Colegio Gimnasio Campestre San Sebastián

English
Reported Speech Reported speech is often also called indirect speech. When we use reported speech, we are usually talking about the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. For example: "I'm going to the cinema". He said he was going to the cinema. Basic tense chart The tenses generally move backwards in this way (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right): present simple I'm a teacher. present continuous I'm having lunch with my parents. present perfect simple I've been to France three times. present perfect continuous I've been working very hard. past simple I bought a new car. past continuous It was raining earlier. past perfect The play had started when I arrived. past perfect continuous I'd already been living in London for five years. past simple He said he was a teacher past continuous. He said he was having lunch with his parents. past perfect simple He said he had been to France three times. past perfect continuous He said he had been working very hard. past perfect He said he had bought a new car. past perfect continuous He said it had been raining earlier. past perfect NO CHANGE POSSIBLE past perfect continuous NO CHANGE POSSIBLE

Other verb forms Other verb forms also sometimes change: will I'll come and see you soon. can I can swim under water for two minutes. must All tickets must be bought in advance.

would He said he would come and see me soon. could He said he could swim under water for two minutes. had to He said that all tickets had to be bought in advance.

shall What shall we do about it? may May I smoke?

should He asked what we should do about it. might He asked if he might smoke.

Time and place references Time and place references often have to change: now then today here this this week tomorrow that day there that that week the following day the next day the day after the following week the next week the week after the previous day the day before the previous week the week before previously before 2 weeks previously 2 weeks before that night the previous Saturday the Saturday before the following Saturday the next Saturday the Saturday after that Saturday

next week yesterday last week ago 2 weeks ago tonight last Saturday

next Saturday

Examples:     I went to the theatre last night. He said he had gone to the theatre the night before. I'm having a party next weekend. He said he was having a party the next weekend. I'm staying here until next week. He said he was staying there until the following week. I came over from London 3 years ago. He said he had come over from London 3 years before.

SCIENCE
Contraceptive Methods There are so many different types of contraception available that you should be able to find the right method. You may have to try several different things before you choose the one you like most. We have reached the stage where unplanned pregnancies really should be rare, because there are so many good methods of birth control. What are the most popular types of contraception? According to the Office of National Statistics (ONS), the Pill remains the most popular method in the UK. Among women aged 16 to 49, 27 per cent were using the Pill in 2007. It‟s based on the recent survey carried out by the Office of National Statistics (ONS) on contraception among women aged 16 to 49. (The figures may differ very slightly from those in other surveys. Even when using large samples, minor variations in results will occur.) 1. The Pill including the mini-Pill – 27 per cent. 2. Male condom – 22 per cent. 3. Vasectomy – 11 per cent 4. Female sterilisation – 9 per cent 5. The coil (intra-uterine device) – 4 per cent 6. Withdrawal method – 3 per cent. 7. Persona and other variations of the rhythm method – 3 per cent. 8. Contraceptive injection – 2 per cent. 9. Mirena (intra-uterine system) – 2 per cent. 10. Skin patch – 1 per cent. 11. The cap or diaphragm – 1 per cent. 12. Female condom – less than 1 per cent.

What works and what doesn't? With the exception of withdrawal (coitus interruptus), the above methods have the blessing of family planning experts because when used properly, they prevent pregnancy. However, while the rhythm method is okay for well-motivated couples who have been trained in its use by a qualified natural family planning teacher, for the rest of us, it‟s a bit risky. Also very risky are certain non-approved methods, for instance, using spermicides (chemical pessaries, creams or foams), or douching your vagina after sex. Practices like „doing it standing up‟ or „coughing a lot afterwards‟ or „trying not to come‟ don‟t work, and will simply lead to unwanted pregnancy. How effective are the various methods? Some contraceptive methods are more effective in preventing pregnancy than others, while only condoms offer protection against sexually transmitted infections.

The following figures will give you some idea of which kinds of contraception are the most efficient at protecting you against pregnancy.

Contraception Methods for Women Because women have the ability to become pregnant, the onus is generally on them to take responsibility for birth control. There are many more options for women's contraception as opposed to men's, and likely there is one that is right for every woman. Hormonal Birth Control Altering the menstrual cycle through the use of extraneous hormones is a popular method of birth control that women use. Birth control pills have been in use for many years with a fairly high and predictable success rate. Recently, hormone patches, injections and cervical rings that release hormones have gained in popularity for the simple reason that they are not pills that have to be taken daily. The effectiveness of these methods of birth control is usually above 92 percent. Rhythm Method The rhythm method requires a good understanding of a woman's menstrual cycle. Typically a woman ovulates on day 14 of her menstrual cycle. Thus, intercourse within a day or two on either side of ovulation risks pregnancy. This type of contraception only works well for women with menstrual cycles that are predictable (regardless of whether they are 28 days long or not). There is a 25 percent failure rate associated with this form of birth control, but women with predictable menstrual cycles have fewer failures. Tubal Ligation Tubal ligation is when the fallopian tubes are severed, which prevents the egg from meeting sperm there and being fertilized. This option is becoming less popular, as other options are becoming available. A tubal ligation must be done surgically, and many women who have cesarean sections opt for these because the fallopian tubes are exposed and can be easily tied off right after the birth of their baby. Intrauterine Devices IUDs are devices that are placed into the uterus. Some of these contain substances that kill sperm, and some of these simply prevent the implantation of an embryo (and so do not prevent conception). These are about 99 percent effective and can almost always be removed if you want to get pregnant.

