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Professional Communication - Mr.

Mohan H Kalawate
Introduction: The word communication is derived from Latin words communico and communicare both these words mean to share. There is another reference about origin and that is the word is derived from Latin word communis means common, it refers to common activities of human being such as conveying, sharing etc. Definition : Communication is a two way process by which we can share our ideas, feelings, facts, opinions etc with others. Communication is an interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing or signs. - Robert Anderson. Nature of communication : It is a two way process that involves two or more participants in it. It works in the formation of cycle thus it is called communication cycle i.e. the process starts from sender and ends with sender. Objectives of communication : There are two major objectives of communication: To inform: Generally it is used for giving information about anything and priorities are not given for emphasis or convey something e.g.: Soft Skills is a subject that gives us ample of knowledge about interpersonal skills, competence and professionalism in general. To persuade : An important objective of communication mostly used in corporate world. It focuses is persuasion rather than merely giving information. e.g.:

Since, the corporate world is facing drastic changes in business policies, the subject like soft skills can play crucial role in enhancement in professionalism in employees. So we must study it thoroughly and imbibe professionalism which is damn important. Importance of communication: Communication is an integral part of the life of human beings. It welds individuals into society. It is a mode of communication through which we can transmit our message into mass easily and effectively. Unlike shelter, food clothes communication is also a fundamental need of humankind even since we born we get acquainted with it. Communication develops the killing instinct in which is very important for conducting life. Types of communication 1) Interpersonal Communication ( inter + personal)It is communication between two or more persons in other language an exchange of ideas, thoughts etc. through face to face communication. Some examples are interviews, GDs, meetings in formal communication and gossips, chatting, grapevine communication in informal situations. 2) Intrapersonal Communication ( intra+ personal)It is communication of person with himself or his mind it is communication within a body some other examples are mirror talking and soliloquies wherein speaker addresses himself or herself. 3) Extra personal Communication ( extra + personal)The communication of human being with inhuman entity is called extra personal communication the best example is of our pet, when we go to home it comes toward you swags its tail and jumps, means it shows the affection that it is has with you Process of communicationCommunication is a two way process which starts from the sender and ends with the positive feedback by a receiver.

Elements of communication1) Sender- a person who creates the message with the help of language and situational constraints (compulsions) 2) Intended message- the virtual message in the mind of sender it is what he/she intend to say. 3) Encoding- a process in which sender creates a message with linguistic and situational constraints. 4) Actual message- after the process of encoding the actual message is created it is the subject matter of communication. 5) Channel a medium through which sender sends the message. 6) Transmission a process of transmitting a message. 7) Physical reception by receiver the reception of a message. 8) Decoding- a process in which receiver interprets a message with linguistic and situational constraints. 9) Feedback- it a final outcome of a process of communication. Receiver gives a feedback to sender after understanding a message.
SENDER FEEDBACK RECEIVER

INTENDED MESSAGE THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION ACTUAL MESSAGE

UNDERSTANDING

ENCODING

DECODING RECEPTION

CHANNEL

TRANSMISSION

Forms of communication1) Verbal communication 2) Non-verbal communication

Verbal communicationIt can be simply defined as communication with the help of words most of it is used in formal situations like formal speeches, public speaking, elocutions, GDs, interviews, formal meetings etc. Presentations Techniques of formal speeches, elocutions Parameters for presentations- four Cs Candidness (frankness) in expressions Clarity of thoughts Courtesy in behavior. Conciseness in language. Stages for presentation (three Ps) Planning Prepare what to say, read about topic thoroughly. Know about your audience which type of audience you are going to face whether Expert or General prepare material according to it. Think about time your presentation must be time bound. Practicing Practice making eye contact with your virtual audience. Practice to avoid distracting gestures and mannerisms. Check your voice by recording speech Presenting Use an effective openingGreet everyone with smiling face. Tell audience why you are speaking. Use catchy phrases or quotes to begin with.

