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Th vin SKKN ca Quang Hiu

http://quanghieu030778.violet.vn/
trng i hc s phm h ni
khoa ton tin
====***===
ti nghip v s phm
mt s vn v gi tr tuyt i trong trng
thcs

Ging vin hng dn: GS.TS.Tng Trn Hon.
Ngi thc hin: Vn Tm
Hi Dng nm 2006
mc lc
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
A. nhng kin thc c bn v gi tr tuyt i
Tran
g
3
I: Cc nh ngha
II: Cc tnh cht
B. cc dng bi ton v gi tr tuyt i trong ch-
ng trnh THCS
Ch I: Gii phng trnh, h phng trnh
cha du gi tr tuyt i
I. Kin thc cn lu
II. Bi tp in hnh
Ch II: Gii bt phng trnh cha du gi
tr tuyt i
I. Kin thc cn lu
II. Bi tp in hnh
Ch III: th hm s cha du gi tr
tuyt i
I. th hm s y = f(
x
)
II. th
y
= f(x)
III. th y =
) (x f
IV. th y =
( ) x f
V. th
y
=
) (x f
Ch IV: Tm gi tr ln nht, nh nht ca
biu thc cha du gi tr tuyt i
I. Kin thc cn lu
II. Bi tp in hnh
c. p n
d. ti liu tham kho
e.kt lun
f. gio n thc nghim
3
6
9
9

9
10
14
14
14
17
17
18
19
20
20
24
24
24
26
30
31
32
Phn I: Li ni u
2
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Gi tr tuyt i l mt khi nim c ph bin rng ri trong
cc ngnh khoa hc Ton - L, K thut,...Trong chng trnh
Ton bc THCS, khi nim gi tr tuyt i ca mt s c
gp nhiu ln, xuyn sut t lp 6 n lp 9. lp 6, hc sinh
bt u lm quen vi khi nim " Gi tr tuyt i" qua bi
2: " Th t trong Z", hc sinh nm c cch tm gi tr tuyt
i ca mt s nguyn v bc u hiu ngha hnh hc
ca n. Nh sch gio khoa dn dn a vo cc quy tc
tnh v s nguyn ri n s hu t. lp 8, tuy khng c
trong chng trnh ging dy song bi: " Gii phng trnh c
cha du gi tr tuyt i" c rt nhiu gio vin quan tm
v trang b y cho hc sinh nht l cc hc sinh kh gii.
n lp 9, khi xt cc tnh cht ca cn thc bc hai, khi
nim gi tr tuyt i li c thm ng dng mi( a mt tha
s ra ngoi cn, a mt tha s vo trong cn, kh mu ca
biu thc ly cn,...)
Gi tr tuyt i l mt khi nim tru tng v quan trng
v n c s dng nhiu trong qu trnh dy Ton THCS
cng nh THPT v i Hc,...Vic nm vng khi nim ny
bc THCS s l nn tng c bn cn thit cc em c th
tip thu nhng kin thc cao hn cc bc hc sau.
Trc nhu cu nng cao kin thc ca bn thn cng nh
nng cao kin thc cho ngi dy cng nh ngi hc v khi
nim " Gi tr tuyt i", chng ti quyt nh chn ti:
" Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS".
Ti mong rng ti ny ca ti s gip cho gio vin cng
nh hc sinh trong qu trnh ging dy v hc tp ca mnh.
Ti xin trn trng cm n GS. TS Tng Trn Hon hng
dn v gip ti hon thnh tt ti ny !
V hon thnh trong mt thi gian ngn nn ti cn
nhiu hn ch, thiu st. Ti rt mong nhn c s quan
tm, ng gp kin ca thy c gio v cc bn ng
nghip.
A. nhng kin thc c bn v gi tr tuyt i
3
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
I. Cc nh ngha
1. 1. nh ngha 1
Gi tr tuyt i thc cht l mt nh x
f: R R
+
a a
vi mi gi tr a

R c mt v ch mt gi tr f(a) = a

R
+
1.2. nh ngha 2
Gi tr tuyt i ca mt s thc a, k hiu
a
l:
a nu a 0

a
=
-a nu a < 0
V d1:
15 15

32 32

0 0

1 1

17 17
*M rng khi nim ny thnh gi tr tuyt i ca mt biu
thc A(x), k hiu
) (x A
l:
A(x) nu A(x) 0

