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1. Cognitive psychologist Kathleen Eberhard uses software to ------- her design of experiments: what once took days now takes minutes. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) accelerate enforce breach recognize contradict (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) an unseemly . . indecorous a cerebral . . visceral an artistic . . aesthetic an intemperate . . staid a powerful . . individualistic
8. Although the journalist intended his critique of contemporary artists to be -------, the article’s tone instead expresses a -------- not in keeping with his usual carping persona. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) solicitous . . compassion altruistic . . contentiousness dispassionate . . callousness munificent . . rancor disparaging . . charitableness
2. Although she always had the best of -------, Joan was nonetheless often accused of meddling because of her tendency to ------- the lives of her friends. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) goals . . pass by proposals . . balance out pastimes . . intrude in intentions . . interfere in desires . . wink at
Questions 9-12 are based on the following passage.
Passage 1 Reality television offers a series of temptations simultaneously repellent and irresistible. It offers us the chance to see human wreckage and to feel superior to the people involved in it or victimized by it. But it also gives us a chance to admire people when they do well or soar about their circumstances. It is not so easy to separate the illicit pleasures of voyeurism—the secretly hoped-for injury—from the highest pleasures of admiration. In its own way, what is offered in reality television resembles the combination of elements that has provided sports fans with compelling entertainment for millennia, minus the rules. Passage 2 Reality television is universally maligned for being vapid and uncreative, and everybody seems to think it’s acceptable to admit to watching these programs only as a so-called guilty pleasure. Just about every smart person these days agrees that this stuff is devoid of value. But there will be a day in the future when people think differently. There will be a day when this era of television is remembered as groundbreaking and vital, because reality shows will have destroyed the myth of normalcy. Reality television will ultimately prove that there is no “normal” way to live, and it will validate the notion that every human experience is autonomous
3. A scholar of United States history, Sabrina was hired to scrutinize the script of an upcoming film set in the Old West in order to ------- its historical -------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) verify . . accuracy eliminate . . potential correct . . ancestors appropriate . . relevance renounce . . significance
4. Ruth Ella Moore’s distinguished work in the field of bacteriology ------- that of other African American women who later achieved success in science careers. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) constituted foreshadowed preoccupied relinquished negated
5. The report was ------- about the future of the ailing economy, concluding optimistically that conditions would ------- within months. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) disingenuous . . falter reassuring . . decline cryptic . . rally sanguine . . improve foreboding . . rebound
9. Both passages support the claim that reality television (A) has the value in spite of its perceived flaws (B) exploits the people who appear on it (C) reveals more about society’s values than do other television programs (D) is more memorable than other television programs (E) is similar to sports in the kind of pleasures it provides 10. The author of Passage 1 mentions “rules” in line 11 in order to (A) show that reality television is more orderly than many people think (B) suggest that the nature of televised sports has changed over the years (C) emphasize the relative lack of constraints in reality television (D) indicate that participants in reality shows understand how the shows work (E) imply that sports fans are more sophisticated than reality television viewers
6. Director Carlos Avila has been called a master of restraint: his films ------- a tendency toward -------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) exhibit . . pizzazz reveal . . understatement substantiate . . digression demonstrate . . explication mask . . autobiography
7. Unlike the works of the Cubist painters, which tend to have ------appeal, Chaim Soutine’s paintings are quite -------, arousing profoundly emotional responses
2020 PT 1 | Reading
11. The author of Passage 2 would most likely respond to the claim in lines 2-4, Passage 1 (“it offers . . . by it”), by maintaining that reality television (A) features only people who want to be on the shows in the first place (B) is more likely to focus on people with sensational stories than on those with heartwarming stories (C) distinguishes between people who are actually exploited and those who only appear to be exploited (D) gives normal people a chance to be famous for a brief period of time (E) acknowledges human individuality rather than emphasizes human failure 12. Which of the following best describes a difference between the two passages? (A) Passage 1 takes the point of view of a fan, whereas Passage 2 takes the point of view of a critic. (B) Passage 1 identifies with the people who appear on the shows, whereas Passage 2 gives the audience’s perspective (C) Passage 1 examines reality television from a political perspective, whereas Passage 2 discusses reality television in a larger social context. (D) Passage 1 discusses reality television as it is seen at present, whereas Passage 2 considers how it will be seen in the future. (E) Passage 1 synthesizes different viewpoints, whereas Passage 2 acknowledges the legitimacy of many different viewpoints.
