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State Exams 2011


Part A: Communication & Media Theory
1. The contextualization of images in society Contextualization = process of assigning meaning, either linguistic or as a means of interpreting the environment within which an expression or action is executed questions of contextualization: Who, What, Where, How, Why and When e.g. Documentary photography. It is different from fine art prints mainly in its purpose to achieve complete fidelity to its subjects and accuracy in representation. In terms of what the viewer sees, the perception is contained within the context of the activity, event or subject being photographed, rather than that of the photographers vision. In order to understand documentary photography, the images have to be put into context (contextualized) to gain a certain meaning for viewers. If the photograph contains nothing that has any meaning to the viewer, it is not going to communicate with him or her. Content elements are about identification: for the viewer to identify some aspect contained within the picture plane as having some identity or meaning that is outside it, in the viewers own reality. Who:

individual / group representative / aggregate: o photographer is inside or part of, the culture or group that is portrayed o photographer is outside of, or belonging to a different, group than the one that is portrayed o subject is portrayed as being like the audience o subject is portrayed as being unlike or other than the audience typical = subject represents a particular nationality, social or age group, religion, etc. circumstantial = subject is portrayed as a particular event, social situation, or circumstance rather than a person or people universal = subject represents an idea, concept, or aspect of humanity or the human psyche

What: statement about a person or group through an object/objects, objects representing circumstances, objects used as symbols Where: language, clothes and styles, architecture, technology When: historical, seasonal/time of the day, lifetime, suspended, peak time, random time How: contextualization is also about how the images are constructed, where are they located, etc. Example: L&M cigarette advertisements in CZ. In addition to having a photograph of the cigarette packet, there is also usually a proportionally far larger image of a happy, smiling white middle class Americans in a shiny sports car. Or a young couple, the female a blonde, on a lrge and extremely expensive motorcycle. The caption or text reads, in Czech, The taste of America, and underneath in English, We love it. Taking into consideration the context: who is portrayed, where, when and why, and where it is located, we come to conclusion that people who buy these products are buying the ideas of the American culture or society as represented by the cigarettes. It is a relevant property of media images - their role in building complex media messages. Language and images are not employed alone and isolated. Despite the considerable quantity and importance of visual media content, images occur mostly in combination with written or oral texts. Consequently it cannot be sufficient to regard images as purely visual phenomena. Although image and text are essentially separate modalities, they form symbiotic interactions and create coherent and meaningful multimodal messages. Viewers perceive media messages as wholes and not as separate visual and verbal fragments. Furthermore, producers combine different semiotic modes with different functions to create an efficient communication process. Visual literacy, understood as the ability to access, analyze, evaluate and communicate visual messages, cannot be limited to visual skills alone because images are always understood in relation to other modes. Consequently, visual media literacy of media images has to be more than a matter of basic literal comprehension and identification of the depicted visual elements.

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Multimodality is a form of contextualization that occurs within the media message. Other contextual cues are given by the carrier medium, by other media covering the same subjects, as well as by the social context. Images, like verbal text, are always understood relative to their media environments and are thus contextualized by other media content or the medium itself. Every newspaper has, for instance, a certain credibility and quality status for the reader, which in turn influences his judgment about the media content. In this case the features of the carrier medium codetermine the understanding of the content. The important role of contextualization in visual communication requires approaches to visual literacy that go beyond purely text-centered abilities. Although representations at the textual level give viewers clues about both encoding and decoding, media literacy requires more than an analysis and comprehension of messages. It challenges one to reflect on why the messages are produced in a specific form. Media literacy, then, should integrate textual analysis with questions about the production and reception of mass media images with a particular focus on the structure of the mass media including its institutional, cultural, and economic conditions terms of production.

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2. The representation of individuals, groups, objects, concepts and identities through mass perception a) Representation: WHO individual o literal = specifically as an individual o symbolic = person as representative for a concept/idea, culturally anchored or influenced group o social glue: what they have in common? vs. how do they differ? o identification empathy with, like us o alienation otherisation, unlike us, low level of affinity representative / aggregate o subject is portrayed as a representative, a part of a larger context of human identity o photographer is inside or part of, the culture or group that is portrayed o photographer is outside of, or belonging to a different, group than the one that is portrayed o subject is portrayed as being like the audience o subject is portrayed as being unlike or other than the audience typical = subject represents a particular nationality, social or age group, religion, etc. circumstantial = subject is portrayed as a particular event, social situation, or circumstance rather than a person or people universal = subject represents an idea, concept, or aspect of humanity or the human psyche b) Mass Perception Paradigm = set of all possible signs, interpretations, meaning = a complete system which elements define the very structure and content" of knowledge. Syntagm = particular combination of signs Barthes vs. Kuhn Roland Barthes o paradigm = wardrobe, broader category syntagm = particular combination of units within the given paradigm o analyzing approach decomposing o myth emphasis on individual signs Thomas Kuhn o science theories, practices, training methods, and professional organization = pieces of the myth, puzzles to be solved cluster together forming a paradigm o unifying approach synthesis o world-view emphasis on the general meaning and its generation, shift] Paradigm shifts occur when no new puzzles to solves, anomalies arise that can't be answered by using the theoretical basis of the paradigm, and a new group of emerging researchers emerge "familiar things" can be then seen "in revolutionary ways" (e.g. the linguistic shift in humanities research sparked by Saussure prompted a new paradigmatic way of looking at communications) Episteme = how ppl are thinking at the given time based on historical circumstances [Foucault] o = dominant paradigm [Kuhn] o = regime of truth [Barthes]

Example: In the essay Representing the Social on French postwar photography (in the Hall book), the author Peter Hamilton uses the term dominant representational paradigm.He uses the term to define a shared photographic approach that offers a certain vision of the people and events that it documents (76).The author suggests that there are six elements to French photojournalism of this period (universality, historicity; quotidienality, empathy, commonality, monochromacity). He also discerns 10 themes (the street, children/play, the family, love/lovers, Paris, clochards [homeless people], fairs and celebrations, bistrots [popular restaurants], housing, work/craft).

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3. The comparison of theoretical frameworks for the analysis of images: semiotics, discourse analysis, question-answer a) Semiotics = the study of signs, provides a method for analyzing how visual representations convey meaning Saussure foreshadowed semiotics with his study of linguistics Underlying argument behind semiotic approach since all cultural objects convey meaning, and all cultural practices depend on meaning, the must make use of signs In the semiotic approach, not only words and images but objects themselves can function as signifiers in the production of meaning Clothes physical function : to cover and protect; construct meaning evening dress is elegance, tie is formality, jeans is casual. Clothes = signifiers, concepts = signified Basic code is needed to link a particular piece of material (clothes = signifier) to mental concept (formality = signified) The combination of signifier and signified is a sign (Saussure) Descriptive level denotation, second level connotation: o Denotation = the simple basic descriptive level, where consensus is wide and most people would agree on the meaning. o Connotation = the completed signs are being interpreted in terms of wider realms of social ideology the general beliefs, conceptual frameworks and value systems of society. b) Discourse analysis meaning and representation seem to belong irrevocably to the interpretative side of the human and cultural sciences subsequent developments became more concerned with representation as a source for the production of social knowledge Foucault used the word representation in a narrower sense, was concerned with the production of knowledge & power through discourse He was to analyze how human beings understand themselves in our culture, and how our knowledge about the social, the embodied individual and shared meanings comes to be produced in different periods. Was interested in rules and practices that produced meaningful statements and regulated discourse in different historical periods Discourse is a group of statements which provide a language for talking about a way of representing the knowledge about a particular topic at a particular historical moment. Discourse is about the production of knowledge through language. Discourse never consists of one statement, one text, one action or one source The same discourse, characteristic of the way of thinking or the state of knowledge at any one time (the episteme), will appear across a range of texts, and as forms of conduct, at a number of different institutional sites within society Whenever these discursive events refer to the same object, share the same style and support a strategy, a common institutional, administrative or political drift and pattern, then they are said by Foucault to belong to the same discoursive formation In each period discourse produced forms of knowledge, objects, subjects and practices of knowledge, which differed radically from period to period, with no necessary continuity between them Foucault argued that not only is knowledge always a form of power, but power is implicated in the questions of whether and what circumstances knowledge is to be applied or not. This question of the application and effectiveness of power/knowledge was more important, he thought, than the question of its truth c) Question/Answer Socratic method Open-endede questions research on perceptions of the audience evaluation

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4. Triangulation in communication research Triangulation = a metaphor for research strategies that employ different methods, theories, or data sources in order to capture social reality in a comprehensive manner, reflecting appropriately the multifaceted nature of social objects While all research approaches in themselves have certain shortcomings, a combination of several approaches may compensate for one another's weaknesses and provide a more complete picture The term triangulation originally comes from geodesy and refers to a procedure that uses the known distance between two points in order to determine the unknown distance to a third point Weaknesses in one mode of analysis can be compensated for by using it in conjunction with another Triangulation enhances reliability (vs. watch out for validity, too) Kellner o o o (2002) make sure to asses: text audience production = political economy

Denzin (1989) expands the idea of triangulation to four research strategies: triangulation with data, methods, theories, and investigators:

Data triangulation involves using several data sources that vary in time, space, and persons. For example, to investigate the role of Television for the cohesion of a social group, it may be useful to interview different kinds of social groups like families, college students, and childless couples. Here, the research objects differ, but the method is the same. Observing the same individuals in different situations, e.g. watching them use their mobile phones at home or on public transport, is another example of data triangulation Investigator triangulation involves multiple researchers in an investigation Theory triangulation involves using more than one theoretical scheme in the interpretation of the phenomenon Methodological triangulation involves using more than one method to gather data, such as interviews, observations, questionnaires, and documents most common application of tringulation

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5. Types of communication research that foreground a) text b) production c) audience Text text analysis, corpus analysis, stylistics Production visual analysis, content analysis Audience conversation analysis, argumentation/attribution, critical discourse, ethnography, interview/focus groups, cognitive analysis, cross-cultural Even though some of these can belong to several categories. a) Conversation analysis Systematic analysis of varieties of natural talk (including media talk) involving 2-4 participants Focus on strategies for initiating, maintaining and repairing communication Uses audio/video plus transcript Today - closely linked to discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, psychology of communication etc. Focus on spontaneous interpersonal communication not media talk (e.g. interviews) Emphasis on sequences of talk not argumentation/rhetoric Non-cognitivist (not concerned with mental states of participants) Knowledge required for successful talk: background world knowledge (factual, cultural, etc.), interactional knowledge (sequencing, turns, etc.), how VC and NVC interact, systemic knowledge (grammar, phonology, etc.), lexical knowledge (words and their limitations, idiom, collocation, proverbs, metaphor, etc.) Weaknesses: Isolated conversations cant be used as a basis for generalization about talk. Researchers interpretation is subjective. CA avoids engagement with data from wider contexts (e.g. socio-cultural factors) some (e.g. Billig) say CA is politically nave and over-optimistic. CA cant be used to analyze extreme conflict or highly unequal power relations. CA avoids consideration of argumentation and cognition.

b) Visual analysis Key approaches: sociological theories, the auteur, semiotics. Material for analysis: fine art, commercial art, film tv, fashion and adornment, typography (verbal text as visual artifact) Auteur theory o Emphasis on the texts author (artist, film director, writer, composer, etc.) o Explores biographical factors that contribute to the text (e.g.???) o Looks for signature style of the auteur (images, metaphors, themes, characters), seeks to explain it o Emphasizes the individuality, uniqueness of the auteurs work.

Strengths

Weaknesses

The uniqueness of an auteurs craft is given full recognition. People are often interested in the lives of artists, what motivates them to express themselves. If the auteur is famous, there is often rich data to draw on, though it may be difficult to do anything new. The text (film, painting, etc.) can be used as important empirical evidence for your theories.

Auteur theory is over-focused on the individual and notions of genius. It ignores the role played by other contributors to a text It ignores the role played by social/economic/contextual factors It ignores the audience It suggests that the auteur is fully in control of the meaning and interpretation of a text.

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c) Semiotics Focus on meaning generated by text not auteur Text is autonomous of the auteur (it lives independently) But may not be autonomous re. other texts (INTERTEXTUALITY) May also ignore social/economic/contextual factors Interpretation is in the hands of the individual audience member Helps us work with (/ostranenie), the process of making the familiar strange, and the strange familiar see Russian Formalism Problems with semiotic analysis: Ignores the authors intentions! Difficult to do well A lot of jargon and theory pretentious? Can be reductionist (strips text down and fits it into a paradigm) e.g. see Vladimir Propp (Russian formalist) on fairytales Ignores aesthetic and affective (emotional) values Stress on HOW? but not WHY? A good visual analysis can combine all three: The auteur (artists, film directors and their vision) relevant biographical info, but be careful of peoples agendas!!! The context we need to know what is happening in the society at the time. The text we shouldnt be afraid of exploring different meanings generated in different cultures/time periods, etc.

d) Argumentation theory = a framework for analysing logical strategies used by opposing sides in a debate/argument Argumentation is a verbal and social activity of reason aimed at increasing (or decreasing) the acceptability of a controversial standpoint for the listener or reader, by putting forward a constellation of propositions intended to justify (or refute) the standpoint before a rational judge (Van Eemeren et al, 1996). Why is it useful: for analysis of arguments used, e.g. in political communication, public relations, interpersonal communication, group behaviour, etc. Integral part of any communication analysis To make us better at reasoning and argumentation in our own work and lives To develop our critical thinking, ability to evaluate situations and people Focus of analysis: Typical strategies used in varying situations o arguments and premises used to persuade people to buy insurance/cosmetics/alcohol, etc. Typical strategies used by individuals/groups o arguments and premises used by political parties to persuade voters to support a policy Strategies in argumentation: Reasoning Assembling empirical evidence Reinforcing or changing existing premises/assumptions Establishing burden of proof Avoiding or hiding logical fallacies in own arguments, locating them in opponents Anticipating and undermining rebuttal Social relevance of argumentation theory: Drawing on Immanuel Kant, it is a universal moral principle to uphold the dialogic rights of others. Argumentation is a dialogic process. Violence is non-dialogic and in Kantian terms is morally and logically illegitimate

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e) Attribution theory = e.g. when a football team wins, supporters say we won. But when the team loses, the supporters say they lost Notion that we seek explanations for our/ other peoples behaviour either in terms of dispositional (internal) or situational (external) attributes Locus of Control. how texts (such as reports or descriptive accounts), so-called factual material, may operate at a deeper psychological level as people try to remember events or establish causal relationships between X and Y People often describe and attribute at the same time, sometimes unconsciously

Fritz Heider (1896-1988) - attribution theory is a three-step process in which people (audiences) have (1) a perception of the action (2) a judgment of the actors intention (3) an attribution of disposition. AT helps us understand how people attribute failure or success to their own abilities, motivation, effort to the abilities of others (like teachers, coursebooks) to the difficulty of the exam, standard of school to factors such as the time of day, weather, biorhythms, horoscope, etc. Practical implications of Attribution Theory If you want to change peoples behaviour, youre more likely to be successful if you convince them that they did it themselves People tend to make self serving attributions or those that minimize cognitive dissonance, e.g.?? We often deflect blame away from ourselves and onto other people or factors. e.g. A teacher wants students to do better at statistics exams. She can tell them a) You really need to work harder (persuasion) b) Youre really working hard at this subject. Well done (positive attribution) c) Youre pretty useless at statistics arent you? (negative attribution, reproach) d) I need to find another teaching method (self-reproach) A student who thinks: I must work harder because otherwise Ill have to repeat the course (external attribution - threat) or I must work harder then daddy will buy me a BMW (external reward) or Statistics is stupid (deflection/avoidance) is LESS likely to succeed than the one who thinks Im going to pass this course because I CAN do it (internal attribution)

f) Critical discourse analysis A set of methods or research programme for describing and analysing communication (visual and verbal) Discourse is: strictly speaking, text that is longer than one sentence. This enables us to look at the social context in which communication occurs. CDA starts from a Habermasian position. In an ideal world, all of us need maximum access to all possible truths and have perfect freedom to debate and discuss with all other individuals who are similarly informed. True democracy. In the current world, access and knowledge are limited (by governments, media, large companies, economic differences, etc.) CDA is about uncovering limits to access. How is it useful: People communicate pragmatically so we need to understand how texts and audiences fit together Analysis of discourse helps us find ideological messages that may be hidden in texts We see how discourse drives, and is driven by social change, text is never neutral It also allows us to study change over time It is very broad and flexible and practical

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Why is it useful in research for communication: to understand psychological and social processes underlying what people say and write To be aware of all the assumptions we make in communication It works well with other analytical tools which can help triangulate data We learn to see what is happening in a text at different levels of meaning (semiosis) Its good for critical thinking in general, it sharpens the brain

What does CDA analyze: Naturally-occurring language, e.g. news reports, court proceedings, speeches, conversations, advertising and PR messages Intertextual relations how we borrow language and concepts from other areas of social life, e.g. ?? How power relationships are negotiated and maintained in everyday interactions, e.g. ??? Multimodality the interaction of text with pictures, e.g. in news broadcasts, advertisements

g) Ethnography 20th century anthropology Work of Malinowski, Mead, Leach, etc. Studied ethnic and social groups in situ (fieldwork) unlike earlier anthropologists Studies are non-judgmental Inferences about a whole culture on basis of observation of individual and group behaviour Features: fieldwork long-term observation holistic partial or full integration of researcher into social group as part of the story inductive (not deductive) data leads to theory non-hierarchical quantitative and qualitative decisions by researcher transparent at all levels ethnography is really quite an arrogant enterprise (Agar, p. 14, 91) 3 requirements of ethnography: Must be empirical Must be open to elements that cant be codified at the time of study so it should be messy, like people! Its embedded in a field that is limited in time and space (Ricoeur, 1984), but can be a basis for larger generalization (e.g. Levi-Strauss) Typical Uses of data collection methods: Transcribed focus group discussions Interviews with key actors Self-reporting by key actors Personal biographies of key actors Participant observation recorded Field notes External data (from other sources) ethnography: Studying complex social behaviours and/or organizations Studying large groups of people Identifying patterns and structures Understanding why things happen not just what happens Understanding relationships between people and the social groups they interact with

Critical value of ethnography: Challenging popular myths and stereotypes, and popular science Challenging the fundamental attribution error

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h) Content analysis A quantitative means of studying the content of texts. Compare with semiotics or CDA which are qualitative methods. What is it used for: Examining the occurrence of specific themes, topics in large amounts of media text, showing trends over time To establish how news, drama, ads etc. reflect social and cultural values, or how a topic is covered by media To find out the degree to which media are a mirror of society What is measured: Frequency of occurrence of an item Column inches in newspapers, broadcast airtime Number of references to something Occurrence of keywords in texts Co-occurrence of words How is typical content analysis done: Researcher identifies research problem e.g. references to food in the New York Times Sets parameters (e.g. every Wednesday issue of the Times from 1980-2000) Constructs coding schedule to document data (e.g. the type of reference verbal and/or visual? and on which page) Checks reliability (eliminate skewing how?) and discusses data

Problems with content analysis: You might choose something only because it can be counted, not because it is meaningful, e.g. why would anyone want to count people in ads who have red curly hair? Ignores audience perception, alternative readings, etc. Highly labour-intensive, though software, CD-ROM and internet archives help Criticized for being positivistic, not interpretative Quantity doesnt tell us about quality, e.g. many women on the pages of Blesk, but in what context?? How it might be useful: In conjunction with qualitative analysis, e.g.: o semiotic study o ethnography o participant observation

i) Interviews and focus groups Focus groups, Interview, Questionnaires Interview planning: 1. Identify purpose of your project and why you need to do interviews 2. Identify the types of data you need to obtain (to answer your research Qs) 3. Turn your aims into questions 4. Do a pilot interview (practice run) 5. Select participants and create coding system for responses Interview question types: Fixed-alternative (yes/no; agree/disagree/dont know, etc.) Scaled (degrees of agreement/disagreement, e.g. Likert scale or ranking) Open-ended (no restrictions on reply) May be a combination of all the above. Interviewing techniques: Avoid jargon ask clear, short questions Start with easy, uncontroversial Qs Group Qs by topic then go from general to specific Remember open Qs give you depth but may be difficult to analyse Do not bore or tire your subjects keep it short and simple

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Focus groups: At the extreme qualitative end of the Q-Q continuum Usually face to face but can be by phone or online Sometimes overrated by social scientists (its currently trendy) Requires skilful handling and analysis Focus groups uses: Market and political research to get a sense of the public mood surrounding an issue To get a multidimensional perspective of an issue that tends to be seen one-dimensionally Focus groups techniques: Not too many, not too few participants Managed by a moderator Participants should be relaxed and unstressed Participants act freely with each other and with the moderator, within a designated framework Kruegers (1994) suggestions for analysis: Consider the words of the participants Consider the context of each comment (is it based on a prompted example, etc.) Consider the internal consistency Consider the frequency or extensiveness of comments Consider the intensity of the comments Consider the specificity of responses (give them more weight than vague, impersonal responses) Find the big issues Ethics: Participation should be voluntary Participants are required to give informed consent i.e. they know the purpose of the research, and understand any risks, benefits etc. No information given should compromise the participant in any way (P identity may need protecting with a pseudonym)

j) Text analysis Cultural approach to communication, using semiotic to analyze the text DECONSTRUCTION, to look at all signifiers in a text/image and make judgements about what they signify Visual features (typography, font, size, layout, color, use o pictures, diagrams) Grammatical variables (e.g. active, passive) Lexical variables (word choice) Euphemism (a substitution with an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the receiver) Cause/effect (responsibility; e.g. the vase was broken; the visitor broke the vase) Modality (degree of certainty, truth value; e.g. the use of word I think, sometimes, maybe) Autority (the students say the figur was provoked by police, the police say the students started the figur) Genre Presupposition (assumed knowledge, what doesnt need to be said) Anchorage (meaning emerges from link between text and picture)

k) Corpus analysis A databank of text (usually very large, maybe hundreds of millions of words) that is accessible for analysis Some corpora reside with universities or publishers e.g. British National Corpus, Bank of English, Brown Corpus of American English Types of corpora: General databank from large range of sources e.g. newspaper text, novels, conversations, speeches Specialized text of one particular type e.g. conversations Some are filtered (spoken/written, male/female) Google and other search engines work on a corpus principle (it treats the Web as a corpus)

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What do you do with a corpus: A software program (like WordSmith) can do things like: Frequency counts (how often a word is used) Collocation (what words often occur together) How different one corpus is from another Average length of words/sentences Differences in style (e.g. male/female usage) Why?

You can get information about words that ordinary dictionaries dont provide how? You can find out how language changes over time (compare an old corpus with a new one) You can find out whether a specific person uses language in a unique way, or typical features of their speaking/writing (forensics) often used as an initial stage in research to find patterns and interesting features in a large amount of text A concordancer (software program) picks up features that you might not notice as a reader (especially in large texts)

l) Stylistics stylistics, the study of style, can be defined as the analysis of distinctive expression in language and the description of its purpose and effect (Verdonk, 2002) So it is the study of creativity in any communication that involves language What is studies: Traditionally, stylistics focuses on literary text, e.g. poetry and fiction. Recently, stylistic studies have been made of non-literary genres, e.g. advertising campaigns Themes in stylistic: Point of view who tells the story? (1st person, 3rd person, omniscient narrator, etc.) How reliable is their account? Who might be unreliable or biased? How is p.o.v. negotiated between a reader and a writer? Cognitive stylistics connected with mental schemata, e.g. metaphor and thought processes (see next slides) how we construct meaning Metaphors Foregrounding the psychological effect on the hearer/reader of deviation and parallelism

m) Cross-cultural analysis CCA is the comparative study of forms of behaviour in specific social or ethnic groups. Typical purpose: to discover if/how behaviour and identity are connected. Types of analysis: Inter-cultural analysis A-B, A-BCD etc. Intra-cultural analysis A-A ...where A is the researcher: Cultural phenomenon in country A as seen by researcher in country B Cultural phenomenon in social group D as seen by researcher from social group E Cultural phenomenon in time F as seen by researcher living in time G Cultural phenomenon in language H as seen by researcher speaking language I with H as second language Research problems: Over-generalization with minimum or poor data Explicit or implicit cultural bias Interference from own cultural assumptions Translation difficulty of explaining one culture in the language of another CCA with diachronic study: The study of phenomena as they change over time (dia=through, chronos=time) Contrasts with synchronic study which analyses phenomena at a specific moment in time (like a snapshot) What can we do with a diachronic study? Analyse a phenomenon between Time X and Time Y. o e.g. English archaic thy shifted to modern your o e.g. disappearance of the guttural /ch/ (like chodit in CZ) in night and ought Measure the degree of change at different points in the period, as well as across the whole period Using other tools of analysis, we can speculate on factors that may have influenced the change

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Uses of diachronic CCA: Also complex socio-historical phenomena such as Conceptual shifts (e.g. the meaning of sin) over time Shifts in media representation (e.g. ads for cigarettes) Shifts in discourse style, e.g. journalistic styles Older texts (such as the Bible) and their interpretation past and present Shifts in conceptions of truth and reality (see Foucault) Summary a good CCA: Avoids generalization without empirical evidence Is sceptical of stereotyping Avoids cultural arrogance Is reflective, conscious of researcher bias Is committed to improving cross-cultural understanding through knowledge and inquiry

n) Cognitive analysis The study of mental processes and structures The impact of these processes on communication acts and texts Cognition relates to the act of knowing

Key questions in cognitive study and communication: Language acquisition how do people learn languages? How do children internalize linguistic rules? How do people make and negotiate meanings in everyday life (e.g. visual, verbal signs)? How do people exercise power or manipulate others (propaganda, persuasion)? How can people be induced to change their behaviour, attitudes, even values?

Strengths Helps to account for irrational, nonverbal or unconscious processes in communication Uncovering them enables us to understand why human behaviour is complex and hard to predict Can be used with ethnographic techniques Some behaviours can be laboratory tested, but Recognizes that the individual plays a role in making meaning

Weaknesses Its hard to measure cognitive behaviour wheres the evidence? We still dont really understand the brain Subjects find it hard to self-report, they tell lies or obfuscate why? Emphasis on cognition may remove attention away from social/cultural/historical influences on behaviour

Freudian influences: Interest in relationship between conscious and unconscious behaviour Mental processes seen as indicators of truth rather than behavioural ones Interest in dreams, language mistakes as indicators of anxiety and trauma (parapraxis, the Freudian slip) Use of catharsis to induce patients to confront source of trauma counselling technique Work on mass psychology Problems with Freud analysis: Theories not scientifically testable Overlooks role of the environment Subjects of study usually neurotic, wealthy, 19th century European females Over-emphasis on sex (libido) as dominant driving force Deterministic suggests theres no free will

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Useful applications of cognitive study: To examine the causes of extreme forms of behaviour (death instinct? Oedipal complex?) To explain cases of mass insanity e.g. genocide, witch hunts, cults, etc. Or why people collaborate with such acts To be able to anticipate the potential effects of a message on consumer, voters, etc.

