
Name: Testing Date: Student’s Age: Grade: School: Toby Keith Tuesday, September 30, 2003 8 3 Jackson Elementary School
General Observations: The day of the test, Toby walked in with a smile on his face. Still, his demeanor seemed to be quite anxious. Trying to make his way into the corner of the room, Toby immediately turned red in the face. Upon sitting down, he seemed to adjust a little to the crowd of people, but was still uneasy. He was very aware of the many tape recorders that were surrounding him. As anticipated, it seemed as though Toby was quite nervous in front of the fifteen men and women holding clipboards. Before the test began, the students giving the reading inventory asked Toby a series of questions to make the environment a little more relaxed. Although Toby answered, the answers were mostly one word responses followed by Toby looking down at the table. This was something we had anticipated, but tried our best to alleviate. During the test, Toby continued to be nervous. He seemed to be quite unsure about the answers he was giving in certain sections, which only created more anxiety. We responded to this anxiety and frustration by stopping the Graded Word Lists and beginning at the pre-primer level for the comprehension tests. This seemed to help things and Toby was a little more comfortable. Following the test, Toby was ready to get out of the corner and be on his way. He did not interact much with us at this time. A few nods to say good bye and he was on his way.
Graded Word List Results
Toby did a great job with the graded word list. He finished the test at grade level six. Although he was still at his instructional level, he grew very frustrated at this point. Thus, we deemed it appropriate to end the test. Toby had problems decoding the word endings. For example he said thought for through. This also leads to another problem—sometimes Toby would pronounce a word that was graphically similar to the beginning of the test word. He said invention for the word invitation and shrunk for the word skunk. Another problem area was his short and long vowel, focusing more on digraphs. He changed the short vowel sound of the word been to a long sound, pronouncing bean. For the word pliers, he pronounced players. It seemed he had difficulties when the first sound of the word was a vowel. He mispronounced education and assemble and he passed on usually, anxious, economics, and attractive. Because Toby had difficulties with vowels, especially long sounding vowels, it would be helpful to work on activities that allow him to focus on these sounds. Such activities are found in Cunningham’s Phonics They Use. Examples of activities are: Making Words Lesson (p. 104), What Looks Right (p122), and Changing a Hen to a Fox (p.92). Tiedt, Tiedt, and Tiedt’s Language Arts Activities for the Classroom offers many activities that are all-inclusive to work problem areas. One activity in particular is called Word Analysis Skills (p. 63). This activity involves making word lists from any story. For example, “list all the words from this story that have long vowel sounds. This would be a wonderful activity for extra practice with virtually any word analysis.
Graded Word List Charts: Toby Keith
List List C-C List C List C 7141 List C 8224 List C 3183 List C 5414 List C 8595 List C 6867 Grade Pre-Primer Primer 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sight Total 20 20 20 18 18 17 17 14 Analysis Total 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 Total 20 20 20 20 18 18 17 14 Level Independent Independent Independent Instructional Instructional Instructional Instructional Instructional
List C 8224 been through List C 3183 pilot usually List C 5414 skunk medicine anxious List C 8595 education petticoat invitation List C 6867 substitute assemble economics biscuit attractive pliers
Sight bean thought Sight -pass-passSight shrunk medication -passSight addition -passinvention Sight -passazemble -pass-pass-passplayers -pass-pass-pass-pass-pass-pass-pass-pass-pass+ -pass-pass-pass-pass+ +
Summary of Toby Keith’s Phonic/Structural Analysis on the BRI
Grade Level We found that Toby’s instructional level of reading was at Grade 3. Toby read very well, however, he lacked comprehension of the passages he was reading to maintain instructional performance in the questions asked following the stories. For that reason, we never found Toby’s frustration level in his oral reading. Phonic/Structural Analysis Toby’s miscues in reading mainly fell into two categories: different endings and omissions. He also had one miscue within repetitions, different in both the middle and end of the word, and reversal. In general, Toby omitted periods at the end of sentences. This could easily have been caused by his nervousness as he rushed through the readings. His other omissions, substitutions, and reversals did not change the meaning and were acceptable miscues. They were good indicators of Toby’s advanced eye-voice span as he was reading. He maintained good fluency throughout his reading because of the skills he possesses for eye-voice span. Toby excelled in beginning sounds of words, getting 100% correct. He maintained a high level of performance, getting 60% of his miscued words’ middle sounds correct. His major struggle was with ending sounds. In each of his miscued words he substituted a different ending. However, as stated above, all of these were acceptable miscues. The endings that he changed were not in important words within the story but rather, for example, changing that to the, or omitting an -s from a word. This is yet another indication of his eye-voice span performance.