Arrangement of topicsGo through most important points to least important. Use KISS- (Keep It Simple& Sweet) language. Use strong transitions while shifting from one topic to another E.g. Let us move towards our next topic i.e. Let us start our next point and i.e.. Instead of First topic is../firstly. Second point is. / secondly Third is../ thirdly. Keep your audiences interest highInteract with your audiences involve them into discussion Change your personal energy i.e. tone, intonation etc. Ask rhetorical questions (yes/no questions) Ask for agreements ask to show raise their hands. Use effective body language Avoid standing behind desk, table etc. Use movements, it will give ease to you. Use open hand gestures. Dont look at door or watch frequently. Use effective closingGive a brief review or summary. GROUP DISCUSSION Definition- it is a team based activity in which we can share our opinions thoughts, ideas etc. with other What is TEAM? T= Talented. E=Enthusiastic.

A=Anticipating. M=Motivating. It is a formal discussion involving ten or twelve participants. Types of GD1) Factual GD- it based on facts rather than imagination when speak with the help of facts, reasons, statistics etc. it becomes factual GD for example subjects like Female feticide, corruption, inflation etc. 2) Abstract GD- when we speak in the terms of If it is called abstract GD in this type of GDs the importance is given to imagination rather than reality the ideas are scattered. 3) Controversial GD- in this type of GDs controversies are created and could be debates also examples is Reservation issue. 4) Case based GD- when we discuss with the help of case studies or particular scenario that becomes case based GD. Advantages of GDWe can generate our ideas at the time of GD by lateral thinking and brain storming. We can share our opinions and ideas with others so it is more effective way of transmitting our message in the mass easily. Working in group is like a fun, it is said that Alone I cannot but together we can. we can utilize each members skills. Categories of GDStructured GD Unstructured GD Structured GDIt has particular structure and there are some role plays that team members have to play they are1) Leader- captain who leads his/her team with leadership skills.

2) Initiator- the person who introduces the topic of GD. 3) Prime mover the person who starts the action. 4) Information seeker- he/she asks questions about related topic. 5) Information giver- he/she gives answers to questions asked by Information seeker. 6) Procedure facilitator- his/her duty is to keep the momentum going on. 7) Opinion seeker - he/she asks opinions about related topic. 8) Opinion giver- he/she gives opinions related to topic. 9) Supporter- he/she supports every member during GD 10) Summarizer his/her role is to conclude the discussion. Unstructured GD It preferred by most of the companies at campus drives and the purpose is to check personal traits of candidates. There are some requirements from candidates they are as follows1) Team player you must be a team player who is all rounder, adaptable and responsible. 2) Reasoning ability- you should have reasoning ability in you and should think laterally. 3) Leadership skills- you should know how to coordinate the different skills of different members. You have to inspire your teammates at critical situations. You have to handle the pressure. 4) Flexibility- you should use switch on and switch off technique. 5) Assertiveness- you should express your thoughts frankly without hurting any person. 6) Active listening- listen carefully and anticipate with your teammates.

Stages of GD Introductory stageThis is most important phase of GD because you have to create your first impression on the examiner. You can create your impression by commencing your GD with quote, question, shock statement, fact, definition etc. Some useful statementsOK friends let us commence todays discussion and the topic is. Lets begin with question Lets start todays GD which is on. Actual GDSome useful statements while inviting opinionsAllow me to beg your indulgence in GD Would you like to admit your valuable opinions? How do you react to this. Some useful statements while interrupting anyoneSorry for interruption, but what I think is. Please listen to me, I to say few things. Sorry but if you dont mind I want to add my opinion.. Some useful statements while summarizing GDSo, let us conclude todays GD With your permission I would like to conclude todays GD. Lets sum up todays discussion. Pros(dos) of GD Speak frankly do not sit silent. Give a chance everyone to speak.

