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1 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

Zoology as a Science science (Latin scientia, knowledge) exact knowledge tested and verified by human experience facts real state of things data accumulated facts scientific method making careful observations; gathering data for formulating principles observation arouse speculation for explanation hypothesis tentative explanation; requires experimental support Specialized Fields of Science Fields of Zoology According to Discipline morphology (morphe, form) structure histology (histos, tissue) tissue microstructure cytology (kytos, hollow) cell structure and function physiology (physis, nature) living processes nutrition (nutrio, feed) use and conversion of food substances embryology (formerly developmental biology; en, in + bryo, swell) growth and development within the egg or mother genetics (genesis, origin) heredity and variation natural history animal life and behavior in the natural environment ethology (ethos, character) animal behaviour ecology (oikos, house) relationship of the animal to its environment zoogeography (zon, animal) animal distribution in space and time paleontology (palaeos, ancient + ont, being) fossilized animals evolution (e, out + volvo, roll) origin and differentiation of animals taxonomy (taxis, arrangement + nomos, law) animal classification Fields of Zoology According to Animal Groups Protozoology Protozoans Spongiology Sponges Round Worms Helminthology Worms Nematology Nematodes Mollusks Malacology Acarology Mites and Ticks Snails Entomology Insects Parasitology Parasites Ichthyology Fishes Herpetology Amphibians and Reptiles Orinthology Birds Mammalogy Mammals Characteristics of Living Things metabolism consists of a complex series of essential chemical processes occurring in living things anabolic (building-up) catabolic (breakdown) growth by intussuception new parts develop between or within older ones irritability ability to respond to environmental stimulus reproduction perpetuation of species definite form and characteristic size (range) chemical composition (mostly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen)

2 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS Animals vs. Plants Criteria Animals Form rather invariable Organs mostly internal Cell Membrane delicate Body Fluid with NaCl Metabolism consumers Nervous present; react quickly System stimulus General Zoology

to

Plants variable added externally with external cell wall NaCl is toxic to most plants producers absent; react slowly to stimulus

Manifestations of Life protoplasm (protos, first + plasma, form) colloidal complex of chemicals comprising the living substance of the cell colloid (kolla, glue) particles (10-5 to 10-7 mm diameter) suspended indefinitely particles too large to enter a solution (i.e. to be dissolved) particles too small to settle out of a solution (i.e. to precipitate) colloidal system a semi-rigid gel or a more fluid sol sol-gel reversals occur as consequences of metabolic processes Physical and Chemical Basis of Life Laws of Thermodynamics first law in any closed system, the total quantity of energy remains unchanged second law physical systems to proceed towards a state of greater disorder (entropy). The ultimate fate of materials in the cells is degradation and dissipation of their chemical bond energy as heat. Heat is the end form of all energy transformations. All energy forms may be transformed into heat, but heat cannot be completely transformed into other energy forms Chemical Constituents of Living Matter 95% of an organism is composed of C, H, O and N Inorganic Molecules: Water makes up 80% of the cell molecular shape looks like an isosceles triangle intermolecular distance: 0.099nm bond angle: 105 each water molecule has four neighboring water molecules 75% of the surface of the earth is covered by water makes up 0.06% of the mass of the earth gas giants may be as much as 50% water by mass water molecules cling together because of the hydrogen bonds between water molecules at water-air interference; a high surface tension is created when a crystal of NaCl dissolves in water, the negative ends of the dipolar molecules of water surround the Na+ ions, while the positive ends of water molecules face the Cl- ions; ions are this separated and do not reenter the salt lattice

3 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

Inorganic Molecules: Oxygen constitutes 20.99% of the earths atmosphere much less soluble and diffuses slower in water than carbon dioxide solubility falls with increasing temperature and salinity Inorganic Molecules: Carbon Dioxide difficult to displace carbon dioxide from water solubility falls with increasing temperature and salinity forms an acid if dissolved in water increases the solvent powers of water forms one of the primary buffers CO2 + H2O [ H+ + CO3- ] H2CO3 this reaction is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates monosaccharides are aldehydes or ketones with two or more hydroxyl groups general formula is (CH2O)n disaccharides are two sugar molecules connected together by a glycosidic link oligosaccharides are short chain of sugars polysaccharides are long chain of sugars Organic Molecules: Lipids usually are fatty acids, sterols and phospholipids fatty acids are carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon tails usually stored as an energy reserve or fat through the linkage with glycerol to form triglycerides sterols are complex molecules with three 6-carbon rings, one 5-carbon ring, and at least one OH-radical phospholipids are formed by triglycerides connected to a polar head by a phosphate makes up the bilipid layer of the cell membrane with the hydrophobic end in the middle of the layer and the hydrophilic end on the outer part of the layer a fatty acid is usually linked to other groups to form esters and amides Organic Molecules: Nucleic Acids polymers of nucleotides for protein synthesis and heredity the deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) is the central information storage molecule there are three types of ribonucleic acid, the messenger (mRNA), transfer (tRNA), and ribosomal (rRNA) a nucleotide consists a sugar, a base and a phosphate the sugar base may either be D-deoxyribose or D-ribose, depending on the genetic material the base may either be purine or pyrimidine the purine bases are adenine and guanine the pyrimidine bases are cytosine and thymine the orientation of a DNA/RNA strand from left to right is described as 3-5 since the phosphate is bonded to the C-3 carbon of deoxy/ribose on the left and to the C-5 on the right