Strengths Toby’s oral reading performance is strong as he reads quite fluently. In a less stressful situation, I believe that he has the capability to read expressively as well. Toby is confident in his oral reading abilities. He seemed most at ease while he was reading and not concentrating on his observers. Weaknesses While we weren’t able to press Toby to his frustration level to discover his true weaknesses, we did uncover some areas where he can concentrate his phonemic work efforts. Toby excelled at reading beginnings of words, but when it came to the middle and especially the endings, he needed to take a closer look and determine what the words really were. The key is to teach Toby the importance of looking at the entire word and not just getting his cues from the beginning letters. Toby’s reading also lacked expression. As he read, he failed to pause for the appropriate punctuation. Global Plan Toby needs phonemic instruction in middle and ending sounds of words. He will benefit from a variety of activities which help his look at each letter of the word. One major activity that would be very good for Toby would be the RIVET activity. He also would become more advanced in this skill after practicing Guess the Covered Word and Making Words activities. (He will look at all the letters that create words.) Also, more oral reading situations in which Toby is reading at his independent level would help him to develop the expressive reading that he lacked overall. Because his reading is so fluent, the practice with expressive reading and also paying attention to punctuation will take him to the next level of becoming an oral reader who is entertaining to listen to.
Summary of Toby Keith’s Comprehension Performance on the BRI
Grade Level Toby’s frustration level was at grade level three. His instructional level was found to be at grade level two. Strengths Toby answered 79% of the topic questions correctly in which the title helped him. For the fact questions, 71% of the oral reading questions and 73% of the silent reading questions were answered correctly. This isn’t necessarily the highest level of thinking, but it does require good comprehension and memory in order to recall. It was interesting that he scored quite well in this area and lower on the higher-level thinking questions. It seems as though since he could remember facts that he should be able to give some thought to inference; however, he missed 57% of those questions. He also missed 100% of the vocabulary questions in which case he would simply give up. Toby often selfcorrected during his oral-reading which is a sign of a good reader and in most cases someone who has good comprehension. It was surprising to end up with the results that we did. Weaknesses We were all surprised to see that Toby was not able to answer any of the vocabulary questions. We wondered how he could answer some of the other questions, but yet not understand important vocabulary. It is possible that he relies heavily on context without other strategies. Global Plan (see list of Recommendations for activities) We would recommend working on vocabulary strategies with Toby. Also, overall comprehension activities dealing with higher-level thinking such as evaluation and inference questions would also be useful with Toby and build his comprehension skills.
