SECTION 3 Time – 25 minutes 24 Questions 10
2020 PT 5 | Reading persona, however, is a function of artistic license as much as scientific evidence. Although a century of study on T. rex skeletons has generated substantial information about its anatomy, inferring behavior from anatomy alone is perilous. Indeed, whether T. rex was even primarily a predator or a scavenger is still the subject of debate.
The botany students ----- conditions inside the new greenhouse, recording the temperature and humidity every hour. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) exemplified monitored hypothesized disregarded predicted
15 Controversial scholarship offers a new interpretation about how the great T. rex lived, one at odds with this dinosaur’s public persona. Developed by paleontologist Jack Horner, this theory holds that T. rex was not the great predator that marauded in primordial landscapes, but rather a slow scavenger that poked about in search of carrion. Horner mounts a great deal of technical evidence to prove that T. rex was no hunter: It had calves the length of its thighs, something that is good for walking but lousy for pouncing. Judging by its skull, it had poor eyesight, not a great trait since hunters often track prey at twilight. And while predators typically have powerful forearms, T. rex, as Horner puts it, “couldn’t even clap.” Both passages address which of the following issues? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 7. The cause of dinosaur extinctions
The theories of a noted paleontologist The food-finding behavior of an extinct species The decrease in funding for dinosaur research The specific anatomical characteristics of T. rex
All too often people are ready to ----- rumors as truth without first trying to ----- them. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) accept . . substantiate acknowledge . . personify distort . . corroborate consider . . alter transmit . . enhance
6. 3. Of the two candidates for commissioner, Roberts was disliked because of his brusque and ----- manner; board members sought an applicant for the position who was less -----. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 4. peremptory .. abrasive ingratiating .. cavalier boorish .. solicitous bombastic .. assiduous deprecating .. pragmatic
The phrase “they still live among us” (line 2) is best interpreted as (A) a sly criticism of the public’s lack of knowledge about dinosaurs (B) a metaphorical reference to contemporary interest in dinosaurs (C) an acknowledgment of the impact dinosaurs have had on the environment (D) an admission that the author is not an expert in paleontology (E) an allusion to the physical hardiness of a handful of species
David’s request to borrow coffee was only a -----, a way to meet the new neighbors without being openly inquisitive. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) misgiving requisition compunction delusion pretext 8.
Tom Bradley, the late mayor of Los Angeles, has been described by his successor as ----- for the way he ----- divisions that had existed for nearly a decade. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) an innovator . . endorsed an icon . . embraced a prognosticator . . renounced a strategist . . reestablished a conciliator . . healed
The “persona” referred to in line 7 and in line 15 highlights T. rex’s (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) ferocity cunning adaptability slow-wittedness timorousness
Questions 6-9 are based on the following passages.
Jack Horner (Passage 2) would most likely argue that the characterization of T. rex in lines 5-6 of Passage 1 (“a killing…prey”) is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) undeniably accurate essentially true with only minor distortions unverifiable since the fossil record is incomplete comprised of equal parts fact and fiction completely unfounded
Passage 1 Dinosaurs ceased to walk the Earth 65 million years ago, yet they still live among us, with velociraptors starring in movies and triceratops cluttering toddlers’ bedrooms. One species in particular rules our fantasies—Tyrannosaurus rex, which looms in the public imagination as a killing machine that executed bloodthirsty attacks on helpless prey. This
2020 PT 5 | Reading 12. Hurston criticizes some writers (lines 9-13) for (A) relying on the appeal of popular themes (B) abandoning their writing when they encounter difficulties in getting published (C) shirking patriotic duties during times of personal hardship (D) exploiting their literary talents for monetary gain (E) being unwilling to write what the public most wants to read
Questions 10-15 are based on the following passages.
This passage, adapted from a 1997 book, discusses writer Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) in relation to criticism regarding her political views.
