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Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga

THPT Hn Gai
I.L DO CHN TI
Bt u t nm lp 7, hc sinh c lm quen vi loi ton rt gn biu
thc, loi tn ny tip tc c dy k hn lp 8, lp 9. N c mt
hu ht cc thi hc k, thi hc sinh gii, thi tt nghip, lp 10,
tuyn sinh vo cc trng THPT, chuyn H Long.........
Mt s em cha bit cch lm loi ton ny, m ta gi l phng php.
i theo kt qu ca bi ton rt gn biu thc cn c cc dng ton:
gii phng trnh, bt phng trnh, tm gi tr ln nht, gi tr nh
nht ca biu thc, tm gi tr ca bin x biu thc nhn gi tr
nguyn....
V vy, phn trn m khng rt gn cbiu thc th hc sinh
khng thc hin tip c cc bi ton tip theo cn c kt qu ca
rt gn biu thc.
Vy cch trnh by 1 bi ton rt gn biu thc nh th no, phng
php gii bi ton ra sao. Trong bi vit ny ti xin ng gp vi
kinh nghim hng dn hc sinh thc hin tt loi ton .
II.NI DUNG TI
A.Phng php gii
rt gn biu thc A ta thc hin cc bc sau
- Tm iu kin ca bin biu thc c ngha ( m ta gi tt
l tm iu kin xc nh cho nhng biu thc cha ch)
- Quy ng mu s chung (nu c)
- a bt tha s chung ra ngoi cn thc (nu c)
- Thc hin cc php tnh cng, tr, nhn, chia, ly tha, khai cn
- Cng tr cc s hng ng dng
- Vi iu kin xc nh tm c, tr li kt qu rt gn ca
biu thc A
B.CC V D MINH HA
1. V d 1: Rt gn biu thc
2
150 1, 6. 60 4, 5. 2 6
3
A + +
Gii:

9 8
25.6 96 6
2 3
A + +

2
9 4.2.3
5 6 16.6 6
2 3
9 2
5 6 4 6 . 6 6
2 3
11 6
+ +
+ +

2. V d 2:
1
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
Cho A =
4 3 6
2 2
x x
x x x x
+ +
+

(vi x > 0; x

4)
a) Rt gn biu thc
b) Tm gi tr nguyn ca x sao cho 2A-1 0
( thi tt nghip lp 9 Qung Ninh nm 2002- 2003)
(2 im)
Gii:
a) Vi x > 0 v x

4

4 3 6
2 ( 2)
x x
A
x x x x
+
+


4( 2) ( 3) 6
( 2)
4 8 3 6
( 2)
2
( 2)
1
x x x x
x x
x x x x
x x
x
x x
x
+ + +

+ +

b) 2A - 1 0
2 1 A (K: x > 0 v x

4)

1
2
A

1 1
2
1 1
4
x
x


( bnh phng 2 v khng m)
{ }
1; 2; 3 x
tha mn iu kin x > 0 v x

4
Kt lun: Vi { }
1; 2;3 x
th 2A - 1 0
3. V d 3:( thi tt nghip THCS thnh ph H Ni nm 2001-
2002)
Cho biu thc:
2 4
( ) : ( )
1
1 1
x x x
P x
x
x x
+

+ +
a) Rt gn biu thc P
b) Tm gi tr ca x tha mn P < 0
2
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
c) Tm gi tr nh nht ca P
Gii:
a) KX:
0 0
1 0 1
x x
x x

' '


iu kin biu thc P c ngha l x0 v x

1
Rt gn:
Vi x 0 v x

1

( 1) ( 2) ( 1) 4
:
1 ( 1)( 1)
x x x x x x
P
x x x
+ + +

+ +

2 4
:
1 ( 1)( 1)
x x x x x x
x x x
+ +

+ +


2 4
:
1 ( 1)( 1)
x x
x x x

+ +
(Thm iu kin x

4)

( 2)( 1)( 1)
( 1).( 4)
1
2
x x x
x x
x
x
+

+
Vi x 0 ; x

1 v x

4 th biu thc P =
1
2
x
x

+
b) P < 0

1
0
2
x
x

<
+
(iu kin :
0; 1; 4 x x x
)

1 0 x <
(V
2 0 x x R
+
+ >
)