4 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

a single turn of a double-helix strand has ten base pairs measuring 3.4nm Organic Molecules: Proteins biomolecules made up of amino acids an amino acid is composed of an amino group, a carboxyl group and the R group monomers of amino acids are joined by peptide bond carbon from the carboxyl group bonds with the nitrogen in the amino group forming water as a by-product the primary structure is determined by the type (of sequence), position and number of amino acids of a polypeptide chain the secondary structure may either by a pleated sheet or an -helix which are stabilized by hydrogen bonds a loop of the -helix has 13 atoms the tertiary structure is formed by folding, refolding and superfolding of the chain the quaternary structure describes the manner in which two or more polypeptides of a protein fit into each other

1665 1808 1809 1833 1838 1839 1848

Robert Hooke described in thin slices of cork and other plant materials minute partitions separating cavities he named as cells. Mirbel suggested that plants are made up of membranous cellular tissue Lamarck stated that any living body must have its parts of cellular tissue. Robert Brown described the nucleus as the central feature in plant cells. Matthias Jakob Schleiden stated that cells were the unit of structure in plants. Purkinje gave the name protoplasm to refer to the cells contents. Rudolph Virchow postulated the accepted form of the cell theory which states that, every animal appears as a sum of vital units, each of which bears in itself the complete characteristics of life..

The modern cell theory states that all animals and plants are composed of cells and cell products. Cytology (cell biology) is the study of cell structure and function. site of chromosomes site of DNA directed RNA synthesis RNA and protein synthesis protein synthesis membrane bound ribosomes (of RER) are major sites of protein synthesis synthesis of various lipids oxidation of many antibiotics defense site of many hydrolases

Nucleus Nucleoli Ribosomes

nucleic acids, proteins, lipids RNA, proteins RNA, proteins

Endoplasmic Reticulum

nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates

Lysosomes

enzymes

5 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS degradation of fatty acids and amino acids production and degradation of H2O2 involved in changing shape of eukaryotic cells repositioning of internal organelles site of intermediary metabolism site of enzymes of glycolisis, gluconeogenesis, biosynthesis of fatty, amino and nucleic acids transport of molecules in and out of cells intercellular adhesion of communication intracellular storing of proteins glycosylation reactions sulfation reactions citric acid cycle oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain) General Zoology

Peroxisomes

enzymes proteins, microtubules (25nm), intermediate filaments (10 nm), microfilaments (7nm)

Cytoskeleton

Cytosol

lipids, proteins

Plasma Membrane

lipids, (transmembrane) proteins, carbohydrates

Golgi Apparatus

proteins, carbohydrates

lipids,

Mitochondrion

proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, coenzymes, inorganic ions, energy-rich systems

Plasma Membrane Note: a fold in the inner membrane selectively permeable fluid mosaic of the mitochondrion is called a made out of proteins and a lipid crista bilayer Note: a nuclear pore is octagonal the diffusion rate of transfer between with eight embedded proteins the lipid bilayer depends on the size of the molecule and its relative solubility in lipid hydrophobic molecules and small uncharged polar molecules go through large uncharged polar molecules and ions takes time to go through membrane transport proteins embedded on the protein aid molecules pass through the cell types of diffusion simple (passive) diffusion random movement of molecules from a higher to a lower concentration facilitated diffusion transport of molecules with the aid of a (protein) carrier active transport transport of molecules with the aid of a carrier at an expense of energy osmosis is the diffusion of water across the plasma membrane from low concentration to high concentration Cell Cycle and Mitosis total of 16 hours, M is 1 hour, G1 is 5 hours, S is 7 hours, G2 is 3 hours G1 growth phase after mitosis

6 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS S DNA replication G2 protein production for cell division Mitosis division of the somatic cell Enzymes binds the substrate at its active sites, forming a temporary enzyme-substrate complex an allosteric site is a site other than the active site that inhibits the activity of the active site cooperative interaction is the speeding up of enzyme activity by inserting a substrate that induces higher enzymatic activity the rate of enzymatic activity is influenced by the substrate concentration, temperature, and pH Cell Respiration Notab Place le Comp ound Glyco aero pyruvi cytopla lysis bic c acid sm (produ ct) Krebs anae acetyl- mitocho Cycle robic CoA ndrion (centr al molec ule C6H12O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP Proce ss Glycolysis: 6C (Glucose) 3C + 3C (two pyruvic acids) + 6ATP Krebs cycle; lactic acid is produced if not enough oxygen is present Krebs Cycle: 36 ATPs are produced from each molecule of glucose from glycolysis and Krebs cycle -oxidation: Stearic acid (18C) is broken down to two carbon pairs which combines to form acetyl-CoA to make a total of 147 ATP per stearic acid Amino acids are also used as energy source. Alanine, cysteine, cystine, glycine, hydroxyproline, serine and threonine converted into pyruvate which is then converted into acetyl-CoA. Phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, leucine are converted into acetyl-CoA without being converted into pyruvate. General Zoology

