SECTION 3 Time – 25 minutes 24 Questions
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 8. bereft .. theatricality exclusive .. adversity emblematic .. happenstance innocent .. polarity devoid .. ambiguity
2020 PT 4 | Reading
A poisonous substance in an animal’s bloodstream, known as a -------, often presents an immediate danger to the animal’s health. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) microbe solution component toxin salve
The issue of campaign reform ------- even the most apathetic voters, arousing their interest in an otherwise ------- campaign. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) intrigued .. riveting galvanized .. insipid mollified .. pragmatic antagonized .. contentious motivated .. inspiring
Although Cleopatra is ------- for her charm and beauty, she is also cited by historians for her -------: she was gifted mathematically and fluent in nine languages. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) celebrated .. disingenuousness decried .. genius infamous .. integrity discounted .. dexterity renowned .. intellect
Questions 9-10 are based on the following passage.
The spot remover dissolved the concentrated stain but also allowed it to -------, spreading across much of the fabric. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) coagulate disintegrate disperse condense evaporate 9.
The cornerstone of the blockbuster movie is the “high concept,” a standard Hollywood term referring to a simple idea that can be easily communicated. High-concept films are designed to give audiences familiar points of reference with other movies (hence, the plethora of Hollywood sequels: five for Rocky, three for Jaws, four for Die Hard), rather than promoting new or innovative story lines. All of this suggests that Hollywood is a slave to trends.
In line 1, “cornerstone” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) fundamental element sharp digression turning point secret essence intricate decoration
John was more than just -------: his relentless drive toward perfection could almost be described as -------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) lackadaisical .. an obsession gregarious .. an avocation hapless .. a mania meticulous .. an omen fastidious .. a compulsion
10. The author’s concluding generalization about Hollywood can best be described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) perplexed derisive ambivalent indulgent optimistic
Although, as a Supreme Court Justice, Thurgood Marshall was known for being forthright and outspoken, in private he was ---------. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) flamboyant adroit laudatory reticent admonitory
Questions 11-12 are based on the following passage.
The proposal drew a ------- response from the committee, eliciting no opposition but little enthusiasm. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) partisan vociferous tepid disdainful consolatory
Art and photography, strange but exciting companions, have too often been passed off as the happiest of married couples, and this is certainly the case today. Photography is one of the big art-world success stories of the past quarter century. Museums and galleries are awash with photographic projects. In auction houses, vintage prints now regularly command over $100,000, and there is a fairly solid market for contemporary work as well. But the very normalization of the medium’s highart position has been paralleled by a sharp diminishment of photography’s magic. Little remains, certainly in contemporary photography of the fascinatingly anomalous, square-peg-in-around-hole status that once made the photograph-as-art such an unexpected wonder.
At its purest, professional wrestling has much in common with morality plays; its stark oppositions between good and evil, and honesty and guile create a world ------- of -------.
11. The author’s tone in lines 10-13 (“Little…wonder”) is best described as one of (A) outrage
(B) (C) (D) (E) regret objectivity amusement celebration
2020 PT 4 | Reading value was “amiability of disposition,” which enabled him to make friends with people wherever they went. As Maugham says, “I was able to get into easy contact with an immense number of persons whom otherwise I should have known only from a distance.” Travel writer Peter Fleming was not so sanguine about his travel companions. In one trip he made to China in the early 1930s, described in his book, One’s Company (1934), Fleming made the mistake of going part of the way with a nonstop talker. The experience inspired him to end his book with an over-elaborate justification of traveling alone: It is easy enough for one man to adapt himself to living under strange and constantly changing conditions. It is much harder for two. Leave A or B alone in a distant country, and each will evolve a congenial way of living. Throw them together, and the comforts of companionship are as likely as not offset by the strain of reconciling their divergent methods. A likes to start early and halt for a siesta. B does not feel the heat and insists on sleeping late. A instinctively complies with regulations, B instinctively defines them… Each would get on splendidly by himself. Alone together, they build up gradually between them a kind of unacknowledged rivalry…Each, while submitting readily to the exotic customs of the country, endures with a very bad grace the trifling idiosyncrasies of the other. The complex structure of their relationship…bulks larger and larger, obtruding itself between them and the country they are visiting, blotting it out. From this experience Fleming learned abundantly what Ernest Hemingway took from his French auto-trip with fellow writer F. Scott Fitzgerald: “Never go on trips with anyone you do not love.”
12. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) (B) (C) (D) compare photography to other forms of high art describe recent innovations in photographic techniques discuss photography’s current standing as an art form question the high prices commanded by contemporary photographs (E) illustrate how lucrative photography can be as a career choice
Questions 13-24 are based on the following passage.
Passage 1 is adapted from an essay initially published in the early 1800s, while Passage 2 is adapted from a 1980 book on travel in the 1920s and 1930s.
One of the pleasantest things in the world is going on a journey; but I like to do it myself. I can enjoy society in a room; but out of doors, nature is company for me. I am then never less alone than when alone. I cannot see the wit of walking and talking at the same time. When I am in the country, I wish to vegetate like the country. I like solitude, when I give myself up to it, for the sake of solitude; nor do I ask for “a friend in my retreat/Whom I may whisper, solitude is sweet.” Give me the clear blue sky over my head, and the green turf beneath my feet, a winding road before me, and a three hours’ march to dinner—and I begin to feel, think, and be myself again. Instead of an awkward silence, broken attempts at wit or dull commonplaces, mine is that undisturbed silence of the heart which alone is perfect eloquence. Others have different opinions. “Let me have a companion of my way,” says the novelist Lawrence Sterne, “were it but to remark how the shadows lengthen as the sun declines.” It is beautifully said; but in my opinion, this continual comparing of notes interferes with the involuntary impression of things upon the mind and dilutes the experience. If you have to explain what you feel, it is making a toil of a pleasure. You cannot read the book of nature without being perpetually put to the trouble of translating it for the benefit of others. There is one subject on which it is pleasant to talk on a journey, I grant, and that is, what one shall have for supper when we get to our inn at night. Every mile of the road heightens the flavor of the meal we expect at the end of it. How fine is it to enter some old town, walled and turreted, just at approach of nightfall, or to come to some straggling village, with the lights streaming through the surrounding gloom; and then after inquiring for the best entertainment that the place affords, “to take one’s ease at one’s inn!” These eventful moments in our lives’ history are too precious, too full of solid, heart-felt happiness to be frittered and dribbled away in solitude. Passage 2 The person who travels fastest travels alone, to be sure, but some hold that the one who travels best travels with a companion. This was certainly the view of the novelist W. Somerset Maugham, who traveled with a friend, Gerald Haxton. For Maugham, who was notoriously shy, “Haxton’s
13. The authors of the two passages would both agree with which of the following statements about traveling alone? (A) Its enjoyment is largely a matter of personal inclination. (B) Its difficulties are easily underestimated by inexperienced travelers. (C) It enables one to make much better time than when traveling with a companion. (D) It is not as much fun as traveling with another person. (E) It is the best way to meet people when in an unfamiliar land. 14. The statement in lines 3-4 (“I am…alone”) is an example of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) an apology a metaphor a paradox a euphemism an understatement
15. Sterne mentions “the shadows” (line 17) as an example of a (A) specialized insight that only a seasoned traveler can bring to bear on a situation (B) pleasurable experience that one can enjoy at home as easily as in a foreign land (C) thoughtless comment that travelers are apt to make to their guides
(A) (B) (C) (D)
2020 PT 4 | Reading
petty conflicts people might experience when traveling together dangers one may encounter while traveling obstacles travelers should work to overcome reasons why large groups are often more congenial than small ones (E) situations that can be avoided with some forethought 23. In line 73, “took” most nearly means
(D) beautiful sight that cannot be communicated accurately to those who do not travel frequently (E) common observation that travelers might enjoy sharing nonetheless 16. In the last paragraph of Passage 1 (lines 24-35), the author does which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Admits to a sudden change of heart Notes an exception to a previously stated preference Expresses regret about an overly sweeping generalization Points out a common misconception Summarizes the main argument
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
snatched assumed withstood required gleaned
17. The physical descriptions of the “town” (line 28) and the “village” (line 29) primarily convey a sense of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) foreboding isolation rural poverty eccentric custom provincial charm thriving prosperity
24. Which best describes how the reference to Sterne (line 16) and Fleming (line 46) are used in their respective passages? (A) The first notes an exception to a rule, while the second voices a common opinion. (B) The first outlines a problem, while the second offers a solution to that problem. (C) Both exemplify difficulties frequently faced by travelers. (D) Both present the opinions held by the passages’ authors. (E) Each stands in contrast to a previous statement.