Examples of cognitive research in communication: Emotional factors in persuasion (affect) Connection between metaphor and cognition (e.g. life is a journey) Importance of schema (prototypes) in constructing meaning The construction of argumentation Relationship between propaganda and cognitive processes

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6. The Gramscian concept of hegemony Antonio Gramsci, an Italian (1891-1937), was a leading Marxist thinker. He rejected economism, insisting on the independence of ideology from economic determinism. Gramsci also rejected crude materialism, offering a humanist version of Marxism which focused on human subjectivity. As a Marxist in Mussolini's Italy, Gramsci spent much of his life in prison. There, he theorized as to why Italians didn't overthrow the oppressive regime. Drawing upon Marxism, Gramsci conceptualized the theory of hegemony, which posits that oppressive regimes are able to stay in power through a combination of coercion and consent with an emphasis on consent. That is, people must be taught to consent to everyday life behaviors and practices that keep the powerful people in power. Gramsci used the term hegemony to denote the predominance of one social class over others (e.g. bourgeois hegemony). This represents not only political and economic control, but also the ability of the dominant class to project its own way of seeing the world so that those who are subordinated by it accept it as 'common sense' and 'natural'. Commentators stress that this involves willing and active consent. Common sense, suggests Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, is 'the way a subordinate class lives its subordination'. Gramsci emphasizes struggle. He noted that 'common sense is not something rigid and immobile, but is continually transforming itself'. Fiske puts it, 'Consent must be constantly won and rewon, for people's material social experience constantly reminds them of the disadvantages of subordination and thus poses a threat to the dominant class. Hegemony posits a constant contradiction between ideology and the social experience of the subordinate that makes this interface into an inevitable site of ideological struggle (Fiske, 1992). References to the mass media in terms of an ideological 'site of struggle' are recurrent in the commentaries of those influenced by this perspective. Gramsci's stance involved a rejection of economism since it saw a struggle for ideological hegemony as a primary factor in radical change. According to Gramsci's theory of hegemony, these systems of power cannot be maintained by force alone. People have to do things, willingly and happily, in their everyday lives that keep the powerful people on top. Coercion alone does not work. If the President of the United States threatened to put to death Americans who did not hang flags from their homes, that president would be overthrown. However, plenty of Americans hang flags from their homes willingly and happily, and this is an everyday behavior that helps the government remain in power. Everyday behaviors that keep governments in power: People hanging flags from their homes People rising and removing their hats when the national anthem is sung People celebrating a country's independence day with parades and picnics Everyday behaviors that keep corporations in power: People wearing designer clothing People shopping at chains instead of local stores Schools serving fast food in cafeterias Women displaying huge diamond engagement rings. People celebrating days that have been manufactured by Hallmark, like Grandparent's Day Everyday behaviors that keep patriarchy in power: Women taking their husbands' last names. Fathers "giving away" their daughters during wedding ceremonies. The use of words such as "man" as gender neutral. Hegemony and the Media Gramsci believed the media have always had a key role in teaching people to do things in their everyday lives that support the power structures. In media studies today, people look at how the media support power structures such as government, capitalism/corporations, and patriarchy. For example: A news report that shows strong support for a controversial foreign policy decision can be said to hegemonically support the government. A home improvement network that makes it seem "normal" to own high-end granite counter tops and stainless steel appliances can be said to be hegemonically supporting the capitalist economic system. A game show that shows scantily-clad women passively standing still until the host tells her to "open the case" can be seen as hegemonically promoting patriarchy Media can also be seen as being counterhegemonic. An episode of a sitcom that questions traditional women's roles, for example, might be seen as counterhegemonic. So might a documentary that questions the government's involvement in a war.

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7. Representations of power through language What is it all about? One obvious feature of how language operates in social interactions is its relationship with power, both influential and instrumental. Neither rule nor law, neither discipline nor hierarchy sanctions influential power. It inclines us or makes us want to behave in certain ways or adopt opinions or attitudes, without obvious force. It operates in such social phenomena as advertising, culture and the media. Instrumental power is explicit power of the sort imposed by the state, by its laws and conventions or by the organizations for which we work. It operates in business, education and various kinds of management. (In many, but not all cases, if we resist instrumental power, we will be subject to some penalty or in trouble.) a) Persuasive techniques in language You may think of these primarily as devices in poetry, but they abound, consciously or unintended, in almost all spoken and many written texts, as when political reporters talk of a "raft" of measures. Mixed metaphor or simile Careless speakers or writers may mix metaphors inadvertently, but some authors do it intentionally. Even Shakespeare does this, as when Hamlet proposes "to take arms against a sea of troubles" - presumably both the playwright and the Prince realize that this is a strange action. The audience sees it as a metaphor of an impossible struggle. In other contexts it may come from the attempt to compare or relate things others have said. Extended metaphor In rhetoric, a speaker may return to or develop a metaphor, to make an argument seem more compelling. In John F. Kennedy's 1961 Inaugural Address to the American people, we find an extended metaphor of lighting a fire to give light to the world:"The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world." Allusion Another powerful technique is to refer to, or even quote, a powerful phrase that the audience may already know. There is some risk in this, as the author needs to be sure that enough of the audience will be aware of the allusion or reference, unless the quoted phrase works well even if its origin is not known. In the lines quoted above, Kennedy seems to allude to the image, in St. John's gospel, of Jesus as "the light of the world". In commenting on language data, you may find it hard to detect allusion - in a way it is almost impossible unless you know what it is to which the speaker or writer alludes. On the other hand, there are many contemporary texts in which a young person has more chance of detecting a reference than an older one. Lists of three Three-part structures and lists are memorable and resonant in many kinds of text. Here are some examples: The grandest of these ideals is an unfolding American promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. George W. Bush, Inaugural Address, 2001 Lists of three are not so common in unprepared speaking, but you should look out for them in any language data you have to study. Repetition A useful rhetorical device is to repeat a key idea or phrase - this may seem crude, but it may lodge in the minds of the audience. We see it in a speech made by Harold Wilson, during the 1974 UK General Election campaign: "This election is not about the miners; not about the militants; not about the power of the unions..." Puzzled or redundant questions If you wish to make a statement, it may be a good idea to ask a question or series of questions to introduce it. This is a common technique in information leaflets, which often pose the question from the reader's viewpoint - "How can I protect my baby from common infections?" and so on. It can also be powerful in political rhetoric - "How can a Labour government raise standards in education?" leading to an exposition of the party's policy. Alliteration Using the same initial consonant is a common ploy of poets and advertisers. In George W. Bush's inaugural speech we note "faith in freedom" and "rock in a raging sea". Winston Churchill, in his speech about the Luftwaffe addresses the Nazi leaders and refers to the Nazi party as "the grisly gang who work your wicked will". Wordplay You can create some good effects by using similar words but with slight differences of form and meaning. Andy Bodle in a listings article for the film Rancid Aluminium does this by describing the film as "part arthouse, part shithouse.

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b) Parallelism Many writers, especially those who write for public speaking, will divide a sentence or clause into two balanced parts. Synonymous parallelism We see this in some lines from George W. Bush's Inaugural Address, where he refers to US history as: ...the story of a power that went into the world to protect but not possess, | to defend but not to conquer." In this example the thought of "to protect but not possess", is carried further by "to defend but not to conquer". In speaking these lines, there will be a pause after "possess". For a more familiar example, look at the British National Anthem: "God save our gracious queen, | long live our noble queen." Antithetic parallelism or antithesis The first example comes from a speech of Winston Churchill, in which he challenges the Luftwaffe (the German air force): "You do your worst - and we will do our best". A celebrated example comes from Kennedy's Inaugural Address: "And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. | Ask what you can do for your country." Influential power - Advertising Broadly speaking, advertisers persuade their audience to adopt attitudes to lifestyle, products and services. It is rare to find advertising that seeks to influence explicitly or directly. Less rare are advertisements in which the link to a product or service is implicit or ambiguous. Advertising has a lexicon, which may change over time, but is fairly stable - new, improved, proven and other qualifiers are seen as reliable. David Ogilvy in Confessions of an Advertising Man identifies a basic lexicon of qualifiers such as: new, good, crisp, better, fresh, natural, fine, free, and of verbs such as: buy, give, taste, go, look, feel and use. Special registers (technical, scientific or pseudo-scientific) may be used for appropriate products. Torque, BHP, valve, ABS for cars or keramides, pro-B, hypoallergenic in personal hygiene products. Look out for special lexical uses according to product, image and target market. "Pot Noodle - everything else is just pants". Pants is (or was in 2000) fashionable as a mild term of disapproval among young people (especially young men) who may be supposed to want food which is inexpensive, quick to make, and needs no special preparation or utensils. Advertising borrows and adapts structures and forms from texts of all kinds. Many broadcast advertisements are dramatic, with a narrative conducted through dialogue. Others may show a narrative by images alone, to the accompaniment of music and/or a voiceover. Can you think of examples? Puns, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme and other kinds of comic or poetic wordplay are common in advertising. Ambiguity, irony and allusion (reference) are also powerful techniques. Advertising and special lexis Advertising often makes use of short texts - whether in print or broadcast media - where every word has to work hard (in this respect very much like poetry). It is very common for the advertiser to use words that belong to some other special lexicon, as if to establish a rapport with the target audience. It is very easy to find special lexis in any advertisement. But in explaining how it works, you will need to think about how far the copywriter is using a particular register, or feature of style, which in turn is related to the product brand and image, and the attitudes or values of the audience.

The British Airways Sale. Go on. Take off. (Reduced-price flights/British Airways) Move Mountains. (Sim City 4 PC/Dixons) Every year 39,200 women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer. (Medical insurance/AXA PPP healthcare) Go Mobile. (Voyager laptop computer/Evesham Technology) A win, win, win, win, win, win situation. (6 months' free business banking/Barclays) Lose weight, the healthy herbal way. (Weight Loss Aid/Herbal Concepts) Always on call. (Day & Night Nurse) Technology with style. (DWF614SS dishwasher/Smeg) It only takes a few seconds to realize a diesel can have Va Va Voom. (Renault Clio) Kurt Geiger for her. Paul Smith for him. Tax-free prices for you. (Airport shopping/BAA) Authentically French mellow cheese. (Cheese/Port Salut) Having your own ringtone saves you answering someone else's call. (Call Sign/BT)

The advertisement for BAA's Airport shopping works in a similar way: it refers to the low (tax-free) prices, yet targets its audience very precisely by naming the fashionable brands on sale - if we do not know what Kurt Geiger or Paul Smith makes, then the advert will pass us by. There is also an assumption that the brands appeal to the different sexes, which works in that the writer of this guide recognizes Paul Smith as a designer of formal clothes, but does not know Kurt Geiger (the advertisement also has a three-part structure to point up the special lexis).

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Grammar and advertising Does advertising have distinctive grammar? Yes - in several ways. First, advertising, like poetry, often allows the author more license to depart from standard forms than in other kinds of text. And second, it makes use of short forms, of what Professor Crystal calls minor sentences. There is a connection with pragmatics, therefore, in that the advertiser makes very great assumptions about the audience. It is acceptable to puzzle or intrigue in ways that would not be at all appropriate if the audience really depended on the advertisers' information. One very common technique is for the author to set nouns and noun phrases or verbs on their own, where the reader or listener supplies the missing elements by conjecture - rather as in interpreting notes, so that, for instance, "does what it says on the tin" is understood as "this product meets the claims that are printed on the side of the tin". This form may sometimes but not always resemble the forms used in headlines, so that it is especially suitable for adverts in newspapers. Here are some examples taken more or less at random from a trawl through some daily newspapers (January 2003):

Happy New Rate Deals to remember Currys sale/Free delivery plus Buy now pay 2004 EMAIL, INTERNET & TEXT MESSAGES Winter welcome Free servicing for 3 years Summer seats on sale new year new fares The confidence to succeed Precious metal for precious little

On their own, these do not tell you how typical they are. A casual mental count suggests that, in these newspapers, the advertisements in which the first line (or text nearest the top of the display box) is not a grammatically complete structure (sentence or main clause) outnumber those that are complete in a proportion of at least three to one. But a more complete survey from a bigger sample would be a suitable task for research. Among the few complete structures are:

I want extra MONEY Apply now How do you see yourself? Look at the clues Travel with Eurotunnel from just 5

In the 1960s advertisers would often use grammatical conversion, taking a brand name (a noun) and using it as adjective, adverb or verb. This tendency has recently returned as in these examples:

That's so Suzuki How refreshing, how Heineken

Semantics and advertising Advertisers, therefore, often exploit the possibilities of connotation (suggested meaning) rather than strict denotation (stated meaning) and imply that products have various merits, without saying so explicitly. One common way of doing so is to use pseudo-technical lexis or scientific names for everyday things. However, this is not desirable in all contexts. In cosmetic and pharmacological products, most advertisers will use scientific lexis to suggest efficacy, as in these examples: "Perle de Caviar draws the essential elements of long-lasting beauty and a youthful complexion from the depths of the ocean...trace elements, amino acids, mineral salts, iodine and plankton. Combining a perfect balance of these precious elements, each Perle de Caviar product provides an intense thalassotherapy treatment designed to hydrate and regenerate." "one simple tablet helps safeguard your diet with botanicals, natural caratenoids, vitamins and essential trace minerals...Advance your beauty regime with Perfectil - because true radiance starts from within." "Regime" elevates the use of cosmetics to something complex, while the symbol suggests that there is something technically sophisticated in the product. It may really simply denote the registration of the trade name to protect against misuse.

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Influential Power - Politics The features of political language vary, as do its purposes. Where politicians interact with society generally, their purposes may be, to persuade voters with a party loyalty to turn out to vote; to move a floating voter's party allegiance, or to make us adopt general political or social attitudes, so we support a given policy. Politicians may also use particular language forms when answering journalists' questions. Where politicians engage in language interactions with other politicians, they may use other particular forms - either loosely or under the rule of an arbiter, such as the Speakers in the UK House of Commons and the US House of Representatives. And finally, a contemporary feature of political language use is what is known as "spin" - providing information to the media in such a way as to favour a desired interpretation, not explicitly stated. Political rhetoric Persuasive language techniques, especially in speech, take their name from the Greek noun for a professional speaker, rhetor (the Latin equivalent is orator). Many of these techniques are found in written records of speeches in the ancient world - such as Jesus' use, in Matthew's and Luke's gospels of parable, antithesis and patterned speech which even survive translation into English: "Blessed are those who mourn, | for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the pure in heart, | for they shall see God." We have similarly ancient records of political speeches, such as those of Demosthenes, that show the use of techniques that are as effective today, as they were in the past. Max Atkinson, of Oxford University, suggests that political speechwriters consistently rely on a range of powerful techniques:

alliteration allusion antithesis (inversion) asking questions and suggesting answers lists (especially of three items) metaphor (especially extended metaphor) parallelism parenthesis repetition redundant questioning (rhetorical question)

The sound bite Short slogans, like those in advertisements, often mark the speech of politicians answering questions from journalists (or their opponents). These are repeated in such a way as to persuade the listener of their truth or reason. For example, in defending policies which apparently increased unemployment in the UK but raised the value of the currency, Mrs. Thatcher coined the phrase: "There is no alternative". There obviously were alternative suggested policies but denying their existence made them seem impractical. Whether or not they were really impractical is not the linguist's concern: we are interested in the linguistic means by which Mrs. Thatcher justified her dismissal of them.

Influential power - Media (broadcast, print, new technologies) You should be aware that certain media texts proclaim and admit these underlying attitudes - opinion columns or current affairs broadcasts explicitly adopt such a stance. But others, such as reporting, may aspire to neutrality, yet display the author's value systems by choices of lexis or current metaphors. For example:

Do we read of refugees, economic migrants or asylum seekers? Are they bogus, and are they passing through open (or about-to-be-open) floodgates? How often do you meet floodgates in a literal, rather than metaphorical sense? Are those who resist the state guerrillas, freedom fighters or terrorists? Does a writer introduce ideas of legality to confer (dis)approval, so "legal" intoxicants (alcohol, tobacco) are distinguished from those that are illegal, and so referred to as drugs.

New media texts may reveal very different attitudes, but in similar ways - they, too, have distinctive lexis and metaphors. Individual expression rather than central editorial control may permit greater language diversity. Perhaps influential power is less monolithic, but appears in trends and fashions. There is plenty of space for critics - the World Wide Web abounds with sites that proclaim why X sucks, where X is a powerful business corporation.

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Lexis and semantics in the media Lexical choices reflect shifts in subjective meaning or connotation or contemporary attitudes, so that they carry a sense of approval (approbation) or disapproval (pejoration). They may also be euphemistic, appearing as an acceptable substitute for some word or phrase that the writer or speaker thinks too strong or direct - as when the inadvertent killing of soldiers by their own allies or compatriots is "friendly fire", and the killing of civilians is "collateral damage". Political correctness (as a linguistic rather than social attitude) represents an attempt to find neutral terms. While PC language is often a subject for ridicule, it arises from a sensitivity to the connotations or implications of more common forms. It is worth paying attention to recurring forms - how often does anyone talk about addressing the issues (in the loose sense of talking about things or sorting them out). Context is very important - some areas of the media will use traditional and quite literary forms to suggest seriousness and dignity, as, say, on Alistair Cooke's Letter from America, broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Presenters of children's programmes on BBC1, BBC2 and CBBC will use forms closer to those of everyday speech among young people - or will they? Perhaps this is generally true, but they will have their own taboos - so they will not normally refer to sex, violence, gambling and alcohol, or swear and blaspheme.

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8. The rhetoric and social construction of class Differences from other types of strata: 1) Classes are not established by legal or religious provisions; membership is not based on inherited position as specified either legally or by custom. Class systems are typically more fluid than the other types of stratification and the boundaries between classes are never clear-cut (but West x e.g. India?). 2) An individuals class is at least in some part achieved. Social mobility is common (again depends where). 3) Classes depend on economic differences between groupings of individuals. 4) Class systems operate mainly through large-scale connections of an impersonal kind. Class o o o Theories: a) Karl Marx Class is a group of people who stand in a common relationship to the means of production the means by which they gain livelihood: capitalists (industrialists) and the working class (proletariat). The relationship between classes is exploitative. Transitional classes class groups left over from an earlier type of production system, such as the peasantry in modern societies. Splits which occur within classes: o Upper class: financial capitalists (bankers) vs. industrial manufacturers o Small businesses vs. large corporations o Long-term unemployed vs. workers. b) Max Weber Sees a greater variety of economic factors as important in class formation economic differences which have nothing directly to do with property, such as types of job people have and the qualifications they possess. Distinguishes two other basic aspects of stratification besides class status and party: o Status is the differences between social groups in the social honor or prestige they are accorded by others. Positively privileged status groups include any groupings of people who have high prestige. Status is governed by the varying styles of life groups follow. Pariah groups are negatively privileged status groups, subject to discrimination that prevents them from taking advantage of opportunities open to most others. o Party is a group of individuals who work together because they have common backgrounds, aims or interests. c) Erik Olin Wright There are three dimensions of control over economic resources in modern capitalist production, and these allow us to identify the major classes which exist: o control over investments or money capital o control over the physical means of production (land, factories, offices etc.) o control over labor power Those who belong to the capitalist class have control over each of these dimensions within the production system. Members of the working class have control over none of them. In between these two main classes, there are groups whose position is more ambiguous. These people are in what Wright calls contradictory class locations because they are able to influence some aspects of production, but are denied control over others. d) Frank Parkin: a Weberian approach Social closure is any process whereby groups try to maintain exclusive control over resources, limiting access to them. o Property is only one form of social closure which can be monopolized by a minority and used as a basis of power over others.

= socio-economic category denoting a group of people, a social stratum sharing a similar position = large-scale grouping of people who share common economic resources, which strongly influence the type of lifestyle they are able to lead. e.g. upper class, middle class, working class etc.

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Two types of processes involved in social closure: o Exclusion refers to strategies that groups adopt to separate outsiders from themselves, preventing them from having access to valued resources. o Usurpation refers to the attempts of the less privileged to acquire resources previously monopolized by others as where blacks struggle to achieve rights of union membership. Both strategies may be used simultaneously in some circumstances. Trade unions, for instance, may engage in usurpatory activities against employers (going on strike to obtain a greater share of the resources of a firm), but at the same time may exclude ethnic minorities from membership dual closure.

Class structure in Western societies: Based on wealth (all assets of individual) and income (wages and salaries) Upper class: their influence stems in part from direct control of industrial and financial capital, and in part from their access to leading positions in the political, educational and cultural spheres: large landowners, financial entrepreneurs, industrialists. Middle class: old middle class (self-employed owners of small businesses, small farmers), upper middle class (holding managerial or professional positions), lower middle class (office staff, sales representatives, teachers, nurses) Working class: upper working class (skilled workers), lower working class (unskilled and semi-skilled workers). Underclass: ethnic majority, underprivileged minorities.

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9. International communication and dependency theory International Communication international communication defined as communication that occurs across international borders has been traditionally concerned with government-to-government information exchanges in which a few powerful states dictated the communication agenda International relations among audience, media & larger social system Communication between cultures & political sciences Dependency Theory Transnational corporation exercise control over developing countries with support of the local elites/govt o How? By setting terms of global trade o production, labor, resources market domination o neo-colonial relationships Predicts that we depend on media information to meet certain needs & achieve certain goals Resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states enriching the latter at the expense of the former It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the "world system" Needs not only personal but also shaped by culture & social conditions The more alternatives individual has for satisfying needs, the less dependent on single medium Example neo-colonial relationship between France and its ex-colonies in Africa (20th century)

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10. The rhetoric and social construction of gender Gender = sex, sexual assignment/role, the cultural & social aspects of being a male/female a social construct that denotes: o a common sort of people o masculinity vs. femininity o range/differences between biological males and females Gender identity = personal sense of maleness/femaleness Gender role = expression of gender identity according to culture/social expectations Sexual orientation = homosexuals, heterosexuals, bisexuals Sexual identity = formed by gender, sexual assignment, gender identity, gender role, sex role & sexual orientation Determines how males/females should think, dress, speak and interact within society

Gender schemata Learning shapes perception of gender roles Embedded cognitive frameworks of what defines masculine/feminine Socializing agents Parents, teachers, peers, media, religion Teach & reinforce gender roles Parents probably the greatest influence Adults treat female/male infants differently Parental approval/culturally accepted to gender expectations (continue to adulthood) At home presumptions about decision making, child rearing practices & financial responsibilities At work presumptions about power, division of labor, organizational structures Gender stereotypes Generalizations about attributes, differences, roles Can be positive/negative but rarely communicate accurate information Female stereotypic role: marry and have children, be loving, caring, nurturing, find time to be sexy & feel beautiful Male stereotypic role: financial provider, assertive, competitive, independent, courageous, career focused, hold emotions in check, always initiate sex

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11. Modernization theory and communication Changing ways of communication & media in traditional & post-modern societies International communication is a key to modernization & development for the 3rd world Used to spread modernity, transform traditional societies One-way flow of information from government to agencies via mass media to peasantry BUT still South still remains in poverty

1st Wave: 1950s - 1960s D. Lerner The Passing of Traditional Society: diffusion of Western style of living, technological innovations & individualistic types of communication as the superiority of materialist, western, individualistic culture, motivation & achievement a) Economical Development o Mass media promote diffusion of technical & social innovations that are essential to modernization b) Literacy & Cultural Development o Mass media can learn literacy, skills & techniques o Encourage state of mind (imagination of alternative way of live beyond the traditional way) c) National Identity Development o Mass media can support national identities & democratic policies o However, these theories were not supported due to pro-western bias & thinking 2nd Wave: 1970s - 1980s Criticizes influence of western modernization Western cultural & economical imperialism & dominance Concerned with Dependency Theory peripheral/developing countries depend on mass media in core/developed/western world 3rd Wave: Traditional society based on direct interaction with people Modern society using mass media & interactive media (even when living next door) Money, symbolic means, English (lingua franca), internet Unification & fragmentation in society & media Rise of new media as an important tool for modern life

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12. Structural imperialism and international communication Structural Imperialism Theory Founded by Johan Galtung World is divided into core (developed, rich, powerful) & periphery (underdeveloped, poor, not so powerful) countries Each country has elites both center & periphery states each possess core and periphery in itself Elites of core countries influence elites from the periphery countries to advance the interest of the rich values of Nortern elites influence values of Southern elites confusing for Southern/periphery states Why? To find the consumers for their products, expand to other markets & make lot of money (easier for elites of the core countries to influence periphery countries than their own countries) Structural Imperialism & International Communication Periphery countries advance interests of the core countries by transmitting their values, lifestyle, beliefs & norms Vertical & Feudal Interaction Vertical: benefits of the flow from core to the periphery countries & other way Feudal: reinforces inequalities periphery receives a lot of information about core but not enough about itself & other periphery countries, resulting in not knowing anything about their neighbors also periphery countries are fed only newsworthy information considered by the core countries

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13. Differences between behavioral, attitudinal, cognitive, and physiological media effects Behavioral performing behavior after seeing it in the media e.g. hairstyles, clothes, violence Attitudinal media representation makes you have an attitude about something belief (intellectual), emotional Cognitive changing what we know or think learning new information Physiological changes in our bodies resulting from media e.g. scary movie increased heart rate, shallow breathing

media effects: Socialization Theory transmission of societal norms during childhood and adolescence within society's three major socializing agencies: family, school & peer groups teaches about the world & role in it media does have an impact of how we make sense of the world represents reality defines boundaries of what is socially acceptable & unacceptable o encounter: we see the situation in the media o identification: we identify with the character seen in the media o reproduction: we copy the characters behavior o reward: the outcome is usually acknowledged Accumulation Theory in order of social change, continuous presentation o the message over time in different contexts influence grows with time the more you repeat the same message in different contexts, the more it gets combined with the dominant ideology (social influence) Social Expectation Theory individual practices are confronted to the practices of others media provide lessons about what constitutes acceptable behavior direct experience outside of direct experience (media, books, conversations, observations)

Cultivation Theory media shapes reality (social reality) media cultivates perceptions of reality world portrayed/framed by the media

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14. The rhetoric and social construction of race Denotes a concept of category of humans sharing distinct physical characteristics (skin color etc.) Attaches biological meaning and socially constructed meaning

Biological Construction Based on work of Judge Tucker There exists a natural, physical divisions (black, white, asian) Determine membership in defined racial group BUT Intra-group differences exceed inter-group differences variations exists within the populations (black, white) than between these populations Social Construction People are bound together by historical, social elements Race is a social phenomenon connection between physical features, races & physical characteristics Connect our faces to our souls Social & political struggle (contradictory) Black, white, asian, latino are social groups, NOT genetically distinct branches of humankind Cycle of Socialization We are born without racist attitudes, values or beliefs Developed through social interaction acquired sets of attitudes, beliefs and values that may contribute to racism Race & Ethnicity are Social Constructs Race divides people into distinct groups based on characteristics such as physical appearance, ancestral heritage (family), cultural connection, cultural history, social, economic & political needs of a society Ethnicity divides people into smaller social groups based on shared sense of group membership, values, behavioral patterns, language, political & economical interests, history, geography (Haitian, Chinese, Cherokee, French) Social Construction of Race 1960s: 3 races 2000: many races and ethnic groups acknowledgement of the concept of ethnicity Even if you personally are not racist Cultural racism attribute value & normality to white/whiteness & devalue, stereotype and label people of color as other, different, less than Institutional racism structures, policies & practices that create advantages & benefits for whites & discrimination , oppression & disadvantage to people of color

White Privilege
The The The The ability (luxury) to be unaware of race ability (luxury) to live & work among people of the same racial group as their own security of not being pulled over by the police for being a suspicious person expectation that they speak for themselves & not for their entire race

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15. Media/technological determinism (Innis /McLuhan et al.) Media Determinism Harold Innis Power of the media and technology to impact society o time-binding media e.g. books, newspapers, set in stone o space-binding more ephemeral, e.g. TV, radio o Internet? both time- & space-binding Technological Determinism Marshall McLuhan Media technology shapes how people think, feel, act & how society operates as we move from one technological age to another depends on senses engaged: o e.g. Radio required us to listen o e.g. Television engages both our hearing & vision the medium is then our message Example: With everyone electronically mailing each other today, there is no longer a need to write a joke down to remember it. You can just forward it to a friend. We also do not communicate with distant friends as over the telephone anymore. We have started to only communicate through the impersonal use of the e-mail system. Ontological assumptions: people will adapt so they can communicate like everyone else Epistemological assumptions: as the medium changes, so does societys way of communicating Axiological assumptions: everyone will act/feel the same no matter what the medium

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16. Technological convergence and consequences for traditional (old) media Technological Convergence = merging of traditional mass media with new media Telecommunications, information technology and the media, sectors that originally operated largely independent of one another, are growing together Technical side: ability of any infrastructure to transport any type of data Functional side: consumers may be able to integrate in a seamless way the functions of computation, entertainment and voice in unique device able to execute a multiplicity of tasks o Many devices in one, ability to access multiple services (mobile phone, camera, mp3) Before e.g. newspaper only one-way communication, today e.g. Internet possibility to use two way communication (opportunity for companies to be more efficient) New ways of entertainment & socialization (e.g. online gaming)

Consequences for traditional media Television remained a strong & persistent popular medium as did the printed press new media dont supplant the old media, but co-exist Ongoing process old and new media fit together & interact Meging industries TNMCs Changing lifestyle change in media consumption, interactivity, public discourse Changing careers more volatile, more diversity in positions Shifting regulations effect on legislation: deregulation, anti-monopolization laws etc.

