Making healthy choices!

Gary Russell, President of FIFTY 50 with Johanna Burani (left), Registered Dietitian, Certified Diabetes Educator, and co-author of The Glucose Revolution Life Plan, and Pat Gawdun (right), Vice President of FIFTY 50 and also a Registered Dietitian.

My Glycemic Index Story
Two years ago, I heard about a new way to help control diabetes through diet. It's called the Low Glycemic Diet. I learned it is widely used in Europe, Australia, and Canada. I thought I'd give it a try. It works! The amount of insulin I needed was reduced, my blood sugars were better controlled, and even my hemoglobin A1c, which was always pretty good, was improved. Best of all, I did not need to make a major adjustment to my lifestyle to follow the Low Glycemic Diet. Over the past 20 years, researchers have taken a closer look at carbohydrate foods and how they affect blood glucose. It turns out that carbohydrates, all of which were thought to have the same effect on blood sugar, were actually very different. Some increase blood sugar quickly and dramatically. Others produce a slower rise. There are now numerous clinical studies that prove foods with a low glycemic index (those that produce less of a rise in blood glucose) can better manage diabetes and help people lose weight at the same time. Following the Low Glycemic Diet is simply a matter of being better informed about the carbohydrate choices you make each day. And even simple changes in your diet can have a profound effect. I urge you to learn more about the glycemic index and see what a low glycemic diet can do for you. We've developed this Guide to the Low Glycemic Diet to get you started.

Gary Russell
President
Disclaimer: The information provided in this guide is intended for general educational purposes only. You should consult your physician or other qualified health care professional for guidance concerning your own specific dietary needs. The Glycemic Index works within a prescribed meal plan specifying overall caloric and carbohydrate intake. Individuals should receive their daily caloric needs, nutrient recommendations, and dietary supervision from their doctor or dietitian.

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INTRODUCTION
Because you have diabetes, you know how important it is to control your blood sugar levels.* You also know that the foods you eat affect your sugar levels. You may do your very best to follow the taking care of my dia betes dietary advice of your doctor or dietitian to keep those levels under control. But even when you carefully follow this advice, you may still be frustrated by high blood sugar readings. The answer to improved blood sugar control might be in this booklet. It’s all about the glycemic index, or GI for short. The GI is an approach to categorizing carbohydrates that helps you make better choices— choices that can improve daily blood sugar levels as well as overall health. The GI can help you: • Have better control of your blood sugar levels • Feel less hungry • Lose weight • Improve your cholesterol levels. The GI can also help you feel better because you’ll avoid dramatic swings in your blood sugar level. Correctly using the GI will provide you with a steady and consistent level of energy—the amount of energy you need when you need it. And once you’ve read this booklet, you’ll see that it’s easy, too.

*Some people use the term blood glucose, and others use the term blood sugar. Both terms refer to exactly the same thing—the amount of glucose (the kind of sugar the body uses as its food) that’s present in your blood.
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diabetes educators. The GI covers only carbohydrates—most of the foods you eat — such as fruits and juices. Some foods cause glucose levels to rise quickly after you eat them. you wouldn’t be alive. and weight loss. people with diabetes can develop very serious complications affecting the eyes. that different carbohydrate foods cause blood glucose levels to rise at different rates. The result is a virtual “gush” of glucose into the bloodstream. rice. etc. stomach. potatoes. When you eat carbohydrates. and different types of fiber. such as fats and proteins. releasing glucose into the bloodstream. Without it. But when people have diabetes. and dietitians believe it’s very important to keep blood glucose levels under control. peripheral nerves. Here’s where the GI comes in. kidneys. that contain sugars. thirst. 4 . If blood glucose levels get too high. you can keep your after-meal blood glucose levels more in check. That’s because foods that are high in carbohydrates have the greatest impact on your blood sugar. glucose may not get into the cells easily and can build up in the blood. frequent urination. That’s why doctors. though. breads. Other carbohydrate foods cause glucose levels to rise more slowly—a “trickle. hunger. people with diabetes have symptoms such as fatigue. If blood glucose levels remain too high for a long period of time (years). pasta. so to speak. Glucose supplies power to every cell in the body. they are broken down in the mouth. Whenever you eat foods that contain carbohydrates. Other foods. The GI is a ” system that separates the “gusher” foods from the “trickler” foods. starches. and heart. cereals. By eating less of the gushers and more of the tricklers. These units are a sugar called glucose. have little effect on blood sugar. Scientists have learned. they are completely digested.THE GLYCEMIC INDEX What is the glycemic index (GI)? The glycemic index (GI) is a scoring system that ranks foods based on their effect on blood sugar levels. and intestine to smaller units that the body can use for fuel.