18. Who would agree most strongly with what “some hold” (line 37)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The author of Passage 1 Sterne (line 16, Passage 1) Fleming (line 46, Passage 2) Hemingway (line 73, Passage 2) The author of Passage 2
SECTION 4 Time – 25 minutes 24 Questions
1. Marta expected to ------ sashimi, but she was pleased to find that the spicy sauce made it quite ------.
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) enjoy .. fragrant dislike .. flavorful reject .. bitter delight in .. edible give up .. bland
19. For Maugham, “the one who travels best” (line 37) is the one who (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) visits lands that are generally not seen by other tourists does not travel with a fixed itinerary has daring adventures interacts with many people stays in the most luxurious accommodations
20. If the author of Passage 1 were to find fault with Fleming’s “justification” (line 51, Passage 2), it would most likely be on the grounds that it (A) is not based on actual experience (B) understates the difficulty of traveling abroad (C) does not sufficiently acknowledge the occasional pleasure of companionship (D) assumes that people actually want to travel alone (E) makes unfair assumptions about the attitudes of the local residents 21. The author of Passage 1 would most likely consider which of the following to be one of the “comforts” mentioned in line 57 of Passage 2? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) “going on a journey” (lines 1-2) “walking and talking at the same time” (line 5) an “undisturbed silence” (lines 13-14) the “comparing of notes” (lines 18-19) “These eventful moments” (lines 32-33)
Although the creation of hardy, insulin-producing cells once seemed unthinkable, researchers recently have made ------ progress in this area, which offers hope to type 1 diabetics. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) disconcerting irrevocable illusory considerable anticlimactic
Publishers have sought the endorsement of Oprah Winfrey’s Book Club not only for the ------ rewards accrued through increased sales, but also for the ------ that comes with such recognition. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) fiscal .. money literary .. honor academic .. profit intellectual .. support financial .. prestige
22. The activities of A and B (lines 58-62) primarily serve to dramatize
Critics complained that the committee charged with the design of the new museum ------ high-profile architects to the exclusion of lesser-
2020 PT 4 | Reading
(E) He encouraged those who imitated his style.
known, though often more ------, practitioners. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 5. displaced .. innovative courted .. accomplished extolled .. celebrated pursued .. reserved rebuffed .. inexperienced
Both passages suggest that nineteenth-century biographies, on the whole, were (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) highly innovative meticulously researched unfairly dismissive largely uncritical unaccountably popular
Although many people in contemporary times choose to speak explicitly, the tradition of ------ is still very much alive. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) garrulousness exaggeration excoriation oration euphemism
Unlike the author of Passage 1, the author of Passage 2 refers to which aspect of Strachey’s work? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Its literary quality
Its popularity among modern readers Its rejection of nineteenth-century conventions Its comprehensive presentation of factual data Its unfortunate influence on later biographers
Questions 6-9 are based on the following passage.
As a biographer, Lytton Strachey (1880-1932) thought and said that most British nineteenth-century biography was longwinded humbug. He believed the conventional length of books at that time—two or three volumes—to be deliberate padding. He also accused biographers of suppressing evidence because it was unflattering. However, Strachey himself suppressed every bit of historical evidence that did not make for a scandalous story. And it is doubtful whether he ever read one truly first-hand source. Yet Strachey brought back to British biography a liveliness it had lost for over a century. He was excited by human nature, and his essays were supremely readable. Biography designed as literature derives mainly from him.
Questions 10-16 are based on the following passages.
The author of this passage was born in Korea and immigrated to the United States with her family at age four. The allusion in the passage is to the Korean War (1950-1953), which resulted in two Korean nations, North and South, divided by a demilitarized zone.
For a considerable time it was unfashionable for a biographer to admire his or her subject; that debunking period lasted a full generation. Lytton Strachey started it, and on the whole it was a healthy movement. It was generally a wholesome reaction against the laudatory biography of the nineteenth century. But Strachey was a brilliantly talented writer; his imitators and followers had not his genius, and the art of biography suffered. We outgrew the fashion, perhaps because debunking is easy and what is too easy does not hold up over time. But the stigma remained: a biography was not true unless it was malicious.
Both passages agree on which point? (A) Strachey’s biographies misrepresented statements by their subjects. (B) Strachey’s work created a new standard for biographers. (C) Strachey’s imitators restored objectivity to biographies. (D) Strachey’s skills as a researcher were unsurpassed. (E) Strachey’s work initially received little recognition. 7. Which generalization about Strachey is supported by both passages? (A) (B) (C) (D) He was an unusually skilled writer. He was a commercially successful biographer. He made biographies accessible to nonscholarly readers. He criticized publishers of nineteenth-century biographies.