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17. The political economy of communication Political economy (PE) approach study of social relations (especially power relations) that influence the production, distribution and consumption of resources; how people organise to survive and control the use of resources most commonly used to refer to interdisciplinary studies that draw on economics, law and political science in order to understand how political institutions, the political environment and capitalism influence each other study of control and survivor in the society: o Control = how society organizes itself and adapts to inevitable changes political process because it sharps relationships within community o Survivor = how people produce what they need to keep society going economic process because it involves production and reproduction PE Characteristics: 1) goal is to understand social changes and historical transformation in the past (18/19th century) Adam Smith, David Ricardo, John Stuart Mill tried to explain great capitalist revolution o Karl Marx examining dynamic forces within capitalism in order to understand the process of social change that would lead from capitalism to socialism today: examining social changes is crucial especially when entering the informational era 2) holistic approach examining totality of social relations that make up economic, political, social and cultural areas of life there is a big picture of society that we should try to understand how power and wealth are related and how are these in turn connected in to cultural and social life? HOW ARE THESE INFLUENCED BY OUR SYSTEM OF MASS MEDIA, INFORMATION AND ENTERTAINEMNT??? 3) commitment to moral philosophy cares about values that help to create social behavior and moral principles that ought to guide effort to change it e.g. democracy = call for income equality, access to education, full public participation in cultural production, guaranteed free speech 4) social praxis fundamental unity of thinking and doing intellectual life viewed as means of bringing about social change and social intervention as means of advancing knowledge

Political economy of Communication (PEC) social exchange of meaning whose outcome is the measure or mark for the social relationship here communication = a social production of meaning that constitutes a relationship Founders (first in USA) Dallas Smythe taught a first course of PEC Herbert Schiller follower main focus on the fact that comm. Industry has become integral part of wider corporate order which is both undemocratic and exploitative focus on growth in power and influence of transnational media companies throughout the world European followers it is also connected to social change but it has emphasized class power and fundamental inequalities that continue to divide rich from poor vast expansion and integration of communication industry, its government power and its integration to society from old to new media connected to system of power in society- control over intellectual property, electronic surveillance, significance of network economy McLuhan remains a key figure in the development of political economy of communication, emphasizing the human sensory apparatus, its relation to various values that, for example, oral- and visually-oriented media produce, and to the political and cultural effects that technological transformations entail. nowadays: PEC is a study that focuses on mass media industry structures, emphasizing the effects of ownership on political systems OR it is a study of various moments in what might be called the commodity cycle in mass media: production, distribution, exchange, and consumption propaganda, PR, advertising

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McChesney (2000) identifies two main dimensions in the political economy of communication o First, it addresses the nature of the relationship between media and communication systems on the one hand and the broader social structure of society. In other words, it examines how media and communication systems and content reinforce, challenge or influence existing class and social relations. It does this with a particular interest in how economic factors influence politics and social relations. o Second, the political economy of communication looks specifically at how ownership, support mechanisms (e.g. advertising) and government policies influence media behavior and content. This line of inquiry emphasizes structural factors and the labor process in the production, distribution and consumption of communication.

Recent trend PEC in the current context is about the production of values at the most fundamental levelthe level of consciousnessand the exercise of power on the broadest possible scale: the totality of human beings now joined in a global system of social relations. New media inevitably lead to new political economic formations. New political economic formations are new systems that require new understandings. In respect of management, the new political economies of communication require entirely new understandings that can comprehend the ways in which consciousness is produced; ways in which values are produced; the means by which meanings are moved; and the ways in which these aspects are realized in specific meanings. Opposite view to PEC As it is defined in the mainstream, political economy of communication cannot provide a comprehensive explanation of all communication activity, but it can explain certain issues extremely well and it provides a necessary context for most other research questions in communication. Although the political economy of communication can be applied to the study of precapitalist and post capitalist societies and communication systems, it is primarily concerned with capitalist societies and commercial media systems, as these models dominate across the world (Mosco, 1996). Example: Nazi Germany No political economy of communication can exclude the remarkable efforts of the Nazi Germany propagandists to produce new cultural patterns of evaluation, and therefore new politics, on a massive scale. The paranoid values of eugenics, social Darwinism, and the natural state of an all pervasive competition for survival were propagated throughout Germany, through film; radio; printed materials, and by every means and available to the propagandists, including cultural gatherings, mass marches, stickers, and especially through the spoken and written word. The nations patterns of evaluation were successfully manipulated by the Party, and the rest, as they say, is history. It may seem reductionist and cold to say that Nazi Germany owed its short-lived successes to a sophisticated understanding of political economy of communication, but it is difficult to deny that the regime successfully set out to achieve the production of an entirely new set of values for German people, that its communication strategies were oriented towards the production of those values, and that in achieving its objectives, the Nazi regime produced a literal explosion of activity that moved according to the patterns of evaluation that were produced.

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18. First Amendment/Free Speech values (the marketplace of ideas) 1A is part of Bill of Rights which guarantees freedom of speech as well as freedom of press or even religion o We want great speech to form a debate o Any restriction on free speech is unlawful you have to give competent reasons to explain that restriction prevents a great harm and it cant be accomplished in less restricted way o Reason for free speech is free speech o Banning free speech=slippery road= leads to self-censorship o BUT it is ok to put time, place and manner restriction on speech (eg glorifying racism, extremism) o free speech in democratic society is essential to the marketplace of ideas Free press is referred to as a 4th estate-important institutional role in society Marketplace of ideas = it is crucial for democracy to have full, vigorous and robust debate on matters of public importance in order to enable inform society o The best way to rebut bad ideas is via more speech, not less o Access to information leads to self governance in democratic society Sunlight is a best disinfectant transparency = crucial for democracy

History of 1A British Influence Sedition Libel Law: unlawful to criticize the government regardless if truth or not political control o Prior Restraint: pre-publication censorship Licensing Law: required prior approval of government or church before printing economic control o Deposit Printers: printers had to deposit large amount of money before printing economic & political control over media + chilling effect of British in US colonies Zenger Trial (1734) jailed because of hard criticism of NY governor / UK rule Zenger established that truth matters Truth as a defense no person should be punished for criticism of government which is truthful and fair BUT 1A still seen as just ideas on the paper

Alien and Sedition Act (1798) made in unlawful to make false and scandalous publications against US government, president and congress BUT truth will be scandalous! During WW I & II: Espionage Act (1917) + Sedition Act (1918) it was a crime to speak, print, write, or publish disloyal or profane language that was intended to cause contempt or scorn to government, flag or uniformed army Smith Act (1940) it was a crime to overthrow the government or be part of the group planning to do so concentration on communistic party McCarthyism softened in 1957 (Yattes vs. US) it would have to be a clear call to action to be punishable 5 Theories of 1A Absolutist Theory: no law means no law, there are no exceptions when interfering with free speech, very idealistic theory not really used Ad-Hoc balancing Theory: balance free speech by other societal values it should be figured out in each case whether the restriction is necessary or not: individual rights vs. societal interests; most used Preferred Position Balancing Theory: since free speech is essential to all other rights, when balancing we pressupose that restriction on speech is bad/unlawful/unconstitutional high burden of proof that the given speech is necessary to be stopped Meiklejohn Theory: free speech rights and values are means to successful governance speech leading to better self-governance and democracy deserves absolute protection Access Theory: equality to participate, access for people to speak and publish even if they are not from wealthy part of society origin in 1960s, not really relevant anymore in the Internet era

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Sources of Info Internet vs. Traditional media o Internet highest 1A protection o Traditional media time, place, & manner restrictions; e.g. after 10pm, alcohol & cigarettes, etc. Internet vs. Law o Global vs. local o Virtual vs. territorial o Shield law journalistsdo not have to identify their source Bloggers vs. journalists are bloggers journalists, too? Media Values (ideal) Honesty truth Objectivity unbiased, balanced, fair news Integrity decency viewers need to be skeptical (media literacy!) Recent issues no muckrakers no in-depth investigation info from wires, agencies (parrot journalism) unbalanced reporting journalist self-censor themselves because they want to please political party, or common economic interest people in power seek for controlling power by the control of information control info to serve their interest (e.g. Pentagon NY Times article: Hand in Hand)

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19. Quantitative research methods (Survey, Content Analysis, Field Study Experiment) Quantitative research numerical research often makes research more explicit methods to be used: o hand delivery (+ high response, not anonymous) o mail (+ reach larger public and geographical areas, lower response) o internet (+f ree, not anonymous, extreme response) o interview (+ ppl dont skip Qs, not annonymous) o phone (+ cheap, only certain ppl reply) Use quantitative research methods in market research when: You want to know how many and/or how often You want to profile a target audience by determining what proportion of the audience has certain behaviors, behavioral intentions, attitudes, and knowledge related to the health concern, and whether specific determinants predict behaviors at a statistically significant level Conducting quantitative market research generally involves: Surveying a large group of people (usually several hundred) Using a structured questionnaire that contains predominantly closed-ended, or forced-choice, questions Ethics in doing research: voluntary participation no harm to subject = no stress privacy: anonymity (no way identifying), confidentiality (wont tell private details) deception: lies must be justified and apologized after analysis: be honest, dont ignore outliers (extreme patterns) a) Survey Variables: quality which differs among people/things which can be (theoretically) measured o e.g. variable = gender attributes = male vs. female Need to create the index: various types of questions Each survey and its index must be described in section on methods Likert Scale: good to measure attitudes, opinions, beliefs o Always write statements, no questions o Answers are strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree Behavioral Scale: asks how often they engage in behavior related to the quality you measure o Answers never, rarely, sometimes, often Semantic Differentials: statement followed by 2 opposite answer choice o not at all important 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 very important o Higher number should show more quality o Good in analyzing attitude towards media Behavior Checklist: statement of behavior o Responders mark those that are applicable o More than one answer possible o One point for each item checked o e.g. In the last month, I have: watched religious TV/discussed religion/visited religious monuments/ none of the above Thurman Scale: often used to measure prejudice o Scores assigned increasingly-more points to higher intensity option o e.g. Id feel comfortable with Russian asrelative by marriage/close friend/neighbor/not comfortable Problems with survey: o Double-barrel questions: asking 2 things at the time, should be split into 2 separate Qs o Competent answer: people need to know the answer, need to answer accurately e.g. Do you like the current US president? need to know who he is in the first place o Negatives: too many negatives make it confusing and create misunderstandings e.g. University shouldnt hire professors with less than masters degree o Exhaustive answer choice: should include answer for everyone, include dont know o Bias in questions: try to use neutral language, avoid fallacies o Be clear and use everyday language

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b) Content Analysis Unobtrusive research not bothering anyone No participants Analyzing anything that is published in terms of the content or layout o Artifacts: things produced by pple; tv/newspaper/blogs/web o Sampling: chose random; issues/pages/images o Manifest: obvious; simple counting of number of words/images o Latent content: subjective; create rating scale and assign values to what u observe, give clear criteria (e.g. sexual images; 0=none, 1=mild, 2=moderate, 3=strong) o Combining fieldwork and content analysis; interview, focus group Pros and cons: + looks directly at communication via texts or descriptions and thus gets at the central aspect of social interaction + can allow for both, quantitative or qualitative research + can provide valuable historical/cultural insight over time + provides insight into complex models of human thought and language use can be extremely time-consuming coding is open to subjective interpretation often disregards the context and simply consist of word counts can be difficult to automate or computerize

c) Field Study Experiment Examining the intervention in real world rather than in laboratory=natural observation Social scientists and psychologists often used field experiments to perform blind studies, where the subject was not even aware that they were under scrutiny Elements for research: conversations (if they dont want pple to hear them, they shouldnt be taking so loud), actions (what are some reactions), encounters (dynamics between pple), roles (in the families), relationships (switching languages), groups (communication among teens), organizations, cultures (how much ppl drink in clubs) Pros & cons: + it is practical and also allows experimentation, without artificially introducing confounding variables + more realistic field experiments can suffer from a lack of a discrete control group field experiments often have many variables to try to eliminate (e.g. if the effects of a medicine are studied, and the subject is instructed not to drink alcohol, there is no guarantee that the subject followed the instructions) field studies often sacrifice internal validity for external validity can be very expensive, alien (you are outside observer but sometimes it is hard to observe people from distance), cover (set back to be undercover researcher) Conducting field research: o location where?; more locations and times = more generalization; public ok BUT private debrief after, ask permission o researcher overt vs. covert o level of involvement observer no involvement, participant 100% involvement, observerparticipant something in between o develop indicants clearly specify what will you look for, expect some numbers

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20. Sample selection in research (Probability versus Non-probability samples) Sampling is a concern in both qualitative and quantitative research; however, sampling issues are somewhat different for each In any study, the research question determines the study method, but it is the research question and method together that define the sampling plan, the type of sample used, and the number of people who will make up the study sample. Other factors that affect decisions about sample sizes and sampling plans include time, money, access to subjects, and the number of study variables

Sampling terminology: element: unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis of analysis (elements are people but also can be families or corporations) population: all the pple we want to describe=who study is relevant to (no requirements on how big population should be) study population: operational definition of the target population; that is target population with explicit exclusions-for example population accessible, excluding those outside the country sampling unit: elements or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling, pple who fill out the survey sample: selected population, group of pple chosen for your study a) Probability sampling Everyone in population has equal chance of being chosen Most effective method because: o avoids researchers conscious and unconscious bias in selecting elements o permit researchers to estimate degree of sampling error; it is used to get precise statistical description of large populations, sample of individuals from that population must contain essentially the same variations that exist in population, all large scale surveys are probability sampling methods simple random sample chose ppl from list absolutely randomly systematic random sample starts at random, then every n-th element, e.g. total n=400, start with 6th person (can also be chosen at random) then pick every 10th: 6, 16, 26 stratified random sample sort the list by known demographics THEN use systematic sample; make sure that sample is representative of the population multistage cluster sample not list of ppl but list of their groupings (sampling unit), used when it is either impossible or impractical to create list of elements composing target population, e.g. list of universities in Prague chose universities at random chose majors at random (if not important) choose ppl randomly then

b) Non-probability sampling used when it is impossible to get list of all population (too large, too specific) availability sample ppl passing by or Facebook friends chosen based on their relative ease to access, extremely risky (does not permit any control over representation of sample), such studies may provide useful insight but can lead to overgeneralization biased, but common for e.g. market research judgmental sampling you try to find the population even though no list exists, used primarily when there is a limited number of people that have expertise in area being researched, it is pretest rather than final study, e.g. it is not likely that among 40 ppl there are a lot of gothic music lovers you need to approach a specific group snowball sampling used when members of population are hard to locate or approach (e.g. drug addicts, homeless people, prostitutes) locate a few and ask them to pass the survey on others who are representatives of population gives better picture of the group quota sampling population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups (just as in stratified sample), then judgment is used to select subjects or units from each segment based on specific proportion interviewers might be tempted to interview those who look the most helpful, useful when time is limited, sampling frame is not available, research budget is very tight, or when detailed accuracy is not important

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21. Semiotic approaches to communication Semiotics every image has an agenda semiotics helps to decode = study of meaning in relation to signs within systems of representations trying to change or modify opinion of viewers communication as generation of meaning idea representation sign => meaning Cultural Approach main emphases are on context focus on: o text: messages and their context o meaning: how people make sense of messages o identifying and categorizing: reality, how we see things in relation to each other mental schema: we see the object and we try to categorize it; we have learned this e.g. desk there is no relationship between words and objects wouldnt make sense if we didnt know the meaning we look at ways of how people make sense of objects around them Constructionist approach representations are constructed to construct meanings Systems of representation Signs we learn them through culture Culture something that shares same systems of representation = CODES (e.g. dress code, written languages, photographs, music, body language, elections, educational systems) we learn cultures through systems cultural forms support social structure by patterns (the perception of experience) o social structure = how society is organized o patterns repeat o by experience: we take these things as given Codes image-maker encodes & viewer decodes both have cultural influence from previous experiences or assumptions image-makers beliefs may/may not match with viewers beliefs Signs = any physical object that has meaning signification isnt fixed can change over time consist of 2 parts: signifier (SR) + signified (SD) o SR: images we see, means of expressing the signs o SD: meaning given by image-maker or interpreted by viewer; the concept it refers to = the idea in your mind o e.g. SR = throne SD = royalty o text can be also used to provide signified that normally wouldnt exist 3 types of signs o Icon = something that looks like the object refers to, e.g. a photo of your friend isnt your friend but an iconic sign that looks like her; iconic signs: also words representing objects onomatopoeia (e.g. splash, bzz) or some Roman numerals (e.g. II) o Index = sign that connects with the object through association, e.g. smoke is index of fire o Symbol = sign where the connection with object must be agreed, e.g. green cross is a sign for pharmacy most signs can be seen as mixture of all three

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Organization of signs o structural relationship = signs into codes o Paradigm = set of signs from which the one to be used is chosen BUT all units must have something in common, and each unit must be clearly distinguished from all others large category of signs e.g. letters of alphabet, vocabulary o Syntagm = message into which chosen signs are combined to; there are rules or convections by which combination of units is made choice after selection e.g. words, sentences, outfit, menu, etc. selection (from paradigms) and combination (into syntagm) e.g. imagine paradigm as a large closet full of clothes (units) syntagm is then the final outfit (a set of units) you choose to wear on that day Denotation and Connotation Denotation o WHAT it is objectively, dictionary definition o simple interpretation how we see signs in the first place o signifier + signified Connotation o HOW do we feel about it more subjective, biased o depends who is looking at it o cultural context is significant o e.g. art, adverts, political speech, propaganda etc. Example: Sign Traffic light red

1st meaning SR: red light SD: stop

2nd meaning denotation: red light means stop! conotation: obedience to traffic rules

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22. The advantages and limitations of various sampling procedures (i.e. Stratified samples, Multi-stage Cluster Samples, Snowball Samples, etc.) (also check Q20) Stratified sampling Sort the list of study population by known demographics and THEN use systematic random sample; make sure that sample is representative of the population Probability sampling method Advantages o Focuses on important subpopulations and ignores irrelevant ones o Allows use of different sampling techniques for different subpopulations o Improves the accuracy/efficiency of estimation o Permits greater balancing of statistical power of tests of differences between strata by sampling equal numbers from strata varying widely in size Disadvantages o Requires selection of relevant stratification variables which can be difficult o Is not useful when there are no homogeneous subgroups o Can be expensive to implement Multi-stage cluster sample Cluster sampling involves selecting population units that are "close" together and does not require all the population units to be listed Probability sampling method Advantages o Eliminates the need for a complete list of all units in the population o Ensures that selected population units will be closer together, thus enumeration costs for personal interviews will be reduced, and field work will be simplified Disadvantages o Higher sampling error, which can expressed in the so-called "design effect" the ratio between the number of subjects in the cluster study and the number of subjects in an equally reliable, randomly sampled unclustered study Quota sampling Population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups (just as in stratified sample), then judgment is used to select subjects or units from each segment based on specific proportion interviewers might be tempted to interview those who look the most helpful, useful when time is limited, sampling frame is not available, research budget is very tight, or when detailed accuracy is not important Non-probability sampling method Advantages o quick and cheap to organize Disadvantages o not as representative of the population as a whole as other sampling methods o because the sample is non-random it is impossible to assess the possible sampling error Snowball sampling Used when members of population are hard to locate or approach (e.g. drug addicts, homeless people, prostitutes) locate a few and ask them to pass the survey on others who are representatives of population gives better picture of the group Non-probability sampling method Advantages o Especially useful when you are trying to reach populations that are inaccessible or hard to find Disadvantages o Hardly ever leads to representative samples Methods to be used: hand delivery (+ high response, not anonymous) mail (+ reach larger public and geographical areas, lower response) internet (+free & easy, not anonymous, extreme response) interview (+ ppl dont skip Qs, not annonymous) phone (+ cheap, only certain ppl reply)

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23. Approaches to crisis communication in public relations Crisis management look after things before they happen effects company as whole: externally and internally bad management or other companies can cause it but everybody blames your company whatever happens crisis management tries to do everything possible to prevent/mitigate it

Tips

dont make false conclusions when sending out PR message dont try to blame your or other company say right info when you know it no emotional words use we believe there needs to be a clear team of crisis management set before to be ready for everything! make PR crisis manual- you just fill in the numbers and info to already existing sheet/platform if there is problem, always show your position/explanation or media do it for you if you dont know something say it and dont pretend

What could go wrong? be aware of possible threats o be able to identify sources of potential threat o identify potential crisis o prioritize potential crisis avoiding the avoidable o prepare systematic program of crisis avoidance o pay attention to signals of impending crisis o look before you leap o dont forget about insurance Contingency planning 1. organize a planning team 2. asses the scope of the problem 3. develop a plan 4. test the plan 5. keep the plan up to date Containment prevent bad situations from becoming worse: o act quickly and decisively o put people first o be on scene o communicate liberally o when in doubt, follow your training, values and instincts crisis resolution: o move quickly gather facts continually, communicate persistently, document your actions o use project management techniques when appropriate o be a leader o mark/declare the end of crisis o learn from your experience - record the crisis response, capture the lessons learned Mastering media make it YOUR story control the situation and follow-up handle media with care principle of audience segmentation make message specific to certain audience, different stakeholder groups (e.g. general public, employees, shareholders, media, investors etc.) give them the facts make reporters life easy be responsive answer their questions, or theyll answer them for you use the right spokesperson be prepared for blitzing of phone calls from media to get the info they solicit select the most appropriate media for communication

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24. Segmentation, positioning and targeting, integrated marketing communication (IMC) Process of analyzing market satisfying human wants & needs Segmentation analyze market and develop profiles for segments geographics, psychographics, socio-demographics dividing market into groups of buyers with different needs, characteristics, behavior, who might require separate products or marketing mix Product positioning competitive positioning + marketing mix way product is defined by customers distinctive and desirable competitive product reasonable price for quality (high/low price and quality) o hard to get share of high quality market because you might be getting shares of someone elses market o everybody enters/shares low quality market then do Competitive Positioning Diagram to see who is competing with who in different matters positioning= comparing to other products on the market and where you want to be Market targeting directing companys effort to serving one or more groups of customers sharing common needs or characteristics consider size and growth of market market has to be profitable evaluating each segments characteristics and selecting one to enter companys resources and objectives what company wants to do marketing has to support every market has advantages and disadvantages Segment strategy set of buyers sharing communication needs or characteristics that company desires to serve o undifferentiated marketing: 1 product for all segments, go after the whole market with one offer, unsuitable for most products (+ low cost, amount of competitors) o differentiated marketing: different product for different markets, separate offer for each segment, very common (+ stronger identification of company, costs) o concentrated marketing: enter only one segment with one product (one thing aimed at one person), goes after large share of submarket (+ can be very profitable, very risky, large competitors from niche market) Integrated marketing communication (IMC) = synergistic approach to achieving the objectives of a marketing campaign, through a well coordinated use of different promotional methods as defined by the American Association of Advertising Agencies, IMC recognizes the value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines, such as advertising, public relations, personal selling, and sales promotion and combines them to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communication impact Internal = keeping all staff informed and motivated about any new developments from new products to new advertisements, new corporate identities, new service standards, new strategic partners etc. External requires external partners such as advertising and PR agencies to work closely together to deliver a single seamless solution = a cohesive, integrated message Communication mix = set of tools through which companies communicate between themselves and different target groups o Advertising: where are we in product life cycle and what do we want to achieve aimed at mass market, risk of ad clutter (too many ads need stopping power) o Direct marketing: go to customer specifically (and use their name), needs to be well targeted, specific and relevant (talking to you personally), more or less opposite of advertising o Personal selling: industrial (business to business), most expensive (speak to one customer at the time), need a lot of experience o Sales promotion: costs money (giving out something for free), must act as incentive you do it now; R.P.O. (reduced price offer), bonus pack, sampling, gifts, themed promotions, loyalty programs o Corporate PR: creates environment within which everything else is possible Corporate Image (what ppl actually think) x Corporate Identity (how do we stand out from competitors, how we want to be different)

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25. Organizational structure and effects on communication Formal and informal framework of policies and rules, within which an organization arranges its lines of authority and communications, and allocates rights and duties Organizational structure determines the manner and extent to which roles, power, and responsibilities are delegated, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between levels of management This structure depends entirely on the organization's objectives and the strategy chosen to achieve them o In a centralized structure, the decision making power is concentrated in the top layer of the management and tight control is exercised over departments and divisions o In a decentralized structure, the decision making power is distributed and the departments and divisions have varying degrees of autonomy. An organization chart usually illustrates the organizational structure. The importance of coordination and communication processes has constantly increased at any level of the organization: technical, managerial and institutional (Parson, 1951) Coordination processes are a quite complex organizational problem, and, according to some theoretical approaches, can be seen as dependent on: o the information strategy adopted within the organization: information anarchy, hierarchy, feudalism, and information federalism o the types of production technology adopted within the organization: long linked, mediated, and intensive production technology

Coordination and communication processes according to the information strategy The coordination and communication processes should be shaped according to the information strategy adopted by the firm. In particular, he describes four different models, which represent both the way in which information should be organized and the way in which communication processes should be designed: o Information anarchy every worker manages her/his personal information and networks of communication channels. The dimension of the communication network depends on the ability and attitude of each single agent to manage relationships and communicate with colleagues, customers, suppliers, etc. o Information hierarchy workers adapt their communication processes to communication channels that are scientifically organized, typically by the management. Usually these are vertical channels, which enable the twofold processes of top-down and bottom-up communication. o Information feudalism workers share knowledge within each single unit, teamwork, or community. Communication channels are organized and managed within each single group and no official communication channels occur across units. o Information federalism the personalized and informal communication channels, developed within each single unit, are placed side by side the formal communication processes managed across the firm. In a complex organization, the four models of information strategy are often mixed together in order to satisfy all the organizational needs. Communication processes As explained in previous paragraphs, communication has nowadays become one of the most important assets in organizations. This is because organizations cannot be considered just as containers of individuals with common aims, but have to be regarded as evolving social contexts in which real persons face various situations and problems. Thus, communication is the means they possess in order to understand and adapt to the dynamics of these changing environments. Classical organizational communication theories The discipline that studies the relations between communicative processes and organizational settings is called organizational communication; it has the twofold purpose of: o understanding how communicational processes shape organizations and o understanding how organizational life influences the form and content of communicative acts of the individuals who interact within it. It singles out three fundamental questions that organizational communication tries to answer: o Do communicational processes depend from the type of the organization or, vice versa, the latter depends on communicational processes? o Do communicational fluxes follow the direction of the organizational hierarchy or these fluxes influence the structure and the workflows of the organization?

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o o o Is communication a central element in the creation of the identity of an organization or it is merely a functional instrument? Considered the relevant role of technology in communication processes, it is reasonable to add another relevant question to the analysis. Are communication processes affected by the channel of communication, in particular by technology?

Organizational communication includes both internal processes of communication (among the members of the organization itself) and communication towards the outside (how the organization presents itself and exchanges information with external stakeholders). The literature in this discipline has classified communication according to different criteria: o level of formality o direction of informational fluxes o content of the messages o function that it performs o purpose that it has

The first typology distinguishes between formal communication with its rigidity, precision and authority, which follows predefined patterns, and informal communication that is flexible, personal and is free from etiquettes. The typology based on informational fluxes is more articulated, as it includes vertical communication (both top-down, from the top management to the basis and bottom-up, from the basis to the top management), horizontal (between individuals who occupy the same positions in the hierarchy), and transversal (or cross-channel, which is similar to the horizontal one in character but involves wider parts of the organization, namely members working for different units). The typology based on the content of the messages singles out political messages (relative to strategies, correct behaviours etc.), basic messages (information for the well functioning of the organization) and messages related to the image (definition of the style of the organization). The typology based on the function of the communication sees the properly functional communication as the one in charge of guaranteeing the correct functioning of the organizational machinery, the informative communication as the one in charge of the visibility of the enterprise, with its products and services, the creative communication as the one ensuring the promotion of changes and progress and, finally, the formative communication as the one with the function of establishing a sense of belonging through presentations, meetings, parties etc. The last typology, based on the purposes, includes messages to inform, create involvement, and sell products and services.

