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Dr. Anthony Toledo REVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM • • • • • • • The basic functional unit of the brain is the neuron. The neuron is composed of a cell body, a dendrite, and axon. DENDRITE – is a branch-type structure with synapses for receiving electrochemical messages. AXON – is a long projection that carries impulses away from the cell body. Nerve cell bodies occurring in clusters are called GANGLIA or NUCLEI. A cluster of cell body with same function is called a CENTER. NEUROGLIAL CELLS, the second type of nerve cell, support, protect, and nourish neurons.
NEUROTRANSMITTERS • • • Neurotransmitters communicate messages from one neuron to another or from a neuron to a specific target tissue. Neurotransmitters are manufactured and stored in synaptic vesicles. When released, the neurotransmitters crosses the synaptic cleft, binds to receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane, and either excites or inhibits the target cell’s activity
THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN • • • • The brain represents approximately 2% of the total body weight. It weighs approximately 1400 grms in average young adult. In the elderly, the average brain weighs approximately 1200 grms. The brain is divided into three major areas: the cerebrum, the brain stem, and the cerebellum.
CEREBRUM • Consists of two hemispheres, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the basal ganglia.
The cerebral hemispheres are divided into pairs of frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes FRONTAL LOBE o The largest lobe. This area controls concentration, abstract thought, information storage or memory, and motor function o It also contains Broca’s area, a speech association area that participates in word formulation. o It is also responsible in large part of individual’s affect, judgement, personality, and inhibition. PARIETAL LOBE o A predominantly sensory lobe. It contains primary sensory cortex, which analyzes sensory information and relays the interpretation of this information to the thalamus and other cortical areas. o It is also essential to individual’s awareness of the body in space, as well as orientation in space and spatial relations. TEMPORAL o Contains the auditory receptive areas. o Contains a vital area called interpretative area that provides integration of somatization, visual, and auditory areas o Plays the most dominant role of any of the cortex in cerebration OCCIPITAL o The posterior lobe of the cerebral hemisphere is responsible for visual interpretation CORPUS CALLOSUM o Is a thick collection of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and is responsible for the transmission of information from one side of the brain to the other. o Information transferred is sensory, memory, and learned discrimination. BASAL GANGLIA o Are masses of nuclei located deep in the cerebral hemisphere that are responsible for motor control of fine body movements, including those of the hands and lower extremities. THALAMUS o Lies on either side of the third ventricle and acts primarily as a relay station for all sensation except smell. o All memory, sensation, and pain impulses pass through this section. HYPOTHALAMUS
o Is located anterior and inferior to the thalamus. o It lies immediately beneath and lateral to the lower potion of the wall of the third ventricle o It controls the pituitary secretion of hormones that influence metabolism, reproduction, stress response, and urine production o Maintain fluid balance and temperature regulation by promoting vasoconstriction and vasodilation o Controls and regulates the autonomic nervous system BRAIN STEM • • • Consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata The midbrain connects the pons and the cerebellum with cerebral hemisphere It contains sensory and motor pathways and serves as the center for auditory and visual reflexes.
CEREBELLUM • • • Separated from the cerebral hemisphere by a fold of dura mater, the tentorium cerebelli. It has both excitatory and inhibitory actions and is largely responsible for coordination and movement. It also controls fine movement , balance, position sense, and integration of sensory input.
STRUCTURES PROTECTING THE BRAIN • • The brain is contained in the rigid skull, which protects it from injury The major bones of the skull are frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital bones. These bones join the at the suture lines.
Meninges • • • Fibrous connective tissues that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection, support, and nourishment to the brain and spinal cord. The layers of the meninges are the dura, arachnoid, and pia mater.
Dura • The outermost layer • Covers the brain and the spinal cord • It is tough, thick, inelastic, fibrous, and gray Arachnoid
• • • •
The middle membrane An extremely thin, delicate membrane that closely resembles a spider web It appears white because it has no blood supply It contains the choroids plexus which is responsible for the production of CSF
Pia Mater • The innermost membrane • A thin, transparent layer that hugs the brain closely and extends into every folds of the brain’s surface. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) • • • A clear and colorless fluid with a specific gravity of 1.007 It is produced in the choroids plexus of the lateral, third, and fourth ventricle. The ventricular and subarachnoid system contains approximately 150 ml of fluid; 15 to 25 ml of CSF is located in each lateral ventricle.
Cerebral Circulation • • Receives approximately 15 % of the cardiac output, or 750 ml per minute. The brain’s blood pathway is unique because it flows against gravity; its arteries fill from below and the veins drain from above
Blood Brain Barrier • This is formed by the endothelial cells of the brain’s capillaries, which form continuous tight junctions, creating a barrier to macromolecules and many compounds.
ANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD
• • • • The spinal cord and medulla form a continuous structure extending from the cerebral hemisphere and serving as the connection between the brain and the periphery. It is approximately 45 cm (18 in) long and about the thickness of a finger. It is also consists of gray and white matter. Gray mater is in the center and is surrounded on all sides by white matter. It is surrounded by the meninges, dura, arachnoid, and pia layers.
THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
The peripheral nervous system includes the cranial nerves, the spinal nerves and the autonomic nervous system.
CRANIAL NERVES • • • • • • There re 12 pairs of cranial nerves that emerge from the lower surface of the brain and pass through the foramina in the skull Three are entirely sensory ( I, II, VIII) Five are motor (III, IV, VI, XI, and XII) Four are mixed (V, VII, IX, and X) The cranial nerves are numbered in order in which they arise from the brain Most cranial nerves innervate the head, neck, and special sense structures.
SPINAL NERVES • • • • The spinal cord is composed of 31 pairs of spinal nerves : 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve has a ventral root and a dorsal root. The dorsal root are sensory and transmit sensory impulses from specific areas of the body known as dermatomes to the dorsal ganglia. The ventral roots are motor and transmit impulses from the spinal cord to the body.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSSTEM • • • • Regulates the activities of internal organs such as the heart, lungs, blood vessels, digestive organs, and glands. It is also responsible for the maintenance and restoration of internal homeostasis It is divided into two: the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, which generally acts in opposition to each other. It innervates most body organs.
Sympathetic Nervous System • • • • Known for its role in the body’s “fight” or flight”response. The sympathetic neurotransmitter is norepinephrine. Under stress conditions from either physical or emotional causes, sympathetic impulses increase greatly The sympathetic neurons are located in the thoracic and the lumbar segments of the spinal cord
Parasympathetic Nervous System
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Functions as the dominant controller for most visceral effectors. During quiet, nonstressful condition, impulses from parasympathetic fibers (cholinergics) predominate. The fibers of the parasympathetic system are located in two sections, one in the brain stem and the other from the spinal segments below L2. The parasympathetic nerves arise from the midbrain and the medulla oblongata.
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