this means that when you eat a hard roll. Think of it as an automobile’s speedometer: When you drive. They are tested again. Over the next 2 or 3 hours. For example. volunteers eat a carefully measured amount of a test food containing 50 grams of carbohydrates. in the same way. the faster you’re traveling. the lower the GI of your food. All GIs are ranked in comparison with a reference food. The GI of glucose has been set at 100. the faster your blood sugar level will rise. your body would not have to break it down. GI FOOD RATING SYSTEM Food Rating High (gushers) Intermediate Low (tricklers) GI More than 70 55 to 70 Less than 55 How is the GI measured? The GI of carbohydrate food is determined by careful scientific testing. a hard roll has a GI of 71. only this time the volunteers consume 50 grams of glucose (the reference food). If you were to eat glucose.In a nutshell. the higher the GI of your food. The total rise in blood glucose levels for the test food and glucose are noted and the test food is then expressed as a percentage of the rise from glucose. Glucose is what’s known as a “simple” sugar. the more slowly your blood sugar level will rise. you can lower the rise in blood sugar if you eat pumpernickel bread instead 5 . When you eat. blood samples are taken to measure how high the volunteers’ blood glucose rises. pure glucose. In order to calculate a food’s GI. the higher the speedometer reading. it would go directly into your bloodstream. Since the GI of pumpernickel is only 41. the GI is a number scale that ranges from 1 to over 100. Instead. the rise in blood sugar is 71% as great compared to the rise in blood sugar when eating a similar amount of glucose.

6 . Energy and insulin levels remain more constant when blood glucose levels rise more gradually without the peak and trough effect seen with high-glycemic foods. The following graph shows the rise in blood sugar from two common sweeteners. New Zealand.of a hard roll. Who supports the GI? Scientific support for the GI is wide ranging. and throughout Europe. scientists have measured the GIs of more than 600 common food products. That's how the diet works. extensive research from around the globe has confirmed its usefulness. France. the GI is now an important part of diabetes control and is endorsed by diabetes associations in such countries as Australia. So far. Do you prefer gushers (GI more than 70)? Or are tricklers (GI less than 55) more to your taste? Place a check mark next to your preferred foods in each of the categories below. Canada. What’s more. Numerous studies on the GI have appeared in medical and nutrition journals. Then find your favorites in the GI listing that begins on page 24. TEST YOUR CARBOHYDRATE CHOICES This might be a good time to find out how your carbohydrate choices rate on the glycemic index. Some popular examples are listed on pages 24-29. Since the concept was first developed in 1981 by researchers at the University of Toronto. table sugar and fructose. Great Britain. whose low-glycemic effect causes blood glucose levels to rise more slowly. a fast peak (high) followed by a trough (low) in blood glucose levels—compared to an equivalent amount of a sweetener like fructose. COMPARATIVE BLOOD GLUCOSE RESPONSE FOLLOWING CONSUMPTION OF TABLE SUGAR OR FRUCTOSE Table Sugar Fructose 1 Hour 2 Hours Table sugar creates a high-glycemic effect—that is.

Which breakfast cereals are you most likely to eat? K All-Bran® K Raisin bran K Corn flakes K Special K® K Oatmeal (instant) K Shredded wheat K Oatmeal (old-fashioned) good food Which bread do you prefer? K 100% stone-ground whole-wheat bread K Bagel K French bread K Kaiser roll K English muffin K White bread Which are your favorite fruits or juices? K Apple K Apple juice K Grapefruit K Orange juice K Pineapple K Watermelon Which kind of potatoes do you prefer? K French fries K Mashed (from scratch) K Sweet potatoes K Mashed (instant) Which would you eat as a snack? K Chocolate bar K Graham crackers K Ice cream K Pizza K Popcorn K Pretzels 7 .