Recommendations for Toby Keith 1. Nifty Thrifty Fifty-Cunningham pages 165-171 2. Story Analysis- Tiedt and Tiedt pages 71-72 3. Cloze Procedure -Tiedt and Tiedt pages 75-76 4. Table Talk- Yopp and Yopp page 82 5. RIVET- Cunningham pages 147-150 6. Literary Report Card- Yopp and Yopp page 75 7. Guess the Covered Word- Cunningham page 90 8. Word Analysis Skills (Cunningham page 63) 9. Big Words Topic Collection- Cunningham page 143 10.Rounding Up Rhymes- Cunningham pages 95-96 11.Making Words- Cunningham pages 97-107 12.Polar Opposites- Yopp and Yopp page 74 13.Word Sorts- Cunningham page 112 14.Paper Bag Book Report www.askeric.org/Virtual/Lessons/Language_Arts/Reading/RDG0011 15.Story Chains-www.teachersdesk.org/readchain.html 16.Prior-Knowledge Prediction Strategy- Gunning page 368 17.Story Elements Map- Gunning page 382 18.The Conversation Game- Gunning page 337 19.Simulations- Gunning page 345 20.Word Detectives- Cunningham page 152
1. Nifty Thrifty Fifty (Cunningham pgs 165-171) Using this method, Toby can analyze big words for familiar patterns. Using a words list will give Toby many examples of common patterns in reading and spelling big words. The list also gives Toby word chunks to work with, and then breaks up the word into the prefix and suffix so it is easier for students to spot the patterns. To use this method in the classroom, the teacher can create a word wall of big words, adding words to the wall every week. The students can chant the spelling of the new words as they are added. Then the teacher can break up the words into their stem, prefix, and suffix, explaining that sometimes small words are found within bigger words. These smaller words might tell us the meaning of the whole word put together. 2. Story Analysis (Tiedt and Tiedt pgs 71-72) This method of reading comprehension serves almost like a graphic organizer to help Toby organize his thoughts and ideas into useful story mapping to help organize his thoughts. To use a story analysis in the classroom, the teacher reads a short story aloud to the class. Then write column headings on the board to help retell the story. Then the students retell the story as the teacher fills in the missing information from the chart. This method aids in comprehension by providing a story map that the students can use to analyze and remember stories. 3. Cloze Procedure (Tiedt and Tiedt pgs 75-76) This procedure helps the teacher diagnose the student’s reading level and also focuses on reading comprehension. This method would help Toby’s comprehension of a selected reading passage, improve his visual memory, and help him to focus on main points in the story. To perform a cloze procedure, the teacher would choose a selection to read that is about 250 words and is unfamiliar to the students. The teacher would then leave the first and last sentences intact, but delete every fifth word. Then the teacher would ask the student to fill in the blank. This procedure will help the student focus on the details of the story and focus on cause and effect. 4. Table Talk (Yopp and Yopp pg 82) This activity will help Toby to reflect on the characters and make connections to other books he has read. After reading several books, the students are asked to arrange a dinner party for “guests”, who turn out to be characters from the books they have read. Students determine the seating chart for the guests, and then identify possible topics to be discussed. The students then must provide rationales for their answers. Students can use story maps that they have previously made to help them think of possible questions to ask the characters. 5. RIVET (Cunningham pgs 147-150) A RIVET is a great activity to encourage Toby’s use of new vocabulary and also as a means of comprehension. To create a RIVET activity, write down the number of lines for each letter in the word. Have the students write down the same number of lines on their paper. Begin filling in the letters one by one, as the students watch and try to guess what the word is. After the students have guessed a list of words that are from the story, have the students predict some of the events from the story. Activating background knowledge
and using prediction strategies will help Toby become involved in the text and increase reading comprehension. 6. Literary Report Card (Yopp and Yopp pg 75) This strategy will help Toby to analyze characters and events from a story. In this activity, students give grades to characters in a particular reading selection. The teacher or the students can select the subjects on which the characters will be graded. For example, the students may choose to grade the character on such traits as patience or responsibility. The students must provide a rationale for each grade that they give to the characters. The students must also cite specific examples of the graded area from the text. This strategy will help Toby increase comprehension when reading. Toby can reflect and analyze specific traits of characters and events from the story, increasing 7. Guess the Covered Word (Cunningham pg 90) This strategy will help Toby segment words into their onset and rhyme, giving meaning to each letters. Many students know the beginning letters and what sound they make, but they are unable to use them when reading, so they simply guess the word. Guess the Covered Word will help Toby to learn the beginning sounds systematically and teach them in the context of reading. This strategy will also help Toby think simultaneously about the letters and the sounds and what would make sense in the context. The teacher would begin this activity by reading a sentence and asking the student to guess what the covered word is. Next the teacher can uncover up the word to the vowel, then write student guesses on the board. This