1
1
x
x
<
<

Kt hp vi iu kin phn a vi 0 1 x < th P < 0
c)
2 3 2 3 3
1
2 2 2 2
x x
P
x x x x
+ +

+ + + +
P c GTNN
3
2 x

+
c GTNN

2 x +
c GTNN ( do phn thc c t v mu dng)

x
c GTNN

0 x
3
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
0 x (Tha mn iu kin xc nh)
Kt lun: Vi x = 0 th P c GTNN l
1
2

4. V d 4:
Cho biu thc P =
2
2 2 (1 )
( ).
1 2
2 1
x x x
x
x x
+

+ +
a) Rt gn biu thc
b) Tnh gi tr ca biu thc P khi x=
7 4 3
c) Tm gi tr ca x biu thc P c gi tr ln nht.
Gii:
a) Xt:
2
2 1 ( 1) 1 0 x x x x + + + >
* KX:
0 0
1 0 1
x x
x x

' '


Vi 0 x v 1 x th biu thc P c ngha
Vi 0 x v 1 x ta c:
P =
2
2
( 2)( 1) ( 2)( 1) (1 )
.
2
( 1)( 1)
x x x x x
x x
+ +
+

2
2
2 2 2 2 ( 1)
.
2
( 1)( 1)
2 .( 1)
( 1)( 1).2
( 1)
1
( 1)
x x x x x x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x x
x x
+ + +

+



Vi 0 x v 4 x th biu thc P c kt qu rt gn l:
.( 1) x x hoc
x x

b)
2
7 4 3 4 2.2 3 3 (2 3) x +

2 3 2 3 x
Vi
7 4 3 x
thay vo biu thc P = x x ta c
P =2 3 7 4 3 3 3 5 +
Vi gi tr x=7 4 3 (tha mn iu kin xc nh )
4
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
Th P =
3 3 5
c) ( ) P x x x x

2
2
2
1 1 1
( ) 2 .
2 4 4
1 1
( )
2 4
1 1
( )
4 2
x x
x
x
1
+
1
]
1

1
]

P c GTLN
2
1
( )
2
x c GTNN

2
1
( ) 0
2
x do
2
1
( ) 0 0
2
x x >

1
0
2
1
2
1
4
x
x
x



( Tha mn iu kin
0; 4 x x
)
Thay
1
4
x vo P ta c P =
1 1
0
4 4

5. V d 5( thi THCS ca thnh ph H Ni nm 2002-2003)
(2,5 )
Cho biu thc:
P =
4 8 1 2
( ) : ( )
4
2 2
x x x
x
x x x x

+
a) Rt gn P
b) Tm gi tr ca x P =-1
c) Tm m vi mi gi tr x > 9 ta c: ( 3) 1 m x P x > +
Gii:
a) Xt: 2 ( 2) x x x x
KX:
0
0 0
4 0 4
2 0
x
x x
x x
x

>

' '

5
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
Vi x > 0 v 4 x c:
P =
4 8 1 2
( ) : ( )
4
2 ( 2)
x x x
x
x x x x

+
1 2( 2) 4 ( 2) 8
:
( 2)( 2) ( 2)
4 8 8 1 2 4
:
( 2)( 2) ( 2)
x x x x x
x x x x
x x x x x
x x x x

+
+

+

4 8 3
:
( 2)( 2) ( 2)
x x x
x x x x
+

+
( Thm K x 9)
4 ( 2) ( 2)
.
( 2)( 2) 3
4 . ( 2)
(3 )( 2)
4
3
x x x x
x x x
x x x
x x
x
x
+

Vi x > 0 , x
4, 9 x
th P =
4
3
x
x
b) P =-1
4
1
3
x
x

( K: x > 0,
4, 9 x x
)
4 3
4 3 0
x x
x x


t x y iu kin y > 0
Ta c phng trnh:
2
4 3 0 y y
Cc h s a + b + c = 4- 1-3 =0
1
1 y
(khng tha mn iu kin y > 0)

2
3
4
y ( tha mn iu kin y > 0)
Vi
3
4
y x th x =
9
16
( tha mn KX)
Vy vi x =
9
16
th P = - 1
c) ( 3) 1 m x P x > + (K: x > 0;
4, 9 x x
)
6
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
4
( 3) 1
3
.4 1
1
4
x
m x x
x
m x x
x
m
x
> +