7 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

DNA Replication DNA polymerase is an enzyme that duplicates the DNA strands Okazaki fragments are fragments of the daughter DNA strand produced by not continuous duplication DNA duplication follows the 5-3 path three bases of the strand make up a codon which stand for an amino acid when transcribing the tRNA recognizes a specific nucleotide sequence of mRNA and a specific amino acid there are three stages in protein synthesis: initiation, elongation and termination initiation the smaller ribosome subunit joining with the larger ribosome subunit the specific tRNA with the specific anticodon which will bind to the specific mRNA codon binds to the specific amino acid the mRNA binds to the ribosome elongation more amino acids are added to the incomplete protein the ribosome moves along through the mRNA exactly three nucleotides per amino acid termination the stop codon of the mRNA signals the termination a release factor binds to the stop codon, terminating the translation

Epithelial Tissues lines, covers and protects other tissues and organs cells are bounded together by intercellular cement cells are supported below by a basement membrane simple squamous epithelium single layer of thin plate-like cells adhering closely to one another simple cuboidal epithelium a row of square or rectangular profiles simple columnar epithelium has cells that are slightly taller than simple cuboidal cells stratified squamous epithelium thick and cells vary in shape stratified columnar epithelium continuous layer of small rounded cells next to a basement membrane pseudostratified columnar epithelium gives a false appearance of stratification transitional epithelium changes in appearance depending on the condition of the tissue Connective and Supportive Tissues protects and supports tissues/organs the matrix is the fibers and intercellular substance produced in the tissues reticular tissue composed of a framework of stellate reticular cells with an abundant network of fine reticular fibers secreted by the reticular cells

8 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

fibrous connective tissue consists of scattered rounded or branced cells, fibroblasts, cells that produce the fibers, and macrophages, protective phagocytes the fibers may either be collagenous or elastic adipose (fat) tissue is composed of cells that contain fat droplets that forms globules that occupy almost the entire cell cartilage has a firm, elastic matrix (chondrin) secreted by small groups of rounded cartilage cells, chondrocytes, and is covered by a thin, fibrous perichondrium bone tissue (osseous) is a dense organic matrix with mineral deposits, calcium hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate covered by a thin fibrous periosteum to which the muscles and tendons attach small tubular concentric lamellae from cylindrical Haversian systems, each with a central Haversian canal osteocytes (bone cells) occupy small spaces, the lacunae, between lamellae Vascular or Circulatory Tissues the fluid plasma transports most of the materials in the blood stream red blood cells (erythrocytes) shaped like a biconcave disc in mammalian RBC contains hemoglobin, a respiratory pigment that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide the nucleus is absent in human erythrocytes white blood cells (leukocytes) neutrophils (1) are polymorphonuclear phagocytic white blood cells eosinophils (2) are granulated and has a bilobular nucleus connected by a narrow isthmus basophils (3) are granulated have elongated nucleus shaped like U or S lymphocytes (4) have intensely staining round or slightly indented nucleus and a thin rim of clear blue cytoplasm; can be transformed into special antibody producing cells B-lymphocytes (B from the bursa of Fabricius) functions for humoral immune response T-lymphocytes functions for cell-mediated immune response; are produced in the thymus monocytes (5) have kidney-shaped nucleus are capable of leaving the blood stream to become phagocytes in tissues platelets small, round or oval biconcave discs without nucleus found in the blood vessels functions for blood coagulation to stop hemorrhage in blood vessel injuries also involved in immune hypersensitivity reactions plasma cell produces antibodies have an extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum

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Mast Cell oval to round connective tissue cells have a diameter of around 20m to 30m has a small, spherical, centrally-bound nucleus cytoplasm contains basophilic granules has two populations: connective tissue and mucosal mast cells Muscular Tissue cell fibers are specialized for contraction striated or skeletal muscle has myofibrils with alternating dark and light bands, giving it a striated appearance the dark band is called A-band while the light band is called I-band each cell is surrounded by a membrane called sarcolemma each cell contains several long nuclei in a syncytium functions for voluntary muscle contraction smooth or non-striated muscle has myofibrils with alternating dark and light bands has a central oval nucleus and homogenous fibrils in a spindle-shaped cell functions for involuntary movement cardiac muscle the fibers are branched, forming an interconnecting network each cell is demarcated from its neighbors by intercalary discs functions for involuntary cardiac movement Nervous Tissue made up of cells (neurons), which Note: The Purkinje cell is one of can depolarize and repolarize, and the biggest neurons found in the non-impulse conducting cells human brain, found in the cerebrum. neurons are nerve cells with a large It has a very extensive amount of cell body with two or more process: dendrites. dendrite, which receives signals, and axon, which transmits signals neural bodies outside the central nervous system form a ganglion several axons or dendrites are bound together by connective tissue, forming a nerve a lipid coating, myelin, secreted by the Schwann cells, forms the insulation sheath Nodes of Ranvier are found in myelinated nerves as constrictions, marking the end of one Schwann cell and the start of another the neuroglia is made up of a group of nerve cells and fibers in the central nervous system which serves as delicate packing, holding the neurons apart and also aid in the nutrition of neurons there are three types of neurons: bipolar retinal neuron (1), unipolar sensory neuron (2) and multipolar motor neuron (3) the synaptic vescicles contain neurotransmitters which travel through the axons, releasing the neurotramsitters to the dendrites the space between the dendrite and the axon is called synaptic cleft