Questions 13-24 are based on the following passage.
Fear of technology’s unforeseen consequences courses through debates and conversations about genetically engineered plants, especially in countries with strong environmental movements. In England, consumer protests and fears and have forced most grocery stores to band products with genetically modified ingredients from their shelves. Such outcomes are an enormous triumph for the committed campaigners like Zoe Elford. What bothers Elford is not so much the technology itself as the forces she sees being it, the “grotesque juggernaut” of corporations that produce genetically modified food. “We are rapidly losing the natural world to multinational corporations and governments complicity in their myopic, manic scheme,” she wrote in 1990, explaining her decision to uproot the genetically modified plants. She called on her fellow citizens to “act for democracy, for diversity, and to restore a land lush with fields, free of genetic pollution, and free of genetic contamination.” Passage 2 The defensiveness and intractability of the biotechnology industry did not develop in a vacuum. It grew and hardened in reaction to unreasonable, irrational, and emotional attacks by environmental and consumer groups. It is easy and tempting to portray industry as the bad guys, but opponents of GM crops have been equally guilty of polarizing biotechnology issues. Their extreme rhetoric and attention-grabbing tactics have helped turn what should have been a reasoned public debate into an exercise in mudslinging and name-calling. The rhetoric of the critics has matched industry hype by exaggerating risks, warping facts, and latching into bad science. Protestors cite poorly replicated laboratory studies involving test animals when they proclaim the dangers of transgenic crops, but they ignore field studies indicating little or no impact. The stories that circulate through the Web sites and press releases of opponents of GM crops about the jumping of antibiotic-resistant genes from plants to bacteria are not backed up with publicly accessible data. Passions inflamed by these and other misrepresentations of biotechnology have led to the damaging of university buildings, clandestine uprooting of GM crops from farmers’ fields, and claims that genetically modified food donated for disaster relief in less developed countries was tainted. The protest groups have raised some important issues about GM crops, but their excessive zeal has diminished their trustworthiness. The most unfortunate collateral damage resulting from this destructive debate has been the loss of perspective on what the appropriate scrutiny of biotechnology should involve. The posturing and accusations batted back and forth by extremists of both sides have obscured the central issue that needs to be probed: Which gains are worth which risks? The fact is that we have yet decided what levels of side effects from GM crops are worth the benefits. The negative impacts found so far range from nonexistent to slight to moderate; there have been no outright disasters. There I no evidence of health risks from any current GM food. There is some reason to be concerned that herbicide-resistant genes that jump to non-GM weeds or crops will transform them into superweeds, immune to many herbicides. But none of these effects is any worse than those caused by conventional agricultural practices, and the reduced pesticide use possible with GM crops in many instances has to be considered a plus for the environment and for human health.
The passages below discuss genetically modified (GM) crops, which are the product of a technology that alters the genetic structure of plants in order to improve their viability, longevity, and/or nutritional value. Some people fear that GM crops will ultimately prove dangerous both to the ecosystem and to human health.