) (x A
=
-A(x) nu A(x) < 0
V d 2:
2x - 1 nu 2x- 1 0 2x - 1 nu
2
1
x
1 2 x
= =
-(2x - 1) nu 2x - 1 < 0 1 - 2x nu x <
2
1
1.3. nh ngha 3:
Gi tr tuyt i ca s nguyn a, k hiu l
a
, l s
o( theo n v di c dng lp trc s) ca khong
cch t im a n im gc 0 trn trc s ( hnh 1).
Hnh 1
V d 1:
4
-a
0 a
-a
a
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS

a
= 3

3
3
a
Do ng thc cho c nghim ng bi hai s t-
ng ng vi hai im trn trc s ( hnh 2)
Hnh 2
Tng qut:

'

>

b
b
a
b
b a
0
;


b
b
a b a
V d 2:
a 3 nu a 0 0 a 3

a 3

-3 a 3
-a 3 nu a < 0 -3 a < 0
Do bt ng thc c nghim ng bi tp hp cc s
ca on [ ] 3 ; 3 v trn trc sd th c nghim ng bi tp
hp cc im ca on [ ] 3 ; 3 ( hnh 3)
Hnh 3
V d 3:
a 3 nu a 0 a 3 nu a 0
a 3

3 a hoc a 3
-a 3 nu a < 0 a -3 v nu a < 0
Do bt ng thc c nghim ng bi tp hp cc s
ca hai na on (-

; 3] v [3; +

) v trn trc s th c
nghim ng bi hai na on tng ng vi cc khong s
. (hnh 4)
Hnh 4
Tng qut:


b a
b a
b a
bi tp t luyn
5
-3
0 3
-3
0 3
-3
0 3
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Bi 1. Tm tt c cc s a tho mn mt trong cc iu kin
sau:
a) a =
a
b) a <
a
c) a >
a
d)
a
= -a
e)
a
a
f)
a
+ a = 0
g)
b b a +
Bi 2:Tm cc v d chng t cc khng nh sau y
khng ng:
a) a


a
> 0
b) a


a
> a
c) a, b

Z,
a
=
b
a = b
d) a, b

Q,
a
>
b
a > b
Bi 3: B sung thm cc iu kin cc khng nh sau
l ng
a)
a
=
b
a = b
b) a > b


a
>
b
Bi 4: Tm tt c cc s a tho mn mt trong cc iu kin
sau, sau biu din cc s tm c ln trc s:
a)
a
1
b)
a
3
c)
a
- 6 = 5
d) 1 <
a
3
Bi 5:
a) C bao nhiu s nguyn x sao cho
x
< 50
b) C bao nhiu cp s nguyn (x, y) sao cho
x
+
y
= 5
( Cc cp s nguyn (1, 2) v (2,1)l hai cp khc nhau)
c) C bao nhiu cp s nguyn (x, y) sao cho
x
+
y
< 4
6
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
II - mt s tnh cht v gi tr tuyt i
2.1. Tnh cht 1:
a
0 a
2.2. Tnh cht 2:
a
= 0

a = 0
2.3. Tnh cht 3: -
a
a
a
2.4 Tnh cht 4:
a
=
a

Da trn nh ngha gi tr tuyt i ngi ta r thy c
cc tnh cht 1, 2, 3, 4.
2.5. Tnh cht 5:
b a b a + +
Tht vy: -
a
a
a
; -
b a
b
-(
a
+
b
) a + b
a
+
b
2.6. Tnh cht 6:
a
-
b
b a b a +
Tht vy:
a
=
b a b a b b a b b a + +
(1)
b a b a b a b a b a b a + + + + ) (
(2)
T (1) v (2)

pcm.
2.7. Tnh cht 7:

b a b a
Tht vy:
b a b a
(1)

b a b a b a a b a b a b ) ( ) (
(2)


) ( b a
b a
b a
(3)
T (1), (2) v (3)
b a b a
(4)

b a b a b a b a b a b a + + ) (
(5)
T (4) v (5)

pcm.
2.8. Tnh cht 8:

b a b a . .
Tht vy: a = 0, b = 0 hoc a = 0, b

0 hay a

0, b= 0
b a b a . . (1)
7
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
a > 0 v b > 0


a
= a,
b
= b v a.b > 0
b a b a b a b a b a . . . . . (2)
a < 0 v b < 0


a
= -a,
b
= -b v a.b > 0
b a b a b a b a b a b a . . . ) )( ( . . (3)
a > 0 v b < 0


a
= a,
b
= -b v a.b < 0
b a b a b a b a b a b a . . . ) .( . . (4)
T (1), (2), (3) v (4)

pcm.
2.9. Tnh cht 9:

) 0 ( b
b
a
b
a
Tht vy: a = 0
0 0
b
a
b
a
b
a
(1)
a > 0 v b > 0


a
= a,
b
= b v
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
> 0
(2)
a < 0 v b < 0


a
= -a,
b
= -b v
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a

> 0
(3)
a > 0 v b < 0


a
= a,
b
= -b v
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a

< 0
(4)
T (1), (2), (3) v (4)

pcm.
8
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
bi tp t luyn
Bi 6:
in vo ch trng cc du
,
, = khng inh sau ng
a, b
a)
b a +
...
a
+
b
b)
b a
...
a
-
b
vi
a


b
c)
b a b a . . .......... .
d)
b
a
b
a

Bi 7:
Tm cc s a, b tho mn mt trong cc iu kin sau:
a) a + b =
a
+
b
b) a + b =
a
-
b
Bi 8:
Cho
3 < c a
,
2 < c b
Chng minh rng
5 < b a
Bi 9:
Rt gn biu thc:
a)
a
+a
b)
a
- a
c)
a
.a
d)
a
: a
e)
3 2 ) 1 ( 3 + x x
f)
) 1 4 ( 3 2 x x
B. cc dng ton v gi tr tuyt i trong chng trnh
THCS
9
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
ch i: gii phng trnh v h phng trnh cha
du gi tr tuyt i
I. cc kin thc cn lu
1.1 A(x) nu A(x) 0
) (x A
= ( A(x) l biu thc i
s)
-A(x) nu A(x) < 0
1.2. nh l v du ca nh thc bc nht ax + b (a

0)
Nh thc bc nht ax + b (a

0) s:
+ Cng du vi a vi cc gi tr ca nh thc ln hn
nghim ca nh thc.
+ Tri du vi a vi cc gi tr ca nh thc nh hn
nghim ca nh thc.
Gi s x
0
l nghim ca nh thc ax + b khi :
+ Nh thc cng du vi a x > x
0
+ Nh thc tri du vi a x < x
0
1.3. nh l v du ca tam thc bc hai
Xt tam thc bc hai: f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c (a

0)
- Nu < 0, th f(x) cng du vi a x
- Nu 0 th:
+ f(x) cng du vi a x nm ngoi khong hai nghim
+ f(x) tri du vi a x nm trong khong hai nghim
Hay
- Nu < 0

a.f(x) > 0 x
- Nu 0

f(x) c hai nghim x


1
x
2
nu x
1
< x < x
2

a.f(x) < 0
nu x x
1
hoc x x
2

a.f(x) > 0
Nhn xt: Gi tr tuyt i ca mt biu thc bang chnh
n( nu biu thc khng m) hoc bng biu thc i ca
n( nu biu thc m). V th khi kh du gi t tuyt i
ca mt biu thc, cn xt gi tr tuyt i ca bin lm
cho biu thc dng hay m( da vo nh l v du ca
nh thc bc nht hoc nh l v du ca tam thc bc
hai). Du ca biu thc thng c vit trong bng xt du.
II. cc bi tp in hnh
2.1 Rt gn biu thc A = 2(3x - 1) -
3 x
Tht vy:
+ Vi ( x - 3) 0 hay x 3 th
3 x
= x - 3
+ Vi ( x- 3) < 0 hay x < 3 th
3 x
= -(x - 3) = 3 - x
ta xt hai trng hp ng vi hai khong ca bin x
10
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
+ Nu x 3 th A = 2(3x - 1) -
3 x
= 2(3x - 1) - (x - 3)
= 6x - 2 - x + 3
= 5x + 1
+ Nu x < 3 th A = 2(3x - 1) -
3 x
= 2(3x - 1) - (3 - x)
= 6x - 2 - 3 + x
= 7x - 5
2.2 Rt gn biu thc B =
1 x
-
5 x
Tht vy
Vi x-1 0 hay x 1th
1 x
=x-1
Vi x-1<0 hay x<1th
1 x
= -(x-1)=1-x
Vi x-5 0 hay x 5 th
5 x
= x+5
Vi x-5<0 hay x<5 th
5 x
=-(x-5) =5-x
p dng nh l v du ca nh thc bc bc nht ta c
bng xt du sau:
X 1 5
x-1 - 0 +
+
x-5 - - 0
+
T bng xt du ta xt ba trng hp ng vi ba khong ca
bin x
Nu x<1 th B =
1 x
-
5 x