10 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

Phylum Mastigophora [Flagellates] one or more flagella are used for locomotion some produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis (autotrophs), others feed on plant (holophytic) or animal materials (holozoic) and others feed on decomposing matter (saprozoic) e.g.: Trypanosoma gambiense and Trichomonas vaginalis Phylum Sarcodina distinguished by the presence of pseudopodium and may exist as either a lobopodium, filopod, axopod or reticulopod the endoplasm is composed of an outer plamagel and an inner fluid plasmasol e.g.: Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba gingivalis and Entamoeba histolytica Phylum Sporozoa (Apicomplexa) [Spore-forming Microorganisms] includes parasitic gregarines and coccidians gregarines are parasites from annelids and insects the sporozytes from the spores develop into trophozoites (feeding stage) and develops into gamonts or cephalonts the gamonts unite by syzygy forming a cyst which divides to form sporozoites Phylum Ciliophora [Unicellularly Ciliated Microorganisms] all ciliates have cilia which functions for locomotion and food procurement most have cytosome most have two types of nuclei: the macronucleus, functions for cell regulation, and the micronucleus, which functions for reproduction e.g.: Balantidium coli Phylum Porifera [Sponges] a framework of spicules and/or spongin supports its body water enters through the incurrent pores called ostia leave through the openings called oscula the different canal systems of sponges are ascanoid, syconoid and leuconoid Phylum Rotifera Phylum Cnidaria [Polyps, Jellies, Sea Anemones, Gorgonians, Corals] the body wall consists of an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis with a varying amount of mesoglea between them either radial or biradially symmetrical nematocysts are minute stinging capsules that serve for defense protoneurons form a primitive nerve net throughout the body polyps reproduce asexually by forming buds while medusa produce gametes Phylum Platyhelminthes [Flatworms] dorso-ventrally flattened, bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented worms acoelomate; the parenchyma connective tissue fills the body spaces between the ectoderm and endoderm

11 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

the alimentary canal is embedded in a solid parenchyma and the mouth is its only opening the excretory system is made up of flame cells or protonephridia are usually hermaphroditic have biflagellated sperms Phylum Nematoda [Nematodes/Roundworms] unsegmented, radially or biradially symmetrical round worms pseudocoelomate; body cavity is produced by a persistent blastocoels has a complete digestive system, with a mouth and an anus lateral cords encloses the excretory canals Phylum Annelida [Ringed Worms] triploblasic and bilaterally symmetrical usually have setae in each segment has a body cavity (schizocoelous coelome) is large and mesodermal in origin has nephridia which are the excretory organs the dorsal cerebral ganglia are connected to a solid midventral nerve cord, with ganglia and lateral nerves in each somite Phylum Mollusca [Mollusks] schizocoelous coelomates a soft-bodied animal with a ventral muscular foot the radula is its feeding organ for most mollusks Phylum Arthropoda [Insects] schizocoelomate, joint-legged animal with a segmented body bilaterally symmetrical has a chitinous exoskeleton its circulatory system is open with a dorsal tubular heart Phylum Echinodermata [Spiny Bottom Dwellers] radially symmetrical and enterocoelous coelomates the skeleton is composed of calcareous ossicles that may be articulate with one another or may be fused to form a rigid test the skeleton bears spines or tubercles has a water vascular system Phylum Chordata bilaterally symmetrical enterocelomates with a compete digestive system all have a notochord, a nerve chord and paryngeal slits advanced chordates have a vertebral column

cell tssue organ organ system the integument is the external body covering of the animal separating the internal from the external environment

12 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS protists have a delicate cell membrane some have an elastic pellicle sponges have an external layer, the pinacoderm, formed by flat cells known as pinacocytes aquatic and moist invertebrates have an external body covering called epidermis setae are embedded in the epidermis of clamworm and earthworms the mantle of gastropods secrets a shell (exoskeleton) the epidermis of worms secretes an external, noncellular cuticle the arthropodan cuticle is toughened by chitin and made waterproof by an outer layer called cuticulin the exoskeleton of arthropods are periodically replaced by a process called molting or ecdysis dermal ossicles are embedded in the integument of echinoderms and together forms a test the outer layer of the vertebrates is the epidermis, formed from the ectoderm of the developing embryo epidermal cells are replaced by the division of the cells in the stratum germinativum the outermost cells of the epidermis in most animals become tough and cornified by accumulating granules of keratin beneath the epidermis is the dermis, derived from the embryonic mesoderm the skin of cartilaginous fishes is covered with minute placoid scales giving it a rough texture mucus glands are scattered throughout the skin which secretes mucus which coats the body of the fish and protects it from injury fishes have a heterocercal tail there are three types of fish scales: cycloid, ctenoid and ganoid the cornified layer of reptiles is thickened into scales and is sometimes underlain with bony scutes feathers are nonliving cornified products of the epidermis bristles are hairlike modified feathers near the nostrils filoplumes are fine hair-like shafts with few barbs and barbules at the tips young birds are covered with down feathers that provide excellent insulation mammals are covered with cornified hair the dermal layer of the mammalian skin has sweat glands sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance that keeps the skin and hair pliable and reduces water loss due to evaporation adipose tissue in the dermis provide insulation against the cold the skeleton is a framework for mechanical support and protects the body General Zoology