Maintain eye contact with everyone. Encourage everyone to speak especially to shy teammate. Show active listening and pro activeness. Cons(donts) of GDX Dont repeat what has been said earlier. X Dont use vague language. X Dont disturb anyone let him/her finish his/her statement. INTERIEWS

Death will be great relief no more interviews.


Definition It is a mode of communication by which two or more people get acquainted with each others views. Types of interviews1) Walk in interview. 2) Scrutiny interview. 3) Mock interview. 4) Telephonic interview. Parameters for an interviewAccording to following parameters interviewer will judge you1) Clarity of thoughtUse KISS language i.e. Keep It Simple and Sweet language. Dont use vague language or dont create complex sentences. Be Candid and confident and be firm on your opinion. 2) Fluency in communicationIt does not mean speaking English in speedy manner but speaking correct English with the use of intonation i.e. variation in sounds, use of stress while speaking etc.

3) Confidence and attitudeYou can show your confidence and attitude with positive body language and courtesy in behavior. Your personal traits, your grooming sense suggest your attitude. 4) Knowledge of subjectCandidates knowledge of subject with applications will be checked. 5) Interpersonal skillsCandidates interpersonal skills like assertiveness, common sense, sense of humor, presence of mind, active listening will be judged by interviewer. Stages of interviewPreparation stage (preparing for interview)While preparing for an interview you should do following thingsKnow yourselfWho am I? What are my responsibilities? Why should they select me? Know your companyWho is the founder? What is the motto, emblem? What are the strategies and policies? What is the status of company in the market? Arriving for interviewFollow the grooming etiquettes wear formal apparels. Take your all testimonials in neatly managed portfolio. Be punctual and time conscious. Attending an interview Enter confidently it will create your impression. If are instructed to knock on door then knock only for twice and ask for permission correctly. Greet your interviewer with polite greetings like Good morning , Good afternoon etc. Give handshake appropriately. Ask for seat and remember take seat only when offered. Say Thank you after sitting.

Maintain safe distance from table. Sit properly dont stretch your legs. Maintain eye contact with your interviewer look at him/her when she is asking questions. Accept your faults. Give only relevant answers. Pros (dos) of interview Show confidence and positive attitude by showing positive body language and using polite words. Be firm on your thoughts. Listen questions carefully and lean forward while listening question. If there is joke smile dont laugh. Cons (donts) of interviewX Dont sit until you are asked for it. X Dont drag chair it will make noise. X Dont make awkward movements like rubbing nose, tilting neck, tilting chair etc. Non-verbal communicationActions speak louder than words. It is a communication without words and having lions share in the process because 93% of thoughts are shared and understood only by this type. It means if we distribute communication it will go like as follows: Communication

Body Language (55%)

Vocal Language (38%)

Words (07%)

So as given above, words have mere 07% weight age it suggests how important non-verbal communication is. Importance of non-verbal communication It is more suitable than words, because it is easy to point an object rather than describe it. It is a time conserving mode of communication. It is easy to form and easy to understand. It is more effective mode in conveying the meaning of complex ideas. Functions of non-verbal communication To perform rituals (greetings) e.g. saying Namaste or handshaking etc. We use facial expressions to express our feelings like happiness, grief etc. To express our feelings like astonishment by raising eye brows or by opening mouth etc. We display our interpersonal attitude through body language for example anger by frowning forehead or by gritting teeth, by pointing finger we threat someone etc. Types of non-verbal communicationNon-verbal communication

Body language Gestures Postures Eye contact Movements Facial expressions

Graphical language Sign language Colour language

Paralanguage Language of sounds Chuckling yawning loudly

1) Body language It is also called Kinesics i.e. scientific study of body movements. In this type we can consider signs, gestures, postures, movements etc. Signs Ring or OK sign to give appreciation best wishes or saying done.

Thumb up sign to say done, to give wishes etc.

The shoulder shrug sign generally shows frankness used for rejecting something frankly.