Passage 1 Zoe Elford, a young woman employed by a nonprofit group that works with poor communities around the world, has spent years picketing grocery stores and talking to shoppers about genetically engineered food. In 1998 she was arrested, along with several of her friends, for uprooting genetically altered plants in a research field in Oxfordshire, England. The case has since wandered in and out of several courtrooms. Elford explains, “I felt the urge to stop the stuff growing, because when you release genetically altered plants up and down this country, those sites are living pollution, and that pollution will replicate itself. Once it’s out there, you can’t get it back, so it’s a kind of now-or-never situation. It’s an immediate threat.” That threat, the possibility of unknown consequences, is the theme of Mary Shelley’s tale about the fateful curiosity and ambition of Victor Frankenstein, a scientist who could not withstand the lure of knowledge. Heedless of the consequences, Frankenstein created new life, a creature that returned to haunt and destroy him. Shelley’s tale turns a mirror on modern society’s love affair with the new, capturing it and reversing the image. Where so many are captivated by the possibilities of technology, others are caught up in anxiety about where such ventures might lead. Shelley’s tale is fictions. But the insecticide DDT, once hailed as a savior from malaria and insect pests, really did poison fish and birds, even as insects developed resistance to it and it became ineffective in its original purpose.
2020 PT 1 | Reading
13. Which best states the primary relationship between the two passages? (A) Passage 2 examines the history of the argument put forth in Passage 1 (B) Passage 2 criticizes the tactics of a particular group while Passage 1 discusses a representative of that group (C) Passage 2 characterizes a person favorably that passage 1 openly mocks. (D) Passage 2 describes new evidence that challenges the ideas espoused in Passage 1 (E) Passage 2 celebrates the achievements of a group while Passage 1 presents information about the group objectively 14. Both passages acknowledge which of the following about genetically modified crops? (A) Genetic modification of crops will make the world less dependent on harmful pesticides (B) Genetically modified crops are more difficult to grow than are conventional crops (C) scientists need to urge caution in the acceptance of genetically modified crops (D) Activism has had an impact on the debate over genetically modified crops. (E) Genetically modified crops will be an important worldwide source of food in the future. 15. The primary purpose of the opening paragraph of Passage 1 (lines 113) is to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) present the views and actions of a particular individual place the work of an organization in a social context urge readers to adopt a political stance clarify the extent of an ongoing threat discredit the work of a committed idealist (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) offer a defense incite a response suggest a compromise clarify a question criticize a solution
20. In line 45, “free of” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unaffected by cheated of unpenalized by open to liberated by
21. In Passage 2, the statements in line 46-49 (“The defensiveness . . . groups”) serve primarily to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) provide a solution to a vexing issue discuss the findings of a scientific study contextualize a particular state of affairs defend the theory underlying a practice analyze specific demands made by a group
22. The author’s tone in lines 55-68 (“The rhetoric . . . tainted”) is best characterized as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) disapproving anxious bemused defiant sanctimonious
23. In line 69, “raised” most nearly means 16. The author of Passage 2 would most likely characterize Elford’s actions described in lines 4-7 of Passage 1 (“In 1998 . . . England”) as (A) (B) (C) (D) a result of her desire for personal attention a response to an unusual circumstance sparking useful dialogue among normally antagonistic groups concurring with the recommendations of the scientific community (E) damaging the credibility of her point of view 17. The author of Passage 1 mentions “DDT” (line 25) as an example of a substance that (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) is now being reconstituted chemically is not well understood by the public has not been thoroughly studied eventually proved harmful to the environment has become expensive to produce commercially (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) nurtured broached erected increased collected
24. Which of the following is found in Passage 1 but not in Passage 2 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Rhetorical questions Statistical data Extensive quotations Reference to protestors Reference to large corporations
18. In line 29, “courses” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) pursues lectures runs hunts examines
SECTION 4 Time – 25 minutes 24 Questions
1. Although giraffes can be found in zoos and preserves worldwide, they are ------- to Africa, their sole native land. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) beneficial impervious indigenous consigned analogous
19. Zoe Elford most likely intended her comments in lines 43-45 (“act for . . . contamination”) to
2020 PT 1 | Reading
2. The term “best-seller” is ------- rather than -------; that is, it means only that certain books are selling better than others. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unpredictable . . consequential prescriptive . . descriptive fluid . . dynamic comparative . . absolute relative . . gratuitous
the last position won’t stand a chance with zappers who may never return to that channel.