13 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS the exoskeleton may be a shell or other external covering the endoskeleton is internal sponges are supported by calcareous or siliceous spicules and/or proteinaceous spongin a hydrostatic skeleton is filled with fluid and is found in pseudocoelomate animals chitin is a protein that makes up the skeleton of arthropods there are four types of tissues of the skeletal system, the hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage and the bone tissues the elastic cartilage is composed of cartilaginous cells that are made up of elastin fiber the parts of the bone are the periosteum, outer circumferential lamellae, osteon, inner circumferential lamellae, trabeculae, Volkmanns canals, and Sharpeys fibers the periosteum is the outermost lining of the bone where muscles are attached the trabecula is the space between the spongy part of the bone cartilaginous fishes and embryos of higher vertebrates have their skeleton made up of cartilage most bones are endochondral, derived from a cartilaginous skeleton membranous bones develop directly from sheets of embryonic cells bone grow and repair is possible through the actions of osteoblasts (bonebuilding) and osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells) growth spurt is caused by the somatotropin, bone resorption is caused by parathyroid hormone while calcitonin inhibits bone resorption long bones are made up of a central diaphysis and a cap, the epiphysis the epiphyseal cartilage layer connects each epiphysis to the central diaphysis the ephiphyseal cartilage lengthens and is converted to bony tissue the bone increases in diameter by deposit of bony tissue on the exterior Joints of the skeleton suture unites two distinct dermal bones with the sutural ligament synchdrosis two bones ossify and are separated from each other by a thin plate of cartilage symphysis a deformable cartilage disc of fibrocartilage separating the bones, permitting some motion diarthroses (synovial joint) allow some movement (articular cartilage + articular capsule + synovial membrane + synovial fluid) the notochord appears in the embryo and is a slender and unsegmented gelatinous rod that extends along the dorsal body axis between the digestive tract and the nerve cord the vertebral column is composed of the cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), sacral (pelvic) and claudal (tail) General Zoology

14 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

the skull consists the cranium which houses and protects the brain (chondrocranium), three pairs of sense capsules for organs of smell, sight and hearing (dermatocranium) and the visceral skeleton which is a series of paired arches providing the jaws, support for the tongue and supports for the gill region (splanchnocranium) the term skull is a misnomer since it usually excludes the lower jaw the branchial arches of the splanchnocranium are epibranchial (dorsal) cetarobranchial (ventral) hypobranchial (connects cetarobranchail to basibranchial) basibranchial (found at the pharyngeal floor) pharyngobrachial (at the top) Types of vertebral columns amphicoeluous (fish) procoelous (fish) poisthocoelous (lizard) heterocoelous (bird) acoelous a.k.a. amphiplatya (mammal) Types of fish fins heterocercal (shark) diphycercal (lungfish) homocercal (tilapia) Types of hindlimbs plantigrade (monkey) digitigrades (dog) anguligrade (deer) Types of finger bones artiodactyls (even in length) perissodactyls (uneven in length)

fin rays are lateral appendages of sharks and bony fishes land vertebrates have two pairs of limbs in place of fins and these are supported by the pectoral and pelvic girdles

Muscle fiber (cell) endomysium surrounds the muscle fiber perimysium surrounds muscle fascicle epimysium surrounds individual muscle Types of muscle bands anisotropic (light) bands isotropic (dark) bands Types of muscles Latent period is the period of no unitary myogenic response after sending the stimulus and smooth multiunit neurogenic follows it is the actual muscle involuntary contraction which is then followed by cardiac muscle relaxation if there is no signal striated received afterwards. skeletal A smooth maintained contraction voluntary called tetanus is due to the muscle being unable to relax due to close intervals of electric stimuli received.

15 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS Muscles types smooth cardiac skeletal structure cross anatomy endomysium (muscle fiber) perimysium (fasciculi) epimysium (individual muscle) shape strap fusiform pennate attachment tendon (to bone) aponeurosis (periosteum) innervation (motor end plate) single phasic (twitch) muscle multiple tonic muscle sensory neurons conduct impulses from the receptor to the central nervous system motor/efferent neurons conduct impulses from the central nervous system to various effectors interneurons in the brain and the spinal cord join the sensory and motor neurons a ganglion is a unit containing cell bodies ranging from few to many neurons pinacocytes in poriferans do not enter the mesenchyme to become nerve cells cnidarians have a diffuse nerve net around the body but does not possess a central ganglion in bilaterally symmetrical animals, the nervous system is linear and composed of one or more pairs of anterior ganglia or brain joined to one or more ventral nerve cords that extend posteriorly the nervous system of vertebrates is divided into the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system the brain is divided into three regions, the prosencephalon (forebrain), the mesencephalon (midbrain), and the rhombencephalon (hindbrain) the prosencephalon is divided into three subregions, rhinencephalon, telencephalon and diencephalon the rhombencephalon is divided into two regions, the metencephalon and myelencephalon the brain and spinal cord has three membranes surrounded, dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater General Zoology

16 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

the dura mater is the outermost layer, the arachnoid mater the middle, and pia mater the innermost layer the brain has four ventricles the aqueduct of Sylvius connects the medullas 4th ventricle to the 3rd the 4th ventricle connects with the central canal of the spinal cord the cerebrospinal fluid fills the ventricles The rhinencephalon gives rise to the olfactory lobe which is the origin of the olfactory nerve. The telencephalon has cerebral hemispheres which are outgrowths. Located at the lower part of the hemispheres are the basal nuclei. Also located at the cerebral hemispheres is the corpus striatum.