As long as Hurston remains susceptible to what are essentially political judgments, her literary fortunes will continue to fluctuate with the temper of the times. Criticism that restricts itself to ideology misses the basic reason the writer is worth reading in the first place. Hurston belongs among the American classics not because of her politics but because of her language. She was at pains to distinguish herself from other writers with clearly defined social and political agendas. Some writers, Hurston charged, think there is bravery in writing for those “who want to hear the same thing over and over again even though they already know it by heart….It is the same thing as waving the flag in a poorly constructed play.” Hurston’s saving distinction was her exquisitely sensitive ear. She was sometimes out of tune, as when she tried to devise metaphors that were self-consciously literary (“there is a basin in the mind where words float around”). But when she deployed colloquial speech and celebrated its ability to move beyond mere denotation, she was a spectacular writer, and the farthest thing from a flag waver. When, for instance, she describes a speeding train, she uses a word that perfectly conveys the sound of the wheels clicking over the track joints: it “schickalacked” over the rails. Hurston was a brilliant transcriber of colloquial language and teller of folktales, but these were only part of her achievement. When writing in her own voice, she renders the world in phrases that are palpable and wonderfully immediate. This is a writer who understood that spontaneous imagemaking is the mark of a living language, that a shared language is the only conduit we have into the interior lives of other people. Hurston’s real subject, and this is the reason her work will abide, was the universal disjunction between the limitless human imagination and the constrictions within which all human beings live. She happened to know best how to exemplify this theme by writing about the lives of Black women in the American South, which in itself is cause for neither praise nor blame. Hurston rejected all the conventional categories—race, class, gender—by which some of her latest critics organize experience. “My interest lies in what makes a man or woman do such-and so, regardless of…color.”
13. The sentence beginning, “She was sometimes . . .” (line 15) serves primarily to (A) note an exception to the claim made in the previous sentence (B) provide an example of Hurston’s effective use of poetic language (C) emphasize the author’s central argument about Hurston’s style (D) interject a sentimental image into an otherwise objective commentary (E) reveal a little-known accomplishment of Hurston’ s 14. The example of the “speeding train” (line 21) primarily serves to demonstrate Hurston’s (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) suspicion of new technology effective use of language carefree approach to life rapid ascendance as a prominent writer need for change and innovation
15. In lines 35-38 (“She . . . blame”), the author most directly implies that (A) the characters in Hurston’s fiction were often more controversial than their real-life counterparts (B) too much should not be made of Hurston’s choice of whom to write about (C) Hurston felt compelled to apologize for writing about what was most interesting to her (D) Hurston was unaware of the social impact her writing would someday have (E) Hurston’s peers could not identify with her characters
Questions 16-24 are based on the following passage.
10. The passage primarily conveys the author’s (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) enthusiasm about Hurston’s social activism amusement at those who misunderstand Hurston’s views skepticism about Hurston’s permanence as a literary icon respect for Hurston’s ability to win over her critics appreciation for Hurston’s literary talents
This passage was written by a mathematician in 1992.
11. In line 3, “temper” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) courage composure resiliency anger mood 10
I have long been intrigued by Roman numerals. There is something of a contradiction between the simplicity of the first numerals and the perplexing complexity of the others. The first three numbers, I, II, and III, follow a self-evident rule. They simply contain as many bars as there are units. Number IV, however, breaks the rule. It introduces a new sign, V, whose meaning (five) is far from obvious, and its format directs the reader to a subtraction operation, 5 - 1, that seems arbitrary— why not 6 - 2, 7 - 3, or even 2 x 2? Looking at the history of numerical notation, we find that the first three Roman numerals are like living fossils—they draw us back to a remote time when humans had not yet invented a way of writing down numbers and found it sufficient to keep track of numbers by engraving a stick with as many notches as the sheep or camels they owned. The series of notches preserved a durable record of a past accounting.