would be an excellent review of beginning sounds for Toby. 8. Word Analysis Skills (Tiedt and Tiedt pg 63) This activity would help Toby work through the process of decoding words. One specific component of word analysis that would benefit Toby is the decoding of words with long vowel sounds. This would involve Toby creating a list of words from a story that have long vowel sounds. Then, he would write the pronunciation symbol of the sound after each word. Tiedt suggests that students consult a dictionary to be sure that pronunciation symbols are correct after adding them to the list. This would be a great thing for Toby to do. 9. Big Words Topic Collection (Cunningham pg 143) Using a big words topic collection will help to increase Toby’s sight words, make interconnections and build relationships between topics, thus promoting comprehension, and also to create a collection of larger words that he is not familiar with. This strategy focuses on starting a collection of words that are relevant to both the students and the topic. To implement this strategy, reserve a bulletin board in your classroom and display pictures related to the unit/topic that you are currently using. Tell the students that they need to help find big words about the topic. Add the students’ suggestions to the board, having them give a rationale or explanation as to why the word is relevant to the topic. This strategy will help students explore a topic or unit, to familiarize them with larger, more complex words that they might not otherwise know or even attempt, and also to
increase comprehension on the topic, build background knowledge, and to encourage spelling. 10. Rounding up Rhymes (Cunningham pgs 95-96) This technique will help Toby identify spelling patterns in rhyming words and to help him with vowel blends. This technique also will help Toby read and spell other words once he is able to establish patterns in words. To implement this technique in the classroom, first read a book to the students with a variety of rhyming words. Then reread each page and have the students pick out the rhyming words. Write the words down on the board or on index cards to be used in a pocket chart. Continue having the students find six or seven sets of rhyming words. Next, re-read the book again, pointing to each word in the pocket chart as you get to it. Have the students identify the spelling pattern in each word and underline it. The next step, the transfer of information, the students will use rhyming words to read and spell other words. Write new rhyming words and have students find the spelling pattern. Students can then help organize the new words in the pocket chart under the appropriate pattern. 11. Making Words (Cunningham pgs 97-107) Using the making words strategy will help Toby in manipulating letters to form words, which will give him a concrete forum to create and use words and patterns. This strategy will also help him to increase sight words and his knowledge of word blends and patterns. In addition, this strategy will help Toby in decoding new words as he is able to break words into smaller segments, and it will aid in spelling. To help him segment the onset from the rime of words, the children can sort the words according to their beginning or ending sounds. To use a making words lesson in the classroom, give children manipulative letters to make words. The children first make their letters into smaller words, then bigger words until the final word is made. The final word, or secret word, includes all of the letters they are using. After making the words, the children sort the words into patterns, then students use the rhyming patterns to decode and spell new words. 12. Polar Opposites (Yopp and Yopp pg 74) This strategy will help Toby to encourage reflection on characters, to facilitate analysis and structure of a story, to promote personal responses and connections to ideas and themes from the book, and to extend his comprehension of the selected reading. To use this particular strategy, the teacher first selects characters from the story and develops a list of qualities to describe him/her. Then the teacher thinks of opposites for each of the qualities. Each set of opposites makes its own continuum. The student then rates the characters by placing a mark on the continuum of how they see the character. Students must examine the characters to decide upon their characteristics. Students then provide a rationale for their rating. This can lead to great discussions in the classroom. 13. Word Sorts (Cunningham pg 12) This particular strategy will aid Toby in analyzing words to find patterns, and in turn help him in decoding words and discovering how words work. This strategy will also aid
Toby in segmenting the beginning sounds, C-V blends, as well as V-V blends. To begin a word sort lesson, children need to look at words and sort them into categories based on their spelling pattern and sounds. The children then hunt for other words in books, magazines, and other print material. Then the children would sort these words into categories according to their pattern. The teacher guides the student in identifying the word patterns, and directs the children to locate the patterns. Children can use word sorts throughout the year by keeping a word notebook and adding word patterns that fit into the categories as they occur. 