=1-x-( 5-x)
=1-x-5+x
= - 4
Nu 1x<5 th B =
1 x
-
5 x
=(x-1)-(5-x)
=x-1-5+x
=2x-6
Nu x5 th B =
1 x
-
5 x
=(x-1)-(x-5)
=x-1-x+5 = 4
2.2 Rt gn biu thc B = /x
2
- 4x + 3/-5
Tht vy: Xt tam thc bc hai: f(x) = x
2
4x + 3

f(x) c ' = 4 -3 = 1 > 0

x
1
= 1; x
2
= 3
Vi 1 < x < 3

1.f(x) < 0

f(x) < 0
Vi x 1 hoc x 3

4f(x) > 0

f(x) > 0
11
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Vy ta xt hai trng hp ng vi ba khong ca bin
Vi 1 < x < 3 th B = -(x
2
- 4x + 3) - 5
= - x
2
+ 4x - 3 - 5
= - x
2
+ 4x - 8
Vi x 1 hoc x 3 th B = ( x
2
- 4x + 3) - 5
= x
2
- 4x + 3 - 5
= x
2
- 4x - 2
2.3. Gii phng trnh
1 3 2 1 + + x x x
Tht vy:
p dng nh l v du nh thc bc nht v lp bng, ta
xt 3 trng hp ng vi 3 khong.
+ Nu x < 1 ta c phng trnh: 1 - x + 2 - x = 3x + 1

3 - 2x = 3x + 1

5x = 2

x = 2/5 < 1 ( l nghim)


+ Nu 1 x < 2 ta c phng trnh: x -1 + ( 2 - x) = 3x + 1

x = 0

[1, 2] ( khng l nghim)


+ Nu x 2 ta oc phng trnh: x - 1 + x - 2 = 3x + 1

x = - 4 < 2 ( khng l nghim)


Vy phng trnh c nghim duy nht x = 2/5
2.4. Gii phng trnh
5 1 2 x
Tht vy:
p dng nh ngha gi tr tuyt i ta c:
5 1 2 x



) 2 ( 5 1 2
) 1 ( 5 1 2
x
x
Gii 1:




) ' 2 ( 6 2
) ' 1 ( 6 2
6 2 5 1 2
x
x
x x
Gii 1':
8 8 6 2 t x x x
( l nghim)
Gii 2':
4 6 2 x x
x khng c gi tr
Gii 2:
4 2 5 1 2 x x
( khng c ngha)
Vy phng trnh c hai ngim: x = 8 hoc x = -8
2.5 Gii h phng trnh

'

+

3 2
1
y y x
y x
Tht vy:
Phng trnh th nht a n tp hp hai phng trnh:



1
1
y x
y x
hay

+

) 2 ( 1
) 1 ( 1
x y
x y
Vic phn tch phng trnh th hai a n tp hp 4 ph-
ng trnh theo cc khong xc nh.
12
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Theo dng ca phng trnh th 2 ta thy d dng l
1 x
3
v
3 2 y
, t - 2 x 4 v -1 y 5
Vi - 2 x 1 ta c:
Vi -1 y 2, 1 - x + 2 - y = 3 hay l x + y = 0 (I)
Vi 2 y 5, 1 - x + y - 2 = 3 hay l y - x = 4 (II)
Vi 1 x 4 ta c :
Vi -1 y 2, x -1 + 2 - y = 3 hay l x - y = 2 (III)
Vi 2 y 5, x -1 + y - 2 = 3 hay l x + y = 6 (IV)
Gii 8 h phng trnh bc nht:
H (1; I)
2
1
;
2
1
0
1

'

+

y x
y x
y x
, l nghim v n thuc
khong xc nh.
H (1; II)

'



4
1
x y
y x
khng c nghim
H (1; III)

'



2
1
y x
y x
khng c nghim
H (1; IV)
2
5
;
2
7
6
1

'

+

y x
y x
y x
l nghim v n thuc
khong xc nh.
H (2; I)
2
1
;
2
1
0
1

'