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26. Organizational culture There is no single definition for organizational culture. The topic has been studied from a variety of perspectives ranging from disciplines such as anthropology and sociology, to the applied disciplines of organizational behavior, management science, and organizational communication. Some of the definitions are listed below:

= A set of common understandings around which action is organized,finding expression in language whose nuances are peculiar to the group (Becker and Geer 1960). = A set of understandings or meanings shared by a group of people that are largely tacit among members and are clearly relevant and distinctive to the particular group which are also passed on to new members (Louis 1980). = A system of knowledge, of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and actingthat serve to relate human communities to their environmental settings (Allaire and Firsirotu 1984). = The deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are: o learned responses to the group's problems of survival in its external environment and its problems of internal integration o shared by members of an organization that operate unconsciously and that define in a basic "taken-forgranted" fashion in an organization's view of itself and its environment (Schein 1988) = Any social system arising from a network of shared ideologies consisting of two components: o substance the networks of meaning associated with ideologies, norms, and values o forms the practices whereby the meanings are expressed, affirmed, and communicated to members = A successful organization has its foundation in the effectiveness of their communication skills: o all employees should be able to communicate at the workplace and with their customers o technology allows individuals and organizations to be able to communicate better in the workplace o managers embrace technology and encourage workers to enable themselves and their co-workers to work smarter, faster and more productively

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27. The role and uses of technology and media for communication in organizations No matter your place of work, either in an office or a factory, technology links workers globally, it gives everyone the power of instant access information Today it will be hard to catch up with the competition if we did not have all the technology advances use in organizations today. As American stay longer as part of the workforce and rely on technology more than ever, managers are facing challenges because of the unique skills that each generation can bring to the workplace A younger generation is entering the workforce better trained in areas like technology that some of the older workers do not have, but older workers contribute to the organization with knowledge of their tasks With technology and use of e-mail instead of face to face communication we encounter written language barriers even when all employees speak English, there can be differences in the way they use the language and how it differs to the point that communications breaks down

Technology impact within organizations In the last ten years, organizations had to deal with dynamic markets, characterized by specialization of work, outsourcing processes, just in time and distributed production, etc. Even if cooperative and social firms are working in a more stable environment, the networked models of their suppliers influence them In order to stimulate coordination in a complex environment, innovative Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) solutions are implemented and communication processes are continuously reengineered The next paragraphs will describe some organizational coordination and communication processes, and how ICT and Information Systems (IS) might sustain these processes. Finally, it is argued that ICT and IS are not neutral assets in organizations, but are strictly related to pre-existing coordination processes and types of production. Information systems For long time, a huge amount of organizational resources, in terms of time and money, have been invested in ICT solutions and information systems (IS), which aim at effectively and efficiently managing communication processes within and across organizational units Since few years ago, ISs have been considered as a neutral variable within the firm (Aldrich, 1972) and as an external and deterministic instrument that directs human actions. For instance, IS and ICT facilitate synchronous and asynchronous communication when there is no physically proximity (Sarbaugh-Thompson and Feldman, 1998), enable knowledge sharing among organizational units, simplify some managerial decision processes, favor the electronic data interchange among firms, etc. The typical IS architecture, as described by (Davenport & Prusak, 1997), is a centralized system, composed by the following elements which enable various communication processes: o Enterprise Knowledge Portal (EKP) provides a unique access point to corporate knowledge, with personalized services. This is often a web-based interface which guarantees, through authentication processes, the creation of personalized channels of communication within the firm o Groupware applications such as chats, forums, discussion groups, e-mails, etc. that enable social interactions within workteams and across organizational units o Workflow management systems allow users to model communication and production processes The high level of informal communication that technology can sustain, contributes to making the newcomer feel as a central member of the organization Different IS architectures and ICT solutions can sustain a particular information strategy model and a type of production technology rather than another o for instance, workflow management systems may sustain information hierarchy and long linked technologies, while groupware applications usually favour feudalism in information strategy and intensive production technology We adopt new technologies to enhance our core work functions, affecting related policies, administrative functions, and inevitably every component of the organization Organizational culture and the type of leadership exercised has significant impact on how we respond to change and technology implementation strategies There is little doubt that communication technologies have changed the cultures of organizations, whether the structure of belief present in any single organization is comprehensive and shared, or fragmented, fraught with conflict, and ultimately contested. o for example, integration of communication technology into organizations has, among other things, been viewed as both the advantage and annoyance of employee empowerment. On one hand, such technologies loosen the ties that bind employees to strict hierarchies of power previously perpetuated by directed and limited information flow and networks of centrality o on the other hand, such technologies are understood as opportunities for the surveillance of employee activity and the colonization of time such that distinctions between work and family/personal life are all but erased

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How information is generated to make decisions o IT exerts specific impacts on organizations, thus causing changes in organizational cultures, norms, structure, performance cultures, in the short run, are constant o Therefore systems must be designed and adjusted to fit the organizational culture. It is virtually impossible to improve the fit by altering the culture, since, in the short run, culture is binding constraint in IT implementation. o Cultures are not built overnight, nor can they be changed overnight cultural values will have to be transformed by the technological developments o Integrating individuals into an effective whole & adapting to the external environment in order to survive o Effects on: organizational behavior, strategies, image, products, services, appearances

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28. Information biases (Bennet) Bennett mentions 4 types of information bias in the news media. They are personlization, dramatization, fragmentation, and authority disorder bias: Personalization refers to the use of individual human tragedy and trials as a form of news , instead of looking at the large societal, political or economic impacts. Dramatization basically refers to the art of storytelling in the news. Bennett says that "news drama emphasizes crisis over continuity, the present over the past or the future, and the personalities at their center." (Bennet, 41) Bennett says that fragmentation is "the isolation of stories from each other and from their larger contexts so that information in the news is becomes fragmented and hard to assemble into a big picture." (Bennett,42) Authority disorder bias refers to the act of reporting the news so that stories are focusing on the restoration of authority in society, rather than on other issues that could be just as worthwhile.

These 4 biases given by Bennett are very much evident in journalism today. Bennett says that believes that the 4 biases are a detriment to the art of reporting news. The common link between all 4 biases is that they all essentially get rid of any "issues reporting" in the news. Examples: Another example that comes to mind for personalization in the news is the way that the war on terror is reported on the nightly news. Although you could look to news channels like CNN or Fox News to hear at least a little debate on the issues surrounding the war on terror, but you will not hear it even mentioned on the nightly news, which is probably what the most people watch. The life story of John Walker Lindh is discusses, but not the issues surroundig his case, like were his constitutional rights violated when he was not given access to a lawyer? What are we doing with terrorist detainnees? Is it legal? Are we violating the Geneva Convention? These questions were rarely discussed. It was more likely for one to see a segment on the news about him during his high school years, rather than constitutional rights. Dramatization of the news is everywhere! Dramatization refers to storytelling in the news and this is pretty much the basic form of journalism in the United States according to Bennet. In some ways, dramatization may not be the worst bias in the world, if it could somehow manage to make people care more about an issue and give them the inititiative to look into something more, then maybe it is not so bad. News programs like 60 Minutes are notorious for dramatizing the news. It is essentially the basic format for their show. Authority disorder bias is evident in any crisis or emergency that is reported. When a reporter goes to the scene of a national disaster or even a much smaller crisis, like an apartment building fire etc the news reports on it in terms of when things will be be back to normal. The news media will quote people about how authority will be reinstated. With all the heat and attention it incites among activists and ordinary citizens, bias is yet to be defined clearly, let alone received much serious empirical attention (Niven, 2002). The term seems to take on three major meanings. Sometimes, it is applied to news that purportedly distorts or falsifies reality (distortion bias), sometimes to news that favors one side rather than providing equivalent treatment to both sides in a political conflict (content bias), and sometimes to the motivations and mindsets of journalists who allegedly produce the biased content (decision-making bias)

There are different ways to think about the effects of concentations of media ownership on news content, some of which we have touched on in earlier discussions. Here are the effects most discussed by communication scholars: o Dominance by fewer players in local and regional markets distorts advertising rates, forcing small independent outlets to quit, sell out or change their formats resulting in less diversity in music, news, and minority affairs programming. o The pressure of corporate self-promotion means less critical coverage of the media industry in general and parent companies in particular. o News content shifts to infotainment formats due to the entertainment focus of owners and the economic efficiencies of soft news, reality programming, and human interest features. o News is regarded less as a public service commitment or a prestige builder for the parent company and it becomes just another product line in the race of profits. o Innovation in packaging and branding disguises declining information diversity and content distinctiveness.

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29. Framing research in news (Entman) Framing research in news: o clear bias to reporting news same way over and over o tendency to see news through competitive frames o explanatory frames under-used o points of agreement undervalued conflict heightened o frames are relied on reflexively for certain type of stories Framing = the central organizing idea for news content that supplies a context and suggests what the issue is through the use of selection (agenda setting), emphasis and salience (priming) 13 basic types of frames: o straight news account inverted pyramid, the most factual no particular narrative o conflict story o horse race e.g. elections o wrong-doin exposed e.g. corporations o reality-check o story explanatory framework o outlook for future o trend story o conjecture story speculation about future o policy explored o personality profile o consensus story points of agreement on common grounds o reaction story official responses to earlier events First, systematically employing agenda setting, framing, and priming under the conceptual umbrella of bias would advance understanding of the media role in distributing power, revealing new dimensions and processes of critically political communication Second, such a project would offer normative guidance for scholars, for journalists striving to construct more fair and balanced news, and for the many citizens and activists who feel victimized by biased media The consolidating question, then, is whether the agenda setting and framing content of texts and their priming effects on audiences fall into persistent, politically relevant patterns. Powerful players devote massive resources to advancing their interests precisely by imposing such patterns on mediated communications We can define framing as the process of culling a few elements of perceived reality and assembling a narrative that highlights connections among them to promote a particular interpretation. Fully developed frames typically perform four functions (Entman, 1993, 2004): o problem definition o causal analysis o moral judgment o remedy promotion Framing works to shape and alter audience members interpretations and preferences through priming. That is, frames introduce or raise the salience or apparent importance of certain ideas, activating schemas that encourage target audiences to think, feel, and decide in a particular way. The strategic framing contests that occupy the heart of the political process take place in the first instance over the agenda (Riker, 1986). Agenda setting can thus be seen as another name for successfully performing the first function of framing: defining problems worthy of public and government attention. Among other things, agenda problems can spotlight societal conditions, world events, or character traits of a candidate. The second or attribute level of agenda setting (McCombs & Ghanem, 2001) centrally involves three types of claims that happen to encompass the core business of strategic framing: o to highlight the causes of problems o to encourage moral judgments (and associated affective responses) o to promote favored policies. Priming, then, is a name for the goal, the intended effect, of strategic actors framing activities Although the distinction between what to think and what to think about is not entirely clear, the former seems to mean what people decide, favor, or accept, whereas the latter refers to the considerations they think about in coming to such conclusions. The distinction misleads because, short of physical coercion, all influence over what people think derives from telling them what to think about. If the media really are stunningly successful in telling people what to think about, they must also exert significant influence over what they think.

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Elites presumably care about what people think because they want them to behave in certain ways, supporting or at least tolerating elite activities hegemony. Given limitations of time, attention, and rationality, getting people to think (and behave) in a certain way requires selecting some things to tell them about and efficiently cueing them on how these elements mesh with their own schema systems. Because the best succinct definition of power is the ability to get others to do what one wants (Nagel, 1975), telling people what to think about is how one exerts political influence in non-coercive political systems (and to a lesser extent in coercive ones). And it is through framing that political actors shape the texts that influence or prime the agendas and considerations that people think about. Having shown how agenda setting, framing, and priming fit together as critical tools in the exercise of political power, we now need to connect them to bias. To help avoid the terminological confusion discussed previously, I propose to distinguish bias from news slant: o Slant characterizes individual news reports and editorials in which the framing favors one side over the other in a current or potential dispute. Mainstream news organizations contend that they treat competing frames equivalently, ensuring that their reports do not slant. Yet, political actors constantly (and strategically) complain that the media favor their opponents. It seems reasonable to hypothesize that these elites might sometimes have it right: They or their opponents do often succeed in imposing slant on mainstream media reports. Slanted news is not, as journalists tend to insist, the rare exception. o Because almost any nontrivial reality will be controversialsusceptible to two or more framings what we can and should do is to determine whose power over government action is likely enhanced by media framing. In other words, we should study how the news slants in particular instances and whether slant falls into recurrent patterns that, in Schattschneiders (1960) classic formulation, mobilize bias in the political system by helping some actors regularly prevail over others. Some researchers in the critical studies tradition might conclude that the media meet the suggested standards for bias at a more fundamental level: consistent framing in favor of capitalism, patriarchy, heterosexism, individualism, consumerism, and White privilege, among other deeply entrenched values that certainly help allocate power in American society

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30. The uses of referential and condensational symbols in political messages Symbols: o cognitive engages our thinking process, responsible for basic meaning o affective engages our emotions, triggers feelings No (political) message can ever be wholly free of either referential or of condensation symbols Distinction between the two types of behavior is fundamental in realistic political analysis. We must wonder about this distinction if in fact the two kinds ofsymbols are never wholly distinct. We must also wonder about the kind of symbolic activity required for making this distinction. When linguists "noticed" this distinction, presumably they were thinking in symbols. Did they use referential symbols or condensation symbols? If they used referential symbols, does that mean that condensation symbols can be translated into referential symbols for the sake of linguistic study or "realistic political analysis"?

a) Referential symbols convey narrow meanings with little emotion o e.g. collateral damage, legitimate targets allow us to understand empirical reality objectively and to manipulate it for our benefit economical ways of referring to the objective elements in objects or situations the elements identified in the same way by different people such symbols are useful because they help in logical thinking about the situation and in manipulating it utilitarian politics b) Condensation symbols evoke broad types of meaning with strong emotions o e.g. Operation Enduring Freedom evoke an emotional and thus subjective reaction to asituation, and therefore we see the world not as it really is but as we imagine it to be evoke the emotions associated with the situation condensed into one symbolic event, sign, or act of patriotic pride, anxieties, remembrances of past glories or humiliations, promises of future greatness etc. connotations may change over time all human beings both the elites and the masses rely on condensation symbols to determine their needs andwants. Only with such symbols can human beings define themselvesthrough interaction with one another mythical politics By applying this distinction to political symbolism, we can distinguish mythical politics from utilitarian politics for most people politics is a mythical activity; for a few people it is a utilitarian activity. For mass publics, politics is a spectacle in which they ritualistically seek symbolic reassurance that they live in a meaningful world. But for the elites, who participate directly in public affairs, politics is merely an instrument for manipulating the objective world to win certain tangible benefits money and power. The elite few bargain among themselves about public policy in the selfish pursuit of concrete gains, while the naive masses deceive themselves into believing that government promotes the common good. The utilitarian politics of the few is a rational calculation of material interests. The mythical politics of the many is an irrational evocation of abstract ideas.

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31. The use of the Aristotelian principles (logos, ethos, pathos) in persuasive public speaking The goal of argumentative speaking/writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's. Greek philosophers were mainly concerned with the issues of ethical means of persuasion. Since Aristotle defined his principles of persuasion in his Rhetoric, there have been attempts at defining the principles of successful persuasion but for most of human history, persuasion has been studied as an art. In the early 1900s, research on (political) persuasion was carried out mostly as propaganda analysis and public opinion research. Studies of propaganda in the early part of the twentieth century can be regarded as the antecedents to the social scientific study of persuasion, but after World War II, researchers stopped referring to their subject of study as propaganda and started investigating various constructs of persuasion Aristotle laid the basis for the study of rhetoric that was to be an important part of European education from Roman times until the nineteenth century. He approached the topic of rhetoric in an analytic manner, and defined rhetoric as the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion. He developed his theory by empirically observing many persuaders in Athens, in the law courts and the government and emphasized three factors to which the orator needed to pay attention: o ethos o pathos o logos

a) Ethos the first element in his theory of persuasion, which referred to the character the speaker wished to present could be defined as the charisma and the credibility of the speaker as Aristotle had written in the 4th century B.C.: Of the modes of persuasion furnished by the spoken word there are three kinds. The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself. Persuasion is achieved by the speakers personal character when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible...his character may almost be called the most effective means of persuasion he possesses. according to Aristotle, apart from the character, the artistic proofs a persuader used along with his/her reputation and image all added up to create his/her charisma or ethos. Nonverbal messages like the speakers physical appearance, as well as his reputation and the way he delivered his speech all contributed to ethos to some degree b) Pathos the mood or tone of the speech that appealed to the passions or the will of the audience psychological appeals relied on the receivers emotions before using these appeals, persuaders had to assess the emotional state of their audience an ability or skill which might be called as empathy or emotional intelligence in contemporary terms Aristotle cited some virtues like justice, generosity, courage, gentleness and wisdom as pathos or appeals to emotion. Many of these virtues were tied not only to emotional persuasion or pathos but to ethos as well we can look at texts ranging from classic essays to contemporary advertisements to see how pathos and emotional appeals are used to persuade language choice affects the audience's emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument c) Logos the argument the speaker was advancing appeals to intellect or reason dependent on the audiences ability to process information in logical ways in order to appeal to the rational side of the audience, persuader has to assess their information-processing patterns Aristotle advised persuaders to use syllogistic arguments (enthymemes) in which the major premise was already believed by the audience deductive and inductive reasoning, logical fallacies The urge for studying persuasion more systematically was felt deeply as a consequence of the spread of the means of mass communication in the twentieth century. The wartime emphasis on the persuasive influence of the mass media was one of the reasons behind this pursuit. Charismatic leaders such as Hitler, Mussolini, Roosevelt, and Churchill had demonstrated how entire societies could be powerfully manipulated through skillful persuasion... the effective persuader was reaching mass audiences in unprecedented numbers and kinds, made possible by the new media (Larson, 1992: 81). The war-inspired fear about the power of persuasion on the masses created the motive for a more careful study of this phenomenon of social influence.

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The source factors in persuasion The research on persuasion has focused on the characteristics of the source of communication, i.e. the communicator, and tried to figure out the influence of these characteristics on the communicators persuasive endeavours. The communicators credibility, expertise, likeability and (dis)similarity to the audience are some of the characteristics that have been tested by the researchers. The characteristics of the message in persuasion A persuasive message can vary in content and organization (reminding us of Aristotles pathos and logos). Another aspect of the message which has been studied is its structure = whether it is more influential as a one-sided (containing only one point of view) or a two-sided message (containing pros and cons). When analyzing the effect of the message one has to keep in mind that receivers (or the target of the message) play an important role in this analysis (another aspect reminding us of Aristotles pathos and logos). The issue of using appeals to the rational or emotional side of the receivers/targets has been studied: when people use rational persuasive appeals, they assume that recipients of these appeals behave as rational human beings. Although there are many types of rational appeals, a rational argument contains three components: o claim = the position a source is advocating in a message o data to support the claim = evidence that provide support for the claim o warrant = a propositional statement that provides a logical connection between the data and the claim serving as the justification for the claim The context of the message and the characteristics of the receiver In addition to the content and organization of the persuasive message, the context in which it takes place such as the medium by which it is delivered has an impact on its persuasiveness. The effect of the medium depends partly on whether one wants the receiver to understand the message by systematic processing or by heuristic processing. The characteristics of the receiver as the target of persuasion has been studied in order to find out whether certain people are more susceptible to persuasion than others: o Gender and certain personality variables such as self-esteem and intelligence have been the focus of attention of this body of research. o One much studied question was whether women were more easily persuaded than men (in general or in specifiable circumstances), or men more easily persuaded than women? Despite the frequently held belief that women tend to be more easily persuaded than men, research indicated that women and men have almost equal tendencies to change their attitudes

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32. The potential and challenges posed by the Internet for journalism Potential Instant feedback: The reporters know immediately how they are doing, and they can defend their point of view in public. It is not a one-way communication flow anymore. The journalist has plenty of resources at hand to expand audiences horizons, as well as to receive audiences opinions on his work. Reach and aggregation: Given that the Internet is global, the news can be seen, heard, and read from anywhere. There are also some news sites that only aggregate data and stories into massive nods of information. This gives the readers a lot of informational power. Echo chamber: Diversity of sources helps the reader make up his mind and think critically about the issues at hand. If the reader does not find what he was looking for, he can always look somewhere else, or follow the links to the primary source. This should serve the primary purpose of the media to educate media literacy Internet provides continuous interaction with people from all over the world in both print and on video potential of changing the role of journalist in long run Internet is going to turn TV into a genuine two-way medium journalist will be able to read e-mails off their wireless phone as they come in live on air from almost any spot in the planet If people are interacting it means they are engaged and that must be healthy for society and democracy More connection with the audience better sense of who we are broadcasting to user-controlled journalism Internet does not erase accessibility issues between journalism producers and journalism consumers, but it does increase the opportunity for feedback and exchange 'Citizen journalism', or what some people are calling 'participatory journalism', can be a very powerful tool, particularly when it involves eye-witnesses to a news event The more people there are reporting a story, the better picture we will get of what is actually happening Accessibility of content to producers and consumers Appeal to a youthful public which is fast abandoning the printed word, the worlds leading newspapers are creating a presence for themselves on the Net, and making imaginative efforts to transform the whole business of providing news and information The new "reader" will have access to unlimited information Professionals will always be needed in order to check the news and win their own audiences Multimedia journalism will thus take its place alongside traditional journalism News of the future will be a creation of various media, each offering their own diversity of information diversity of journalisms catering for different audiences, contents, forms, modes of production, distribution and consumption of news Using the resources of the Internet, it is now quite conceivable for a foreign news page to provide not only the news of the day, but also the historical archives relevant to it and all articles already published on the subject Final published "article" becomes virtually unlimited in scope and detail Online news is crippling mainstream media and giving versatile resources to common people to report the news as they see it New technology does not replace existing technology, it actually seems to stimulate its growth: radio never eliminated newspapers, television did not eliminate radio, and online videos have not resulted in the burial of any of the preceding forms of media The potential of Web 2.0 and new media in general and citizen journalism, mobile phones and user-generated content in particular (e.g. YouTube videos, blogs, SMS and mobile sites) suggests that content that critiques the status quo, authored by civil society, can play a constructive and increasingly significant role in peace building and stronger democratic governance (e.g. Middle East, Northern Africa)

Challenges Constant demand for information: With access to everything everywhere, people demand information at all times. This leads to lack of well-developed and well-researched stories, thus feeding the public with halfbaked stories. Given that the Internet is an immediate medium, it truly matters who gets out with the information first. Short attention spans: Jakob Nielsen has pioneered the field of computer-human interaction and usability design. It was found out that humans do not read the text on screen in traditional manner. They scan it with considerably lower involvement and attention to content. That leads to journalists need to produce sensationalized news in order to keep the reader reading. De-territorialization of law: The law is always local, but the Internet is global. Jurisdiction over the cyberspace is divided according to territoriality (if the servers are in the U.S., the jurisdiction governing the given web site is American). This poses numerous challenges about free speech and 1A. Shift in values: The fundamental values are changing. The emphasis lies on immediacy as opposed to careful analysis of the issues. Real risk that the world will divide between people who are confident to speak out and those who will remain silent and unheard spiral of silence The digital divide will influence who has the power to transmit information and in turn have access to such content Threat to credibility of both mainstream and citizen journalism

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Anyone can blog more than 20 million Americans are blogging and most of the content is not contributing society in any way With third-party content from citizen journalists comes skepticism and the issues of trust Quality-control measures like independent verification, fact-checking, precision accuracy, editing have become increasingly difficult to hold up to Many journalists feel threatened already by the fragility of the industry, and see 'citizen journalists', rightly or wrongly, as competition Imagine the massive task of media literacy training needing to be undertaken if information networks are to become the principal vehicles of news New cultural divides that are likely to be created Technological and marketing developments will require stronger ethical commitment than ever, but hard to manage/control Need to figure out a way to make social networking applications and tools part of their newsgathering system incorporation Traditional media outlets need to include content from third parties coverage of news events

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33. The aesthetic and design construction of mass-produced images a) Aesthetics = the way the eye distinguishes or organizes material presented to it and how this data is translated to the other senses Aesthetics serve to give us verbal concepts of factors which orchestrate still images in the same way that individual instruments combine together to provide a different formation In order to understand how the image is organized or the eye perceives it the concept of aesthetics into several smaller parts: o Shape 2D; bleeding vs. contained o Pattern 2D; repetition of shapes o Texture 3D o Form 3D; viewers spece vs. image space o Light 2D & 3D; direct, diffused, fully diffused, partial silhouette, full silhouette o Line 2D & 3D; 2 main functions: direct or divide o Scale 2D & 3D o Space 2D & 3D o Composition Shape and pattern relate particularly to the two-dimensional properties of the medium, meaning how we are affected by the dynamics involved in experiencing visual stimuli from a flat surface Texture and form are elements that apply strictly to our experience of the third dimension or our reality The next four light, line, scale and space relate to both second and third dimension The last, composition, is the container that holds all of the others within the image, to unconsciously orient the viewer within its space b) Design Refers to how organization of the aesthetic elements is achieved = how the different components are structured so that the viewers see what was intended Through design variables we cause our viewers to perceive particular components, or parts of the image within the totality, or situation of the composition and also to see them in a particular relationship (or not) with other components or parts and also with the ideas or concepts these components represent. In this context the following are examined: o Balance weight, direction, top/bottom, left/right o Dominance = emphasis, focal point o Proportion = comparison of sizes vs. scale (! = aesthetics), determines relationship b/w subjects o Perspective central (Western, vanishing point) vs. isometric (Eastern, narrow gradient) o Rhythm intended pattern, repetition The aesthetic variables largely unconscious dynamics within an image that the creator selects. The design variables, on the other hand, are conscious devices that are manipulated to structure how these dynamics relate and are experienced. Put another way we can say that we present our subject matter or theme through aesthetics and determine the viewers conscious response through design.

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34. The difference between decoding and deconstruction of images a) Decoding Roland Barthes, 1970s Sender message receiver Meanings arise from a work of signification through codes, of which audiences make sense in ways which may differ o e.g. understanding of language, dress codes The model emphasizes power and conflict in the construction of representations, and tensions between media organizations and their publics, so that preferred meanings may be accepted, negotiated or opposed in ways linked to not only class, gender, and ethnicity, but also to positions in discourse and to viewing & reading contexts b) Deconstruction = the proccess of image analysis that involves: picking images apart through the use of fine detail An essential part of studying the media media texts are largely constructed of images, and we take our visual literacy (= our ability to read and understand these images) largely for granted However, in media studies, we need to be able to explain that decoding/deconstruction process, and describe the steps taken which allow us to derive meaning A from text B. Nevertheless, deconstruction is only the first part of the process never forget the purpose of a text and that proper image analysis should include a consideration of ideology, audience, representation and genre Two processes used during deconstruction are denotation and connotation: o Denotation = identification and definition of elements of a text on a basic, dictionary level this is red, it is a bicycle any audience member would identify the object as a red bicycle (if they know what a bicycle is...) o Connotation = begins when you link an object with other signs and meanings the bicycle might belong to a teenager and therefore suggest adolescence; its red, i.e. it is bright and eye-catching and might therefore connote that its owner is an extrovert Every element of an image contributes to its meaning Audience's attention may be focused on characters in the foreground, they will also be looking at the background for additional clues to meaning Costumes, props, lighting, characters (as represented by actors or models), special effects, sound effects and anything else which is "put into the frame" Continuous movement of the camera which focus on the details of a scene are used to create meaning Deconstruction can be summarized as: Denotation describe what you see Connotation describe what the things that you see may mean Anchorage acknowledge any written text which helps to underline what is happening in the image or what its purpose is Treatment describe how the image has been constructed using framing, lighting etc. Context analyse who constructed the image and for what purpose Narratives describe how the image suggests a storyline of which this is only one part

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35. The intensify/downplay model in persuasive communication Hugh Rank, professor of literature at Governors State University in Park Forest, Illinois, is a member of the Committee on Public Doublespeak (National Council of Teachers of English) his schema "intensify/downplay" was developed to help people deal with public communication, persuasion and propaganda won the George Orwell Award in 1976 All people intensify (commonly by repetition, association, composition) and downplay (commonly by omission, diversion, confusion) as they communicate in words, gestures, numbers, etc. But, professional persuaders have better training, technology, media access and more resources than an average citizen. Individuals can better cope with organized persuasion by recognizing the common ways how communication is intensified or downplayed, and by considering who is saying what to whom, with what intent and what results. In addition, Ranks guidelines are used for analyzing war propaganda, another genre of political rhetoric o Words are weapons in warfare. Words affect how people think about themselves and about others. War is probably the time of the greatest language manipulation, when people are most likely to deceive others, least able to negotiate, and are under the most intense emotional stress of fear and anger with the greatest dangers of loss, death, and destruction. o Rank points out that some types of war propaganda target the domestic audience, with the aims of uniting the country, building morale, silencing opposition, inciting action, and channeling energy. o Other types of war propaganda are aimed at the enemy, with the intention to terrorize or demoralize. o With modern means of mass communication, messages can be ensured to reach a huge audience, worldwide. War propaganda has the risk of getting out of control, and inciting more hatred than originally intended. o The basic techniques used for war propaganda are to intensify your own good points and downplay the enemys good points, and to downplay your own weaknesses while intensifying those of the enemy. As we have seen repeatedly in the last century, the enemy is demonized, while the good guys are portrayed as the protectors of the free world. The basic premise of the model stresses that people will either intensify or downplay certain aspects of their own product, candidate, or ideology, or those of their receiver's. The persuader will do this in one of four methods: o intensify their own strong points o intensify the weak points of the opposition o downplay their own weak points o downplay the strong points of the opposition.