6. Both passages are concerned with which advertising technique?
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
3. The professor was forced to -------- her exhaustive project of documenting regional dialects after losing most of the funding that paid research assistants to collective extensive data. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) eradicate bemoan curtail recant sever
the repetition of a catchy slogan the use of attractive people and scenery The strategic placement of ads Follow-up interviews with viewers subliminal messages in popular programs
7. The primary function of the sentence in lines 3-5 (“One . . . not focused”) is to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) paraphrase the question posed in line 3 present a relevant research finding hypothesis about a solution to a problem shift the focus to a different medium address a concern of Internet users
4. Some scientists claim that repeated exposure to sustained noise ------blood-pressure regulation and might even make people prone to hypertension; others, by contrast, have obtained inconclusive evidence that ------- the correlation. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) sharpens . . conflates increases . . diminishes aggravates . . buttresses disrupts . . quantifies impairs . . minimizes
8. If the advertisers mentioned in Passage 1 chose to apply the information in the last sentence of Passage 2 (lines 20-22), they would most likely
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
choose not to advertise on less-interesting Web sites offer Web users incentives to try their products survey television viewers about the favorite ads create their own product Web sites target only experienced Internet users
5. Many popular historical anecdotes, although previously unquestioned and still repeated in some textbooks, are now considered ------- by professional historians. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) requisite canonical beneficent vociferous apocryphal
9. Unlike the viewers presented in Passage 1, viewers in Passage 2 are presented as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) intensely outspoken about brand preferences well informed about television programming unduly influenced by manipulative advertising rarely changing focus while watching television successfully avoiding certain advertisements
Questions 6-9 are based on the following passages.
Questions 10-16 are based on the following passage.
Passage 1 Advertisers are interested in finding out what exactly makes pop-ups ads on the Internet irritating to viewers. Why are these ads seen as intrusive? One 2002 marketing study determined that when Internet users are focuses, they perceive interruptions as more severe than when they are not focused. What seems to get the attention of viewers (rather than merely annoy them) is to expose them to pop-up ads only at breaks in content—for example, when they are switching between pages. Another marketing strategy is to increase the relevance of the ad. If a consumer is browsing an automobile Web site, a pop-up ad for a car will seem less intrusive than will a travel ad. Passage 2 Consumers can always avoid television advertising by leaving the room or—more often—changing channels. Channel switching, or zapping, has become a challenge for advertisers. A recent marketing study found that placing an advertisement toward the end of a commercial break maximizes its brand recall by zappers, who are switching back to the television program would also affect the level of advertising recall. If the program is unappealing, even an ad in 15
This passage is adapted from a short story. The narrator, Marta, recalls and incident from her childhood in rural Mexico.