Check your blood sugar in the same way – before the meal and between 90 . Eat a meal containing 2 or 3 servings of high glycemic index foods. Between 90 . test your blood sugar and record the results.and low-GI foods affected your blood sugars. These simple meal makeovers are healthier alternatives that provide all the nutrition you need without causing that aftermeal “gush” of blood sugar. The following day. Determine your increase in blood sugar for the meal (subtract your pre-meal number from your 90 .120 minute number). Try this: 1.120 minutes after you start eating. Test your blood sugar right before a meal and record the results. You can see for yourself how the glycemic index works. you might find you rely far too heavily on gushers for your carbohydrate needs. You’ll see examples of high-GI meals and low-GI makeovers.120 minute number).AND LOW-GI FOODS AFFECT YOU. Determine your increase in blood sugar for the meal (subtract your pre-meal number from your 90 . CHECK YOUR BLOOD SUGAR TO FIND OUT HOW HIGH. 2. Look at the sample meals shown below. 4.120 minutes after you start eating the low-GI meal – and record both results. substitute equal amounts of lowGI foods for the higher GI foods in the same meal as the day before. 5. 3. Now compare these two numbers to see how the high. 6.LOW-GI MEALS/HIGH-GI MEALS Like many people. BREAKFAST High-GI • Corn flakes with skim milk • English muffin with jelly 8 • Coffee (regular) .

diet) eating my favorite lun ch DINNER High-GI • Broiled chicken breast • Mashed potatoes (instant) • Steamed green beans • French bread Low-GI makeover • Broiled chicken breast • Converted rice • Steamed green beans • Salad with vinaigrette dressing dinner and a movie 9 .Low-GI makeover • Old-fashioned oatmeal with skim milk and peaches • 100% stone-ground wholewheat toast with FIFTY 50® no-sugar-added Fruit Spread • Coffee (decaf) starting the day off right LUNCH High-GI •Turkey sandwich on white bread with lettuce and tomato • Watermelon • Iced tea (regular. sweetened) Low-GI makeover •Turkey sandwich on 100% stone-ground whole-wheat bread with lettuce and tomato • Apple • Iced tea (decaf.

which helps the sugar leave the bloodstream and enter the body’s cells. high cholesterol levels. And. but you’re not. your pancreas releases insulin gradually. 10 . a component of the most common form of diabetes (type 2 diabetes). When you eat low-GI foods. where it can be used later for fuel. As important as it is for our cells to have glucose. You may think you are in good control. you can help keep your insulin levels from rising too high. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE GI OF FOOD Many factors come into play in determining the GI of the foods we eat. It is also important for people at risk of developing diabetes to avoid high-GI foods. too quickly. Here’s why: A spike in your blood sugar sends a signal to your pancreas to release insulin. your blood sugar levels rise gradually. Anything that makes it easier for our bodies to convert food to blood sugar increases the GI and blood sugar levels. The high levels can also lead to insulin resistance. it’s the rapid gush of glucose into the bloodstream that we generally want to avoid. and high blood pressure. If you eat high-GI foods. Research has shown you can achieve normal A1c control but still be at risk of complications caused by abnormally high blood glucose levels. By reducing after-meal blood sugar gushes. kidneys. you also reduce after-meal insulin gushes and the health problems they can cause. it will not reflect after-meal spikes that can damage tissue in your eyes. Because A1c averages highs and lows.WHY AFTER-MEAL BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS MATTER Hemoglobin A1c is a measure of the average level of glucose in the blood over 3 months. By using the GI when you select your foods. High levels of insulin are associated with weight gain. in response. your after-meal blood sugar will spike and then drop severely. and blood vessels.

when pasta is overcooked and becomes soft and mushy. such as oranges and sourdough bread. have low GIs. Starch is an important source of carbohydrate in our diet. in the form of vinegar (as in many salad dressings) or lemon juice. pasta. cookies. you guessed right. and the other breaks down more slowly. breakfast cereals. One of the reasons is because cooking causes starches to swell. cereals. can help lower the GI of a meal.The more acidity there is in food. rice. The amount of cooking time can affect the GI. one is quickly digested. Thanks to the GI researchers. As a general rule. This means the more processed 1-minute oats will raise your blood sugar level higher and faster than the old-fashioned oats. which makes them easier to digest. we can make our choices directly from the GI list.Starch. Examples of starchy foods include breads. it has a higher GI. 11 . Thus. When pasta is cooked only until it’s al dente (firm). while Quaker® 1-minute oats has a GI of 66 – which raises the blood sugar level 35% higher and faster. yes. Processing. and potatoes. Foods that are acidic. Cooking. And many processed foods have higher GIs than the unprocessed version. research has shown that adding as little as 4 teaspoons of vinegar in a vinaigrette dressing at an average meal can lower blood sugar by 30%. including our staple grains—wheat. in turn. Adding acid to a meal. old-fashioned oatmeal made from rolled oats has a GI of 49. cooked foods have higher GIs than uncooked foods. Much of the food we eat today is highly processed. In fact. and baked goods. corn. Acids. For example. it has a low GI. There are two kinds of starch in food and. too. and oats—which are finely ground into powdery flours that produce many wonderful-tasting breads. the more slowly it is emptied from the stomach. the GI of a starchy food depends on which is the predominant kind of starch in that particular food. and. the more slowly it is digested and turned into blood sugar.

