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ARMY ROTC Army ROTC is available at colleges and universities throughout the United States, as well as in Guam and

Puerto Rico. Students enroll in ROTCs elective leadership and military courses in addition to their required courses. Upon graduation, ROTC Cadets are commissioned as Army Second Lieutenants. REQUIREMENTS To enroll in Army ROTC you must be: Accepted or enrolled in one of more than 273 programs and more than 700 additional affiliated colleges or universities At least 17 years old and not have reached your 32nd birthday upon commissioning A U.S. citizen Physically fit DIRECT COMMISSION Direct Commission provides leaders in professional fields such as law, medicine and religion the opportunity to become an Army Commissioned Officer. Upon completion of their Officer training program, they are commissioned at a rank determined by their career branch. DIRECT COMMISSION The professional branches of the Army (the Army Medical Department, the Judge Advocate Generals Corps and the Army Chaplain Corps) provide civilian degreed leaders a means to receive a Direct Commission in their career field. Specially designed courses contain instruction in military history, Army leadership, military customs and courtesies and careerspecific classes. In some cases a Direct Commission is available in other career branches in the Army Reserve and National Guard. Persons who gain a Direct Commission will receive the rank determined by their career branch. They will serve in the Active Army, Army Reserve or Army National Guard as experts and leaders. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT The U.S. Army Medical Department (AMEDD) is one of the largest and most advanced health care systems in the world. Commissioned Officers in the Army Medical Department are on the cutting edge of medicine and gain the satisfaction of serving our nation and our Soldiers. ARMY JAG CORPS The Army Judge Advocate General's (JAG) Corps was established in 1775 by General George Washington, making it the oldest law firm in the United States. ARMY CHAPLAIN CORPS U.S. Army Chaplains take well-earned pride in serving both God and country. They bring their unique blend of skills to our Soldiers, providing counsel, comfort and community during moments of success and sorrow. REQUIREMENTS To receive a Direct Commission, you must be: Within the age requirements (varies by professional career field and age waivers may be considered) A U.S. citizen A college graduate

Physically fit

OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL OCS allows college graduates to gain the knowledge and skills necessary to be commissioned as an Army Officer. Through classroom instruction and training exercises, Candidates learn to become leaders. Upon completion of OCS, they are commissioned as Army Second Lieutenants. OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL Officer Candidate School (OCS) at Fort Benning, GA provides a path to become an Army Commissioned Officer for those who have completed an undergraduate or graduate degree. Candidates without prior Army service will attend Basic Training and OCS, and Candidates with prior Army service will attend OCS. Candidates learn to lead through a challenging curriculum of classroom and field training experiences. After completing OCS requirements, Candidates are commissioned and receive the gold bars of a Second Lieutenant. They will serve in the Active Army, Army Reserve or Army National Guard as vital members of a trained and ready Army. REQUIREMENTS To attend OCS, you must be: At least 18 years old but not older than 41. A U.S. citizen A college graduate Physically fit UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY West Point is one of our country's premier colleges. West Point Cadets are immersed in military customs and traditions while working toward a college degree. Upon graduation, West Point Cadets are commissioned as Army Second Lieutenants. The United States Military Academy The United States Military Academy at West Point, NY, founded in 1802, is the oldest of the five service academies. It has a rich tradition of leadership training and excellence. West Point Cadets are immersed in a military-oriented environment, gaining a premier undergraduate education and leadership skills through a rigorous curriculum. They learn what is required to be an Officer in todays Army while preparing themselves for future success. Upon completing their undergraduate degree requirements, Cadets are commissioned and receive the gold bars of a Second Lieutenant. They will serve in the Active Army, refining their leadership skills and leading by example. REQUIREMENTS To apply for West Point you must be: At least 17 but not yet 23 years old on July 1 of the year admitted A U.S. citizen Not married Not pregnant or with any legal obligation to support a child or children Congressionally nominated or have a service-connected nomination A recipient of strong scores on either college entrance exam (ACT or SAT)