2020 PT 5 | Reading 18. In lines 9-10, the author most likely includes a series of mathematical operations in order to illustrate (A) (B) (C) (D) a relationship between Roman and Arabic numerals the complexity of some mathematical equations various ways that different cultures calculate numbers different ways that a specific number could have been represented (E) outmoded systems of numerical representation 19. The “burden” mentioned in line 24 refers to a person’s need to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) record numbers in a written form count the bars in a given numerical symbol use numbers to keep track of possessions recall a simple mathematical operation invent new numbers out of limited symbols
This was indeed the very beginning of a symbolic notation, because the same row of five notches could symbolize any set of five objects. This historical reminder, however, only thickens the mystery surrounding the fourth Roman numeral. Why did people abandon a notation that was so useful and simple? How did the arbitrariness of IV, which puts a burden on the attention and memory of the reader, come to replace the simplicity of IIII, which enabled the average shepherd to understand numbers? More to the point, if for one reason or another some revision of the number notation system was required, why did the first numerals I, II, and III escape it? Is it just a historical accident? Did some chance events preside over the fate of Roman number notation and its survival till the present? The answer seems to be “No.” The singularity of the Roman numbers I, II, and III has a universal character that transcends the history of the Mediterranean countries. A comprehensive study has shown that in all civilizations, the first three numbers were initially denoted by repeatedly writing down the symbol for “one” as many times as necessary, exactly as in Roman numerals. And most, if not all, civilizations stopped using this system beyond the number three. The Chinese, for instance, denote the numbers 1, 2, and 3 using one, two, and three horizontal bars—yet they employ a radically different symbol for number 4. Even our own Arabic digits, although they seem arbitrary, derive from the same principle. Our digit 1 is a single bar, and our digits 2 and 3 actually derive from two or three horizontal bars that became tied together when they were deformed by being handwritten. Only the Arabic digits 4 and beyond can thus be considered as genuinely arbitrary. Such a remarkable cross-cultural convergence calls for general explanation. At this point it is tempting to draw a parallel with infants’ number discrimination abilities. Human infants readily discriminate between one and two objects or between two and three objects, but their abilities do not extend much beyond this point. Yet suppose that number discrimination abilities remained unchanged in human adults. This might provide the first elements of an explanation: beyond number 3 the bar notation would no longer be legible because we would be unable to distinguish at a glance IIII from IIIII or IIIIIII from IIIIIIII. Roman numerals, then, lead us to examine to what extent the number discrimination abilities found in babies extend to adults. And although elaborate mathematical language enables us to go way beyond the limits of protonumerical notation, these primitive units of measurement still retain considerable influence on our way of perceiving, writing and speaking about numbers.
20. Which response to the question posed in lines 27-29 (“More . . . escape it?”) is most directly supported by the author’s argument? (A) (B) (C) (D) These numbers were misunderstood by virtually everyone. These were the most commonly used numbers. These symbols were developed in a random fashion. The symbols for these numbers were identical in most civilizations. (E) The numbers of bars in these numerals were recognizable at a glance.
21. Which of the following, if true, would most directly contradict the statement in lines 35-38 (“A comprehensive . . . numerals”) ? (A) Ancient Mayan culture had a numerical symbol for zero. (B) All known numerical systems derived from a single ancient system. (C) Ancient Egyptians denoted the numbers 1, 2, and 3 with one, two, and three bars, respectively. (D) The symbol for 4 in ancient Scandinavian culture was more complex than four parallel bars. (E) The symbol for 3 in one ancient civilization’s numerical system was the equivalent of 5 – 2. 22. In line 46, “tied” most nearly means
(A) (B) (C) (D) (E) joined secured constrained equalized devoted
16. A central purpose of the passage is to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) herald a new discovery account for a universal phenomenon defend a controversial claim advocate an alternative system correct a common misunderstanding
23. The passage most directly supports which generalization about the numerical symbols that are “arbitrary” (line 48)? (A) They are identical in virtually all societies. (B) They may have different values in different societies. (C) They have no readily apparent relationship with the quantities they represent. (D) They appeared randomly throughout the ages. (E) They were developed with little regard for practicality.
17. The passage as a whole suggests that which symbol is an example of the “self-evident rule” mentioned in line 5 ? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) The Arabic number 3 The Arabic number 4 The Arabic number 11 The Roman number IV The Roman number V
2020 PT 5 | Reading The new generation of art students is ------ of doctrinaire imperatives and will readily ------ these restrictive dogmas of the past. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 7. suspicious . . scorn skeptical . . tolerate fond . . negate uncritical . . disparage ignorant . . emulate
24. The author suggests that a “cross-cultural convergence” (lines 48-49) most likely results from a (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) consensus among nations to adopt a shared system noncultural factor in human mental processes biological cause of contradictory social conduct history of competition among neighboring societies single ancient origin of all cultures
SECTION 4 Time – 25 minutes 24 Questions 1. Companies eager to expand abroad have offered bonuses to employees to ----- them to move overseas. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 2. entice warn force summon notify
Although the state’s reform law had been designed to ------ the excessively slow progress of criminal trials, those proceedings remained unduly ------ . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) appropriate . . burdensome expedite . . protracted invoke . . prescriptive simulate . . flexible accelerate . . streamlined
The stunning cinematography of the film was diminished by its ----- content: the characterizations were inane and the plot idiotic. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) morose dire vacuous innovative immoderate
Though Jennifer’s classmates repeatedly caution her against -----her schoolwork, she is ------ their admonitions and thus continues to procrastinate. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) postponing . . unresponsive to misplacing . . innocent of plagiarizing . . oblivious to sharing . . delighted by delaying . . agreeable to
Questions 9-10 are based on the following passage.