such as those found in apples. one should never go overboard in terms of fats. healthy whole grains and vegetables 12 . choose alternatives from the column labeled Tricklers. such as sucrose (ordinary table sugar). fatty foods slow the rate of stomach emptying and. compared with a GI of 68 for ordinary table sugar (sucrose). will spike your blood sugar levels. FIFTY 50® Fructose has a GI of only 19. resulting in a low GI. tend to slow digestion. For a low-GI lifestyle. They’re found in most vegetable oils and the fats found in nuts. Some were put there by Mother Nature. The heart-healthiest fats are the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Although we all should limit the amount of fat we eat.Fiber. though. examples include fructose (fruit sugar) and lactose (milk sugar). Try to avoid foods from the column labeled Gushers. Keep in mind. which are liquid at room temperature. MAKING SMART CARBOHYDRATE CHOICES Here’s a handy table that will help you make healthier food choices. rolled oats. Fats. digestion. thus. and beans and other legumes. Sugar. because too much fat in the diet will increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Including kidney beans or chickpeas in a salad or adding an apple as the dessert to a meal will lower that meal’s overall GI and thus produce a slower and more subtle rise in after-meal blood sugar levels. Experts agree that daily fat consumption should fall between 20% and 35% of total caloric intake. and fatty fish. There are several kinds of sugars in the foods we eat. Other sugars. Soluble fibers. These natural sugars have low GIs and will not cause a spike in blood sugar levels. The take-home message is: all sugars are not equal. olives. For example.

muffins. nuts. or oat bran Pumpernickel Rye Sourdough Whole-wheat pita bread Whole-wheat tortilla Bagels (white flour) English muffins Matzoh (white flour) White breads. flaxseed. heavy. SNACKS AND CRACKERS FIFTY 50® Chocolate Bars FIFTY 50® Hard Candies FIFTY 50® Peanut Butter Snack Bar Corn chips Fruit leather Nutella® Nuts (cashews. peanuts) Whole-grain crackers Jelly beans Life Savers® Popcorn Pretzels Rice cakes Saltines Water crackers CEREALS All-Bran® Bran Buds® Fiber One® Muesli Oatmeal (old-fashioned) Bran or wheat flakes Cheerios® Corn flakes/Chex®/Pops® Instant or quick-cooking oatmeal (or other instant hot cereal) Puffed wheat or rice Rice Krispies®/Chex® 13 . rolls. oats.TRICKLERS BEVERAGES Soy milk Apple juice (unsweetened) GUSHERS Soft drinks Sports drinks BREADS 100% stone-ground whole wheat or multigrain made with wholegrain flour Cracked or sprouted whole wheat Dark. seeds. and baguettes Whole-wheat bread (less than 100% whole wheat) CANDY. coarse breads with intact whole grains.

TRICKLERS COOKIES AND DESSERTS FIFTY 50® cookies and wafers (different varieties) Oatmeal cookies Social Tea® biscuits Sponge cake GUSHERS Angel food cake Doughnuts PopTarts® DAIRY PRODUCTS All milk Cooked puddings and custards “Light” (artificially or fructose-sweetened) or plain yogurt Ice cream Instant pudding Tofutti® FRUIT PRESERVES AND SYRUPS FIFTY 50® Fruit Spreads FIFTY 50® Syrups High-fructose corn syrup Pancake syrup Smucker’s® Strawberry Preserves FRUITS Apples Apricots Berries Cherries Citrus fruits Grapes Nectarines Peaches Pears Plums Prunes Strawberries Dates Watermelon beautiful and delicious 14 .

tomato GUSHERS Sweetened juices and juice drinks LEGUMES AND BEANS Baked beans Black beans Black-eyed peas Butter beans Cannellini beans Chickpeas Kidney beans Lentils Mung beans Pinto beans Soy beans Split peas Fava beans PASTA AND GRAINS Barley Basmati rice Brown rice Buckwheat Bulgur Corn Pasta cooked al dente Tortellini Uncle Ben’s® Converted® Long-Grain Rice [not instant] Wild rice healthy and tasty Aborio rice Glutinous rice (sticky Chinese rice) Jasmine rice Short-grain. instant. orange. grapefruit.TRICKLERS JUICES Unsweetened juices – apple. or quick-cooking rice VEGETABLES All green leafy vegetables All “non-starchy” vegetables (except beets) Carrots Corn New potatoes Peas Sweet potatoes Yams Baked and mashed potatoes Beets Parsnips Pumpkin Rutabaga 15 .