Tactics we use to intensify association a cause, product, or candidate is linked to something liked or disliked by an audience repetition frequent use of slogans, jingles, or reoccurring themes composition emphasis by graphics, layout, typeface, design, etc. and by comparison and contrast Tactics we use to downplay a) omission leaving out critical information b) diversion shifting attention o humor o emotional appeals o splitting hairs = to quibble, to try to make petty distinctions, to argue about irrelevant details confusion using technical terms, jargon, wandering from topic, faulty logic What we intensify and downplay our behaviors depends on our role in the persuasion transaction between benefit-promisers and benefit-seekers: as benefit-promisers, we intensify our own "good" and downplay our own "bad"; and, in aggression, we also intensify others' "bad" and downplay others' "good" as benefit-seekers, we seek to keep the "good" (protection) and to get the "good" (acquisition), and to avoid the "bad" (prevention) and to get ride of the "bad" (relief)

59 Part B: Contemporary Issues in Historical Perspective


1. Historical evolution of communication Oral Society oral societies participatory, closer to humanity, situational no facts (what is a fact for Medieval man, its an opinion for modern man) all info within local community nothing reaches majority rumors the most educated the elderly (have experience, sent to be judges, confirmed the way things have always been done) words seen as a deep part of human existence Middle Ages 5-11th century Saddle longer distance for messages Education for a few control by catholic church

Renaissance 14-16th century Printing press after 1439 J. Guttenberg Rise of vernacular languages, nationalism Age of Enlightenment 17-19th century First newspapers Struggle for independence/democracy Mass production, mass media, mass society Railways, ships

Mail (1870) Speeding up due to business demands not masses New wave of literacy boom Telegraph (1809 electornical 1837) Speed & secrecy 1st in business & military Regulated by International Telegraph Union (1865) News agencies Reuters, Havas Telephone (1876) Convergence of acoustics & electricity National Bell vs. Western Union Farmers less isolated, easier communication for spread families Gramophone (1870s) Took place of the piano (old & new media co-exist) Wireless Radio (1895) Signal messages could be picked up by those not intended e.g. Nazis during WWII Frequencies allocated on 1st to come, 1st served basis states with capital & technology win Public (BBC since 1927), private (US Radio Act of 1927) Cinema & Television (1890s & 1930s) Increase of material wealth & leisure Source of advertising Film in sound since 1927 Expression of different national cultures TV first mainly in bars not homes 1968 color TV Mass media Newspapers, broadcast, cable & digital TV, digital radio channels, Internet, blogs, personal publishing General level of information increased Computers (1940s) originally devised for Cold War military purposes Satellites (late 1950s) Sputnik 1957 (USSR) Cable (1960s) Internet (late 1980s) 1st between universities & research institutions; telephone users

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2. The intensify/downplay model in persuasive communication Hugh Rank, professor of literature at Governors State University in Park Forest, Illinois, is a member of the Committee on Public Doublespeak (National Council of Teachers of English) his schema "intensify/downplay" was developed to help people deal with public communication, persuasion and propaganda won the George Orwell Award in 1976 All people intensify (commonly by repetition, association, composition) and downplay (commonly by omission, diversion, confusion) as they communicate in words, gestures, numbers, etc. But, professional persuaders have better training, technology, media access and more resources than an average citizen. Individuals can better cope with organized persuasion by recognizing the common ways how communication is intensified or downplayed, and by considering who is saying what to whom, with what intent and what results. In addition, Ranks guidelines are used for analyzing war propaganda, another genre of political rhetoric o Words are weapons in warfare. Words affect how people think about themselves and about others. War is probably the time of the greatest language manipulation, when people are most likely to deceive others, least able to negotiate, and are under the most intense emotional stress of fear and anger with the greatest dangers of loss, death, and destruction. o Rank points out that some types of war propaganda target the domestic audience, with the aims of uniting the country, building morale, silencing opposition, inciting action, and channeling energy. o Other types of war propaganda are aimed at the enemy, with the intention to terrorize or demoralize. o With modern means of mass communication, messages can be ensured to reach a huge audience, worldwide. War propaganda has the risk of getting out of control, and inciting more hatred than originally intended. o The basic techniques used for war propaganda are to intensify your own good points and downplay the enemys good points, and to downplay your own weaknesses while intensifying those of the enemy. As we have seen repeatedly in the last century, the enemy is demonized, while the good guys are portrayed as the protectors of the free world. The basic premise of the model stresses that people will either intensify or downplay certain aspects of their own product, candidate, or ideology, or those of their receiver's. The persuader will do this in one of four methods: o intensify their own strong points o intensify the weak points of the opposition o downplay their own weak points o downplay the strong points of the opposition.

Tactics we use to intensify association a cause, product, or candidate is linked to something liked or disliked by an audience repetition frequent use of slogans, jingles, or reoccurring themes composition emphasis by graphics, layout, typeface, design, etc. and by comparison and contrast Tactics we use to downplay c) omission leaving out critical information d) diversion shifting attention o humor o emotional appeals o splitting hairs = to quibble, to try to make petty distinctions, to argue about irrelevant details confusion using technical terms, jargon, wandering from topic, faulty logic What we intensify and downplay our behaviors depends on our role in the persuasion transaction between benefit-promisers and benefit-seekers: as benefit-promisers, we intensify our own "good" and downplay our own "bad"; and, in aggression, we also intensify others' "bad" and downplay others' "good" as benefit-seekers, we seek to keep the "good" (protection) and to get the "good" (acquisition), and to avoid the "bad" (prevention) and to get ride of the "bad" (relief)

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3. Identification and alienation/otherisation of groups and issues in mass media imagery Alienation = not part of my world(view) - alienation of objects, ideas, concepts Otherisation = unlike me/us - otherisation of groups, individuals Some ideas are acceptable to the economic elite while others arent its about sustaining the societys dominant ideology Institutions with political and economical power can saturate the society with their preferred ideological agenda In addition the dominant ideology is constantly enforced by institutions to the point where it becomes the only acceptable alternative, even a substitute for reality Misconception that everyone has access to all information

How? Patterns of this process can be found in different geographical points, as well as points in time as part of propaganda and media imagery to achieve demonization, dehumanization and siege mentality o e.g. caricatures in media Emphasizing characteristics that are different from the dominant culture: o e.g. Mexicans wearing sombreros the Mexican stereotype was established by 1900, began with the AngloAmerican settler stirring up local sentiment to overthrow the Mexican government in Texas and New Mexico in the war for Texas independence in 1830s vs. prior to WWII, Latino actors flooded Hollywood because then relations with Latin America were politically vital... o e.g. The Yellow Menace 1916 film where Asians and Mexicans combine forces in a plot against the US. o e.g. reinforcement of white superiority the films played on insecurities that non-White cultures would have a negative, profound impact on White social values o e.g. The Birth of a Nation new stereotype of Blacks, still portrayed possesing inferior mental capacities o creating stereotypical characteristics, e.g. Roma as fat and lazy and leachy o in the past, for instance, Chinese immigrants into U.S were portrayed similarly as Roma in the CZ as drunk, jobless and inassimilable images at the same time unite the dominant party = Us vs. Them approach o e.g. Native Americans are an invisible minority in media, or images are stuck in 19th century and dont do them justice o during the 1960s, racial minorities were portrayed by symbols and stereotypes, incl. Native Americans, Blacks, Asians and Latinos either perceived as a threat to the established order or otherwise covered during colorful cultural festivals these images reinforced the publics preconceptions o late 1960s and 1970s, there was increase in minority characters, specifically Blacksoften minor and less prestigious roles and reinforced prior dispositions in viewers o stereotyping of non-Whites is contextual to the social, political, and economic realities of the era o current news media often offer an image of non-Whites as problematic people = people who either have problems or cause problems social burden Us vs. Them syndrome is carried to another dimension

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4. The use of quantitative methods such as content and/or corpus analysis to investigate changes in a news narrative over time Quantitative analysis = the numerical representation and manipulation of observations for the purpose of describing and explaining the phenomena that those observations reflect o often used as an initial stage in research to find patterns and interesting features in a large amount of text o Concordancer (= software program) picks up features that you might not notice as a reader (especially in large texts) Quantification = process of converting data to a numerical format Two basic approaches: o Beginning with a coding scheme derived from the research purpose o Generate codes from the data then scheme Types of analysis: o Univariate simplest form, describe a case in terms of a single variable o Bivariate subgroup comparisons, describe a case in terms of two variables simultaneously o Multivariate analysis of two or more variables simultaneously

a) Content analysis = a quantitative means of studying the content of texts Means of analysing news narrative: o Column inches in newspapers, broadcast airtime o Number of references to something o Occurrence of keywords in texts o Co-occurrence of words Process: o Researcher identifies research problem, e.g. references to food in the New York Times o Sets parameters (e.g. every Wednesday issue of the Times from 1980-2000) o Constructs coding schedule to document data (e.g. the type of reference verbal and/or visual? and on which page etc.) o Checks reliability and discusses data Problems: o If not random, then a chance to pick a thematic issue by accident e.g. every Wed is a specialized food issue biased results o You might choose something only because it can be counted, not because it is meaningful, e.g. why would anyone want to count people in ads who have red curly hair? o Ignores audience perception, alternative readings, etc. o Highly labour-intensive, though software, CD-ROM and internet archives help o Criticized for being positivistic, not interpretative o Quantity doesnt tell us about quality, e.g. many women on the pages of Blesk, but in what context?? How it might be useful? o In conjunction with qualitative analysis o e.g. semiotic study, ethnography, participant observation Example questions: o Are the media getting bored with coverage of environmental issues? o Is there change in the language used to discuss an issue? o Is there greater ethnic diversity in TV advertising than in the past? o Is there more violence on TV than in the past? o Are social groups stereotyped in the media? o Do news reporters give more airtime to pro-government sources than dissenting ones?

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b) Corpus analysis Using a corpus as a tool for analysing text Corpus = a databank of text (usually very large, maybe hundreds of millions of words) that is accessible for analysis Some corpora reside with universities or publishers, e.g. British National Corpus, Bank of English, Brown Corpus of American English Types of corpora: o General databank from large range of sources e.g. newspaper text, novels, conversations, speeches o Specialized text of one particular type e.g. conversations o Some are filtered (spoken/written, male/female) o Google and other search engines work on a corpus principle (it treats the Web as a corpus) o You can make your own DIY corpora What can be done with a corpus: o A software program (like WordSmith) provides a good basis for content analysis Frequency counts (how often a word is used) Collocation (what words often occur together) How different one corpus is from another Average length of words/sentences Differences in style (e.g. male/female usage) Why is it usefull for news narrative: o You can get information about words that ordinary dictionaries dont provide o You can find out how language changes over time (compare an old corpus with a new one) o You can find out whether a specific person uses language in a unique way, or typical features of their speaking/writing (forensics)

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5. The paradox of homogeneity and heterogeneity in a globalized society Globalization not a single procces but a set of continious and intertwined processes describes a process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade All countries despite of their potential and power have the oppotunity to influence each other on societal, cultural, technological and economic level Homogeneity Advocates of anti-globalization claim that the world is being homogenized in the new global era Consumer goods are becoming homogenous all over the world people use the same kind of things: from planes and cars to pins. With this goes a consumeristic way of life and system of values that concentrate on the material world and on physical comfort (Featherstone, Lash & Robertson, 1995) Homogenization is basically something imposed on people by market forces it treats people as objects However, it should be noticed that even while they use those goods, people can and do assert themselves as subjects, integrating them in their own way of life people are not passively accepting, as they have great freedom to select the way of their lives. In this sense, people could choose their own favorites, regardless of the external factors A concern arrises because of the threat of homogenisation instead of heterogenisation and more equalised participation of diverse nations Skeptics of globalisation view its increasing as strengthening the dominance of a world capitalist economic system, supplanting the primacy of the nation state by transnational corporations and organizations, and eroding local cultures and traditions through a global culture Heterogeneity Global citizenship and thus the effects of globalization per se could promote a greater acceptance of diversity, heterogeneity, and otherness rather than globalization just promoting homogeneity and sameness. Yet globalization could produce as well new forms of imperialist domination under the guises of universality and globality. Indeed, there remains the danger that globalization functions as a cloak disguising a relentless Westernization, or even Americanization, of the world, much as did the old modernization theory that to some extent globalization theory inherits and continues. But the resurrection of tradition, ethno-nationalism, religious fundamentalisms, and other forms of resistance to globalization are motivated to at least some extent by a rejection of the homogenization and perhaps Westernization associated with some forms of globalization Acting in the present age involves understanding the matrix of global and local forces, forces of domination and resistance, and of a condition of rapid change and a "great transformation" brought about by the global restructuring of capital and multidimensional effects of new technologies Emergence of glocalisation = addapting global concepts or products on local levels, a mix of homogeniety and hereogenity. It is somethimes percieved as a threat to local culture beacuse of the lack of transparency of the proccess when implemented by TNCs

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6. The challenge to conventional culture by counterhegemony and subcultures Counterhegemony = movement against cultural hegemony, the alleged Western/American imperialism and globalization. Hegemony (Gramsci) = power or dominance that one group holds over others also a method of gaining and maintaining power needs to be constantly strengthened and reinforced best result is to build consent in order to peacefully control production and distribution subordinate ppl will accept the dominant ideology as reality and common sense Mass media key player in propagating and maintaining dominant ideology through shaping production of news and entertainment and agenda-setting BUT: hegemony needs reinforcement because ppl can modify/appropriate the messages they receive from media to fit their own ways of thinking when ideology is powerful, resistance is likely to be also strong o e.g. American campaign slogan Just Say No To Drugs was transformed into Just Say No To Drug Tests Effects of hegemony are never determined + ppl are often channeled into different directions, sometimes interpreting info not as it was intended Subcultures (gay, feminist, environmental groups, radical polit parties, music-based formations) use media and social networks to promote counter-hegemonic lifestyles dominant ideologies do exist and they frame perceptions and serve interests of dominant social institutions, BUT social change unmistakeably demonstrates that ideology is negotiated and contested, not just imposed and assumed ppl and nations shouldnt be considered victims of dominant social forces

Culture = artistic expression and creative, aesthetic, representational activity = way of living organization and nature of social activities (traditions, values, beliefs) now transmitted through TV & media (before through legends, stories, schooling) risk of American dominance on the media market Studies: o Schiller (1969) Mass Comm and the American Empire influential: claimed that US films and programs transmit American cultural beliefs and values over the world o Nordenstreng (1974) Television Traffic: A One Way Street analyzed media in 50 countries concluion: most entertainment content comes from US (study replicated after 10 years same results) o Tunstall (1977) The Media are American media = product of international trade, dismissed Schillers imperialist approach conclusion: USA = destroyer of cultures (used to be very common vision) BUT: most evidence economic, quantitative, not cultural hard to tell how exactly ppl perceived the content and reacted to it theres no real imperialism + audiences are more active and critical than not nations try to defend their cultural autonomies (quotas on domestic production / subsidies and grants / regional alliances (with foreign producers and broadcasters) / adaptation of programs / resistance measures (legal) Now: counterflow = a lot of media content comes from non-Western sources (ex. Brazil Globo, Mexico Televiza) Result difficult to generalize about effects of media messages on people ppl dont abandon their cultures in which they socialize measures are taken on state level to prevent media imperialism and fight American cultural hegemony

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7. NWICO and its legacy After WWII the UN Resolution 110 (1947) condemned all forms of propaganda to provoke or encourage threat to peace. On surface allied victory over fascism, but in reality relations between USA and USSR were destroyed and hostile Cold War tensions propaganda from both sides world divided into: o 1st World capitalist o 2nd World communist o 3rd World the rest = those countries outside the two blocs (not negative connotation)

=> 1st and 2nd worlds aimed to win over the neutral states (due to emergence of new nation-states after WWII)

1st world hoped to: - maintain control over raw materials - develop captive markets for Western products - crucial medium = radio - targets: Middle East, Asia, Africa, Latin Am.

2nd world hoped to gain: - opportunity to promote communism - exploit ripe and anti-colonial sentiment (oppose capitalists) defensive politics

1961 major developing countries formed Non-Aligned Movement (NOM) tired of constant pressures from either side aim: to ensure o national independence o sovereignty o territorial integrity o security neither East nor West today: 118 member-states (60% world population) lobbied UN to create NIEO = New International Economic Order world to be thought of not East/West, but North/South demanded democratic economic procedures demand for NWICO (New World of Info and Comm Order) NIEO linked to NWICO because a country cant function as an independent state unless it can control its comm. systems Main arguments for creation of NWICO: intl info system perpetuates and strengthens inequality in development has serious implications for countires of the South South is dependent on North for software and hardware in info sector North controls major intl media channels Western media give exploitative/distorted view on 3 rd world countries to the world structural logic of existing order creates a model of dependence has negative effects on policy, economy and society of Southern countries 1978 resolution was adopted on NWICO setting up Intl Commission for the Study of Comm Problems (aka the McBride Commission) Many Voices One World, also known as the MacBride report UNESCO publication of 1980 analyzing comm. problems in modern societies: relating to mass media and news / the emergence of new technologies / a kind of new communication order (NWICO) commission called for democratization of communication and strengthening of national media to avoid dependence on external sources commission claimed that equal opportunities in communication were part of the basic human rights in the same way as freedom of expression 1st time info & comm. related issues put on global agenda = key moment in comm. history Studied: o current state of world comm. (how/when/through what ppl comm across borders) o problems surrounding a free & balanced flow of info o how NWICO could be created? o if media could become a vehicle from educating public (concerning world problems)

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BUT: complaints about NWICO for sounding too communist controversy, claims from West: Sovietinspired propaganda strengthening: o media control o censorship o regulation in the West no governmental regulation promoted and Reagans presidency started new war Reaganism: o redrafted intl agenda anti-Soviet rhetoric o restricted aid to 3rd world countries Trade, Not Aid o promoted privatization of comm. institutions to be bought by Western companies 1984 culmination of tension: o US withdrawal from UNESCO o UK followed suit in 1985 propaganda increased and NWICO forgotten!

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8. Media globalization 1870-1900 and 1984-2011 a) 1870 - 1900 Industrial Revolution in Western Europe in the end of 19 th century was founded on profits of growing intl commerce through colonization access to natural resources and slaves created possibility to be a push so that comm. becomes internationalized stimulus to internationalization of comm. through: o growth of intl trade and investment o maintaining military security and alliances o demand for news from home = immigration => need to hear from the migrants Emergence of telegraph (1838) o Changed news transportation before transportation and communication used to be synonymous o Unification of empires due to speed (instant transmission) and secrecy (only governmental check can intervene) o Reuters and other news agencies benefited most of the spread of telegraph o Business community first to take advantage of telegraph + main source of funding o Military and govt news from battlefields (e.g. Crimean war 1854-56) o Regulated by Intl Telegraph Union (1865) 1st intl comm. organization in history to regulate comm. worldwide Invention and spread of telephone (A.G Bell, Canada, 1876) Emergence of news agencies: Reuters (UK), Wolff (DE), Havas (FR), Stefani (IT) o 1870 signed contract to divide the world markets between 3 main agencies o League of Allied Agencies aka Ring Combination o 1st time global concept of global media came into existence (but big media corporations accumulate power) o the Ring Combination set reserved territories = territorial division of news gathering and sale o monopolistic control over intl news often compared to todays global media At the turn of 20th century: o Film 1895: 1st film screening (silent) medium at first monopolized in France until 1920s o Newspapers not yet intl (limited by language) o Music emergence of gramophone / oldest recording company HMV (Britain, 1897) o Advertising 1st office in London (1899) JWT o Emergence of radio

b) 1984 - 2011 1984 Reaganism: Open Sky policy = broke telecomm monopoly in the US (AT&T) created 24 different small regional companies US withdrew from UNESCO in response to the alleged Soviet-oriented nature of NWICO criticism of regulation of comm tendencies towards deregulation and privatization state media monopolies were slowly turning towards private comm. networks shift from public-service role of telecomm to private competition = crucial moment by 1999, 98 countries in the world (not CZ) had liberalized their systems positive outcomes: o networks upgraded and expanded (better reception) o service improved (with new investments) o prices dropped (BUT: telecomm services used to be almost free under state regulation big corporations had their tariffs reduced, but population faced higher prices now) negative outcomes: o for ordinary ppl prices increased o paradox of capitalism: free market (MKT) inevitably leads to emergence of monopoly = promises of competition not fulfilled MKT liberalization meant MKT concentration o if competition was fostered diversity of content, but it cheaper to recycle news media controlled by a few companies (media convergence) that produce only a limited package of commercially viable contents Result: audiences needs for info were not met they were seen important by advertisers only media companies respond to advertisers, not citizens e.g. a program on TV may not be popular among wide audience, but it is still aired because it reaches a narrow and highly appreciated public (niche) for advertisers with privatization telecomm focus shifted to entertainment rather than primary source of info for the public globalization / TNMCs / big corporations presented threat to local production (economically cheaper to buy ready-made products than produce own) national struggles to preserve cultural values and fight Western imperialism and dominance (in the end proved to be not as dangerous and important) e.g. European media are required to broadcast 50% of local content to strengthen cultural identity

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Regulation of the global sphere of communication Intl Telecomm Union o to manage worlds info resources o used to be part of UN o to encourage countries to liberalize their comm. systems World Trade Organization (WTO) o mission: to take away trade barriers o media comm. area most problematic (cuz world population feels very strongly about their culture and identity that are reflected in media) may be seen as barriers to trade o tends to follow corporate incentives and pursuits to liberalize global telecomm MKT and further monopolize it Intelsat o global satellite system o used to be monopolistic during Cold War o aim: to reduce regulation of comm. and fight ideological war

with growth of TNMCs (some are bigger than countries economies), growing media convergence and concentration of media ownership global MKT economies created, but also a pervasive sense of powerlessness concern about area of comm

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9. The TNMCs: Structure, formation, legal and political context Before 1980s the most that ppl could own was a network of 3-4 family newspapers During 1980s new wave of mergers due to: o Disappearing of trade barriers deregulation before, governments protected pluralism and diversity, wouldnt allow one corporation to dominate the media MKT and determine agenda o Technological convergence new media = various sources of info weakening of former boundaries that separated different media products Strategy of media corporations to survive & be profitable = need to be involved in all media o Cross ownership = having holdings in various areas (e.g. General Electric: owns NBC (broadcaster) + plastics + military jets, engines + banking & financing+ insurance + energy sources)

Conglomeration logic = why does it make sense? (reasons/context of TNMCs formation) allows speeding up on MKT entry more available $ to enter new MKTs and other media obtaining new technologies staying updated on technological advancements sharing of risks and expenses if one area fails, other media cover up costs balance budgets limit competition paradox of capitalism = media MKT ends up concentrated 4 ways media empires are formed: Through the will of strong leaders o e.g. Rupert Murdoch (News Corp.) strong personality, trust sought opportunities for expansion through: o loopholes in legislation o weaknesses in competing companies To acquire necessary resources o in the 1980s corporations needed to grow fast to survive o e.g. Sony acquired Columbia Pictures produced VCR cassettes (under Columbia licenses) dominated MKT of VCR recorders and cassettes expanded due to need for resources not available before Expansion for opportunistic or non-strategic reasons o happens when changes in regulatory environmental allow for expansion o happens when other companies fail to create acquisition possibilities e.g. for 20 years, U.S. media market was monopolized by NBC, ABS & CBS x when R. Murdoch bought a small network of local TV stations opportunity to enter MKT Fox TV 4th US-wide network Stability o increasing size and scope of activity strengthen MKT share so that nobody could hurt (eliminate possibilities for competition) How TNMCs are structured: Horizontal o = monomedia o amalgamation of 2 or more companies engaged in same/similar activities o economy of scale = an increase of production level drives down the cost per unit Vertical o = cross-media o invest in media assets which can increase competitiveness by: reducing costs (e.g. produce film and transmit it through own cinema network no paying to external media) assuring access to MKT Diagonal o ownership of different media sectors economies of both scale and scope (different MKTs covered in different areas) o e.g. owning newspapers + TV + online media to gain increased efficiency o Benefits: balanced revenues balanced media coverage (e.g. GE NBC ignored the hazards of nuclear energy could have hurt economic interests of the conglomerate) recycle news & share info among outlets (cheaper to set news agenda and send info around instead of paying journalists for individual investigations) cross-licensing & marketing among company-owned media properties (ex. sport teams + media = films/books/talk shows to feature and promote stars) bulk buying and group discounts (sell advertisements in bulk + higher reach via various outlets) sharing of resources (journalists, market researchers, equipment, newswire services)

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How TNMCs grow: Mergers combination of 2 companies into 1 = new entity o assumes assets and liabilities of both companies o 2001 biggest commercial merger in history: AOL + Warner (but unsuccessful) Acquisitions purchase of 1 company by another through cash and/or security settlements o aim: to gain from productive capacity Strategic Alliances o two or more companies work together for mutual advantages Political influence: Global Media Lobby o very powerful: managed to delay media legislations packages in EU for 9 years now o influence polit. parties about laws being passed Raise policy issues Cultural and informational diversity effects: Oligopolization significantly reduced plurality and diversity BUT since ppl want local content more than intl spread of localization and cultural preservation tendencies Legal aspects: Television without Frontiers (1997) all TV stations within EU must devote 50% of airtime to programs produced and originated in EU o aim: to help indigenous production and protect culture Subsidies and grants o MEDIA = Measures to Encourage Development of Audiovisual Industry Regional alliances larger market reach + appeal across countries + wider name recognition Adaptation of programs purchasing ready-made media content and adapt it in local language o e.g. Ugly Betty or Who wants to be a millionaire?

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10. Role of corporate ethics in mass communication and advertising Corporate ethics = forms of professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and business organizations as a whole = a field of ethics that deals with ethical questions in many fields such as medical, technical, legal and business ethics Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) business ethics + corp governance + environment + corp citizenship rooted in Stakeholder Theory: business has social responsibility, additionally to the aim to make profit Triple bottom line companies report on concerns and achievements: o social o environmental o economic all 3 elements contribute to more productive and profitable business sustainable development o proposes long-term economic growth o accompanied by social and environmental protection corporate ethical behavior (3 levels): o macro business role within society o corporate way the business behaves within industry o individual way employees/managers behave effect (if Social Expectation Media Theory is applied): o CSR becomes acceptable and highly expected behavior in business environment o Good community relations beneficial (especially in case of expansion or corp. restructuring) corporate identity and adopted ethical standard influence the way the company advertises and behaves in marketplace is its advertising truthful? ethical? deceptive?