17 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

Invertebreate excretion flatworms have protonephridia or flame cells that possess cilia that move like a flickering flame; wastes are passed through a system of tubules which open outside through an excretory pore each nephridium of annelids are composed of a funnel-shaped ciliated nephrostome, a coiled tubule, and a nephridiopore, which opens externally insects and a few arthropods have Maphigian tubules attached to the anterior end of the hindgut crustaceans have a pair of antennal or green glands which open close to the eyestalk the kidney is the principal excretory organ of vertebreates a mass of coelomoducts constitute each kidneys which open into a collecing duct the ureter is a common collecting duct from each kidney that carries waste products posteriorly the wastes are discharged into the cloaca for amphibians, reptiles and birds the kidney is made up of millions of minute excretory units called nephron each nephron is composed of a globular double walled Bowman capsule round a clump of capillaries known as the glomerulus, and a tubule surrounded by capillaries which are further subdivided into a proximal convoluted tubule the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule the process of fluid passing through the Bowman capsule takes place as a result of the high pressure in the capillaries caused by a difference in size of the arterioles leading to and from the glomerulus differential resorption takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule Characterisics of Human Urine pH: 4.6 to 8 (normal is close to 7) Color: Amber Volume: 1L-2L/day Specific Gravity: 1.003-1.035 g/cm3 Urea: 9.3 g/L Cl: 1.87 g/L Na: 1.17 g/L K: 0.75 g/L Creatinine: 0.67 g/L

The endocrine system influences the internal homeostasis of animals. It influences bodily processes such as growth, metabolism, digestion and excretion. Crustacean endocrine system consists of a pair of Y organs and the X-organ sinus gland complex and the androgenic glands the Y organs are situated at the anterior region of the cephalothorax near the base of the antenna produces ecdysone, a molt-stimulating hormone

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during the process called prenuptial molt, the female prawns molt before it lays eggs the X organ sinus gland complex is located within the eyestalk produces a molt-inhibiting hormone aquaculturists remove one of the eyes, a process called unilateral eyestalk ablation, to decrease the amount of molt-inhibiting hormone to induce the female prawn to molt the androgenic glands are essential for the development of the gonads Insect endocrine system consists the corpora allata; the ecdysial glands; the corpora cardiaca, situated posteriorly to the corpora allata; the neusecretory cells of the brain; and the ventral ganglia of the central nervous system the corpora allata is found in the head secretes neotenin (juvenile hormone) which promotes growth and differentiation of larval structures and maintains the larval characteristic after each molt removal of this organ causes premature pupation, metamorphosis, and emergence of miniature adult the ecdysial glands are located in the head or thorax and produces ecdysone, the molting hormone Pituitary Gland rests within a cavity of the human skull known as the sella turcica composed of three regions: adenohypophysis (anterior lobe), pars intermedia, and the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe) produces hormones that exerts considerable influence on the other endocrine glands and other organs as well; commonly known as the master gland adenohypophysis has three types of cells: chromophobe; basophils which produces ACTH, TH, FSH and LTH; and the acidophil which produces STH and prolactin Somatotrophic/Growth Hormone (STH) influences the growth of the skeleton and affects the height of the person overproduction (hyperpituitarism) causes hyperglycemia, increased oxygen consumption, decreased peripheral utilization of glucose, gigantism, and acromegaly underproduction (hypopituitarism) causes dwarfism the Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) maintains the structural and functional integrity of the spermatogenic epithelium in males and promotes early growth of ovarian follicles in females the Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH) stimulates the Leydig cells of the testis inducing them to secrete testosterone the Prolactin/Luteotrophic Hormone (LTH) maintains the corpus luteum during pregnancy and promotes the production of milk by the mammary glands the Thyrotrophic Hormone (TH) influences the activity of the thyroid, controls the iodine uptake by the thyroid, and controls the synthesis and release of thyroxin the Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH) controls the glucocorticoid output of the adrenal cortex removal of this gland induces hyperpigmentation

19 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

neurohypophysis produces ADH and oxytocin Vasopressin or Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) induces generalized vasoconstriction assists in maintaining an effective circulating blood volume during hemorrhage removal of the neurophysis causes diabetic insipidus which is characterized by polyuria (large volume of urine) and polydipsia (larve intake of water) ADH secretion is increased by pain, trauma, acetylcholine, and nicotine ADH secretion is inhibited by alcohol Oxytocin stimulates the smooth muscle of the uterus, thereby assisting the sperm in transport augments uterine contractions during childbirth stimulates the ejection of milk from the mammary glands Thyroid consists of two lobes connected by an isthmus produces thyroxin and triiodothyronine Thyroxin (C15H11O4NI4) influences growth, development, and differentiation of tissues helps regulate carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism Triiodothyronine (C15H12O4NI3) influences heat production from cells regulates growth and sexual development a deficiency of iodine in the diet results in chronic enlargement of the thyroid known as goiter undersecretion of thyroid hormones, or hypothyroidism, in a child results in cretinism wherein the bones stop growing in length, the skin texture is abnormal, the hair is scant, sexual organs do not develop and the cretin is mentally retarded hypothyroidism in adults causes myxedema characterized by a decreased metabolic rate, lower body temperature, slow and weak heartbeat low blood pressure drowsiness, mental lethargy, scant dry hair, thick and swollen skin, and disturbance of sexual function oversecretion of thyroid hormones, or hyperthyroidism, causes excessive perspiration, ravenous appetite, high heart beat rate, increased blood pressure, hyperirritble, and may manifest exopthalmos (bulging eyeballs) and toxic goiter Parafollicular Cells or C-Cells of the thyroid produces thyrocalcitonin which lowers the calcium ion level of the blood and protects the skeleton against excessive decalcification Parathyroid Glands produces parathormone stimulates the osteoclasts to release calcium from the bone enhances active absorption of calcium from the intestine with the help of Vitamin D inhibits the absorption of phosphate by the kidneys