> +
+
>
( do 4x > 0)
Xt
1 1 1 1
4 4 4 4 4
x x
x x x x
+
+ +
C x > 9 ( tha mn iu kin xc nh)

1 1
9 x
< ( hai phn s dng cng t s, phn s no c cng mu
ln hn th phn s nh hn)

1 1
4 36
1 1 1 1
4 4 4 36
1 1 5
4 4 18
x
x
x
<
+ < +
+ <
Theo kt qu phn trn ta c:
5 1
5
18 4
1 18
4
x
x
m
x
m
x
+

>


'
+

>

Kt lun: vi
5
, 9
18
m x >
th ( 3) 1 m x P x > +

6. V d 6 ( thi tuyn sinh chuyn H Long nm hc 2005-2006)


Cho biu thc:
P(x) =
3 8 1 1
5 6 2 3
x
x x x x


+
a) Tm x P(x) c ngha v rt gn P(x)
b) Gii phng trnh P(x) =
4
5 x

(2,5 )
Gii:
a) Xt:
5 6 2 3 6 x x x x x + +

( 2) 3( 2)
( 2)( 3)
x x x
x x


7
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
P c ngha
0 0
0
2 0 2 4
9
3 0 3
x x
x
x x x
x
x x





' ' '



Vy vi
0, 4, 9 x x x
th biu thc P (x) c ngha
Vi
0, 4, 9 x x x
th:
P(x) =
3 8 1 1
( 2)( 3) 2 3
x
x x x x




3 8 ( 3) ( 2)
( 2)( 3)
x x x
x x



3 8 3 2
( 2)( 3)
x x x
x x
+ +



3
( 2)( 3)
x
x x



1
2 x

Kt lun : Vy vi
0, 4, 9 x x x
th
1
2
P
x

b) P(x) =
4
5 x

1 4
5
2
x
x

( K:
0, 4, 9, 5 x x x x
)

5 4 8
4 3 0
x x
x x

+
t x y K: 0 y
Ta c phng trnh :
2
4 3 0 y y +
Cc h s: a + b +c = 1- 4 + 3 =0
1
1 y
;
2
3 y
(tha mn iu kin y >
Vi
1
1 1 y x x ( tha mn KX)

2
3 9 y x x ( khng tha mn KX)
Kt lun: Nghim ca phng trnh P(x)=
4
5 x
l x = 1
7. V d 7:( thi tuyn sinh chuyn H Long nm hc 1999-2000)
Cho biu thc:
8
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
P =
2
2
( 2) 4 8 32 2
: (1 )
( 1) 3 2 8 2
x x x
x x x x x
1
+ +
+
1
+ + +
]
a) Rt gn P
b) Tnh gi tr ca P vi x =
9 4 5
c) Tm cc gi tr chnh phng x P c gi tr nguyn
(3 )
Gii:
a) Xt:
2
( 1) 1 0 x x + nn :
2
3 3
( 1) 3 4
2 2 0
8 2 ( ) (2 )(4 2 )
x
x x
x x x x x x
+ +
+
+ +
KX:
0
0
4
2 0
x
x
x
x

' '

Vi
0, 4 x x
th P c ngha
C:
2 2 2
1
2 2 2
x x
x x x
+

+ + +
iu kin php chia thc hin c l x 0
Vy KX ca P l : x > 0 v x
4
Vi x > 0 v x 4 ta t P =A : B
A =
( 4 4) 4 8 32
2 1 3 2 (2 )(4 2 )
x x x x
x x x x x x
+ + +
+
+ + + + +

3 2 3
3 2
3
3
4 4 )(2 ) 4( 2 4) 8 32
( )
(2 )( 2 4)
2( ) 8 8 4( ) 4 4 8 16 8 32
(2 )( 2 4)
2( ) 8 16
(2 )( 2 4)
( ) (2 ) 8( 2)
(2 )( 2 4)
(2 ) 8 ( )
(2 )(4 2 )
2
x x x x x x x x
x x x
x x x x x x x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x
x x x
x
+ + + + + +

+ +
+ + + +

+ +
+ +

+ +
+ + +

+ +
1
+
]

+ +
+
9
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
Vy P =
2
(2 )
2 :
2
x x
x
x x
+
+
+

Vi x > 0 v 4 x th P =
2
(2 ) x
x
+
b)