Deceptive advertising in US regulated by Federal Trade Commission Section 5 of the FTC Act prohibits unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce BUT as advertising belongs to commercial speech, it is protected by the Commercial Speech Doctrine, which allows for some extent of state regulation of false advertising, yet providing significant First Amendment protection to commercial speech Deceptive Communication in attempt to regulate and standardize corporate ethical behaviors, companies adopt Codes of Conduct (e.g. Munich Charter framework of acceptable behavior for journalists) helps to prevent/avoid conflicts of interest and gives basis for the correct and ethical behavior Public Sphere expectations according to Social Responsibility Media Theory, medias role in the society is to deliver fair, full, truthful and reliable info in order to preserve democracy and create informed citizenry media play crucial role in serving public good and public interest wide range of possible expectations about the essential contribution of mass media to the working of political and other social institutions o publishing full, fair and reliable info on public matters o assisting in expression of diverse points of view o giving access to many voices in society o facilitating participation of citizens in social and political life corporate ethical standing is important, because it impacts the way info about the company is communicated to the society and the extent to which corp advertising is truthful since media have certain public and social obligations (to serve public interest and preserve public sphere and democracy) corp. ethical behavior and professional codes help to avoid deception

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11. The relevance of classical rhetoric (logos, ethos, pathos) in contemporary contexts In the process of transition from Oral to Literacy stage, much evidence was documented in Ancient Greece Rhetorics = means of solving disputes Emphasis on rationality (influential: Aristotle, Plato) Aristotle 3 major forms of persuasion: logos, ethos, pathos

a) Logos = appeal to logic, attempt to persuade by constructing rational arguments use of statistics, facts, theoretical language, citations from experts, definitions evokes cognitive, rational response contemporary examples: o academic debates o political debates about environmental issues or economic crisis (vs. a lot of pathos, too) contemporary logic uses mostly inductive approach (drawing a general conclusion from several similar examples) rather than deductive logic (concluding upon a specific idea from a general trend or concept), which is increasingly considered female logic evaluating logical arguments: o Deductive: Valid? (conclusion must be true if premises are true) Sound? (valid and all premises are true) o Inductive: Strong? (probable that conclusion will be true if premises are true) Cogent? (strong and all premises are true) important to avoid logical fallacies = defects in argument for a reason different than a false premise unjustified claims o Subjectivist fallacy smth is true only because we believe/want it to be true assumes were infallible o Appeal to majority in political debates o Appeal to emotion instead of evidence: rhetorical language, propaganda (pathos) o Appeal to force by means of threats (ethos) o Appeal to authority relying on ones expertise/title (ethos) o Ad hominem dismissing another view by attacking the person rather than the statement o Poisoning the well attacking argument by attacking the source, motives o False alternative leaving out other possibilities on purpose o Post hoc false causality of linking 2 events o Hasty generalization concluding about a group based on a few examples/representatives o Begging the question circular argumentation, restating the premise, which by itself assumes the conclusion o Equivocation switching the meaning of a term in the middle of argmt o Appeal to ignorance assume argument is true because it hasnt been proven wrong o Strawman argument distorting opponents position by stating it in oversimplified or extreme form and then refuting the distorted position b) Ethos establishes authors reputation and good character relies on personal charisma, experience appropriate language, vocabulary based on audience type demonstrates author's reliability, competence, and respect for the audience's ideas and values through reliable and appropriate use of support and general accuracy contemporary examples: o resumes, titles/degrees earned within communities (Prof., Dr.) o reliability of brand/its image and reputation, labels and icons (clothing brands) show personal identity (although ethos comes from authors language, not from appearance) currently trust filtering: as credibility of journalists and corporations is dropping, ppl tend to rather trust their peers who send them links and share info market oversaturated as ppl count on friends to help filter news constant news access and update and shift of credibility aspects

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c) Pathos = appeal to emotions = accepting an claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim establish a state of perception of authors ideas in the audience = desired state of emotions from psychology (Aristotle wrote a lot on psychology of audiences) Aristotle warns: knowing how to get your readers to receive your ideas by making readers "pleased and friendly" or "pained and hostile" is one thing, BUT playing on readers' emotions in ways that make them mindless of concepts and consequences can corrupt the judgment of both individuals and the community manipulation of public opinion contemporary examples: o a majority of arguments in the popular press are heavily dependent on pathetic appeals. The more people react without full consideration for the WHY, the more effective an argument can be. o since 1980s constant decline in credibility of news (down to 23% now) and 700-percent increase in dramatization of news o advertising o political speeches (especially official events, inauguration etc.) although the pathetic appeal can be manipulative, it is the cornerstone of moving people for action many arguments are able to persuade people logically, but the apathetic audience may not follow through on the call to action. Appeals to pathos touch a nerve and compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world. mind emotional fatigue = pushing the limits of emotional tolerance due to overexposure of emotional appeal in media, ppl are increasingly ignorant or indifferent to touching images that used to shock them before

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12. The impact of available means of communication (oral, typographic, electronic/digital) on social relationships in different historical eras a) Oral society in contrast to literate ones: o concerned with truth o no history kept in writing distorted info along the way o are small communicating face-to-face (5,000 years ago) no facts (what is a fact for Medieval man, its an opinion for modern man) all info within local community nothing reaches majority rumors dialects not comprehensible within 50km away the most educated the elderly (have experience, sent to be judges, confirmed the way things have always been done) words seen as a deep part of human existence sources of info: o church (paintings, stained glass windows, priests) o traveling merchants, theater groups (spread gossips) o town crier (cities built around a square ppl gather around to hear word-of-mouth) o manuscripts (but most ppl couldnt read had info read for them) never dated o memory difficulties: o no calendars, clocks rarely other unit of time than hour problems to follow Bdays, holidays (Easter) o traveling dangerous: no maps, nobody knew destination, language difficulties single traveling was rare, ppl traveled to spread messages o low quality of news: rumors, whispers no way to establish whether info is true and current; spread by poets, merchants, entertainers their visits rare even entertainment contained political/social message = the noble used it to spread info and influence masses oral societies participatory, closer to humanity, situational Sound evanescent = constantly disappearing without writing words have no presence sound has relationship to time cant be held and stopped (but it gives the sound a magical power it comes and goes) Vision can be re-examined Secondary orality = concept that were using orality for different functions now than before: o even when speaking we rely on/think of written words o e.g. elections ppl want to hear candidates speak and debate

b) Typographic society pressure to create literal/literate society: o need for factual info o spread of universities o 14th century paper brought to Europe church o 15th century printing press! technology = prime antecedent of changes in society (human factors and social arrangements secondary) profound psychological consequences: writing led to different manner of thinking The medium is the message (Marshall McLuhan) = message is imparted by a delivery system = the method of communication is more significant than the content influenced by Harold Innis print makes thinking more: o rational o logical o abstract o detached from subject o decontextualized o more critical than standard thinking

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print creates: o mass production o individualism (reading personally) o privacy o specialization o nationalism o militarism

c) Electronic/Digital society Internet: e-mail, discussion forums, social networks, intranets, etc. Technological convergence all in one devices (smartphones etc.) multiple activities Communication fast & immediate, always within reach loss of privacy Personal communication o media convergence, multiple activities shorter attention span and shallower attention o quantity over quality e.g. Facebook friends shallower relationships o global village smaller and faster world, globalization Workplace o more volatile jobs, greater variety o more home-office, virtual jobs o smaller difference between work & private life no balance, constantly reachable

McLuhans Balance Points of History: Tribal age (acoustic community) o senses of hearing, touch, taste, smell are more advanced than visual o the ear doesnt select ppl lived richer lives than their literal descendents Age of Literacy (visual) o ppl shift from collective involvement to private involvement o literacy encouraged linear, logical thinking Print age (prototype of industrial revolution) o fragmentation of society most significant outcome of print o allowed mass production o different languages stabilization Electronic age (rise of global village) o believed that electronic media retribalizing humanity o privacy is a luxury o we have reverted back to earlier culture o hearing and touching take precedence over sight unified human life

Harold Innis: Media Determination Theory o social change is determined by development in communication forms o as new forms of comm. become dominant society changes o changes happen to accommodate new development the dominant form of communication determines social structures

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13. The media and the portrayal of groups in society One of the major perceived realities that media help create for us involves information about groups of people. Through media we are exposed to a much broader range of people than most of us would encounter in our lives. Not only are the media our introduction to these people, but sometimes they are the only source of our info about them. And sometimes everything we know about some kinds of people comes from TV. In different studies children reported that most of their info about people comes from parents and TV, with TV becoming increasingly important. a) Portrayals of the Sexes View of Women o The most basic gender asymmetry is that there are fewer females portrayed in serious or official media than males vs. women portrayed more as sexual objects o Content analyses of characters on TV show that throughout the 70s, 80s and 90s show twice as many men as women in prime time dramas and morning children shows. The same goes with children cartoon characters, music videos, in photos in the newspaper (except in lifestyle sections) etc. o Although women appear almost as often as men in commercials, the voice over announcer is male almost 90% of the time o Physical appearance - another concern is that women are too often portrayed as youthful beauties whose duty is to stay young and attractive to please their men. Wrinkles, gray hair or mature figure are to be avoided at all costs. And this is more apparent in advertising. Women have become slimmer during the 20th century and the weight gap btw models and real women is widening. The idealized portrayal of feminine beauty is a highly unusual body type very tall, thin and small hipped. o Breast Feeding the breasts presented on media as sexual organs, even in the context of their intended biological use. Breast feeding showed in advertising in very revealing poses, which might discourage women to breast feed in public View of Men o Emotionless Beings portrayal of men in media- cool, calm, self-confident, decisive, and emotionless; sends a message that this is how man are supposed to be. o Physical Appearance men are portrayed as young and attractive with well-developed upper body muscles. It is not quite as bad for man to age as for woman (little gray hair makes a man look possibly sexy; whereas women look old). o Friendships media images of friendship are different for both genders; women show a greater degree of emotional intimacy than man do. o Domestic Roles men portrayed as competent professionally, but seen as clumsy in regard to housework, cooking and child care as opposed to women, who are portrayed as very knowledgeable experts regarding this. It suggests that childcare is not a part of the normal male role. Effects of Gender Stereotyping o Negative or narrow gender images become a concern if they are seen as a reflective of real life. If the same themes about how man and women are supposed to behave and think keep recurring, it is more likely to be perceived as reality. o This way, we may take portrayals of our own gender as cues to the ways we should look and behave. When we fail to meet these standards- that can set up for experiencing low self-esteem.

b) Portrayals of Minorities 4 stages in minority portrayals chronological stages of the portrayals of minorities in media: o Nonrecognition minority group simply excluded from media/TV. Not ridiculed not caricatured, it is simply not there (till recently, the position of gays & lesbians in TV) o Ridicule the dominant group bolsters its own self-image by putting down and stereotyping the minority, presenting them as incompetent and unintelligent o Regulation where minority group members appear as protectors of the existing orders (police officers, spies, detectives) typical of the first positive roles open to African American and Latinos o Respect when the minority group appears in the same full range of roles, booth good and bad that the majority does Portrayals of some racial minorities in the US media: o African Americans until 1960 almost no portrayal, or limited to a few stereotyped and demeaning roles. The civil rights movement of 1960s ushered significant changes and African Americans started to appear in advertising and leading roles in prime-time TV. o Latinos tereotyping of Latinos dates back to the silent film era with the greasy Mexican bandit or Latin lover of 1930-40s. The portrayal of Latinos in TV is largely invisible and tending to be in negative or regulatory roles when they do occur.

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o Native Americans throughout history, stereotyped negative images have been pervasive both in news and entertainment media. Indians usually depicted as vicious killers, living in teepees and hunting buffalos. Women seldom appeared or when they did they were passive. They are hardly in the news and they usually appear about land claims litigation or Indian run casinos. Asian Americans long history of movie stereotyping about Asian ppl. Often as villains. However, overall, they are portrayed more positively than any other minority in the US; as the model minority that succeeds academically, commercially and socially.

c) Other groups/minorities o Elderly people unrepresented in the US media. Stereotypes of older ppl in the media include mental and physical weakness and poor health, complaining, stereotyped positions and activities (trivial things e.g. playing bingo), physically unattractive. Gays and Lesbians the Production Code of 1924 formalized the voluntary exclusion of all gay and lesbian portrayals form Hollywood films. Very occasional opening started in the late 1960s. Although, by the mid 1980s it had become common to mention homosexuality on US TV. The reluctance to show gay or lesbian people was basically economic (because of pressures from sponsors), not moralistic. There have been several TV and studio films dealing with homosexuality and/or AIDS but they have encountered difficulty in casting such films since actors have been reluctant to accept gay parts. Gays and lesbians are treated qualitatively differently from ethnic, religious or other social minorities and it is a group that is still socially and politically acceptable to despise. Persons with physical disabilities they have occasionally appeared disability and other pal failure to paraplegic who wheels hundreds even though largely absent from TV through most of the mediums history, in the bitter Crip (a person with a disability is depressed due to the accept him/her as a person) or supercrip(superhuman and selfless of miles to raise money for cancer research) stereotypes.

Farmers and rural life rural people ofen depictes an uneducated, stupid and with no experience. Also, Problems facing the profession of agriculture have typically been urreported in the news. College students drinking beer and other alcoholic beverages, excessive, reckless, and destructive behaviors

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14. Psychological issues in sports and media In some ways, sports media is like other media consumption, but in other ways is unique. On TV, sports (and in a very different way, news), is live and unrehearsed with an unknown outcome, and this is what makes it different from predictable nature of most entertainment programming and advertising. Sports Media Consumption as a social event Coviewers part of reality of sports media consumption involves the presence of others- a friend gather at someones home or in a bar to watch a game, and the game seems more enjoyable in a group. The expression of emotion and the re-creation of the stadium situation (of watching the event in the crowd) are parts of the reason. Food and Drink another social reality of TV sports viewing is eating and drinking that accompanies the viewing. People eat and drink the same sort of substances at home (snacks, beer) as what they might consume in attendance at the stadium. Competitiveness and Cooperation one major psychological component of sports is competition and the achievement of victory. Part of the perceived reality of TV sports involves the desire to win- a drive which is learned through media. The strong competitive drive can easily overshadow the learning of team work and cooperation. Nationalism patriotism comes into play in international competition. Sports nationalism can occasionally degenerate into antisocial extremes. Celebration of Victory reward in sports is generally for winning. In carrying so many more sports into so many lives, TV has encouraged competitiveness. With the star mindset that focuses in individuals, TV lavished attention on the winner and ignores everyone else. This helps to construct reality in viewers that coming in the first is what is important. Sports metaphors carry over into our speech and thinking in many other areas of live, e.g. relationships. A person going on a day scores or strikes out. Women complain that men see women as trophies. Sports Trivia a subtler way how competitiveness can manifest itself in the sports viewer is in the accumulation and exhibition of copious, seemingly endless, sports trivia and statistics. Sportscasters encourage this through their endless recitation of such info in radio + TV and such statistics have become part of the reality of media sports... The Star vs. the Team often the star mentality of TV affects the presentation of sports in the media. Plays of the superstars are glorified by sportscasters more than teamwork is which may undermine the importance of teamwork for the viewer. Sports Violence the media tends to focus on the occasional fight on the field. When results of the game are later reported in the news, it is more likely that the fight, not the game, is chosen as a sound bite of the evening e.g. NHL vs. European hockey. The heavy charge given to the fight conveys a subtle agenda setting message. The perceived reality to the viewer may be that the winner of the fight is to be admired as the winner of the game itself. There is some evidence of negative behavioral effects from watching aggressive sports. Fans leaving a college football game scored higher in hostility and aggressiveness than control fans who watched swimming race.

Emotional Benefits Gender-Role Socialization although not as dichotomous as in the past, boys are encouraged to participate in all kinds of sports more than girls are. Boyrs are also more encouraged to watch sport on T. So, TV becomes part of the male socialization role and determines his masculinity. Consuming media sports together becomes part of the reality of many father-son relationships. One advantage for men watching sports is that its probably the one arena where they are most free to express emotion. Many heterosexual men probably never in their lives hug another man, except in the context of playing or watching sports. In the past, girls were often given the message that participation in sports was unfeminine and could be a liability in attracting man. Recently, this has changed and it is not inappropriate for women to play sports and know more about sports than man, even though TV audiences for most sports are still male. Racial Bias even though in certain US sports the majority of players are African American, their numbers in the sport administration are very low. Hero Worship media coverage of sports has enhanced the percieved reality of the hero. Sport stars have long been heroes emulated by youth. Children emulate their TV sports heroes by imitating not only his hero;s great shooting but also his temper. One area of concern regarding the hero worship has been the use of drugs by sports stars and the resulting effect on children. Another aspect of emulating athletic heroes is seen in the are of fashion where people want to dress like them. (e.g jogging clothes becoming high fashion).

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Obviously, physical health and fitness are not encouraged when it comes to consuming sports through media emotionally, this picture is less clear. Media reporting of sports events are doing more than reflecting the reality of that game. They changed the very sports themselves and how our minds consider sports. Sports fans consider what the sportscaster says, now what they observe with their own senses. When ppl think of sports, they are most likely to first think of watching TV. The perceived reality of sports acquired through TV is thus what sports are, for most people. Just as media are our knowledge source about groups of people, social values, or products for sale, so do they tell us about sports, how to play them and how to watch them. The high coverage also sets a clear agenda that sports are important.

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15. Media portrayals of sexuality and society Analyzing media representations of sexuality involves many same issues, concepts and processes as the analysis of any other form of identity issues of power and politics, concepts like stereotyping and ideology, processes of production and consumption. Stereotyping The prime device through which ideological positions about sexuality are circulated in the media is the stereotype, which unfortunately, are inevitable in any form of immediate, accessible communications. Since theres never enough time to or space to describe people in all the rich complexity that their individuality deserves, short-cuts have to be taken, comparisons made, generalizations risked, labels attached. Stereotyping is a process of selection, magnification and reduction. Example of sexuality stereotype: film and TV comedies are full of images of gay men as effeminate screaming queens. Such images are not fabricated out of nothing, some gay men are like that some of the time, but what the stereotype does is to take out those somes. It chooses one aspect of gay male behavior (selection), inflates it into the defining characteristic of male homosexuality (magnification), and then establishes it as the most easily recognizable image (reduction). Ideological implications of stereotyping are obvious, since the groups being stereotyped are those with less social and cultural power. Stereotypes becomes ideological in the moment it stops being simply a description and becomes a vehicle for values (the image of screaming queen does not just mean all gay men are like that, but all gay men are like that and arent they awful?, and even arent they awful because they are not like us?) Stereotypes of sexuality strive to create two, polarized sexualities, hetero- and homo-. They insist with reductiveness that people who belong to those poles are easily identifiable. Lesbians and gays who could not be correlated into one of the polarized stereotypes were until recently not representable in the mainstream media. More recently, as part of the gradual change in social attitudes toward homosexuality, media representations have become more varied and diverse in content, e.g. TV talk shows frequently feature studio debates on matters of sexuality. In contemporary society, mass media play a central part in the overall socialization process by which individuals obtain their personal understandings of their culture and their knowledge of their social order. In their portrayal of the social and physical world, the mass media present meaning to their audiences for specific words, aspects of reality, social situations and categories of people. Wordmeaning relationship theory concludes that once learned, these meanings and general interpretations provide a basis for peoples behavioral decisions. An important application of this theory is analysis of stereotypes, which helps understand how the media help perpetuate certain clusters of belief about a particular categories of people. In a media dominated society, people depend on media to portray and define those things that people have not personally experienced for themselves. By communicating across barriers and developing common content denominator to which all potential audiences can relate, the media builds symbols or pictures in our head of a particular group. Studies show that negative, one-sided and stereotyped media portrayals and news coverage do reinforce prejudiced and racist attitudes in those members of audience who do have them and can channel mass actions against the group that is stereotypically portrayed.

5 functions of media in society Surveillance - lookout role of the media watching the society and horizon for threats to the established order and information on ppl or places of public interest Correlation interpretation and linking function of the media, which helps audience understand, interpret, and comprehend the different things that are happening in and out of the society and how they affect each other, as well as stay in touch with others in the society Transmission the socialization function of the media, which defines the society, its norms and values to the audience through portrayals and coverage assists members of the society in adopting, using and acting on those values Entertainment the function of the media for diversion and enjoyment, which provides stories, features, music, and films designed to make the audience laugh, cry , relax, reflect rather than gain info Economic Service the role of the media within the economic system of the society- in the US most media function as corporations serving the needs of their shareholders

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16. The rise and development of media and changes to the concept of the public Even though it was only in 1920s (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) that people began to speak of the media and in 1950s of a communication revolution, a concern with the means of communication is much older than that. Communication across distance has been the catalyst for many changes in human relationships. Through a variety of mediated technologies, the cumulative effect of these changes was a redefinition of space and time, and increasingly immediacy and transparency in global connections. Echoes of continuity are found between what begin in simple signal systems among the Greek and Romans and the innovations in todays global society. Taken as a whole, these technologies accompanied the broad movement toward modernism and later, postmodernism. Rhetoric was taken seriously from the ancient Greece and Rome and throughout 18 th and 19th centuries, when other ideas were emerging. The concept of public opinion appeared in the late 18th century with concept of the masses emerging in 19th century, when newspapers fashioned the national consciousness by making people aware of their fellow readers. In the age of radio scholars began to recognize the importance of oral communication of ancient times. And the beginning of TV age in 1950s brought in the visual communication as well and stimulated the rise of an interdisciplinary theory of the media. Contributions were made from economics, history, literature, art, political science, psychology sociology and anthropology, which led to the emergence of academic departments of communications and cultural studies. From its beginnings, communication has evolved/transformed into todays elaborate technological systems and networks. With faster and far-reaching communication, important social and political developments occurred at the margins of technology and ideology, each interacting and expanding the potential outcomes of the other. Troughout the Middle Ages, clerics were among the few literate people engaged in any task requiring writing. Literacy for the common public, however, required access to printed matter and the means to transport and circulate widely, thus a printing press and a postal service were prerequisites: Printing press appeared in Asia as early as the 8th century; however in Europe Johannes Gutenberg developed the press about 1430 stemmed from his concerted effort to print Bibles for the use in local churches. The social consequences of the printing press were far-reaching, eventually encouraging the practice of reading among common people and the reformation of medieval European institutions, religions and governments. Books and other printed material eventually sparked social and political changes that gave rise to popular political consciousness and public opinion. The changes set in motion by the printing press were profound; new literacy introduced new kinds of social relationships and networks among both learned and common people. The postal service was an innovation patterned after old courier and messenger systems which opened a market for pamphlets and newspapers. The introduction of first user-friendly telegraph in 1844 allowed symbols to move independent of geography and marked the shift between transportation and ritual modes of communication. The electric telegraph was soon followed by the telephone and wireless radio, which opened the door to the social revolution that accompanied the information age. With railroad and telegraph, the cities were brought closer together within a nation. Furthermore, the scientific innovations of the 19th century launched the world on a path to electrification of industry and commerce. Within 20 years of the general introduction of the telegraph (1844), there were 1,500,000 miles of telegraph lines throughout the world, but mostly in Europe and North America. The first transatlantic cable line was operational by 1866, which tie the world closer together. Telegraph networks had implications for the newspaper industry in 19th century, when the first news agencies appeared and altered the process of news dissemination. At the turn of 20th century, we have the emergence of film, music and advertising. During the 20th century, the growth of mass media was driven by technology, including that which allowed much duplication of material. Physical duplication technologies such as printing, record pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books, newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronic duplication of information for the first time. During the period post-WW II, radio, television and video became very popular as they provided information and entertainment. Of late, it is the Internet which has become the latest and most popular of the mass media. Here, information is been generated through various websites and search engines. Thus, due to the progress of science and technology, the development of the media has evolved and reached the present-day world of internet and the coming together of the media and telecommunication industries convergence. As for media studies, the nineteenth century brought about major ideological change that set the stage for media studies. Phases encompassing new ideas were coined by Harold Innis media determinism: Societal change determined by development in communication forms As new forms of communication become dominant, society changes Changes happen in order to accommodate to these developments The dominant form of communication determines societal structures Each civilization in history took its form a bias created by the preponderance of a type of communication

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bias of communication Innis theory divided media in 2 bias: o Time binding media e.g. manuscripts and oral communication (have a limited distribution potential) this kind of media favored close communities, metaphysical speculation, traditional authority o Space-binding media concerned with explosion and control e.g. print and electronic media this kind of media favored the establishment of commercialism and empire

Harold Laswell communication as who says what to whom in which channel with what effect Marshall McLuhan the medium is the message technological determinism: We cannot use technology without being influenced or used by it no matter how it is used, it has consequences Changes in communication cause cultural change and shape human existence global village Media organize and interpret our social existence We shape our tools and in turn they shape us Times Balances Points of History we can divide the human history in 4 epochs: o The tribal age an acoustic community sense of hearing, touch, taste, smell more advanced than visual o The age of the literacy a visual point of view people go from collective involvement to private detachment, literacy encouraged logical, linear thinking people who could read quickly traded an ear for an eye o The print age prototype of the industrial revolution fragmentation of society as the most significant outcome of print Print allowed production of mass copies of the same product led to the industrial revolution o The electronic age the rise of the global village electronic media re-tribalizing humanity = we have reverted back to the earlier culture hearing and touching take precedence over sight once again Jack Goody Domestication of the savage mind Jurgen Habermas defined the public sphere = a zone for discourse in which ideas are explored and a public view can be expressed

The development of media transformed the nature of publicness The public and the private Relation between: a domain of institutionalized political power increasingly vested in the hands of sovereign state vs. domains of economic activity/personal relations outside direct political control from 17th century: public activity or authority derived from the state private activities/spheres separated from it Some aspects of this public-private distinctions look like this: Private domain - privately owned economic orgs. operating in market economy and oriented toward profit - personal and familiar relations Intermediate orgs. - intermediate organizations (e.g. charities, political parties, lobbyists etc.) Public domain - state-owned economic orgs. (e.g. state-owned public utilities, nationalized industries) - state and quasi-state orgs. (including welfare orgs.)