20 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

hyperparaphyroidism results in extensive bone decalcification which produces bone deformities, susceptibility to bone fractures and the production of kidney stones hypoparathyroidism results in increased nervous system excitability and tetany Pancreas the islets of Langerhans produce hormones in the pancreas there are three types of cells in the islets of Langerhands, namely 1 cells which secretes gastrin, 2 cells which secretes glucagon, and cells which secretes insulin Insulin lowers blood sugar and facilitates the transfer of free glucose into cells promotes fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissues and stimulates the incorporation of amino acids into cell protein lack of insulin results in diabetes mellitus characterized by increase in blood sugar, mobilization and release of fatty acids in blood circulation, decrease in protein synthesis and increased proteolysis, metabolic acidosis and presence of glucose in urine accompanied by polyuria Glucagon promotes the release of glucose from the liver through glycogenolysis inhibits glycogen formation activates the formation of carbohydrates from amino acids within the liver Gastric and Intestinal Mucosa secretes gastrin which stimulates the secretion of gastric juice secretes secretin which influences bicarbonate secretion secretes cholecystokinin/pancreozymin which influences enzyme secretion Thymus temporary endocrine gland that is most active during the fetal and preadolescent stage of humans produces thymosin which endows lymphocytes entering the gland with immunologic competence Pineal secretes melatonin concentrates the pigment of melanophores in fishes and amphibians inhibits gonadal development involved in the circadian rhythms Adrenal each gland consists of an outer cortex and an inner medulla the adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens glucocorticoids increase the production of glucose from the liver and promote resistance to stress mineralocorticoids influence fluid and electrolyte balance of the organism androgens are sex hormones which influences sexual development the adrenal medulla produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

21 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

epinephrine, also called the flight or fight hormone, supports metabolic needs of the body during emergency situations relaxes smooth muscles and stimulates others increases heartbeat, blood pressure, and skeletal muscle power norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction and confers muscle tone throughout the circulatory system Gonads Testosterone produced by the Leydig cells influences the development of male secondary characteristics Estradiol essential in the regulation of the estrous cycle in lower mammals essential in the development of secondary sexual characteristics at the onset of puberty such as broader hips and breast development Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum prepares the uterus for the fertilized ovum and induces the enlargement of mammary glands inhibits further ovulation by preventing the secretion of follicle stimulating and luteinizing releasing factors from the hypothalamus Relaxin produced by the placenta facilitates birth by relaxing the pubic ligament, allowing the pelvic opening to expand

Asexual reproduction involves only one individual does not require specialized reproductive organs no gametes involved o gemmule formation occurs in sponges o the gemmule contains the pluripotential cells known as archeocytes o the amphidiscs are special spicules which form the outer covering of the gemmules o has an opening called the micropyle o budding o a bud is an external outgrowth of a new individual from its parent o fission involves the division of a parent into two or more individuals Sexual reproduction involves two individuals each parent contributes a gamete/sex cell the union of two gametes produces a genetically unique individual having the basic anatomical, physiological and behavioral characteristics of the species the gametes are produced in specialized reproductive organs called gonads the males produce sperms in the testis the females produce eggs in the ovary an organism that has both ovary and testis is known to be monoecious or hermaphrodites; otherwise, dioecious

22 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

The gametes are produced in a process called meiosis production of sperms is known as spermatogenesis whereas the production of eggs is known as oogenesis the period of multiplication is a stage wherein the spermatogonia/oogonia mitotically divides to produce other spermatogonia/oogonia spermatogenesis the spermatogonia will grow larger to form primary spermatocytes after crossing over, the primary spermatocytes separates through the first meiotic division to form the secondary spermatocytes the secondary spermatocytes divides during the second meiotic division, forming two spermatids oogenesis the primary oocyte divides through the first meiotic division to form a large secondary oocyte and a much smaller first polar body both of the cells divide forming an ootid and three second polar bodies the joining of two homologous chromosomes is called synapsis and the process of exchanging genetic material between chromosomes called crossing over occurs Types of fertilization in external fertilization, the gametes are released to the surrounding aqueous environment in internal fertilization, the male organ introduces sperm cells to the female reproductive tract through copulation in a special type of asexual reproduction called parthenogenesis, an egg develops into a new individual even though it is not fertilized Male reproductive system the sperms are formed in the seminiferous tubules of the testis the prostate gland produces liquid secretions found in the semen the Cowpers glands provide nourishment for the semen the inability to attain and maintain an erection sufficient for vaginal penetration is known as impotence the penis becomes erect as the spaces in the corpus spongiosum and corpus cavernosum is filled with blood Female reproductive system the eggs develop within the Graafian follicle the eggs enter the Fallopian tube (oviduct) and fertilize there

there are three part of the sperm cell, the head, the midpiece, and the tail the midpiece connects the head to the tail located at the head is the acrosome which facilitates the entry of the sperm to the egg Germ Layer Ectoderm Embryonic Structure neural folds & plate Tissues & Organs of the Adult epidermis and epidermal structure, tooth enamel, lining of the mouth cavity, nose