+

y x
y x
y x
l nghim v n thuc
khong xc nh.
H (2; II)

'



4
1
x y
y x
khng c nghim
H (2; III)

'



2
1
y x
y x
khng c nghim
H (2; IV)
2
7
;
2
5
6
1

'

+

y x
y x
y x
, l nghim v n thuc
khong xc nh.
Vy nghim ca h phng trnh l:
x
1
= 1/2; y
1
= -1/2 x
2
= 7/2; y
2
= 5/2
x
3
= -1/2; y
3
= 1/2 x
4
= 5/2; y
4
= 7/2
Bi tp luyn tp
Bi 10: Tm x trong cc biu thc
a)
5 3 2 x
b)
7 3 5 x x
c)
1 3 1 + x x
d)
1 2 1 + x x
e)
3 2 1 2 + x x
f)
0 1 2 1 + x x x
g)
1 3 3 + x x x
h)
3 2 1 + x x
13
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Bi 11: Tm x trong cc biu thc
a)
2 1 1 x
b)
2
) 3 ( 3 x x
c)
2 1 1 + x x
d)
4 2 2 + + + x x x
e)
1 3 2 + x
f)
2 3 2 3
2 2
+ x x x x
g)
2
1 x x
h)
0 2 3 2 1 4 + x x x
Bi 12: vi gi tr no ca a, b ta c ng thc:
) 2 ( ) 2 ( b a b a
Bi 13: Tm cc s a, b sao cho:
b a b a +
Bi 14: Gii cc h phng trnh sau
a)

'

+
+
3
2
y x
y x
b)

'

+

4
2
y x
y x
c)

'


+ +
0 7 2
0 9 5 3
y x
y x
d)

'

+
+ + +
5 3 1
4 1 3
y x
y x
Bi 15: Gii phng tnh sau:
3 2 1
2 2
+ + x x x x
Bi 16: Tm x
a a x a x 3 2 2 +
( a l hng s)
ch II: gii bt phng trnh cha du gi tr tuyt
i
I. cc kin thc cn lu
1.1. Cc php bin i bt ng thc
a b

a + c b + c
a b

a.c b.c ( c > 0 )


a b

a.c b.c ( c < 0 )


1.2 Cc dng c bn ca bt phng trnh
+Dng 1:
a x f ) (

-a f(x) a a: s thc khng m


f(x): hm s mt i
s
14
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
+Dng 2:
) (x f
a

f(x) a hoc f(x) -a a: s thc


khng m
f(x):hm s
mt i s
+Dng 3:
) (x f
g(x)

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
x g x f
x g x f
f(x), g(x): hm s mt i
s
+Dng 4:
) (x f
g(x)

-g(x) f(x) g(x)


f(x), g(x): hm s mt i s
+Dng 5:
) (x f

) (x g

[f(x)]
2
= [g(x)]
2

f(x), g(x): hm s mt i s
II. bi tp in hnh
2.1 Gii bt phng trnh:
7 5 2 x
Tht vy:

7 5 2 x

-7 2x - 5 7

-2 2x 12

-1 x 6
2.2 Gii bt phng trnh:
10 5 3 x
Tht vy:

10 5 3 x



3
5
5
5 3
15 3
10 5 3
10 5 3
x
x
x
x
x
x
Vy x 5 hoc x -
3
5
2.3 Gii bt phng trnh:
1 2 2
2
x x
Tht vy:
1 2 2
2
x x

1 2 2 1
2
x x x
2
-2x-21 v x
2
-2x-2-1
T 0 3 2 1 2 2
2 2
x x x x
Da vo nh l v du ca tam thc bc hai

-1 x 3
T 0 1 2 1 2 2
2 2
x x x x
Da vo nh l v du ca tam thc bc hai

+

2 1
2 1
x
x
Kt hp li ta c cc nghim ca h l:
15
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS

2 1 1 x

;
3 2 1 + x
2.4 Gii bt phng trnh:
1
2

+
x
x
2
Tht vy: TX: 1 x
Cch 1:
1
2

+
x
x
2

2
1
2
2
1
2
x
x
x
x
+ Vi
2
1
2

+
x
x


4 1 0
1
4
0 2
1
2

+
x
x
x
x
x
+ Vi
2
1
2
<

+
x
x


1 0 0
1
3
0 2
1
2
< < <

< +

+
x
x
x
x
x
Vy bt phng trnh c ngim: 1 x 4; 0 < x < 1
Cch 2:
Theo nh ngha v tnh cht ca gi tr tuyt i, ta c:

0 1 2 2
1 2 2 2
1
2
2
1
2
> +
> + >

+
>

+
x x
x x
x
x
x
x
p dng nh l v du ca nh thc, ta xt 3 trng hp:
+ Nu x -2 th - x- 2 -2(1 - x) > 0

x > 4 > -2 ( khng l


nghim)
+ Nu -2 x < 1 th x + 2 - 2(1 - x) > 0

3x > 0

x > 0
Kt hp vi iu kin ta c nghim: 0 < x < 1
+ Nu x > 1 th x + 2 - 2(x - 1) > 0

x < 4
Kt hp vi iu kin ta c nghim: 1 < x < 4
Vy bt phng trnh c ngim: 1 x 4; 0 < x < 1
Cch 3 :
Theo nh ngha v tnh cht ca gi tr tuyt i, ta c:
1 2 2 2
1
2
2
1
2
> + >

+
>

+
x x
x
x
x
x

(x + 2)
2
> 4(x - 1)
2

x
2
4x + 4 > 4(x
2
- 2x + 1)

3x
2
- 12x < 0

3x( x - 4) < 0

0 < x < 4
Kt hp vi TX

1 < x < 4; 0 < x < 1


III Bi tp luyn tp
Bi 17: Tm x trong cc bt ng thc
a)
5 1 2 x
b)
9 4 3 2 < x x
16
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
c)
7 3 2 x
d)
10 5 2 3 > + x x
Bi 18: Tm x trong cc bt ng thc
a)
4 2 3 < x
b)
1 2 3 + < x x
c)
5 1 3 > x
d)
1 1
3
+ + x x
Bi 19: Tm x trong cc bt ng thc
a)
3 1 > + x x
b)
3 2 1 + > x x
c)
8 5 1 > + + x x
d)
8 1 3 < + + x x
e)
0 2 x x
f)
0 7 3 5 2 + x x
Bi 20: Tm x trong cc bt ng thc
a)
1
2
1
2
<
+

x
x
b)
2
1
5 2
2

x
x
c)
10 3 1 3 < + + + x x x
d)
8 7 4 1 < + + + x x x
e)
8 1 5 2
2
< + + x x
f)
3 3 5 2
2
+ < x x x
Ch III: th hm s cha gi tr tuyt i
I. th hm s y = f(|x|)
1.1. Kin thc cn lu :
Ta thy f(
x
) = f(
x
) .Do hm s y = f(
x
)l hm chn
nn th ca hm s i xng qua trc Oy

Cch dng :
- Dng th hm s y = f(x) i vi x > 0
- Dng phn th bn tri i xng vi trc bn phi qua Oy
1.2 V d:
Dng th hm s y = 2|x| - 2
Tht vy:
17
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
th ca hm s y = 2x - 2
vi x = 1

y = 0

(1, 0) thuc th
vi x = 0

y = -2

( 0, -2) thuc th
Hnh 6
Phn th in m( Hnh 6) l th hm s y = 2|x| - 2
II. th hm s y = |f(x)|
2.1 Kin thc cn lu
Nhn xt

f(x) vi f(x) 0
y =
-f(x) vi f(x) < 0

Cch dng:
- Dng th hm s y = f(x)
- Phn th nm di mt phng Ox ngha l y f(x)
< 0

ta dng phn th i xng vi phn th qua


Ox.
* Ch : th hm s y = |f(x)| + k c xem nh th hm
s
y = |f(x)|tnh tin theo ng thng ng mt on bn k
( k l s thc)
18
O
-
1
1
-
2
y
x
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
2.2 V d:
Dng th hm s y = |x - 2|
th hm s y = x - 2
x = 0

y = -2

( 0, -2) thuc th hm s
x = 1

y = -1

(1, -1) thuc th hm s



Hnh 7
Phn th in m ( hnh 7) l th hm s y = |x - 2|
III. th ca hm s y = |f(|x|)|
3.1 Kin thc cn lu
Ta c: f(|x|) vi f(|x|)