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x another sense in Western social and political discourse according to this sense: Public = open or available to public in this sense, public means: o What is visible and observable o What is performed in front of spectators o What is open for all or many to see or hear about Private = restricted o What is hidden from view o What said/done in privacy/secrecy or among restricted group

How has the development of new media communication restructured boundaries between Public and Private? Prior to development of media: o publicness linked to sharing of common locale o event became public by being staged at its occurrence with individuals present o the traditional publicness of co-presence Media created new focus of publicness quite different from traditional co-presence: o no longer linked to common sharing locale o recorded and transmitted to those not physically present o development has given rise to new forms of mediated publicness Print used for: official state proclamations medium through which opposition groups can highlight action Reading public = a public without a place

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17. Vernacular languages, imagined communities, the rise of nationalism Vernacular language refers to a native language of a country or a locality opposed to lingua franca, official standards or global languages; also nonstandard dialects of a global language until 17th century in Europe written work in Latin vernacularization Romance languages started to produce literatures of their own (Divine Comedy; The Song of Roland Italian, Spanish, French) write literature in the vernacular the language of the people contrasted with liturgical languages in linguistics the relationship between high and low languages (diglossia), e.g. until 1960s Roman Catholics held masses in Latin rather than in vernacular language Reformation was spread by the publication of Bibles and other religious writings in the vernacular Sociolinguistics not heard in Western world until the late 1800s vernacular varieties as casual varieties used spontaneously rather than self-consciously (informal talk used in intimate situations the first form of speech acquired by a person) on the other hand defined as nonstandard, local dialects particularly because of the nonstandard grammatical features that they contain there is continuum between the vernacular and the standard or as a nonstandard or counter-culture that is expressed through participation in particular activities or clothing styles or as a local culture determined by the connectedness to a certain neighborhood children would receive early education and reading instruction in their native vernaculars while they were being taught the regular school language, and gradually be switched to the school language see the national school language as the only path to advancement and take vernacular language education to be attempts to block the path many populations with very high literacy levels, Japanese rural, citizens of German speaking Swiss cantons vernacular language is about as different from the school language Language which has not been standardized and which doesnt not have official status hundreds of them (e.g. Bang in Papua New Guinea) Many different ethic or tribal languages used by different groups are referred to as vernacular languages First language learned by the people used for relatively narrow range of informal functions: o un-codified or un-standardized variety defined criterion o refers to the way it is acquire at home o used for relatively circumscribed functions in 1951 UNESCO defined it as the first language of a group socially or politically dominated by a group with a different language US English is the language of the dominant group and Spanish refers to a vernacular; vs. Spanish not vernacular in e.g. Spain, Uruguay or Chile Education in a vernacular language referring to education in an ethic minority language in particular country In multilingual community this variety will often be an un-standardized ethic or tribal language Vernacular used for communication at home and with close friends It is the language of solidarity between people from the same ethnic group Used by sociolinguists studding social dialects Sometimes used to indicate everyday interaction In contrast is standardized languages used for more formal functions Imagined community (1983) as Benedict Anderson stated nation is a community socially constructed, which is to say imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of the group an imagined political community [that is] imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign an imagined community is different from an actual community because it is not (and cannot be) based on everyday face-to-face interaction between its members members hold in their minds a mental image of their affinity the nationhood you feel with other members of your nation when your "imagined community" participates in a larger event such as the Olympics members of the community probably will never know one another face to face; however, they may have similar interests or identify as part of the same nation the media also create imagined communities, through targeting a mass audience or generalizing and addressing citizens as the public even though we may never see anyone in our imagined community, we still know they are there through communication creation of imagined communities became possible because of "print-capitalism" = capitalist entrepreneurs printed their books and media in the vernacular in order to maximize circulation readers speaking various local dialects became able to understand each other, and a common discourse emerged Anderson argued that the first European nation-states were thus formed around their "national print-languages

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Rise of nationalism in 18th century the wave of romantic nationalism some new countries, such as Germany and Italy were formed by uniting smaller states with a common "national identity" Greece, Poland and Bulgaria, were formed by winning their independence Europe radical intellectuals questioned the old monarchial order and encouraged the development of a popular nationalism committed to re-drawing the political map of the continent revolutionary armies carried the slogan of "liberty, equality and brotherhood" and ideas of liberalism and national self-determinism grew out of an intellectual reaction to the Enlightenment that emphasized national identity and developed a romantic view of cultural self-expression through nationhood nationalism was confined to small groups of intellectuals and political radicals invention of a symbolic national identity became the concern of racial or linguistic groups throughout Europe as they struggled to come to terms with the rise of mass politics, popular xenophobia, discrimination and the decline of the traditional social elites rise of two bitterly opposed socialist ideologies: o International Communism (Marxism) o National Socialism (Nazism/Fascism)

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18. The origins of public broadcasting and contemporary issues Public Service Broadcasting Traditionally, government intervention to regulate for 2 reasons: o Scarcity portion of electromagnetic spectrum limited o Problems with financing most forms of broadcast culture funded by box office mechanism (ppl pay to enter special place to enjoy a play, concert, film etc.) Thus, the two means of financing broadcasting have been: o Tax on receiving sets (license fee) o Advertising The legendary British solution o create a single company o broadcast & post office financed by license fees o charged to all Houses

a) United Kingdom Committees were set up to figure out what is the public service concept: Sykes Committee (Frederic Sykes - 1923) o Crucial move; derived public broadcasting as a public utility o Judged, control of potential power over public opinion should remain with the state o Yet, rejected government control o Thus, definition and mandate of broadcasting as a public utility came from the state. But, interpretation of that definition and effort to realize its meaning came from broadcaster Above all one person: John Reith o Managing director of BBC 1923-1926, Director General of BBC 1927-1958: Reith thought broadcasting should be in the hands of broadcasters, independent both from government and business Crawford Committee (1925) o Set up to establish guidelines for future of broadcasting on long term basis because Sykes committee had only made short-term recommendations o Reith invited to give views about scope, conduct of broadcasting his manifesto overriding concern for: maintenance of high standards unified policy for the whole of the service provided service must not be used for entertainment purposes alone advocacy of public service as a cultural, moral and educative force o broadcasting had a responsibility to bring all the best in human knowledge and achievement into the greatest possible number of homes educative role o presentation of a high moral tone of a paramount importance, should give lead to public taste o Reith: he who provides himself on giving what he thinks the public wants is often creating a fictional demand for lower standards which he himself will then satisfy o wiming for improvement of knowledge, taste and manners became one of the main ways in which the concept is understood o Reith also realized radio had also a social and political function as a national service, might bring together all classes could be powerful tool of social unity o so, the official Crawford Committee agreed with Reiths line of thinking: the innovation of the Post Office license fee, of which half went to the BBC, ensured that the BBC was not financially dependent on the Government of the day nor the advertising revenue

b) United States of America However, in the US, American radio has diverged significantly from the British: o mainly as means of entertainment, with news coming second o different attitude both to religious and political broadcasting o different financing system much more commercial Federal Radio Commission (FRC) o government body that regulated radio use in the US from its creation in 1927 until its replacement by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1934. The Commission was created to regulate radio use as the public convenience, interest or necessity requires The main difference in international approaches to radio was in relation to advertising: o Britain financing it from licensed fees was diametrically opposed to Americas financing from advertising. In the US, broadcasting was from the beginning a big business.

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Nonetheless, the British and American systems were only two of the many broadcasting systems which evolved in 1920s. There were many hybrids: o e.g. Canada never followed the American model and broadcasting there it was used to reinforce national identity. It was modeled in the BBC, but from the start it incorporated a commercial element. Historically, in many countries (with the notable exception of the US), public broadcasting was once the only form or the dominant form of broadcasting. However, commercial broadcasting now also exists in most of these countries the number of countries with only public broadcasting has declined substantially during the latter part of the 20th century. In some countries, commercial broadcasting and the emergence of a wider variety of broadcast media have created competition that makes it more difficult for public broadcasters to retain their audiences and survive one contemporary issue is the dilemma whether educating or entertaining is the priority of the media.

What has become of Public broadcasting in the age of globalization? Public Service Core o mixed (Western Europe) Private Enterprise Core o commercial system (USA, Latin America) State Broadcasting Core o fully state-controlled, get to transform (e.g. many African states) Today questions of public service broadcasting are global and difficult to answer: o What social cultural goals attributed to broadcasting require a specially mandated, non-commercially driven organization, publicly owned, publicly funded to the extent necessary and publicly accountable? o What does the concept of public service actually mean today?

The main principles of a healthy broadcasting environment: Universal accessibility (geographic) Universal Appeal (general interests and tastes) Particular attention to minorities Contribution to sense of national identity and community Distance from vested interests Direct funding and universality of payment Competition in good programming rather than for numbers Guidelines that liberate rather than restrict programme makers

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19. Restrictions on free speech during times of war (secrecy vs. access to information) Freedom of speech = the freedom to speak freely without censorship or limitation, fundamental right Freedom of expression = any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ides regardless of medium used In the US, freedom of speech is part of the First Amendment, which is part of the Bill of Rights. The amendment prohibits the making of any law respecting an establishment of religion, impeding the free exercise of religion, infringing on the freedom of speech, of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a government redress of grievances However, 1A was for a long time only words on paper because of laws that continued to restrict the free speech, and these laws were usually more common in the times of war: o The Alien and Sedition Acts made it unlawful to punish the government, the WWI laws of Espionage Act (1917) and Seditious Libel (1918) made it unlawful to interfere with the war or to publish false information that would offend the state, the President or the flag o Later in 1940, the Smith Act made it unlawful to advocate the overthrowing of the government, and this was clearly directed to the Communist Party o In 1957 in Yattes vs. US case this act was softened with the decision that such advocacy needs to be proved that will generate action. So, government raises its control on press in times of unrest. Such restraints, like the ones in Panama and Gulf war, include keeping the journalist out of the battlefield, controlling every article coming out of a war zone and accompanying journalists when they try to do their report prior restraint. All of this gives to the masses a distorted view on what is really happening and so they follow and support wars they otherwise wouldnt. This shows another simple fact on why governments restricts speech during the war if they didnt, there would be no one paying for their war. Government must protect its citizens from foreign enemies and internal enemies thus freedom of speech can be acceptably curtailed during times of war in order to prevent propaganda and spying which might undermine the national (security) interest. Formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society: o in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety o for the prevention of disorder or crime o for the protection of health or morals o for the protection of the reputation or the rights of others o for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence o for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary Internet represents a step forward for free speech as it introduces new platforms where people can discuss news but they can also be reporters of the news. o This presents a step forward for democracy but a PR challenge for governments that want to keep certain information censored. o An example of this is the rise of soldier blogs, or sblogs, where soldiers are the broadcasters of what is happening in a certain war and the public can get an alternative view of the war, that is not selected or censored by big media corporations. Soldiers are also using social media networks as tools to get their messages to the people. That is why, the US marine first banned the social media sites by calling them a proven heaven for malicious actors and content and are particularly high risk due to information exposure. However, this ban was recently eliminated and now soldiers have access to these sites, but are encouraged to use them responsibly and use them to help to get the job done. o another controversial example: Wikileaks

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20. Cyber law and ethics the challenges raised by the Internet Restricting expression on the internet violates the principles the internet was built on: o free expression and knowledge o the marketplace of ideas This fact differentiates Internet from radio and TV that need to be licensed for their broadcasting. Internet should be treated differently since it is not territorial (it is virtual) but global, while law is local and territorial. Such laws could not be applied globally and would have a chilling effect because of the uncertainty of what would be applied where. Thus, if law would be applied to Internet, it would interfere and harm the principles of free speech and damage democracy.

Challenges raised by the Internet: a) Intellectual Property (IP) IP = property that you cant touch/hold, doesnt have a physical form, its mental industry = ideas (e.g. a song, business plan, marketing proposal) anything that has potential values and receives legal protection Most common legal protections: o Copyright o Trademark o Domain name o Patents o Trade secrets Copyright = attaches automatically, gives ppl exclusive control over their innovations. US Congress: we should promote societal progress by giving authors and inventors executive control over their creations for a limited time Trademark = any distinctive mark that identifies a particular business/goods; avoid consumers confusion, protects the brand. IP receives legal protection since people need to get profit from their ideas, need to make a living, otherwise they wouldnt do it promotes innovation and progress. IP gives artists, scientists, IT ppl an incentive to make discoveries to improve our lives IP is controversial because although we recognize that ideas should be owned, its the length of IP protection today (life time of creator + 70years moves to public domain = free for public) that inhibits the progress rather than promotes it. Technology has affected IP: Internet makes it very easy to steal other peoples works, makes it so easy to copy, utilize and transform others IP easier to share files, music, movies, computer programs, P2P file sharing, etc. less people need to buy a license less income for creators b) Peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing P2P file sharing raises ethical dilemmas: intellectual property; theft; Internet and law applied to it, etc. Duty-based/deontological approach: o moral agents should & must act in such a way that their conduct can become a universal standard thus, under moral agent is obliged to always act in moral and ethical way regardless of the consequences of the actions. Even if the action might harm others, it is still permissible as long as the act is rightful & moral. o e.g. hidden camera or Robin Hood (steal from the rich to give to the poor) - viewed as an immoral conduct unacceptable o P2P file sharing is similar, steal from the rich to the poor unacceptable & wrong Consequence-based/teleological approach: o consequences cannot be separated from moral actions and must be taken into account as long as they are not the primary determinant of the moral conduct. o possible to use devious means to achieve positive ends- the end justifies the means o e.g. hidden camera- allows this since it might yield positive results for the people o P2P file sharing is ethical and accepted, its for the greatest good, people get to use/share inventions in order to use it and make progress, or simply to enjoy it. c) Internet censorship Yahoo, Google, AOL, Skype, Microsoft have all agreed to certain types of self-censorship in order to operate in China. Search engines if do not agree to censor themselves are simply blocked by the authorities Yahoos China Defense article by Cohn: technological giant Yahoo has come under attack for aiding repression in China by filtering web content & assisting the authorities in identifying potential dissident elements is Yahoo helping or hindering the liberty of China? Yahoo, while stating its commitment to human rights & freedom of expression, contends that it had no choice but to comply with local laws; plaintiff say Yahoo also has an obligation to follow US & international law when doing business abroad CEO of Alibaba (Yahoo) explains his position on online free speech: We dont want to annoy the government. Anything that is illegal in China will not be on our search engine. We are a business! e.g. Microsofts service filters words such as democracy; Googles blocks sites flagged by the government Mismatch: laws are local, Internet is global local laws should not be applied to Internet which is international, global

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d) Libel tourism & the Internet Libel tourism = a form of forum-shopping (its enough to establish minimal contact e.g. even a mere 1 book buyed in the UK) in which plaintiffs choose to file libel suits in jurisdictions thought more likely to give a favorable result. It refers to the practice of pursuing a case in England and Wales preferred to U.S., which provide more extensive defenses Under U.S. libel law if someone is accused of defamation, burden of proof is on the plaintiff/accuser (the defamed person) to prove it, which is hard x Under British libel law, the burden of proof is NOT on plaintiff, but on the defendant (to prove innocence/ it was not defamation) easy to win libel defamation lawsuits people from places are using British libel law to silence critics Chilling effect of the British libel law is obvious There are places that dont permit free speech are using English law to silence their critics; former Soviet states (worlds most inhospitable to free expression) are one breeding ground for libel tourists; if you are criticized/defamed- go to England & win the case! Inquisitorial vs. accusatorial justice o Inquisitorial: e.g. Middle Ages or modern UK the defendant/accused must prove their innocence; imprison someone just based on someones accusations = unjust; e.g. witches or ppl against communist leaders or terrorist o Accusatorial: e.g. US burden of proof on the plaintiff/accuser (to prove the accusation is true) presumption of innocence already, basic fairness

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21. Effects of globalization on organizational communications Increased global trade, the proliferation of multinational corporations, and the ease of instantaneous worldwide communication are some of the major effects of globalization. Globalization will continue to escalate, transferring technologies, bringing cultures and societies closer and foster cooperation among nations. There are several ways how globalization influences organizational communication. First, globalization results in time and space compression, changing communication patterns and perceptions. In the global workplace, everything moves quickly- you can be in Tokyo one day and in Cleveland the next, and it is always the beginning of a workday somewhere around the globe. Second, globalization enhances our sense of global consciousness and reflexivity. When we work in a global, multicultural, multinational organization we must be aware of the cultures of others and of our own attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. Third, globalization leads to dis-embedded organizations and people in a global society, behavior and interaction are often lifted from their local context and restructured across time and space. In addition to these specific effects, there are two general patterns to consider how people view the process and outcomes of globalization. The first one, convergence, is an approach emphasizing the need of organizations to adapt their practices to a global marketplace. It considers how an organization might adapt its practices to a global system that requires flexibility, responsiveness, speed, knowledge production and knowledge dissemination. This approach discusses management challenges in the global marketplace and advocates specific strategies for coping with such challenges. The second approach is the divergence approach to the globalizing workplace which emphasizes the cultural distinctiveness that is found around the world. This approach tries to explore how meaning is constructed in various cultural settings and the impact of organizational norms and functioning on that construction of meaning. Often, the environmental and technological pressure on contemporary organizations to become more and more similar clashes with the proprietary pull of cultural identifications, traditional values and conventional practices of social life. Thus, it is critical to look at the competing forces of convergence and divergence in examining communication within global organizations. Communication in global organizations will depend on balancing these two forces of convergence (making us more alike in our search for workplace efficiency) and divergence (making us appreciate cultural differences). Another significant impact of globalization on companies has been the need to keep close contact with parts of the company organization (or its suppliers or other partners) in other countries, and even all the world. Without current technologies, it would be very difficult to collaborate, meet or perform coordinated over management of multiple teams globally. Workers in the communication era of microelectronics, computers and telecommunication have an abundance of information for decision making and a growing concern for information overload. We can routinely communicate across both geography and organizational levels. The complexity of all organizational life and the rapid increase in communication technologies place increasing demands on our individual communication abilities. These demands are best met with the perspective that becoming and staying competent is an ongoing process requiring lifelong learning. Some other impacts of the increased economic pressures and globalization are: the virtual organization downsizing in work forces increased global competition e-commerce boom high-performing teams increased contact with a culturally diverse world home-based work Also, the increased occurrence of acquisitions and mergers enhance the importance of organizational identity and image. In this environment, and especially in times of crisis, organizations engage in public relations, marketing, advertising and issues management to create and maintain a preferred public image. Additionally, convergence is the term of the day, with computing, wireless technologies, and more traditional media such as television converging into integrated tools for work, school, family and leisure environments. Two independent factors globalization and information technology are generating power shifts that result in the organizational challenges of today and tomorrow. Toffler (1990) suggests that throughout history, violence, wealth and knowledge have been the ultimate sources of social power, and in the 21st century, knowledge will be the ultimate source of power. Power in the businesses of today and tomorrow is dependent on the exchange of data, information and knowledge; no knowledge exchanged no wealth created. This information-rich society is a reality of our lives that places increasing importance on our individual communication competencies the key to organizational excellence is effective communication. Organizations of today and tomorrow need competent communication at all organizational levels and they must depend on communication systems within the organization, both people and the machines of the communication era to solve problems creatively and to adapt to rapid change. In this fast-paced environment, organizational excellence is directly related to effective communications from all members of the organization.

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To prepare for the communication responsibilities and opportunities of the future individuals need to develop broadbased communication competency, which is understood as a complex interaction of knowledge, sensitivity, skills and values soft skills. However, even with current technologies, distances still create management and communication difficulties. For instance, people still prefer face-to-face meetings. Research on the implications of computer mediated communication in organizations has produced both positive and negative results. Suspicions and observations that computermediated communication is of lesser quality that face-to-face communication are attributed to the absence of social context cues in computer-mediated communication, although some studies indicate that computer-mediated communication becomes more interpersonal than impersonal when it occurs over an extended period of time. Generally, however, theorists believe that these contemporary technologies will change the character of complex human interaction in organizations.

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22. The (changing) role of the press (news media) in society The invention of the printing press by Johannes Gutenberg revolutionized mass media in 1450s, introducing new and improved ways to get information of all kinds to the masses. The printing press was just the beginning of all of the media and news related inventions the future would bring, such as, the first newspapers in 1665. Mass media plays a crucial role in forming and reflecting public opinion, connecting the world to individuals and reproducing the self-image of society. The media has a strong social, political and cultural impact upon society Reformation, Enlightement, etc. This is predicated upon their ability to reach a wide audience with a strong and influential message. The new technologies have changed the role of the mass media, which became more interactive and personalized. While the print media are losing their readership, online newspapers and magazines become more and more popular. These new types of news media do not just provide information to the readers, but allow the readers to select the topics and areas of their interest, actively participate in and/or generate discussions, express opinions, etc. The internet creates a space for more diverse political opinions, social and cultural viewpoints and a heightened level of consumer participation. New media also has a more private and individualistic sense to it. One does not have to follow the majority of broadcast corporations and be limited to top stories at 6pm, or wait for morning to get the paper. Today, newspapers are considered an old medium, with technology replacing them. Because of Internet news sites, television news channels, bloggers, palm pilots, and even mobile phone news messaging, the newspapers and magazines are losing their readership. Having all this news media at the disposal of the masses changes the way people view and appreciate the news. Various reporters and journalists say that readers and viewers know more about the current events (through social networks, etc.) than the reporters themselves, which forces news workers to double check their sources and verify their information. With more and more people willing to check out current issues and events online, chat rooms, blogs, social networking websites, and e-mails are becoming more popular and interesting for the readers. Journalist must now keep up with chat rooms, and all other forms of news communication other than TV or newspapers. Many of the photos and videos that are provided today by CNN, BBC, other news agencies, as well as various public websites and discussion forums are often shot by civilians and posted online. Similarly, it has become possible to provide news to the public on ones own blogs, websites, leave comments to the online articles and open the discussions citizen journalism. As a result, almost everyone can now become a journalist, which however raises the question of reliability and quality of some internet news sources, as well as information overload. However, the fact that people can now contribute to the news reporting process is proving that technology and the growing need for information is promoting mass media to take new forms and become accessible and distributable in different ways. It is only with the Internet that this has become possible. An example of such tool is CNNs I report blog that allows average civilians with no reporting experience to get close to the action by helping capturing the footage of live events and uploading them to the blog. The new media have practically forced people to participate as much as possible in current events regardless of the risk. It is only through this new modern age that one can read the latest news, watch news on You-Tube, and be deep in conversation in a chat room, or any other number of things simultaneously. In the past, one usually finished reading one thing before moving on to another. However, that requires much more of an attention span than Internet news reading typically involves. As a result, people tend to be skimming the headlines and data, rather than reading them. Having so much access to a variety of information at ones fingertips constantly, makes it difficult at times to distinguish between what is important and what is not this results in being less informed. Modern news effect politics: the presence of journalists effects negotiations media representation influences political decisions sometimes media serve as a direct channel of comm. in international in foreign politics or as an intervening actor in mediation between nations o e.g. CNN was used by Bush and Hussein to send each other messages, since it was the fastest and most reliable method of communication in crisis situations media may know more than government News and public opinion: media representation forms public opinion it has been proven that the media has a direct effect on publics knowledge and attitude toward a country and people, image of the government misrepresentation of the war countries concentration on the coverage of the negative events, which creates a particular negative image of these nations (i.e. Bosnia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia) since the events are presented in a puzzled way (no connection, no historical background), audience does not see the whole picture and cant comprehend the reasons for or the results of some events/situations

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23. Changes to the functioning of the news media in the last 20 years in Western industrial democracies 25. The growth and dominance of electronic journalism (answer to both questions) News from Entertainment Shows Increasing numbers of people, especially young adults and teens, get their news from late-night comedy programs (The Tonight Show, Saturday Night Live, The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, or Politically Incorrect) infotainment. In 2000, one-third of Americans under the age of 30 reported such shows to be their primary sources for news and almost 80% said they sometimes or regularly got political information from such entertainment sources. It is rather sobering to realize that large numbers of citizens are getting their news primarily from parodies of the news! Online News Sources The first online newspaper articles appeared in the second half of the 1990s. As more and more people became connected to the Internet, the popularity of online news sources grew. In three years from 2002 to 2005, the number of international Web users has grown from some 604 million to over one billion Internet users worldwide (Central Intelligence Agency, 2002). Studies have indicated that getting news remains among the most popular Internet activities (Lin, Salwen, Garrison, & Driscoll, 2005). Print media have been losing popularity with electronic, audio books, and online newspapers becoming more widespread and widely used. However, online presentation of news differs widely from traditional mass media: First of all, the Internet users have 24 hour access to the news, which creates a pressure on the journalists. They should work fast, write short and make their article s more catchy to grab the attention of the users. In the online journalism, deadlines are erased or, perhaps more accurately, become continuous. Geographical territory becomes globally expandable; in terms of news beats, the move toward rejection of the tangible (city hall, the courthouse, the schools) in favor of the thematic (politics, law, education) accelerates. Online journalism significantly differs from the traditional newspaper writing. Web-articles are not just the online copies of the traditional papers. The text is always edited to fit the Internet format with such elements as interactivity (feedback, forums, discussions, links to the related articles, etc.). The Web also allows news producers to incorporate enhanced visual content by adding pictures, video and/or audio material, which makes an article not just more interesting, but increases understanding and perception of the material. While traditional print media typically allow for a limited selection of images, news organizations have the ability to create online galleries that give users access to more visual content. The Internet provides: two-way interaction as in conversation or in options for feedback user control, which gives users the ability to move through content at will time, both in terms of technical message delivery and the pace at which users access information. Online journalism involves opportunities for the user to engage more fully with online content by using chat rooms, discussion forums, and online polls, which allow them to express opinions and provide input about the news content. Hyperlinks and other devices: allow the writers to connect their articles to the related/preceding ones make online journalism easy and cheap can enrich the user's online journey by adding background information and providing more context to a developing news story. For example, links can serve as a way to break down a long story into logical pieces or "chunks". Historical data as well as useful background information can be added to traditional news reporting. give readers more options for personalization or "individualization". Personalization of news (The Daily Me) includes selecting the information you receive while searching the web. You can select the news that you are interested in, while excluding other information by effectively customizing an electronic newspaper as you browse it threat of cyber-polarization, less complete picture. You can also to pre-select a series of topics that you prefer so that later you are provided with the news stories at regular intervals that match the content selected. Other Latest Trends in News Media drop in international news coverage the switching of the audience to the internet news sources TV news reporters/newscasters become friends of the viewers. They may be a part of our mealtimes, almost like having the news anchor as a regular dinner guest. We invite them into our mealtimes, almost like having the news anchor as a regular dinner guest. We invite them into our homes through our choice to turn on the TV to a particular channel monopolization of the media business rhrough concentration of ownership, media convergence

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News Media Monopolization and Shaping the Public Opinion In our daily lives we rely on the media to get the current news and facts about what is important and what we should be aware of. We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us news, entertainment and education. However, today much of the information comes from a few global media corporations that basically dictate us what we should know and what opinion we should have about it. Years ago there was more diversity in companies, but they have merged so now they are just a few and they have the power to shape the opinion and beliefs of us and our kids. The media is basically dominated by five major companies they are: News Corp Time Warner VIACOM Vivendi Universal Walt Disney Those 5 companies own 95% of all the media that we get every day. They own the major entertainment theme parks, entertainment movie studios, television and radio broadcast networks and programming, video news and sports entertainment. They also own integrated telecommunications, wireless phones, video games, softwares, electronic media, the music industry and more. These media giants basically create a world view for us and shape the public opinion, especially in the Western world. For example, after the attacks of 9/11, the media gave a huge coverage of the event and exposed Osama guilty for the attack as they were told by the authorities. This shaped the public opinion to support the war on terrorism, the same happened with the war on Iraq. The problem is that if media received unaccurate information then the public opinion supported a wrong cause this is the power of public opinion influence. Other ways to influence are with polls and trends, especially in political campaigns. The candidates that can pay for more TV and media exposure have more influence on public opinion and thus can receive more votes.

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24. The development of political speechwriting Political speech writing as well as the structure of many modern governments can be traced back to the ancient Athens. Ancient philosophers, Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Protagarus, believed that speeches, if presented properly, could evoke any desired emotion. They used their rhetoric skills to teach future lawyers and politicians the art of logic and persuasion. Politicians have been using this art as a persuasive technique to better their chance of success. Rhetorical theories and techniques can be found in the structure of many modern judicial systems. Uses of rhetorics in Ancient Greece: as a teaching method in schools during elections during political debates by citizens' presenting their case to a jury oral and written story telling

The founder of rhetoric as a science and a clever skill in persuasion is said to be Corax of Syracuse. Because rhetoric is the theory or practice of eloquence, it is not limited to simple oration: it is also a writing technique. Both the oral and written forms were considered tools in the art of persuasion. Plato (ca. 428 BC 347 BC) distrusted rhetoricians. In the same way that we distrust advertising or public relations executives, Plato had a suspicion of them. Essentially, Platos criticisms of rhetoric centred around the oft believed idea that rhetoric presents an alluring surface, the purpose of which is to attract people. Tony Blair was constantly accused of this very thing; creating an alluring surface argument in order to get votes and garner support. Throughout rhetorics history, style over substance has been a major concern there is a sense that a flamboyant style such as Blairs or Clintons, suggests dishonesty. Socrates (ca. 470 BC 399 BC) shared Platos opinion, believing that oratory pandered to the mob. He called it a counterfeit activity. Socrates taught a technique in the use of rhetoric called dialectic syllogism. Dialectic syllogism is the pursuit of truth through a series of questions. Socrates believed that if one asked the correct question the absolute truth could be found. His technique later became known as the Socratic Method. Though Socrates did not like to get involved in politics, he influenced government through his students who used rhetoric in politics and in philosophy. The most prominent technicians of political speech were the Sophists the philosophers and teachers of rhetoric. They gave a widespread to the persuasive speeches as to an effective form of political speech. Although Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle based their rhetoric searching for and convincing the public of the truth, the Sophists based theirs on convincing the public of whatever there was to prove. The Sophists believed there was no absolute truth therefore the truth was whatever one chose to make of it. What are the keys to a successful speech? Aristotle (384 BC 322 BC) said that: The greatest thing by far is to have a command of metaphor. A metaphor establishes a comparison between two things, the purpose of which is to evoke an image. Ronald Reagan often described America as a beacon to the rest of the world. However, when war is discussed, there is a reversal in the process of metaphor attribution: For example, phrases like striking, collateral damage and mopping-up are used. During Gulf War II, Blair often used the word engaged to describe attacks on Iraq. Such phraseology is used to avoid the creation of images, or, to give the listener a more acceptable image of events = euphemism. Aristotle suggested competency in three areas: personality and style, the arousal of emotion, and reasoning. In these categories can be seen the classical model of Ethos, Pathos and Logos: Pathos is concerned with emotional engagement; often utilizing metaphor. George W. Bushs most important weapon during Gulf War II was his linguistic dexterity using pathos to convince the American people. He relied on his words being able to move people making them angry, sad and fearful in equal measure. Logos is the logical appeal of the speech, providing proof and facts in the speech. This was one of Blairs strengths; providing evidence for his arguments. Being a barrister, this was completely natural to him. Ethos - Aristotle said that one should try to convince the audience that the speaker possessed intelligence, virtue and goodwill. Here, we can see the allusion to the importance of a moral code in rhetoric. Virtue, suggests that the speaker should have values, goodness and discipline. Goodwill suggests that the speaker should have good intentions. These are qualities that are important to an electorate, but as always, are sadly lacking in our politicians. For Aristotle, good rhetoric is good argument made by a speaker with good intentions. Aristotle used rhetoric as a tool in teaching his famous pupil Alexander the Great. In ancient Greece, memory was important, as one would not read their speeches during delivery. This skill is somewhat redundant now but one can still appreciate its effectiveness, both in modern law practice, and political discourse. David Cameron, the British conservative leader famously memorized the speech he delivered at the 2005 conservative conference. The speech made him as a credible contender for the conservative leadership.