Branch establishment The U.S. Army was officially founded on 14 June 1775, when the Continental Congress authorized enlistment of riflemen to serve the United Colonies for one year. Each branch of the Army has a different branch insignia. Basic branches Infantry, 14 June 1775 Adjutant General's Corps, 16 June 1775 Corps of Engineers, 16 June 1775 Finance Corps, 16 June 1775 Quartermaster Corps, 16 June 1775 Field Artillery, 17 November 1775 Armor, 12 June 1776 Ordnance Corps, 14 May 1812 Signal Corps, 21 June 1860 Chemical Corps, 28 June 1918 Military Police Corps, 26 September 1941 Transportation Corps, 31 July 1942 Military Intelligence Corps, 1 July 1962 Air Defense Artillery, 20 June 1968 Aviation, 12 April 1983 Special Forces, 9 April 1987 Civil Affairs Corps, 16 October 2006 Psychological Operations, 16 October 2006 Logistics, 1 January 2008 Special branches Army Medical Department, 27 July 1775 Medical Corps, 27 July 1775 Army Nurse Corps, 2 February 1901 Dental Corps, 3 March 1911 Veterinary Corps, 3 June 1916 Medical Service Corps, 30 June 1917 Army Medical Specialist Corps, 16 April 1947 Chaplain Corps, 29 July 1775 Judge Advocate General's Corps, 29 July 1775 5. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS The relationship of the uniformed military and civilian policymakers in the United States is based on a single principle: civilian control. All other facets of the relationship reflect this or are designed to assure it. Support for civilian control initially emerged from the American interpretation of European history. Most of the Founding Fathers accepted the Radical Whig notion that standing armed forces invariably became a tool of tyranny. Liberty and a powerful military were considered antithetical; only citizen soldiers could provide national defense without threatening political freedom. Richard H. Kohn explains: Few political principles were more widely known or more universally accepted in America during the 1780s than the danger of standing armies in peacetime. Because of its arms, its isolation from society, its discipline, and its loyalty and obedience to its commander, an army

could not necessarily be controlled by law or constitution. An army represented the ultimate in power, capable, even when it did not attempt a coup on its own, of becoming the instrument by which others could terrorize a population, seize power, or perpetuate tyranny.[Richard H. Kohn, "The Constitution and National Security: The Intent of the Framers," in Richard H. Kohn, ed., The United States Military under the Constitution of the United States,1789-1989, New York: New York University Press, 1991, pp. 81-82] This posed a dilemma for the Founding Fathers. Facing threats in every direction, whether Indians, British, French, Spanish, pirates, or internal rebellion, the United States needed military strength. On the other hand, memories were fresh of repression at the hands of Redcoats and Hessians. Amid intense debate and calls to ban a standing army altogether, the framers of the Constitution tried to reach a compromise between military effectiveness and political control. They wanted balance, the diffusion of power, and shared responsibility to control the military. Congress was charged with raising and equipping an army. Appropriations for the Army were limited to 2 years. The President commissioned and promoted officers, but required Senate approval. And the Constitution mandated state militias that were to be the firebreaks of last resort to the power of the standing army. In terms of assuring civilian control, these techniques worked. By sustaining democracy and avoiding military direct or indirect intervention in politics for more than 200 years, the principle of civilian control has become an intrinsic part of the American political tradition. Stephen E. Ambrose states that American liberals believe "that professional military men are right-wing, anxious to extend America's overseas bases, quick to urge the use of force to settle problems, eager to increase the size of the armed forces, and, above all, powerful enough to enforce their views on the government." [Stephen E. Ambrose, "The Military Impact on Foreign Policy," in Stephen E. Ambrose and James A. Barber, Jr., eds., The Military and American Society, New York: Free Press, 1972, p.] Tocqueville affirmed that "of all armies those which long for war most ardently are the democratic ones." One function of civilian control was "to ensure that defense policy and the agencies of defense are subordinated to other national traditions, values, customs, governmental policies, and economic and social institutions." [Allan R. Millett, The American Political System and Civilian Control of the Military: A Historical Perspective, Columbus: Mershon Center of the Ohio State University, 1979, p. 2] Lieutenant General Victor Krulak, when asked to justify the existence of the United States Marines, said that the Corps existed because the American people wanted it to. [Victor H. Krulak, First To Fight: An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1984]. This same logic holds for civilian control of the military. So long as most Americans believe these things and so long as the beliefs of the American public shape national policy, then civilian control of the military remains a vital national interest.