George Washington Carver promoted nutritious, soil-enhancing peanuts as a crop in order both to ----- crop yields and to ----- the diet of those who would consume the peanuts. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) modify . . restrict improve . . enrich compromise . . supplement heighten . . extol conserve . . examine
As the child of two uninspired cooks, I naturally believed that one ate food only to allay hunger, like filling a car with gasoline. Then, eating in a Japanese restaurant during a family vacation, I was served a small slice of fish. Raw. I’d eaten fish before, of course; fried, in a white bun, at a fastfood establishment, or steamed beyond recognition in my school lunchroom. But this was different. As I savored the briny taste, a door suddenly swung open. The use of a single-word sentence in line 4 helps to convey the author’s sense of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) his family’s indifference to ethnic cuisines his discomfort about traveling with his parents the quick passage of time in the story he recounts the unusual nature of the situation confronting him the dangerousness of the task he must perform
Groups that choose to travel from one region to another rather than settle permanently in one place are considered ------- . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) predatory coherent nomadic fervent dormant
10. The reference to the “door” (line 8) primarily suggests that the author (A) suddenly understands why he had resisted trying new foods (B) cannot believe that he actually enjoys eating raw fish (C) has gained an appreciation for the sensuous pleasure of eating (D) is delighted to learn that there are many different ways to prepare fish (E) now believes that most people are too narrow in their tastes
Judge Hilda Tagle says she lacked political acumen when she first ran for office but has since become more ------- . (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) astute jovial prolific utopian amenable
2020 PT 5 | Reading The avowed aim of a protest novel such as Uncle Tom’s Cabin is to bring greater freedom to the oppressed. These novels are forgiven, on the strength of these good intentions, for whatever violence they do to language. It is, indeed, considered a sign of frivolity to suggest that these books are badly written. One is told to put first things first, the good of society coming before niceties of style or characterization. Even if this were incontestable, it argues an insuperable confusion, since literature and sociology are not the same: it is impossible to discuss them as if they were. Passage 2 The inability of twentieth-century critics either to appreciate the complexity and scope of a novel like Stowe’s or to account for its enormous popular success stems from their assumptions about the nature and function of literature. In modernist thinking,* literature is by definition a form of discourse that has no designs on the world. It does not attempt to change things, but merely to represent them, and does so in a specifically literary language whose claim to value lies in its uniqueness. Consequently, works whose stated purpose is to influence the course of history, and which therefore deploy a language that is not only not unique but common and accessible to everyone, do not qualify as works of art. Literary texts, such as the sentimental novel, that make continual and obvious appeals to the reader’s emotions and use technical devices that are distinguished by their utter conventionality, epitomize the opposite of everything that good literature is supposed to be. “For the literary critic,” writes J. W. Ward, summing up the dilemma posed by Uncle Tom’s Cabin, “the problem is how a book so seemingly artless, so lacking in apparent literary talent, was not only an immediate success but has endured.” Indeed, the modernist literary aesthetic cannot account for the unprecedented and persistent popularity of a book like Uncle Tom’s Cabin, for this novel operates according to principles quite other than those that have been responsible for determining the currently sanctified American literary classics. It is not my purpose to claim that Stowe’s novels are good in the same way that Moby Dick and The Scarlet Letter are; rather, I will argue that the work of sentimental writers is complex and significant in ways other than those that characterize the established masterpieces. I will ask the reader to set aside some familiar categories for evaluating fiction— stylistic intricacy, psychological subtlety, etc.—and to see the sentimental novel as a political enterprise, halfway between sermon and social theory, that both codifies and attempts to mold the values of its time. * Literary modernism was a twentieth-century movement that
rejected many traditional forms of literary expression.
Questions 11-12 are based on the following passage.
Many researchers initially believed that computer-based language translation—the ability to convert English into Russian, for instance—would yield quick and useful results. But the computer programs took well-formed sentences in one language and converted them into gibberish in another. For example, “The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak” twisted itself into “The liquor is voluntary, but the steak is lousy.” The difficulty lay in context. Human languages, laden with ambiguity, befuddle even their native speakers. A computer, ignorant of broad definitions and common usage, couldn’t make sense of the words once they’d been strung into sentences.
11. The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) explore the ramifications of an unusual theory describe the limitations of a particular technology criticize the failure of a team of translators illustrate the difficulties of learning a language question the need for translation programs
12. The passage suggests that initial attempts at computer-based translations failed primarily because of the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) technical difficulties of the Russian language uncommon dialects of certain social groups emotional connotations of particular expressions existence of words with more than one meaning string-like structures of complex sentences
Questions 13-24 are based on the following passages.