14. Paper Bag Book Report (www.askeric.org/Virtual/Lessons/Language_Arts/Reading/RDG0011.html) This idea will increase Toby’s understanding of a selected reading by promoting reflection and analysis of the characters and important events in the story. To implement a paper bag book report in the classroom, each student chooses a book to read independently. Students will analyze the plot, main characters, and theme by writing summary sentences on post it notes and sticking them to the corresponding page of the book. The teacher should model how to make a paper bag book report by showing an example. The students should put items into their paper bag that represent an aspect from the story (it can be a character, an event or any item). The students will then decorate the outside of their bag to represent a significant aspect from their book. The teacher can display the paper bags in the reading corner to draw interest from the other students. 15. What Looks Right (Cunningham pg 122) This self-monitoring strategy will help to promote Toby’s visual memorization of words to determine how a word is spelled. Understanding how the word is spelled then promotes C-V-C and V-V blends. This strategy will also help Toby in differentiating between common spelling patterns with the same pronunciation. To use this strategy in the classroom, the teacher writes two words that rhyme but have different spelling patterns, such as vote and coat. Then the teacher explains that the words sound the same, even though they are spelled differently. Then generate other words that rhyme with both coat and vote. The teacher then writes both ways of spelling the word under the appropriate column. Next, ask the students what they think looks right. After the children decide, they would look up the spelling in the dictionary to find the correct spelling. This strategy also promotes using the dictionary to find the correct spelling and meaning of words. 16. Prior Knowledge-Prediction Strategy (Gunning pg 368) This strategy will increase Toby’s reading comprehension by activating background knowledge, as well as to develop appropriate schema and encourage predicting. To use this strategy in the classroom, the teacher should first activate student’s background knowledge by analyzing the selection for two or three central ideas. Then the teacher can create questions for each idea to activate the child’s schema. Next, ask the students to make predictions about the story. This will help to reveal the student’s thought process. Then the student reads the passage silently to assess their own predictions. Lastly, ask
the student inference questions relating the text to their prior knowledge. The students should provide rationales from the selection to verify their answers. 17. Story Elements Map (Gunning pg 382) Using this method, Toby will increase his reading comprehension by activating background knowledge and schema, and aid in organizing his thoughts to find the central ideas from the text. To begin using this method, the teacher should activate the student’s background knowledge by asking inference and evaluation questions. The student would then read the selected text. The teacher would create a guide to asking questions about the reading passage. This guide would ask questions related to the theme or moral, the plot, and major ideas or concepts. The teacher would then ask the students the questions from the guide. These questions should involve all of the student’s cognitive levels. The teacher and the student engage in a post-reading discussion related to the evaluation of the material and the application of the information. 18. The Conversation Game (Cunning pg 337) Using this game in the classroom will help reinforce Toby’s use of new words and give him a forum to use the words in context. It will also help to expand his comprehension of new words and to use them appropriately in conversation, thus increasing his sight words when reading. To use this game in the classroom, form two teams of three students. Each of the students is given three vocabulary words. The teacher starts the game by beginning a conversation using one of the vocabulary words. Students then raise their hands to add on to the conversation with a new vocabulary word. The team to use all of their vocabulary cards wins the game. 19. Simulations (Gunning pg 345) Using simulations in the classroom will help Toby to engage in higher-level thinking, evaluation and application of a topic, and aid in comprehension of material. To use a simulation in the classroom, form cooperative learning groups. Simulations are used to convey an abstract concept, such as freedom or the Constitution. To use one of these ideas, have the students pretend they have just landed on a planet far away with no hope of returning to Earth. Tell them that they have to set up rules and a means of governing the people that inhabit their new planet. The students then need to discuss the rules and supply evidence as to why they chose the rules. This can lead into what really happened in the United States in 1789 when we our leaders were trying to establish a government for the people. 20. Word Detectives (Cunningham pg 152-154) This strategy will help Toby with pronunciation and spelling of new words. This method will also help Toby discover the relationships that exist between words, as well as building his vocabulary and analyzing words for patterns and meaning. To use a word detective strategy, the teacher would supply examples and help build meaning for a new word, such as equation. The teacher would help the student to pronounce the word and to see if they know any words that look and sound like the new word. The teacher would then list words the students think of. The students would then pronounce the new words,
emphasizing on the part of the word that remains the same. The students and the teacher would then discuss the meaning of the new words and to determine if the words are related. This method will help the students to associate words by how they look and sound and their meaning. This method will also show students how morphologically related the English language is and to promote connections between the words.