Then substitute 1 or 2 low-GI alternatives for each.PERFORM THIS EXERCISE: DESIGN YOUR In the spaces provided below. MY HIGH-GI FOODS BEVERAGES BREADS CEREALS COOKIES AND DESSERTS CRACKERS AND SNACKS DAIRY PRODUCTS FRUIT PRESERVES AND SYRUPS FRUITS JUICES LEGUMES AND BEANS PASTA AND GRAINS VEGETABLES 16 . use the list on the previous pages and the one beginning on page 24. jot down some of the high-GI foods in your current diet.

LOW-GI DIET Write these choices in the boxes below. If you are unsure about the GIs of some of the foods you eat. Be sure to put your new low-GI diet into practice! MY LOW-GI FOODS BEVERAGES BREADS CEREALS COOKIES AND DESSERTS CRACKERS AND SNACKS DAIRY PRODUCTS FRUIT PRESERVES AND SYRUPS FRUITS JUICES LEGUMES AND BEANS PASTA AND GRAINS VEGETABLES 17 . ask your dietitian or diabetes educator for help.

Healthy Breakfast Ideas • 100% stone-ground whole-wheat toast with FIFTY 50® Peanut Butter and FIFTY 50® Fruit Spread • Light yogurt with fresh fruit and low-fat granola or bran buds • Steel-cut or old-fashioned rolled oats with dried apricots (cooked in fat-free milk) • Low-GI cold cereal (see GI list of foods) with skim milk • Whole-wheat pita bread stuffed with scrambled egg • Sourdough French toast with FIFTY 50® Maple Syrup and fruit • All-bran muffin with FIFTY 50® Strawberry Spread • Buckwheat pancakes with FIFTY 50® Blueberry Syrup and fruit • Multi-grain waffles with natural applesauce • Pumpernickel toast with melted low-fat cheese • Rye toast and egg-white Western omelet and fruit • FIFTY 50® Ready to Mix Meal A low-GI breakfast includes whole-grain breads or toasts. Healthy Lunch Ideas • Homemade or canned soups made with low-GI ingredients – vegetable. Avoid syrups other than the ones listed above. and stay away from instant hot cereals. they’re gushers.MENU SUGGESTIONS Here are some tasty and healthful meal suggestions to help get you on your way to better health. black bean. along with baby carrots and fruit salad 18 . cereals rated as tricklers. rye. or barley (don’t be afraid to add extra vegetables to make it extra chunky) • Sandwiches made with lean meats on whole-grain wheat. pumpernickel or pita bread. lentil. split pea. minestrone. and lots of fresh fruits.

rice. Snacks and Desserts • No-sugar-added cocoa • FIFTY 50® Fructose or Sugar-Free Cookies • Fresh or dried fruits (see GI list) • Light yogurt with fruit • Nuts (small serving) • FIFTY 50® Sugar-Free Chocolate Bar (small serving) 19 . or lentils for protein sources if you prefer • Limit intake of high-GI starches – baked or instant mashed potatoes. peas. Instead. End your balanced meal with a serving of fresh fruit or one of the healthy snacks and desserts listed below. and fish. processed white breads Base your meal on a low-GI carbohydrate. or whole-grain breads • Fresh vegetables and salads • Lean meats. Social Tea® biscuits and a piece of fruit At lunch time. Healthy Dinner Tips • Pasta. Eat lean meats. instant rice. beans. steer clear of processed white bread and rolls. and fish • Substitute beans. grains. boxed stuffing mixes. poultry. Canned tuna or salmon is also a good protein addition.• Pasta salad with vinaigrette dressing and assorted fresh vegetables and reduced-fat cheese • Mixed salad with grilled chicken and vinaigrette dressing (Be sure to toss in some beans!) • FIFTY 50® Peanut Butter and FIFTY 50® Fruit Spread on low-GI bread and a salad • Light yogurt with fruit and whole-grain muffin with spreadable light cheese • FIFTY 50® Ready to Mix Meal or Ready to Drink Meal. make a sandwich using whole-grain pumpernickel or rye bread. Try salads made with lots of varied fresh vegetables and vinaigrette dressing. chicken. with generous amounts of non-starchy vegetables and plenty of fresh salads.