I said, “Papi, let me finish school.” None of his other daughters completed more than three grades. “I still can do my chores,” I told him. “Pay for me to finish school.” He dug his boots into la tierra, the dry earth of Guanajuato, the state he never left in his entire life. But he still was the smartest man in Ramblas. He read books about Egypt and knew how to handwrite, unlike my mother, who never had an education. “Why do you want to return to school?” he said, lowering his eyes to me. “So you can meet a man, marry, and quit? You want me to pay for that?” “No, Papi,” I said. “I won’t marry in school and I promise I’ll graduate.” The wind whistled through the trees. My father saw a fisherman with a pole bent over the riverbank, his thin shoulders hunched as if a small anchor pulled them. I said urgently, “Papi,” and I almost grabbed his thick, brown wrist. In the country, he would stop and talk with any stranger, my father, no matter what he was doing. He would talk about the harvest, the weather, the latest family to lost children to the city, but mostly he would listen. He turned, making his way to the lone fisherman. I
2020 PT 1 | Reading followed behind him in my open-toed sandals, carefully picking my steps. I knew I had lost is attention, and I searched around me for something to fill the time I would spend waiting. But there was nothing and nobody. How often my brothers, sisters, and I wished he would meet strangers in town. If he met them in a crowded bus station or near the plaza, we could occupy ourselves easily. But he never did. In those places, he walked as the stranger, with a stone face and rigid posture; he would say he had to get back to the ranch by noon. “Buenos días”* my father said to the fisherman. I took my seat ten feet from them. The two men stared across the lake and talked. Their voices droned on and blended with the wind. I daydreamed. “Marta, come here,” my father called to me. I lifted myself up and shuffled toward them. “Marta,” my father said, “I have asked Don Tomás what he thinks about your promise.” I stared at this fisherman, this stranger, with his empty fishnet and slack, orange pole, and then back at my father with wide eyes. “I told him about your promise to stay single, and he told me, “Déjala—let her go.’” The fisherman looked down at his worn canvas shoes. “If you want it,” he said to the earth beneath his feet. My father called the fisherman “un testigo,” a witness to my promise. Later, I became Father’s only daughter to complete a high school education, and the only one to leave his house unmarried. *Good day
10. In the first paragraph (lines 1-3), Marta speaks to her father in a tone that is best described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) playful earnest mournful callous jubilant 14. Which pair of words best characterizes the behavior of Marta’s father in the country and in the town, respectively? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) talkative . . argumentative sociable . . reserved careless . . dutiful uncomfortable . . fearful confident . . overbearing
15. The fisherman’s words in lines 46-47 serve to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) offer an alternative course of action emphasize the wisdom of his advice undermine the seriousness of the situation qualify his earlier recommendation retract a previous statement
16. The last sentence (lines 49-51) gives the incident significance by indicating that (A) (B) (C) (D) increasing one’s education will improve one’s prospects in life finishing one’s education is difficult if one gets married Marta’s intentions were never acknowledged Marta was able to accomplish her goals despite her father’s opposition (E) Marta kept the promise she had made to her father
Questions 17-24 are based on the following passage.
This passage was adapted from a 1998 book written by a social scientist who is an expert on miscommunication.
11. The reference to “Egypt” (line 6) is intended to suggest which of the following about Marta’s father? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) His lack of a formal education His acceptance of other cultures The breadth of his knowledge The extent of his travels The trivial nature of his reading
12. In context, the word “urgently” (line 17) emphasizes Marta’s (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) regret about the opportunities she has missed eagerness to appear independent suspicion of the fisherman’s motives fear that her father is about to be distracted anxiety over her relationship with her father
13. In context, Marta’s observation in lines 24-26 (“I knew . . . waiting”) conveys a sense of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) outrage disdain skepticism resignation embarrassment
We look to courts to reveal the truth, and often they do. But the United States legal system isn’t designed to uncover truth—at least no directly. It’s about winning. The American legal system is a prime example of trying to solve problems by pitting two sides against each other and letting them slug it out in public. It reflects and reinforces our assumption that truth emerges when two polarized, warring extremes are set against each other. The United States has a long and proud tradition of using the law to bring about social change (in the Civil Rights movement, for example) and exposing wrongdoing (for example, that tobacco companies knew about and concealed the link between smoking and lung cancer). We regard the law as a cherished route to truth and justice and it often leads us there. But just as some journalists are expressing concern about developments in their professions, some lawyers are expressing concern about theirs. The District of Columbia Bar and the New York State Courte of Appeals have recommended