During my early twenties, to placate my parents, and simply to escape, I decided to sojourn in my birthplace, something I’d sworn I would never do. My parents were thrilled. They prayed that I’d come back triumphantly with a picture-perfect bridegroom. That was the furthest thing from my mind as I packed my faded jeans, tank tops, boots, and a glossy photo of my freckle-faced then-boyfriend who was of Scottish descent. The moment I landed in Seoul, I was aware of how much I felt like a misfit. All my life I had tried to blend into the dominant culture and couldn’t. And finally, when I was in a place where everyone looked like me, I still stood out. I took it for granted that I’d feel a sense of freedom. I thought I’d blend into the landscape. This wasn’t the case. People stared at me with raking eyes. I became conscious of my Americangirl swaggering body movements and inappropriate dress. Collecting my courage, I traveled to the demilitarized zone on my own. I touched the high barbed-wire fence that stretched across the belly of the peninsula, dividing Korea in half. I visited thousand-year-old temples and regal palace gates that had withstood modernization and centuries of battle. I met with distant cousins who welcomed me with outstretched arms into their homes and related heroic tales about my mother and Halmoni (Grandmother) during the war. How Halmoni had led her young children out of communist north to the United Nations-backed south. How my mother, at the age of thirteen, saved the life of her baby sister. I listened with such an overwhelming, insatiable thirst that when I returned to the States a year and a half later, I began to ask my parents and Halmoni (who had immigrated to the States some time after we did) all about the past. The past was no longer a time gone by, a dead weight. I now saw that it held ancient treasures. And the more I delved and discovered, the more I felt myself being steered toward a future I had never imagined for myself. I began to write. I didn’t even know I
(B) (C) (D) (E)
2020 PT 4 | Reading
desire to search for historical information realization that people are shaped by their environments genuine understanding of one’s personal identity sincere effort to meet others who share that legacy
could write. My family helped me knit stories into a bound book using Halmoni’s voice. As her powerful words moved through me I was able to reflect and meditate on the delusional life I had fashioned for myself. I could feel my sense of self rising. This sparked a newfound awareness and excitement. I became a spokeswoman on Korean culture, traveling to various college campuses across the country. “Be proud. Embrace your legacy,” I spouted to young Korean American students wearing extra-large, trendy sportswear. But the whole time I was lecturing, I had very little understanding of what that self-concept meant. I was merely talking the talk. I hadn’t yet fully embraced my own identity.
16. Which statement most closely parallels the author’s conclusion about knowledge of the past? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) It is a treasure that should be jealously guarded. It contributes directly to a sense of national identity. It is often most valued during early adulthood. It can enhance appreciation of ancient cultures. It can help individuals attain deeper self-awareness.
10. The author’s description of her first impressions of Korea indicates that “a sense of freedom” (line 13) involves feeling (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) independent inconspicuous invulnerable empowered optimistic
Questions 17-24 are based on the following passage.
The following passage is adapted from a 1995 article written by an astrophysicist.
11. In lines 9-16, the author suggests that her original expectations about visiting Korea were (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unrealistic and naïve misguided and dangerous politicized and idealistic sensible and practical ambitious and lofty
Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are, Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky. 5 If stars did not twinkle, then the above rhyme by Jane Taylor (1783-1824) would not have been written and the world’s astronomers would be very, very happy. Twinkling stars are an active ingredient in both romantic nights and bad data. What actually happens when a star twinkles? Through fine optical devices, such as telescopes and eyeballs, the atmosphere looks like a tapestry of individual “patches” of air that drift across the field of view. Unfortunately, different patches have slightly different temperatures and densities, and thus different optical properties. From one patch, a light wave can be broken apart, with its segments sent on slightly different paths. The scene resembles a pond in which ripples move across an untidy ridge of stones—the smooth shape of each ripple is disturbed before reaching the shore. Under the influence of the atmosphere, a star’s image will not only drift to and fro, but will also change its brightness from one moment to the next. Your eyes will record a twinkling star. A time-lapse photograph will record a smeared, circular blob. After a swift yet peaceful journey, the sharp pinpoint of light from a distant star reaches Earth’s lower atmosphere, where it gets juggled and wiggled and smeared into an oversized blob on the detector attached to a telescope. Depending on the air turbulence, some nights are worse than others. With characteristic eloquence, Sir Isaac Newton, in his 1704 treatise on optics, worried about how twinkling stars might confound astronomers of the future: If the theory of making telescopes could at length be fully brought into practice, yet there would be certain bounds beyond which telescopes could not perform. For the air through which we look upon the stars, is in a perpetual tremor; as may be seen by the . . . twinkling of the fix’d stars. He went on to suggest that a mountain might be a good place to put a telescope:
12. The author’s attitude toward the ancient monuments she visited (lines 20-22) is best described as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) curiosity about their original functions astonishment at their size admiration for their capacity to endure reverence for their beauty surprise at their excess
13. The author’s visit to Korea helped change her attitude toward her family’s earlier experiences from (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) boredom to tolerance disdain to amusement skepticism to fanaticism indifference to fascination concern to compassion
14. The passage suggests that the author came to regard Halmoni with great (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) reserve concern envy esteem humility
15. At the end of the passage, the author implies that a sense of “legacy” (line 43) should be accompanied by a (A) willingness to explain that legacy to others
2020 PT 4 | Reading
The only remedy is a most serene and quiet air, such as may perhaps be found on the tops of the highest mountains above the grosser clouds. 45 Newton was right. The sky is, indeed, more serene when viewed from mountaintops, and I agree with him that clouds are gross. But the atmosphere above mountains does not always cooperate. If you seek high-resolution images of your star field or galaxy when the twinkling is bad, then there are two obvious things to do. Plan A: close the telescope dome and go to bed. Plan B: raise $2 billion, build a telescope, launch it into orbit above the disturbing atmospheric layers, and observe the universe from there. Plan B is actually in progress in the form of the Hubble space telescope, which now observes the universe with a leap in resolution from ground-based telescopes that is as impressive as the leap to telescope from the unaided eye. But there now exists a clever, less obvious remedy that is revolutionizing ground-based astronomy: adaptive optics. In some versions, lasers are used to continually monitor the blobbiness of stars. An intricate network of software and hardware corrects for the atmospheric turbulence of the moment. Fifteen years ago, this technology would have been indistinguishable from magic. Today, it produces images that, in some cases, are almost as good as what can be obtained from outside the atmosphere. As unromantic as it may sound, we now have the technology to “de-twinkle” the stars.
(A) consternation at having to record and keep track of so much continually fluctuating data (B) acknowledgement that there is no solution to a common research problem (C) awareness that atmospheric conditions can make astronomers’ work more difficult (D) criticism of the methods most frequently used to record astronomical data (E) disappointment in the quality of some scientific instruments 21. The author uses the phrase “yet peaceful” (line 25) in order to set up a contrast between the (A) views regarding astronomical research in Newton’s time and the views regarding that subject in our time (B) quality of the images obtained by the Hubble telescope and the quality of images obtained by traditional telescopes (C) effects of interstellar space and the effects of Earth’s lower atmosphere on starlight (D) reaction of astronomers to clear images and the reaction of astronomers to blurred and smeared images (E) romantic reaction to stars and scientific theories about them
22. The author’s claim that he agrees with Newton “that clouds are gross” (lines 45-46) is best characterized as an (A) (B) (C) (D) attempt to use irony to discredit a famous observation attempt at humor based on two different senses of a word effort to support a claim by citing an established authority effort to establish a distinction between the author’s view and Newton’s (E) attempt to communicate a difficult concept in non-scientific terminology
17. In lines 5-7 (“If stars . . . happy”), the author suggests that astronomers (A) are concerned that most people understand very little about the stars (B) are unfamiliar with Taylor’s work (C) do not approve of Taylor’s ideas about the stars (D) find the twinkling of the stars frustrating (E) are critical of popular views about why stars twinkle
23. The reference to “magic” in line 64 is used to (A) characterize the success of adaptive optics (B) evoke the mystery and beauty of the stars (C) dramatize the achievements of Newton and other early astronomers (D) imply that certain kinds of images are not to be trusted (E) show how the use of lasers can reduce the amount of atmospheric turbulence
18. According to the passage, astronomers would be “very, very happy” (line 7) if (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) more money were devoted to scientific research more people became interested in astronomy a specific barrier to astronomical research did not exist more people understood the importance of scientific work a misleading poem had not been written
24. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) highlight the importance of the telescope in early astronomical research (B) introduce readers to a fundamental issue in astronomy (C) explain the principles of land-based telescopes to nonscientists (D) demonstrate the extent to which modern astronomy has been influenced by eighteenth-century discoveries (E) encourage people to take a new look at the way astronomers go about solving problems
19. The purpose of the question in line 10 is to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) introduce the author’s explanation of a phenomenon discredit the romantic reaction to starlight bring up the first of several competing theories acknowledge a gap in scientific understanding cast doubt upon a widely-accepted theory
20. The word “Unfortunately” (line 13) primarily emphasizes the author’s