Authentic Chinese food features plenty of vegetables and is low in fat—a good. restaurants today offer a growing variety of healthy and delicious low-GI foods. Limit your intake of starchy. Italian food. stick with grilled seafood and chicken dishes. as long as they’re not overloaded with cheese. seafood dishes. because they’re low in fat. Limit the sour cream. A low-GI alternative would be oriental noodles (egg. and entrees such as fajitas. or mung bean). low-GI option. Thin-crust pizza with vegetable toppings is a good choice. but because they’re very high in fat. Here are some tips: Chinese food. It’s not! Although you might not have as much control over what you eat when you’re out of the house. Mexican food. If possible. you can help prevent some of the symptoms and complications associated with gusher foods. choices such as these are healthy also. fresh vegetables. rice. that are denser in calories than they are in nutrients. Pasta dishes. Asian-style sticky white rice. and fruits. pastas. And 20 . healthy choices are even broader. high-fat foods (including chips). Eating Out To some people. which has a high GI. though. black beans. also—not so much from a GI standpoint.• Sugar-free Jell-O® (add some fruit) • Sugar-free pudding in FIFTY 50® Pie Crust • FIFTY 50® Apple Cinnamon and Brownie Bars • Low-fat ice cream with fresh fruit • Whole-wheat pita chips or baked tortilla chips • Natural applesauce with light whipped topping You can have dessert! By choosing snacks with a low GI or low-fat desserts. the thought of eating out and of maintaining a low-GI diet might seem like a contradiction in terms. Try to stay away from deep-fried foods. Most Mexican restaurants in the United States serve high-starch. And with the growing popularity of ethnic foods. and meat dishes are nutritionally sound choices. Many menus feature grilled seafood.

As a general rule. All are good choices from a GI standpoint. side dishes. even sushi (it’s prepared with vinegar). Just be aware of the high-fat fried foods and heavy. make sure you always have the right ingredients at hand.remember. Fast-food restaurants can spell trouble for low-GI diets. STOCKING YOUR LOW-GI PANTRY To simplify the planning and preparing of low-GI meals. Practically anything in an authentic Japanese restaurant works into a low-GI meal plan. fish. Avoid quickcooking or instant starches. chicken. Thai dishes typically include small amounts of meat. those bread calories eaten while waiting for the meal to arrive still count! Ask for semolina bread if it’s available. or tofu with vegetables and spicy sauce. 21 . try to avoid fast foods. If you can’t avoid fast-food restaurants. Canned lychees. Keep them on hand to add to soups. seafood. Indian cuisine is generally friendly to a low-GI diet. Hamburgers and other fast-food sandwiches are served on processed breads and rolls having high GIs. peas. Here are some pointers: Grain-based foods Foods made from grain products (especially unprocessed grain products) are great for a low-GI lifestyle. find one that offers salads on the menu. Fast food. have a high GI. Limit the high-GI foods that you buy and keep your pantry stocked with lots of healthy staples. Japanese food. which have a high GI). Uncle Ben’s® Converted® Long Grain Rice should be another pantry staple. Legumes Canned and dried beans. and yogurt. Indian food. however. Most fast foods are also very high in fat and sodium. butter-based sauces. and main courses. vegetables. Stock your pantry with healthy and delicious pasta products. Thai food. It features legumes. and legumes are good sources of protein and are also low-GI carbohydrate foods (except fava beans. salads.

Good choices include: • Extra-virgin olive oil • Canola oil • Sunflower oil • Sesame oil 22 • Peanut oil . mushrooms. Vegetable oils are mostly unsaturated and heart healthy (exceptions: palm. per person.) Marinated vegetables packed in jars are great as snacks and side dishes. green beans. palm kernel. An added benefit is the vinegar they contain.Canned and Jarred Foods Lots of canned and jarred foods are both delicious and have low GIs. carrots. etc. the amount consumed should be limited: aim for no more than one tablespoon per meal. But because oils are fats. and coconut). Great choices found in cans include: • Tuna (preferably in water) • Salmon (preferably in water) • Sardines (preferably in water) •Tomatoes and tomato paste • Corn • Fruits (not packed in syrup) • New white potatoes • Vegetables (asparagus. Here are some examples: • Sun-dried tomatoes • Artichoke hearts • Olives • Capers • Marinated vegetables • Roasted peppers • Pickles Oils and Vinegars love your vegetables Many people use oils in the preparation of their foods. it’s a good idea to keep them well stocked. which helps lower the GI of the foods you eat along with them.