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 antislavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, was one of the most popular and politically influential books of the nineteenth century. Its value as a work of literature, however, has often been debated. Passage 1 is adapted from a 1949 essay by an African American writer; Passage 2 is adapted from a book of literary criticism published in 1985.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a very bad novel, having, in its selfrighteous, virtuous sentimentality, much in common with Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women. Sentimentality, the ostentatious parading of excessive and spurious emotion, is the mark of dishonesty, the inability to feel; the wet eyes of sentimentalists betray their aversion to experience, their fear of life, their arid hearts; it is always, therefore, the signal of secret and violent inhumanity. Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a catalogue of violence. This is explained by the nature of Stowe’s subject matter, her laudable determination to flinch at nothing in presenting the complete picture; an explanation that falters only if we pause to ask whether or not her picture is indeed complete; and what constriction or failure of perception forced her to so depend on the description of brutality— unmotivated, senseless—and to leave unanswered the only important question; what was it, after all, that moved people to such deeds? But this, let us say, was beyond Mrs. Stowe’s powers; she was not so much a novelist as an impassioned pamphleteer; her book was not intended to do anything more than prove that slavery was wrong. This makes material for a pamphlet but it is hardly enough for a novel. 65
13. The authors of these two passages differ most in their assumptions about the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) degree to which books can shape public opinion extent to which critics value stylistic innovation qualities that give a novel value and significance popular appeal that sentimental fiction has enjoyed effects of political turmoil on writers
14. Which statement about Uncle Tom’s Cabin is best supported by both passages? (A) It makes a direct emotional appeal to readers.
(B) (C) (D) (E)
21. In line 50, “posed” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) questioned impersonated presented puzzled positioned
2020 PT 5 | Reading
It was a best-seller during the 1850’s. It is a typical example of a protest novel. It has been widely mocked by later generations. It is an ambitious attempt to blend distinctive writing styles.
15. In lines 3-7 (“Sentimentality…hearts”), the author of Passage 1 indicates that sentimentalists are (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) irresponsible hypocritical selfish defensive influential
22. In line 60, the author of Passage 2 cites two books as examples of works that (A) were composed at roughly the same time as Uncle Tom’s Cabin (B) fit within the literary tradition established by Stowe (C) sought to shape the political values of readers (D) have traditionally been regarded as literary classics (E) address principles that are universal in scope 23. The author of Passage 1 would most likely argue that to analyze Uncle Tom’s Cabin in the terms presented in lines 65-67, Passage 2 (“to see . . . theory”), is to (A) misrepresent Stowe’s purpose in writing her novel (B) overestimate the effect this book had on world events (C) exaggerate the influence of politics on the popularity of novels (D) deny that books can be evaluated on purely literary grounds (E) blur a crucial distinction between two kinds of writing 24. The authors of the two passages differ in their response to sentimentality in that the author of Passage 1 argues that sentimentality (A) is shunned by most writers, whereas the author of Passage 2 argues that it typifies a specific genre (B) cannot influence intelligent readers, whereas the author of Passage 2 implies that it motivates people to take political action (C) is an undesirable trait in a novel, whereas the author of Passage 2 suggests that it is a major factor in any book’s success (D) indicates an artistic failing, whereas the author of Passage 2 suggests that it is valuable because it serves a larger social purpose (E) is never found in great literature, whereas the author of Passage 2 suggests that it is even present in the so-called classics
16. In line 16, “moved” most nearly means (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) relocated proposed drove forced progressed
17. The “violence” mentioned in line 26 most likely refers to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) unnecessary profanity stylistic clumsiness powerful convictions vivid and disturbing images frightening plot developments
18. The author of Passage 2 asserts that the “inability” mentioned in line 33 is caused by a (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) suspicion of books that sell in great numbers lack of familiarity with sentimental novels restricted definition of what constitutes art failure to recognize innovation in literature refusal to discuss alternative viewpoints fully
19. The author of Passage 2 suggests that the type of thinking described in lines 36-41 (“In modernist…uniqueness”) assumes that literature (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) can be appreciated by all readers utilizes everyday language grapples with philosophical themes rarely touches readers’ emotions never seeks to affect real-life events
20. As described by Ward, the attitude of the “literary critic” (line 49) toward the popularity of Uncle Tom’s Cabin is best characterized as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) reverent respectful impartial regretful perplexed