or adopted codes to curb overly aggressive strategies commonly referred to as “pit bull” or “scorched earth” tactics. Many complaints address abuses of the system. And some are questioning the system itself, especially its adversary character. Lawsuits are adversarial but nature. But the United States system of law is more adversarial than others, and some in the legal profession belies that its adversary structures causes problems at the same time that it attempts to solve them. In August, some friends and I were sitting around a nighttime campfire. Our six-person camping group included one young lawyer. The rest of us were saying that is wrong for layers to defend clients they know to be guilty. The lawyer found this claim offensive. Everyone is entitled to the best possible defense, she argued. This is the basis of the adversary system of law: justice lies in having advocates of
2020 PT 1 | Reading the two sides make their best case. The American adversary system is driven not by a search for truth but by a search for the best defense. Nothing can be more partisan that our legal system, in which facts are uncovered and revealed by lawyers who are advocates for the two parties in dispute. How else could it be? In the German and French systems, fact gathering is controlled by a judge, not by attorneys. The judge does most of the question of witnesses, and the judge’s goal is to determine what happened, as nearly as possible. Such a system surely has its own liabilities, but it provides an illuminating contrast to the goal of attorneys in the adversary system: to manipulate facts to the advantage of their side. A leading critic of the adversary system is Carrie MenkelMeadow, professor of law at Georgetown University. She shows many ways that the adversary system fails to serve us well even if there is no miscarriage of justice. For one thing, it encourages lawyers to overstate claims, puffing up their side to persuade. This gets in the way of the truth coming out. For another, there has been a rash of complaints against attorneys who suppress evidence. This, Menkel-Meadow maintains, is the inevitable result of requiring lawyers to do everything they can to win for their client. Yet another weakness goes to the heart of the system: in many civil disputes there is some right on both sides. In those cases, a winner-take-all result cannot be fair, yet that is the type of resolution the system is designed to seek. Menkel-Meadow illustrates another way the adversary system can obstruct justice. Those who recoil from open conflict—whether because of cultural experience, individual temperament, or simply a realistic appreciating of the toll it takes to be involved in a lawsuit—do not get relief for injustice. Perhaps most important, Menkel-Meadow says, many people who pass through our legal system emerge bitter and angry, and this is dangerous for society, which depends pong the trust of its citizens for the institutions making up that society to work.
20. Which of the following best describes how the young lawyer felt about what “The rest of us were saying” (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Disgusted Embarrassed Vindictive Disillusioned Affronted
21. The word “claim” (line 33) most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) requirement assertion entitlement demand right
22. The passage suggests that compared to the American system, the German and French legal systems would be (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) more likely to resolve disputes expeditiously as likely to entail wrangling over procedure as likely to infringe on the rights of the accused less likely to provide court-appointed counsel less likely to encourage distortion of the facts
23. Line 48 (“to manipulate . . . side”) refer to what the author most likely believes to be (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a universal approach a baffling phenomenon a troubling practice an unorthodox strategy an unanticipated consequence
24. Menkel-Meadow’s argument in lines 68-72 suggests more directly that if the American legal system continues unchanged, then (A) judges will need to take over some of the roles of attorneys (B) lawyers will become more interested in collecting fees that in winning cases (C) numerous citizens will lose confidence in a central social institution (D) advocates for judicial reform will intensify their efforts (E) the German and French system will gain adherents around the world
17. The passage is best described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) an endorsement of strict ethical standards for lawyers an inquiry into the abuses of clients’ trust committed by lawyers a proposal for eliminating needless lawsuits a criticism of the basic structure of the United State legal system a historical account of the development of jurisprudence in the United States
18. The author implies that in an ideal legal system, the primary focus would be on (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) discovery the truth, not winning lawsuits exposing wrongdoing, not seeking retribution avoiding prosecution, not mounting a defense gathering information, not advocating reform marking the best argument, not determining guild
total # of correct answers
total # of wrong answers
19. The reference to the “District of Columbia Bar and the New York State Court of Appeals” (lines 18-19) serves to (A) illustrate attempts to reduce the severity of a problem (B) emphasize the prestige of two powerful legal entities (C) highlight the close ties between the court system and bar associations (D) call into question the integrity of two legal institutions (E) underscore how the quest to win has eclipsed the search for truth.
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