when you include some vinegar in a meal. you can have better control of your blood glucose levels. All you have to do is use the lists in this booklet and those in other sources listed on pages 30 and 31. Improving your health with the glycemic index is simple. user-friendly health tool. and provide yourself with a consistent and steady energy level throughout the day. CONCLUSIONS—SECRETS TO GI SUCCESS In conclusion. feel less hungry. also. stock dried nuts and FIFTY 50® Low Glycemic Fructose Sweetened Cookies. reduce the quantity and/or frequency of high-GI foods • Make sure your diet consists of balanced meals and snacks based on your prescribed meal plan and calorie level • Enjoy your meals – enjoy good health! 23 . therefore. Keep a variety of vinegars on hand to enhance the different flavors in your healthy salads. improve your cholesterol levels. All vinegars are acidic. Then do this: • Determine which high-GI foods you eat frequently • Replace high-GI foods with low-GI foods. Check the GIs of foods you normally eat. Improved cholesterol levels can reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke. Snacks Make sure you have plenty of fruits and vegetables on hand. the glycemic index is a wonderful. it helps lower the GI of the meal. A low-GI diet can help you avoid after-meal gushes in blood glucose and in insulin. By putting a low-GI diet into practice.There are many types of vinegar available. lose weight. Also. Just remember to stay within your calorie and fat limits.

dried Kidney beans. whole wheat Pumpernickel Rye Sourdough Taco shell White Whole wheat Intermediate GI High GI 72 74 67 95 61 73 57 41 58 54 68 70 77 BREAKFAST/BAKERY Low GI Angel food cake Blueberry muffin Bran muffin Carrot muffin Doughnut Pancakes Pastry pie crust Pound cake 24 67 59 60 62 Intermediate GI High GI 76 67 59 54 . BEANS AND PEAS Low GI 48 42 8 42 28 28 52 29 32 32 (less than 55) Baked beans Black-eyed peas. canned Lentils Lima beans (frozen) Yellow split peas Intermediate GI (55 to 70) High GI (more than 70) BREADS Low GI 53 100% stone-ground whole wheat Bagel Bread stuffing Croissant French baguette Hamburger bun Kaiser roll Pita. canned Chana dal (Indian Bean) Chickpeas. boiled Kidney beans. canned Chickpeas.GI LISTING Glycemic index values of some popular foods are listed below.

instant Grapenuts® Muesli. raw Oatmeal (old-fashioned) Puffed wheat Quick (1-minute) oats Raisin Bran® Rice Krispies® Shredded Wheat® Special K® 74 74 83 92 66 74 71 43 58 55 49 67 66 61 82 75 69 COOKIES Low GI 36 44 34 45 33 30 32 41 FIFTY 50® Butter Chocolate chip FIFTY 50® Chocolate Chip FIFTY 50® Coconut FIFTY 50® Fudge Brownie FIFTY 50® Hearty Oatmeal FIFTY 50® Peanut Butter FIFTY 50® Vanilla Crème Filled Wafers Oatmeal Shortbread Intermediate GI High GI 55 64 25 .BREAKFAST/BAKERY Low GI (less than 55) Scones Sponge cake Waffles 46 Intermediate GI (55 to 70) High GI (more than 70) 92 76 BREAKFAST CEREALS Low GI 38 47 Intermediate GI High GI All-Bran® Bran Buds® Bran flakes Cheerios® Corn Chex® Corn flakes Cream of Wheat®. toasted Multi-Bran Chex® Oat bran. cooked Cream of Wheat®.

premium. with fruit. low-fat. packaged Meat ravioli Pizza FRUITS Low GI 38 Intermediate GI 64 High GI Apple Apricots. canned in light syrup Apricots. low-fat. artificially sweetened Yogurt. dried Apricots. dried Fruit cocktail. dried Figs. skim Milk. green 26 30 57 52 65 22 103 61 55 25 46 . with fruit & sugar 38 32 31 14 33 Intermediate GI High GI DINNERS/MEAL REPLACEMENTS Low GI FIFTY 50 Meal Replacement Chocolate Shake ® Intermediate GI High GI 35 38 50 64 39 60 Fish stick fingers Cheese tortellini Macaroni and cheese. fresh Banana Cantaloupe Cherries Dates. whole Yogurt.CRACKERS Low GI (less than 55) Graham crackers Kavli crisp bread Melba toast Rice cakes Ryvita crisp bread Stoned Wheat Thins® Soda crackers (saltines) Water crackers Intermediate GI (55 to 70) High GI (more than 70) 74 71 70 82 69 67 74 78 DAIRY FOODS Low GI Ice cream. in natural juice Grapefruit Grapes. French vanilla Milk.