GesturesGestures are the hand movements of ours. It suggests or display which type of attitude speaker have. Palm gestures (Palm Power)-

If speaker speaks with this type of palm gesture, we can understand that his/her attitude is submissive.

If speaker speaks with this type of palm gesture, we can understand that his/her attitude is dominating he/she always wants to dominate audiences.

If any speaker speaks with pointing the finger as shown in figure his/her attitude is aggressive, he/she always shows aggression towards audiences

Hand gestures-

Rubbing hands suggests the excitement or the passion of speaker of subject.

Clenching the hands down shows the frustration of speaker.

PosturesPostures can be defined as our self image in front of others. How we stand and how we sit is also matters in communication. There are standing as well sitting postures that we have we have to think about they are as followsStanding postures (Standing Tall)-

Speakers hands on waist shows the readiness or activeness he/she is always ready for action.

Speakers hands gripped in front shows timid attitude and lack of confidence.

Speaker gripping with arm with another as shown in figure called arm barrier feels like stranger and shows lack of concern.

Ideal postureA speaker must use ideal posture while demonstration that should show his/her candidness (frankness) and positive attitude. A speaker should use open hand gestures with relaxed standing position and should tilt neck to some degrees to show concern. As shown in following figure.

Speakers open hand gesture shows his open mindedness and tilting of neck, his concern towards audiences.

Sitting Postures (sitting on a hot seat)-

If a person is sitting with gripping his like by both of his hands then we can understand that he is tough minded guy.

If a person is sitting with gripping the handles of chair and ankle lock then we can understand that he has aggressive attitude.

Ideal sitting postureWhile sitting on a hot seat we should sit straight and rest our hands on the handles of chair if no handles then on the laps. We should lean forward while hearing questions it shows your curiosity towards the topic.

The player is sitting with resting his hands and smiling face it a sign of confidence and positive attitude.

Eye contactEyes are the windows, windows of soul. Eye to eye communication is supposed to be most trustworthy communication so; it pays a vital role in face to face communication Techniques for improving eye contactWe can improve our eye contact by using following effectsThe triangle effect Take a glance in triangle directions. Do not stir or gaze to particular group or audience.

The lighthouse effect See your audiences in the way like a lighthouse guides to ships in sea. Do not see at any particular group of audiences take a glance to all audience without hesitations. Shaking hands (handshake)In corporate sector handshake has its own importance it shows our professionalism and etiquettes. It also represents our attitude. Types of handshakesIf any person gives hand swing others hand down, he wants to take control of others

If any person gives hand swing his hand down, he wants to take control of others

Both person hold their hand shake them into upward & downward twice. It is an ideal example of handshake.

Dead fish handshake- if any person holds others hand passively it shows lack of confidence.

Knuckle grinder- if any person holds others hand aggressively and presses with power it shows aggressiveness of that person.

Some common errors in English Some errors related to prepositionsIncorrect- I am in the bus. Correct- I am on the bus. (You are on the wheels of the bus.) Incorrect- he is in the way. Correct he is on the way. (He is treading on the road) Incorrect- it is on the top. Correct- it is at the top. (No necessary to use on because it is already at top.) Incorrect - The ball is in the air and the fielder is coming under it. Correct- The ball is in the air and the fielder is coming underneath it. (The ball is not in the hair.) Some errors related to plurals and singulars. Incorrect- many peoples live in villages. Correct many people live in villages. (Plural of people is people itself) Incorrect- He is one of the best player in the world. Correct- He is one of the best players in the world.(use plural while using one of the) Incorrect- both my mother and aunt are housewifes. Correct both my mother and aunt are housewives. Incorrect-there is a flock of goose. Correct-there is a flock of geese. (Plural of goose is geese)

Some errors related to adjectives. Incorrect- my father is hard worker. Correct- my father is hardworking person. Incorrect- my mother is a best cooker. Correct- my mother is a best cook. Incorrect- my sister is kindly. Correct- my sister is kind.