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In the ancient world, knowledge and experience were essential to speakers. So a good education and a practical experience of trial law would seem to be the modern assets that a classical philosopher would approve of. Many of the rules of classic rhetoric still hold true today, but with the advent of the professional speechwriter, rhetoric is no longer the sole responsibility of the speaker. Today, political speeches are a major part of the political message during election campaigns. Political speech delivers a message that should always correspond to the main goals of teh campaign and the image of the politician. For example, in the election of 2008 John McCain originally used a message that focused on his patriotism and political experience: "Country First"; later the message was changed to shift attention to his role as "The Original Maverick" within the political establishment. Barack Obama ran on a consistent, simple message of "change" throughout his campaign. If the message is crafted carefully, it will assure the candidate a victory at the polls. For a winning candidate, the message is refined and then becomes his or her political agenda in office. Political speech sound bites Political speech is created in a way to make sure the journalist will choose the needed elements, short exceptions from the speech, to use as soundbites. Examples of soundbites: "John Doe is a businessman, not a politician. His background in finance means he can bring fiscal discipline to state government." "As our society faces a rapid upswing in violent crime and an ever worsening education system, we need leaders who will keep our streets safe and restore accountability to our schools. John Doe is that leader." "Over the past four years, John Doe has missed over fifty City Council meetings. How can you lead if you don't show up? Peter Smith will not turn a blind eye to the government."

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26. The historical development of the concept of news For centuries, civilizations have used print media to spread news and information to the masses. The Roman Acta Diurna, appearing around 59 B.C, is the earliest recorded newspaper. Julius Caesar, wanting to inform the public about important social and political happenings, ordered upcoming events posted in major cities. Written on large white boards and displayed in popular places like the baths, the Acta kept citizens informed about government scandals, military campaigns, trials and executions. In 8th century China, the first newspapers appeared as handwritten news-sheets in Beijing. The printing press, invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1450s, ushered in the era of the modern newspaper. Gutenbergs machine enabled the free exchange of ideas and the spread of knowledge themes that would define Renaissance Europe. During this era, newsletters supplied a growing merchant class with news relevant to trade and commerce. Manuscript news-sheets were being circulated in German cities by the late 15th century. These pamphlets were often highly sensationalized; one reported on the abuse that Germans in Transylvania were suffering at the hands of Vlad TsepesDrakul, also known as Count Dracula. In 1556 the Venetian government published Notizie scritte, for which readers paid a small coin, or gazetta. In the first half of the 17th century, newspapers began to appear as regular and frequent publications. The first modern newspapers were products of western European countries like Germany (publishing Relation in 1605), France (Gazette in 1631), Belgium (Nieuwe Tijdingen in 1616) and England (the London Gazette, founded in 1665, is still published as a court journal). These periodicals consisted mainly of news items from Europe, and occasionally included information from America or Asia. They rarely covered domestic issues; instead, English papers reported on French military blunders while French papers covered the latest British royal scandal. Newspaper content began to shift toward more local issues in the latter half of the 17th century. Still, censorship was widespread and newspapers were rarely permitted to discuss events that might incite citizens to opposition. Newspaper headlines did announce the beheading of Charles I at the end of the English Civil War, although Oliver Cromwell tried to suppress all newsbooks on the eve of the execution. In 1766, Sweden was the first country to pass a law protecting press freedom. The invention of the telegraph in 1844 transformed print media. Now information could be transferred within a matter of minutes, allowing for more timely, relevant reporting. Newspapers were appearing in societies around the world. Japans first daily newspaper, Yokohama Mainichi Shimbun, appeared in 1870 (although printing from movable type was introduced in Japan in the late 16 th century). Even more timely reporting, as well as entertainment function, came with the even of radio, which has proven to be an important source of news, governmental propaganda, or forbidden channels (e.g. Radio Free Europe, Voice of America) especially during WW II and the beginning of the Cold War. Although the news has been on television from its early days, the TV coverage of John F. Kennedys assassination and funeral in November 1963 firmly established television as a serious, if not predominant, player in news coverage. In the next 5 years the US TV news audience jumped 50%, the sharpest increase ever. By 1977, 62% of all adult Americans watched at least one newscast per weekday, making TV the major source of news. In recent years, the network share has fallen. In the 90s the audience for national news on the three US networks fell from 60% to 30%, with much of the loss going to cables news channels like CNN and Internet news sources. However, local news, including weather and sports, is especially popular and is crucial for local stations. In 1986, Rupert Murdoch suddenly moved the Times to new premises in Wapping to introduce computer production to British national newspapers. This was one of the developments that would eventually kill old-style news. The event indicated the beginning of the era of electronic journalism. [ For further info see answer to Qs 23. Changes to the functioning of the news media in the last 20 years in Western industrial democracies & 25. The growth and dominance of electronic journalism]

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27. The development of new media and the effects for advertising and public relations New media a term meant to encompass the emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communication technologies in the later part of the 20 th century until the 1980s media relied primarily upon print and art analog broadcast models, such as those of television and radio the last twenty-five years have seen the rapid transformation into media which are predicated upon the use of digital computers, such as the Internet and computer games PR and advertising professionals use the Internet for/as: informing the target audience of their product, activity, etc. to cause particular action i.e. participation in an event, buying a product, voting for a candidate opportunity for reaching a specific target audience through specialized websites, online magazines, etc. Using special software it is possible to identify the area of interest of a particular user based on the key words mostly used in the search engines, i.e. after typing belly dancing course in a search engine, you might start receiving adverts and spam emails regarding belly dancing classes, other dancing and sports activities, dancing clothes, and other related products and services. Direct emails and social media messages might be used not just to inform and advertise, but to get feedback from the audience. Video news releases (VNR) are especially widely used by political candidates during the election campaigns. Forums, discussions and blogs are used to communicate, promote the ideas and attract public attention to the issues. Polls, questionnaires, competitions

PR professionals also use less obvious promotional online materials: advertorials that look like genuine articles user-like posts, discussion forums polls, questionnaires, competitions news releases to be sent to journalists New Media - Criticism With the 1980s came new developments in the manner in which information was presented to the public. Photographic methods improved, enabling newspapers and magazines to show to their readers the images that reflected an "improved" vision of reality. But as is true of many new techniques and inventions, the advancements in photography raised ethical questions e.g. digital manipulation. New computer processes permit editors to alter the content of photographic images. Colors can be controlled, and objects or people can be removed from or added to pictures. Furthermore, if the changes are made carefully, they are virtually undetectable. To confuse the issue, negatives can be manufactured from an altered image to create "proof" that the photograph represents reality. The ethical issue is obvious: how far can photo editors take the alteration process while still purporting to present to readers a genuine image? Digital media offers citizens greater freedom of information, but there are dangers that the information can be easily manipulated. The internet has opened up extraordinary new possibilities for the widespread, damaging and sometimes dangerous manipulation of information which is difficult if not impossible to stem. In recent months, there have been a number of cases that illustrate the internet's potential to spread rumors, speculation and outright lies at the speed of light e.g. advertising "mocudramas" that purport to be real or falsified entries on the open encyclopedia Wikipedia. Dictatorial regimes are also controlling the information their citizens receive, through "official" information and outright censorship. In this environment, trusted and credible news sources have great value. Flogs The modern practice is creating fake consumer blogs flogs. An example of flog might be a company-operated blog that looks like a customer blog sharing opinions of a company/product, sharing experience and recommending it to the others. With Photoshop and other technologies users can easily create fake pictures or even videos in order to make flogs as realistic as possible. Problem: Are flogs ethical? Since one can identify the real owner of the blog, it is impossible to prove the information is false. However, an opinion expressed in such flog becomes unreliable and misleading.

Sock puppetry act of creating a fake online consumer identity to praise, defend or create the illusion of support for ones self, allies or company e.g. consumer-like posts in customer reviews, social media networks, customer forums

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28. Contemporary challenges to press freedom In the United States, freedom of the press and the broader freedom of speech are guaranteed by the First Amendment and are considered fundamental rights of the people. What we mean by the freedom of the press is, in fact, an evolving concept. It is a concept that is informed by the perceptions of those who crafted the press clause in an era of pamphlets, political tracts and periodical newspapers, and by the views of Supreme Court justices who have interpreted that clause over the past two centuries in a world of daily newspapers, books, magazines, motion pictures, radio and television broadcasts, and now Web sites and Internet postings. The conception of freedom of the press has been the subject of intense historical debate, both among scholars and in the pages of judicial opinions. At the very least, those who drafted and ratified the Bill of Rights purported to embrace the notion, derived from William Blackstone, that a free press may not be licensed by the sovereign, or otherwise restrained in advance of publication (New York Times Co. v. United States, 1971). And, although the subject remains a lively topic of academic debate, the Supreme Court itself reviewed the historical record in 1964 in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan and concluded that the central meaning of the First Amendment embraces as well a rejection of the law of seditious libel i.e. the power of the sovereign to impose subsequent punishments, from imprisonment to criminal fines to civil damages, on those who criticize the state and its officials. To a great extent, however, what we mean by freedom of the press today was shaped in an extraordinary era of Supreme Court decision-making that began with Sullivan and concluded in 1991 with Cohen v. Cowles Media Co. During that remarkable period, the Court ruled in at least 40 cases involving the press and fleshed out the skeleton of freedoms addressed only rarely in prior cases. In contrast, although the Court in the early part of the last century had considered the First Amendment claims of political dissidents with some frequency, it took nearly 150 years after the adoption of the Bill of Rights, and the First Amendment along with it, for the Court to issue its first decision based squarely on the freedom of the press. That 1931 case, Near v. Minnesota, ratified the Blackstonian proposition that a prior restraint a legal prohibition on the presss ability to publish information in its possession will almost always violate the First Amendment. Near is a landmark, not just because it was the Courts first decision to invoke the press clause, but because it established a fundamental precept of constitutional law that once the press has gotten its hands on information that it deems to be newsworthy, the government can seldom, if ever, prevent that information from being published. There were a handful of press cases after Near and before Sullivan, and some of them are important. In 1936 in Grosjean v. American Press, for example, the Court established that governments may not impose taxes on a newspapers circulation, even when they are not directed (at least on their face) to the content of any particular publication or at any specific publisher. Sullivan, however, is, like Near, a landmark, not because the Courts decision effectively saved The New York Times from financial ruin for reporting the truth about civil rights in the South, but because the Court deliberately seized the opportunity to expand the reach of the press clause itself. At its core, the Court explained in Sullivan, freedom of the press encompasses not just the right to be free from prior restraints on publication, but also to be largely exempt from any punishment when it reports the truth about matters of public concern whether that punishment takes the form of imprisonment of a journalist, a criminal fine against a newspaper, or an award of civil damages to a defamation plaintiff. Indeed, when the subject of press scrutiny is a public official or a public figure, the Court held in Sullivan that even a false statement is protected by the First Amendment unless it is a calculated falsehood a statement that a reporter or editor knows to be false or probably false and deliberately publishes anyway. Over the course of the quarter-century following Sullivan, the Court made it its business to explore the ramifications of the case on a virtually annual basis. During that period, the Supreme Courts elaboration of what we mean by a free press focused on the nature of the official restraint alleged to compromise that freedom as well as the extent to which the First Amendment protects the press from a given species of governmental action or inaction. Thus, in cases such as Near and the Pentagon Papers case (1971's New York Times Co. v. United States), the Court established that freedom of the press from previous restraints on publication is nearly absolute, encompassing the right to publish information that a president concluded would harm the national security, if not the movements of troopships at sea in time of war. In 1974's Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo, the Court embraced the analogous proposition that the government has virtually no power to compel the press to publish that which it would prefer to leave on the proverbial cutting room floor.

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In that regard, however, it must be noted that not all media are created equal when it comes to entitlement to the full protections of the First Amendments press clause. Most significantly, because of a perceived scarcity of the electromagnetic spectrum, the Court has held that Congress and the Federal Communications Commission may regulate the activities of broadcasters operating over public airwaves in a manner that would surely violate the First Amendment if applied to newspapers. The Courts reasoning in Red Lion, in which it upheld the Commissions Fairness Doctrine and personal attack rule i.e. the right of a person criticized on a broadcast station to respond to such criticism over the same airwaves licensed to that station has never been disavowed, although the justices have expressly declined to extend it to other, later-developed communications media, including cable television (1994's Turner Broadcasting v. FCC) and the Internet (1997's Reno v. ACLU), to which the scarcity rationale for regulation is plainly inapplicable. Even in the broadcast context, however, Sullivan and the cases that followed it stand for the proposition that the First Amendment protects the publication of truthful information about matters of public concern, not just from prior restraint, but also from subsequent punishment, at least in the absence of a demonstrated need to vindicate a competing government interest of the highest order. This formulation has come to be known as the Daily Mail principle, after the Supreme Courts 1979 decision in Smith v. Daily Mail Publishing Co., in which the Court held that a newspaper could not be liable for publishing the name of a juvenile offender in violation of a West Virginia law declaring such information to be private. The protections against subsequent punishments for reporting the truth afforded by the Daily Mail principle are not absolute, but the barriers to such government regulation of the press are set extremely high. In 2001 in Bartnicki v. Vopper, the Court held that, even when a statute is directed at deterring unlawful conduct (e.g., the interception of telephone conversations) and not at penalizing the content of press reports, it nevertheless constitutes a naked prohibition on the dissemination of information by the press that is fairly characterized as a regulation of pure speech in violation of the First Amendment. In so holding, the Court ushered in a new century of First Amendment jurisprudence by reaffirming both the Daily Mail principle the fundamental right of a free press to disseminate truthful information about public matters and the central meaning of the First Amendment on which it is based Sullivans recognition that the freedom of expression upon public questions is secured by the First Amendment so that debate on public issues should be uninhibited, robust and wide-open.

Press freedom in the modern world There is no country with an absolute freedom of the press (FP). Historically, FP has been limited not only by governments, but by the institutions, organizations, web-site owners, churches, societies, etc. Media freedom remains seriously constrained by panoply of laws used to punish critical journalists and outlets. Both governments and private individuals continue to restrict media freedom through the use of laws that forbid inciting hatred, commenting on sensitive topics such as religion or ethnicity, or endangering national security. The abuse of libel laws has also increased in a number of countries, most notably in Africa. In modern democracies it is rarely attacked by overt forms of censorship but is often compromised by governments' ability to withhold information, by self-censorship in reaction to various pressures, by selective government leaking of information or disinformation, and by other factors. Newer media forms such as satellite television and internet-based newspapers, blogs, and social-networking sites have emerged as an important force for openness in restricted media environments as well as a key area of contestation. In the battle between government control and media freedom, relatively unrestricted access to these sources has broadened the diversity of available news and opinion. It was a driving force behind numerical improvements in the Middle East and North Africa region in 2007, 2010 & 2011, and it contributed to Egypts upgrade to Partly Free status. At the same time, an increasing number of governmentsparticularly in the former Soviet Union, the Middle East, Asia, and Africaare employing or expanding methods of control over these potentially disruptive media. While crude blocking or filtering of particular websites remains common, some authoritarian states have also produced or financed pro-government propaganda designed specifically for these new formats. In many countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia there are governments that censor the press, control all the public sources of information and threaten the journalists. Among such nations are North Korea, Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Somalia, Yemen, Cuba, Pakistan and many others. In conflict zones such as Iraq and Somalia, the press is in constant danger. Other regions of concern are Latin America (especially Mexico), the former Soviet Union (most notably Russia), and South and Southeast Asia (particularly the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan). Apart from the direct impact on individual journalists, these attacks have a chilling effect, adding to larger problems of self-censorship.

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Conversely, declines in violence and/or impunity, as occurred in Haiti in 2007, can lead to a wide-ranging numerical improvement. In Iraq, journalists who do their job face real dangers from the conflicts that keep erupting but the situation is slowly improving and the violence is affecting the general population more than journalists in particular. The local government of the Russian North Caucasus region Chechnya is another example of a no-free speech society. To outspoken critics of Russias handling of the Chechen issue, Anna Politkovskaya and Natalia Estemirova, were both gunned down Politkovskaya in Moscow in October 2006 and Estemirova in Grozny in July 2009. These and many other cases have taken place under the regime of terror Chechen President Ramzan Kadyrov has imposed in Chechnya.

Press Freedom: Worst of the Worst The six worst-rated countries in 2007 were Burma, Cuba, Eritrea, Libya, North Korea, and Turkmenistan In these states, which span the globe, independent media are either nonexistent or barely able to operate, the press acts as a mouthpiece for the ruling regime, and citizens access to unbiased information is severely limited. Rounding out the 10 most repressive media environments are two countries in the former Soviet Union Belarus and Uzbekistanand two countries in AfricaEquatorial Guinea and Zimbabwewhere media are heavily restricted.

Freedom of Media in China The Article 35 of the Chinese Constitution states that Chinese citizens enjoy freedom of speech and freedom of the press. Other legislation, such as China's Publishing Regulations, stipulates that groups and individuals may not interfere in the lawful exercise of these rights. However, Chinese government censorship is pervasive and highly effective, and denies Chinese citizens the freedoms of speech and of the press guaranteed to them in the Chinese Constitution. The government has imprisoned several journalists who provide news to foreigners. Editors of publications that criticize government policies have been dismissed. The government blocks the Web sites and radio and television broadcasts of foreign news organizations, such as those of the British Broadcasting Corporation, Radio Free Asia, and the Voice of America. In 2005, the government banned dozens of newspapers and confiscated almost one million "illegal" political publications. Beginning in May 2005, the government blocked the Commission's Web site from being viewed in China. Modern telecommunications technologies such as the Internet, cell phones, and satellite broadcasts allow Chinese citizens access to more information sources, both state-controlled and non-state-controlled. But government restrictions on news and information media, including on these new information sources, do not conform to international human rights standards for freedom of expression. The Chinese government imposes a strict licensing scheme on news and information media that includes oversight by government agencies with discretion to grant, deny, and rescind licenses based on political and economic criteria. The Chinese government's content-based restrictions include controls on political opinion and religious literature that are not prescribed by law, and whose primary purpose is to protect the ideological and political dominance of the Communist Party. The government's restrictions on religious literature do not conform to international human rights standards. Only government-licensed printing enterprises may print religious materials, and then only with approval from both the provincial-level religious affairs bureau and the press and publication administration. In addition to confiscating religious publications, the Chinese government also has fined, detained, and imprisoned citizens for publishing, printing, and distributing religious literature without government permission. Cai Zhuohua, a house church pastor in Beijing, and two of his family members were imprisoned in 2005 for printing and giving away Bibles and other Christian literature. In Anhui province, house church pastor Wang Zaiqing was arrested in May 2006 on the same charges.

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29. Understood effects of media violence on audiences The studies on the influence of media violence on the audience are a subject of considerable debate: First, media violence is notoriously hard to define and measure. For instance, cartoon violence causes controversies with some researchers excluding it from their research because of its comical and unrealistic presentation. Some argue that exposure to media violence causes aggression. Others say that the two are associated, but that there is no causal connection. And others say the data supports the conclusion that there is no relationship between the two at all. However, most of the researchers agree that violence in the media does have an impact on human behavior and sensitivity towards aggression. Television According to the American Medical Association, we see more than 200 000 violence acts on television before reaching the 18th birthday. It also claims that seeing so much violence desensitizes, or numbs, the viewers. For example, if you see a lot of violent behavior you start paying less attention to it, even in real life. Moreover, people exposed to violence in media are more likely to act violently in their daily lives, i.e. to push, grab or shove their spouses, to commit a moving traffic violation, etc. Uses and Gratification Theory, concerned with reasons behind the usage of media, poses the questions of whether TV viewing causes people to be escapist, or do the factors of temperament and personality cause them to seek escape through heavy TV viewing. It has been proven that is more likely that exposure to TV violence increases aggression than that more aggressive individuals like to watch violent TV shows. watching a lot of violence via the media may mean children & adults may Direct demonstrate more aggressive behavior themselves, or they may have more approving attitudes towards the use of violence to resolve conflicts Exposure to media violence may mean children in particular become less sensitive to violence occurring around them, and less sensitive to the pain and Desensitization suffering that violence causes to others. They also have less sensitive views on "acceptable" levels of violence in society i.e. they are prepared to tolerate more Watching large amounts of violence on TV may lead children and adults to believe that the real world contains this amount of pain and violence, and therefore they begin to view their environment as a mean and dangerous place. A potentially POSITIVE effect, where exposure to media violence may result in reduced aggression in viewers check Feshbach's & Singer's research

Mean World Syndrome

Catharsis

It has been suggested that the observable psychological effects of violence in the media on the audience are as follows: A lot of work has been done on the effects of violence in television on children, as this is the medium they are most exposed to. Children spend much of their time with media, which teach them about the world. Children are considered to be the group most 'at risk' from media violence, because they do not have filters in place which differentiate between violence seen via a media channel, and violence in real life. They simply do not have a critical eye and are not often educated in how to use the media. Some researchers have demonstrated that very young children will imitate aggressive acts on TV in their play with peers. Before the age of 4 children are unable to distinguish between fact and fantasy and may view violence as an ordinary occurrence. Children are easily impressionable; they have harder time distinguishing fantasy and reality. They learn by observing and imitating. If children see on television or in a video game a hero solving problems with force or weapons, they might consider it to be "cool" to carry an automatic weapon and use it to knock off the "bad guys." In the past years there have been some cases of kids carrying a gun at school and even hurting others with it. Those kids have been linked to excessive use of violent video games and war images. There have been s significant amount of studies on childrens reaction to the violent episodes on TV. Results: Violence in television, motion pictures, and other media can cause children to be more violent, desensitized to violence, and fearful of the world. Children may come to see violence as a fact of life and, over time, lose their ability to empathize with both the victim and the victimizer.

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Watching TV violence may temporarily induce "object aggression" in some children (such as popping balloons or hitting dolls or playing sports more aggressively). Studies demonstrate that if TV regularly portrays men who feel frustrated with women as expressing such feelings through violence (battering or rape), children may learn that these antisocial ways of dealing with those feelings are acceptable.

Video Games Besides TV, music television, the Internet and (online) video games are sources of media violence. What concerns the experts the most regarding the Internet and video games is that a child is not just a passive observer: The games make a child to act out the violence. According to the Scholastic Scope magazine, violent video games have been proven to make kids aggressive, at least immediately after playing the games. Further it is suggested when violence seems fun and have no consequence, it teaches kids and teens to be violent, instead of to solve problems peacefully. In recent years the Video Game industry has expanded a great deal. The graphics are much more raw and the titles themselves have evolved to include much more realistic and what seems to be real life situations. The key factor is how this material is interpreted: If there is sufficient guidance and and children are taught right for wrong then why can we not teach virtual from real? media literacy Everyday we must interpret what the right from wrong and more and more this is done in our virtual lives as well. There is substantial evidence in both directions for and against video game violence. The opposition will contend that violent games desensitize children, promote aggressive/violent behavior, and destroy moral values. The industry has take measures to protect itself and children from harming themselves or any others. A rating system has been devised and options such as less gore or less violence have been made available on some questionable titles. The individuals who support violent video games believe the key issues have to do with parenting and freedom of speech. Parents are first and foremost responsible for their children. They must teach their children how to deal with certain issues. It is up to parents and players alike to respect the responsibilities that come along with playing and enjoying violent video games in a positive and productive manner. Dilemmas: The researchers are faced with a dilemma: Does violent TV cause people to behave aggressively, or do aggressive people simply prefer more violent entertainment? There is no definitive answer. However, there is a clear correlation between the two factors. The First Amendment: individual adults must be free to decide for themselves what to read, watch and hear. The 1A protects the right for artistic expression, which means the authors of books, theatrical works, paintings, television, music videos and comic books, posters, etc., are free to express their views/ideas. The audience is free to choose what it wants to watch, read or hear (if they want to watch violence, they are free to do it). However, what about children? To what degree can children media be controlled in order to avoid violation of the 1A? Recommendations: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has created a list of recommendations to address television violence. Physicians should make parents and schools "media literate," meaning they should understand the risks of exposure to violence and teach children how to interpret what they see on television and in the movies, including the intent and content of commercials. In doing so, children may be increasingly able to discern which media messages are suitable. Schools and homes should teach children conflict resolution. It suggests that parents should talk openly with their children about the material seen on TV or the Internet. Parents should devote themselves to shielding their children from harmful depictions by limit the childrens television viewing time to about 1-2 hours per day and controlling the amount of time the juveniles spend online. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, along with medical organizations, has been a strong advocate for television ratings and installation of chips to block certain programs. The usage of parental-control devices for the web-search is also highly recommended.

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30. Media Literacy: Types, dimensions and arenas Media literacy = a repertoire of competences that enable people to analyze, evaluate, and create messages in a wide variety of media modes, genres, and forms Education for media literacy often uses an inquiry-based pedagogic model that encourages people to ask questions about what they watch, hear, and read. Media literacy education provides tools to help people critically analyze messages, offers opportunities for learners to broaden their experience of media, and helps them develop creative skills in making their own media messages. Arenas (for dimensions of arenas see figure below): o text o audience = media users/consumers o production = media creators/practitioners Media literate people should be skillful creators, producers and interpreters of media messages: o to facilitate understanding of the specific qualities of each medium o to create independent media and participate as active citizens Dimensions of critical analysis can include: o identifying author, purpose and point of view o identifying intended audience and motivation/incentive o examining construction techniques and genres o examining patterns of media representation o detecting propaganda, censorship, and bias in news and public affairs programming (and the reasons for these) o explore how structural features, such as media ownership, or its funding model, affect the information presented Media literacy can be seen as contributing to an expanded conceptualization of literacy, treating mass media, popular culture and digital media as new types of texts that require analysis and evaluation. By transforming the process of media consumption into an active and critical process, people gain greater awareness of the potential for misrepresentation and manipulation (especially through commercials and public relations techniques), and understand the role of mass media and participatory media in constructing views of reality Media literacy education is sometimes conceptualized as a way to address the negative dimensions of mass media, popular culture and digital media, including media violence, gender and racial stereotypes, the sexualization of children, and concerns about loss of privacy, cyberbullying and Internet predators. By building knowledge and competencies in using media and technology, media literacy education may provide a type of protection to children and youth by helping them make good choices in their media consumption habits, and patterns of usage.