pearled Buckwheat Cornmeal Couscous JUICES Low GI 40 52 48 53 46 38 68 65 Intermediate GI High GI Apple Cranberry juice cocktail Grapefruit Orange.FRUITS Low GI (less than 55) Kiwi Mango Orange. fresh Pineapple. egg Linguine. white Spaghetti. thick Macaroni Rice vermicelli Spaghetti. canned in natural juice Pear. whole wheat Spiral pasta Star pastina 58 38 37 43 38 27 . fresh Pear. canned in juice Peach. unsweetened Pineapple Tomato PASTA Low GI 45 32 46 47 Intermediate GI High GI Capellini Fetuccini. navel Papaya Peach. fresh Plum Prunes Raisins Strawberries Watermelon 51 42 Intermediate GI (55 to 70) 58 High GI (more than 70) 56 38 42 43 38 66 39 29 56 40 72 GRAINS Low GI 25 54 Intermediate GI High GI Barley.

POTATOES Low GI (less than 55) Baked Canned French fries Instant. white Long-grain white Short-grain white Wild 44 98 87 56 72 57 SNACKS Low GI 22 42 31 6 Intermediate GI High GI Cashews Corn chips FIFTY 50® Milk Chocolate Bar Hummus Jelly beans Kudos® Whole Grain Bar. mashed Yam Intermediate GI (55 to 70) 65 High GI (more than 70) 85 75 86 62 88 44 70 37 RICE Low GI Intermediate GI 69 58 55 High GI Aborio Basmati Brown Converted. chocolate chip Milk chocolate Peanuts Popcorn Pretzels Potato chips Walnuts 78 62 42 15 72 83 57 15 28 . sticky Instant. long grain Glutinous. unpeeled Red skinned. boiled Sweet White skinned. white. mashed New.

strawberry Marmalade. canned Green peas Lettuce Mushrooms Onions Parsnips Pumpkin Red peppers Tomatoes 10 10 49 46 48 10 10 10 Intermediate GI 64 High GI 97 75 10 10 29 . orange Pancake syrup (maple) Sucrose ® 55 74 48 76 68 VEGETABLES Low GI Beets Broccoli Cabbage Carrots Corn.SOUPS Low GI (less than 55) Black bean Lentil Minestrone Pea Tomato 44 39 Intermediate GI (55 to 70) 64 High GI (more than 70) 66 SWEETENERS Low GI 6 19 19 38 Intermediate GI High GI FIFTY 50 Low Calorie Fruit Spread FIFTY 50® Maple Flavored Syrup FIFTY 50® Fructose Honey Smucker’s® Jam.

By Brand-Miller J. New York: Avery Books. The Good Carb Cookbook: Secrets of Eating Low on the Glycemic Index. The Glucose Revolution Life Plan. 2001. By Woodruff S. Good Carbs. ISBN 1-56924-660-2. By Brand-Miller J. ISBN 1-58333-084-4. look for these books or visit these Internet sites: Books The Glucose Revolution: The Authoritative Guide to the Glycemic Index. The Groundbreaking Medical Discovery. Rao L. Foster-Powell K. ISBN 1-56924-537-1. 30 . 2002. New York: Marlowe & Company. Burani J. Colagiuri S. 1998. and how to make the GI work for you. Wolever TMS. New York: Marlowe & Company. New York: Marlowe & Company. Foster-Powell K. By Burani J. ISBN 1-56924-609-2. 2001. the benefits of a low-GI diet.FOR MORE GI INFORMATION To learn more about the GI. Bad Carbs.

fifty50.glycemicindex. and Health.edu/article.health.com/ Glycemic Load.cfm?id=48 University of Sydney.com/ Glycemic Index Related Information http://www.com The Glycemic Index Foundation of South Africa http://www.gifoundation.Information on the Internet FIFTY 50 Foods/Glycemic Index http://www. Australia http://www. Harvard University Medical School http://www.harvard.com 31 . Diet.mendosa.

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