Cervical Caps Diaphragms are cups that are inserted and fit over the cervix, blocking the opening of the uterus. This prevents sperm from entering the uterus and traveling up toward the egg. The success rate is about 84 percent with diaphragms.

Spermicides Spermicides are products that come in a gel or foam and kill sperm on contact. Used alone, spermicides are marginally effective (about a 30 percent failure rate) but are generally used in conjunction with another form of birth control to increase the effectiveness of each. Abstinence Abstinence remains the only form of birth control that is 100 percent effective. It is also the only form of birth control available for women that also protects against the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Contraception Methods for Men Many times birth control is left up to the female partner in a relationship. This is likely because pregnancy is a bigger issue for women and because there are so many more contraceptive options available for women than for men. There are a few methods, however, that men can use to take charge of their fertility. Condoms Condoms are the most popular contraceptive method for men. Condoms consist of a latex (or rubber or sheepskin) sleeve that is worn over the penis. It has a small reservoir at the end that serves to catch the semen and prevent it from entering the vaginal canal. The success rate of condoms is approximately 85 percent. In order to work most effectively, condoms must be worn before any sexual contact occurs (by doing this, the success rate is much higher). Condoms also offer the advantage of being extremely effective in preventing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, if used properly. Withdrawal Withdrawal occurs when the penis is removed before ejaculation. The rate of failure is quite high for this method of contraception (about 27 percent) because oftentimes pre-ejaculatory fluid can contain sperm cells. Rhythm method Avoiding intercourse during ovulation is known as the rhythm method but requires that the man have intimate knowledge of the woman's menstrual cycle. The failure rate associated with this method is about 25 percent. Vasectomy A vasectomy has a high success rate (greater than 99 percent). This occurs when the vas deferens, which is the small tube that delivers sperm from the testis to the urethra, is surgically severed. These surgeries are relatively simple and have a high success rate. Within several weeks, the urethra is cleared of sperm cells. Abstinence Abstinence remains the only contraceptive method that is 100 percent effective. Potential Researchers are focused on developing a birth control pill for men, but this may be significantly in the future.

SOCIAL
England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the North Sea to the east, with the English Channel to the south separating it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The earliest settled line-up consisted of Brian Jones (guitar, harmonica),Ian Stewart (piano), Mick Jagger (lead vocals, harmonica), Keith Richards (guitar, vocals), Bill Wyman (bass) and Charlie Watts (drums). Since Wyman's retirement in 1993, the band's full members have been Jagger, Richards, Watts and guitarist Ronnie Wood. Darryl Jones (bassist) andChuck Leavell (keyboardist) are regular contributors but not full band members. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted the Rolling Stones, noting that "critical acclaim and popular consensus has accorded them the title of the “World‟s Greatest Rock and Roll Band.” Rolling Stone magazine ranked them 4th on their "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list, and their album sales are estimated to have been more than 200 million worldwide. The Rolling Stones were popular in Europe and then became successful in North America during the mid-1960s British Invasion. They have released twenty-two studio albums in the United Kingdom (24 in the United States), eleven live albums (twelve in the US), and numerous compilations. Their album Sticky Fingers (1971) began a string of eight consecutive studio albums reaching number one in the United States. Their most recent album of new material, A Bigger Bang, was released in 2005. In 2008, Billboard magazine ranked the Rolling Stones at number ten on "The Billboard Top All-Time Artists", and as the second most successful group in the Billboard Hot 100 chart.

The Rolling Stones emergence brought greater international recognition to the primitive urban blues typified by Chess Records' artists such as Muddy Waters, writer of "Rollin' Stone", the song for which the band is named. Critic and musicologist Robert Palmer said their endurance and relevance stems from being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music" while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone Current members
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Mick Jagger – lead and backing vocals, acoustic and electric guitars, piano, harmonica, bass guitar, synthesizer, percussion, slide guitar (April 1962 –present) Keith Richards – electric and acoustic guitars, bass guitar, piano, backing and lead vocals(April 1962 –present) Charlie Watts – drums, percussion (January 1963 –present) Ron Wood – slide, lap and pedal steel guitars, electric and acoustic guitars, bass guitar, saxophone, drums, backing vocals (March 1975 –present)

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