23 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology and cloaca (in part) nervous system notochord (later surrounded by vertebrae) skeleton; other supportive and connective tissues; muscles of the head circulatory system dermis (part) voluntary muscles excretory system; some genital structures (vas deferens) peritoneum and mesenteries; involuntary muscles of the digestive and reproductive tracts most of the reproductive system epithelium of the digestive tract except the mouth and the anal canal pharynx middle ear thyroid, thymus & parathyroids lining of the respiratory system liver and pancreas lining of the bladder, urethra

Mesoderm

notochord mesenchyme epimere (somite) mesomere (intermediate) hypomere (lateral part)

Endoderm

primitive gut

an isolecithal egg has yolk that is evenly distributed throughout the egg, a telolecithal egg has more yolk concentrated on a vegetal pole while less on the animal pole, and a centrolecithal egg has yolk surrounding the cytoplasm which surrounds the nucleus a holoblastic cleavage is complete and cuts through the whole egg mass while a meroblastic cleavage is partial and does not cut through the entire egg mass usually, in eggs that perform meroblastic cleavage have a narrow discshaped blastodisc which lies on top of the yolk meroblastic cleavage occurs on bird and reptile egg Types of holoblastic cleavage in radial cleavage, the cleavage planes are symmetrical to the polar axis eggs that undergo radial cleavage are known as indeterminate eggs occurs in Echinodermata and Chordata in spiral cleavage, the cleavage planes are oblique to the polar axis eggs that undergo radial cleavage are known as determinate eggs and undergo mosaic/determinate development occurs in Annelida, most of Mollusca and turbellarian Platyhelminthes there are other two types of cleavages, namely bilateral which occurs in turnicates, and rotational which occurs in mammals Cleavage results in the formation of a hollow ball of cells known as the blastula filled with a central fluid cavity called the blastocoel. gastrulation involves regrouping wherein new and important cell associations are formed

24 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

the blastomeres at the vegetal pole migrate inward in a process known as invagination which creates an internal cavity called archenteron and an opening for the archenteron called blastopore from the blastopore will be the anus and the blastopore will be the gut/digestive tract the ectoderm arises from the animal pole, the endoderm arises from the vegetal pole, while the mesoderm arises from the mesentoblast (shizocoelous coelomates) or archenteric pouches (enterocoelous coelomates)

A gene is an inherited fator that determines a biological characteristic of an organism. Alleles are two individual genes in a particular gene pair. A homozygous allele pair is a gene pair with two identical alleles while a heterozygous allele pair is a gene pair with two different alleles. A dominant allele is an allele that is expressed in every generation while a recessive allele is an allele that skips a generation in its expression. A genotype defines the component of the genetic material that an organism inherits from its parent. It is the sum of heredity, the genetic constitution, which an organism receives from its parents, according to Danich geneticist Johannsen (1911). A phenotype is the appearance of the organism; the sum total of its characteristics. A gene locus is the particular location in the chromosome where the gene is located. Mendelian Laws of Inheritance Law of Segregation: each trait is controlled by two factors or genes, one inherited from each parent. Members of a pair of genes, also called alleles, segregate and go to different offsprings. Law of Independent Assortment: different pairs of genes are distributed to the offspring in a random manner and independent of each other. Dominance relations in diploid organism in simple/complete dominance, the heterozygote, although genetically different, has the same phenotype as one of the homozygotes and the presence of recessive gene is functionally hidden; the homozygous and heterozygous dominant have the same phenotypic expression in partial/incomplete dominance or codominance, each genotype is separately distinguishable; the homozygous and heterozygous dominant have different phenotypic expression Interaction of two independent pairs of alleles: when a character is affected by two or more gene pairs, a variety of phenotypic ratios may appear, depending upon the type and degree of interaction between gene pairs. A mutation is a result of a random change in the genetic mechanism. A gene/point mutation is a result of errors in replication prior to chromosomal duplication. The smallest portion of a gene that can produce a mutation is known as a muton. A reverse gene mutation is a mutation that restores the gene to its original form. The difference between a genes mutation rate in one direction and that in the reverse direction is known as the mutation pressure.

25 ZOO1 Notes by F5XS General Zoology

Types of chromosomal aberration deletion/deficiency part of a chromosome is lost duplication part of a chromosome is repeated inversion part of a chromosome is reversed translocation part of a chromosome is transferred to a non-homologous chromosome haploidy result of an absence of one set of parental chromosomes polyploidy doubling or tripling (or more) of the normal diploid set monosomy results from losing a chromosome pair polysomy results from adding an extra chromosome pair A panmictic population is a population where individuals mate randomly. The symbol letter of an allele in the Punnett square is dependent on the recessive characteristic. On creating mating diagrams, it is in the standard operating procedures of placing the female individual on the left and the male individual on the left. ) Hardy-Weinberg Formula: ( Formula for selective breeding: wherein: denotes the variance, is the phenotype, is the genotype, is the environment, and is the interaction between genotype and environment