2
9 4 5 9 2.2 5 ( 5 2)
5 2 5 2
x
x


Thay
9 4 5 x
vo P ta c :
P =
2
(2 5 2) 5 5( 5 2)
5 5 10
5 4
5 2 5 2
+
+


* Vi x =9 4 5 th P =
5 5 10 +
c) Theo kt qu phn a ta c:
P =
2
(2 ) x
x
+

4 4
4 4
4
4
x x
x
x x
x x x
x
x
+ +

+ +
+ +
V x l s chnh phng nn , x N x N
P c gi tr nguyn
4
x

c gi tr nguyn
x

x
(4)
{ }
1, 2, 4 x t t t

x
1 -1 2 - 2 4 - 4
x 1 Khng
x
4 Khng
x
16 Khng
x
Vi x =1 v x = 16 tha mn iu kin xc nh phn a
x = 4 khng tha mn iu kin xc nh phn a
* Vi cc s chnh phng x = 1 hoc x = 16 th P c gi tr nguyn
8. V d 8:( n thi tt nghip THCS ca SGD)
10
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
Chng minh:
2
( ) : ( ) 1
x x y y y
xy x y
x y x y
+
+
+ +
Gii:
iu kin ng thc c ngha:

, 0
, 0
x y
x y
x y
x y

' '

Vi
0, 0, x y x y
bin i v tri:

2
( ) : ( )
x x y y y
xy x y
x y x y
+
+
+ +

3 3
( ) ( ) 2
( ) : ( )
x y y
xy x y
x y x y
+
+
+ +
( )( ) 2
( ) : ( )
x y x xy y y
xy x y
x y x y
+ +
+
+ +
2
( ) : ( )
2 2
2 2 ( )
2 2 2
1
y
x xy y xy x y
x y
x y xy y
x y
x y
x y xy y x y
x y
x y xy xy y
x y
x y
x y
+ +
+
+
+

+
+ +

+ +

Sau khi bin i, v tri c kt qu bng v phi, ng thc c


chng minh.
C. MT S BI TON V RT GN BIU THC
Bi 1:( thi tuyn sinh lp 10 chuyn H Long nm hc 2000 - 2001)
Cho biu thc: A =
2
3 2 y y x x
y x x
+

a) Rt gn biu thc A
11
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
b) Tnh gi tr ca A khi x =
4 3 7 +
v y =
20 8 6 11 4 6 +
(2
)
Bi 2:( thi tuyn sinh lp 10 chuyn H Long nm hc 2003
2004)
Cho biu thc: P =
2 3 3 2 2
( ) : ( 1)
9
3 3 3
x x x x
x
x x x
+
+

+
a) Rt gn P
b) Tm x P <
1
2

c) Tm gi tr nh nht ca P
(2)
Bi 3:( thi tuyn sinh lp 10 chuyn H Long nm hc 2002
2003)
Cho biu thc:
P =
3( 1) 1 2
2 2 1
a a a a
a a a a
+ +

+ +
vi 1, 0 a a
a. Rt gon biu thc
b. Tm gi tr ca a biu thc
1
P
nhn gi tr nh nht
(2,5)
Bi 4:( thi tt nghip lp 9 nm hc 2001 2002)
a. Cho biu thc: A =
1 1
:
1 1
x
x x x x
_
+

+
,
Rt gn biu thc
b. Vi gi tr no ca k, phng trnh sau c 2 nghim phn bit:
2
6 5 0 kx x +

(2,5)
Bi 5:( thi d b tt nghip lp 9 nm hc 2001 2002)
Cho biu thc: A =
1 1 2
1
x
x x x

+

vi x >0, x 0
a. Rt gn biu thc
b. Vi gi tr no ca x th A = 3
(2)

Bi 6:( thi tt nghip lp 9 nm hc 2000 2001)
Cho biu thc:
12
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
A =
2
1
1 ( 1)
x x x
x x x

+
+
vi x > 0
a. Rt gn biu thc A
b. Tnh cc gi tr ca biu thc A khi x =3 8
c. Tm cc gi tr ca x biu thc A nhn gi tr nguyn
(2,5)
Bi 7:( thi tt nghip lp 9 nm hc 2003 2004)
a.Thc hin php tnh
3
2( 50 2 10) 2 5
2
+
b. Gi
1 2
, x x l 2 nghim ca phng trnh :
2
5 0 x x m + +
Tm gi tr ca m :
1 2
2 11 x x

(2)

Bi 8:( thi tt nghip lp 9 nm hc 2004 2005)
1.Tnh gi tr ca biu thc
1 1
5 2 5 2
+
+
2. Cho phng trnh bc 2:

2
5 1 0(*) x mx
a. Chng minh rng vi mi gi tr ca tham s m, phng
trnh (*) lun c 2 nghim phn bit
b. Gi
1 2
; x x l 2 nghim ca phng trnh (*), hy tnh:

2 2
1 2
2 1
x x
x x
+
theo m
(2,5)
Bi 9:( thi tt nghip ca H Ni nm hc 2000 2001)
Cho biu thc:
P =
4 3 2
:
( 2) 2 2
x x x
x x x x x
_ _
+ +
+



, ,
a. Rt gn P
b. Tnh gi tr ca P bit x =
6 2 5
c. Tm cc gi tr ca n c x tha mn:
( )
1 x P x n + > +

(2,5)
Bi 10:( thi tt nghip ca H Ni nm hc 2003 2004)
13
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
Cho biu thc: P =
1 1 1
:
x x
x
x x x x
_
_
+



+
,
,
a. Rt gn P
b. Tnh gi tr ca P bit x =
2
2 3 +
c. Tm gi tr ca x tha mn:
6 3 4 P x x x

(2,5)

III. PHNG PHP TIN HNH:
Trong gi hc chnh kha, ti ging dy cc bi tp c bn cng
li gii mu hc sinh hnh thnh k nng, phng php gii cc
bi ton ny, cho hc sinh thc hnh cc bi tp tng t ngay ti lp.
c bit, trong cc gi luyn tp, n tp chng, gio vin tip
tc cho hc sinh gii cc bi tp. Khi gii cn ch cch trnh by
linh hot, sng to cho mi dng bi rt gn. Cho hc sinh lm quen
vi cc dng bi rt gn biu thc trong cc thi hc k, tt nghip
lp 9, tuyn sinh lp 10 chuyn H Long hc sinh thy tm quan
trng ca loi ton ny. Thi gian trn lp c hn, ti ch hc sinh chp
cc thi ny v gii nh, gio vin cha trong cc gi n tp,
luyn chuyn su hc sinh thy c phn ng sai, rt kinh
nghim v cch trnh by ca mnh.
IV.PHM VI, I TUNG NGHIN CU
Hc sinh khi lp 8, 9 trung THPT Hn Gai.
V. TNG KT V RT KINH NGHIM
Qua p dng vn trn vo ging dy khi lp 8, 9 kt qu thu
c l hc sinh hnh thnh, nh hng cch gii loi ton ny.
Bng phng php gi m, nu vn , cc cu hi dn dt cc em t
pht hin ra hng gii cho tng loi bi tp, gio vin to ra hng th,
pht trin tr thng minh sng to cho hc sinh.
T nm lp 8, cc em nh hng c cch thc hin loi ton rt
gn biu thc v cc bi ton v rt gn biu thc v thc hin tt.
n nm hc lp 9, vn dng thm cc php ton v cn bc 2, hc
sinh thc hin c cc php rt gn biu thc cha cn bc hai mt
cch nhanh chng. Cc k thi tt nghip lp 9 cc lp ti ph trch,
hc sinh t im trung bnh tr ln 100%, trong c nm t
im kh gii 100%. ( Ch c 2 hc sinh t loi kh, cn li u t
loi gii mn ton)
14
Rt gn biu thc v cc bi ton lin quan Bi Nga
THPT Hn Gai
VI . CC TI LIU THAM KHO KHI GING DY LOI TON RT
GN BIU THC
1. Sch gio khoa lp 8, 9 ci cch
2. Cc thi tt nghip lp 9 ca Qung Ninh
3. Cc thi tt nghip lp 9 ca H Ni
4. Cc thi tuyn sinh chuyn H Long
5. 36 b Ton 9 ca V i Mau
6. Chuyn bi dng hc sinh gii mn ton 9 ca V i Mau
7. Bi tp nng cao i 9 ca V Hu Bnh
8. Ton nng cao v cc chuyn ton 9 ca Nguyn Ngc
m
9. Luyn tp i s 9 ca Nguyn B Ha
10. Bi tp nng cao v cc chuyn ton 9 ca Bi Vn
Tuyn

NGI
VIT TI


Bi Th Thy Nga
15