0
y = |f(|x|)|=
- f(|x|) vi f(|x|) < 0

Cch dng
a) Dng th hm s y = |f(|x|)|
+ Dng th hm s y = f(x) vi x > 0
+ Dng phn th bn tri i xng vi phn bn phi qua
Oy
b) Phn th nm mt phng di Ox nghi l y f(|x|)
< 0

ta dng phn th i xng vi phn th qua


trc Ox.
( Hay bin i cc phn ca th nm trong na mt
phng di nn na mt phng trn i xng qua trc Ox)
3.2 V d: Dng th hm s y = |1 - |x||
19
O
-
1 -
2
1
y
x
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Tht vy:
th hm s y = 1- x
x = 1

y = 0

( 1, 0 ) thuc th hm s
x = 0

y = 1

( 0, 1) thuc th hm s
th hm s
y = 1 - x vi x

0
a)
th hm s
y = 1 - |x|
b)
Hnh 8
thi hm s
y = |1 - |x||
c)
Phn th in m trong phn b ( hnh 8) l th hm s
y = |1 - |x||
IV. th ca |y| = f(x) vi f(x) 0
4.1 Kin thc cn lu
Ta c: y = t f(x) vi f(x) 0

Cch dng:
- Dng th hm s y = f(x) vi f(x) 0
( Phn th ca hm s y = f(x) pha trn trc honh )
- Dng phn th i xng vi phn th thu c
qua trc Ox.
4. 2 V d
Dng th hm s |y| =
1
1
2
x +
Tht vy:
th hm s y =
1
1
2
x +
x = 0

y = 1

( 0; 1) thuc th
x = -2

y = 0

( -2; 0) thuc th
20
1
1
O
y
x
x
-1 1
O
y
x
-
1
1 O
y
O
-
1
-
2
-
1
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Hnh 9
Phn th in m ( hnh 9 ) l th hm s |y| =
1
1
2
x +
V. th ca hm s |y| = |f(x)|
5.1 Kin thc cn lu :
Theo nh ngha v gi tr tuyt i, ta c: y = t |f(x)|

Cch dng:
- Dng th hm s y =|f(x)|( hon ton nm na mt
phng trn)
- Dng phn th i xng vi phn th thu c trn
qua trc Ox.
5.2 V d:
1. Dng th hm s |y| = |x - 3|
Tht vy:
th hm s y = x - 3
x = 0

y = -3

( 0; -3) thuc th
x = 3

y = 0

( 3; 0) thuc th
th hm s
y = 1- x vi 0

a)
th hm s
y = 1- |x|
b)
Hnh 10
th hm s
y = |1- |x||
c)
Phn th in m trong phn c) (hnh 10) l th hm
s
|y| = |x - 3|
VI. m rng
i vi mi dng th hm s gi tr tuyt i u c mt
cch dng ring tng ng vi n. Tuy nhin trong thc t c
th c cc hm s gi tr tuyt i khng ch mt dng nu
trn m n l s kt hp ca nhiu dng khc nhau. i vi tr-
21
O
x
y
3
O
x
y
3
O
x
y
3

x
x x

x
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
ng hp ny chng ta c th dng hm s bng cch kt
hp nhiu cch dng nu trn, ngoi ra ta cn c th dng
hm s bn cch dng chung. Cch dng ny c th p
dng cho tt c cc dng th hm s gi tr tuyt i.
Cch dng chung
- B du gi tr tuyt i bng cch xt theo tng khong
ca bin ( xem ch 1)
- Mi khong ta u thu c mt hm tng ng

Dng
th theo tng khong ang xt.
V d 1: Dng th hm s y = |x - 1| + |x - 3|
Tht vy:
Xt theo tng khong ca bin x ta thu c:

4 - 2x nu x 1
y = 2 nu 1 x 3
2x - 4 nu x 3
th hm s
y = 4- 2x vi x 1
a)
th hm s
y = 2 vi 1 x 3
b)
th hm s
y = 2x - 4 vi x 3
c)
Hnh 11
Phn th in m trong phn c) (hnh 11) l th hm
s
y = |x - 1| + |x - 3|
V d 2. Dng th hm s y = ||x| - 2|
Tht vy: -2 - x nu x -2
Vi x 0, y = |-2 - x| =
22
O 1
2
4
y
x
x
O 1
2
4
y
3
x
O 1
2
4
y
3

x
x x

x
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
x + 2 nu x -2
-2 - x nu x -2

y =
x + 2 nu 0 x -2
x - 2 nu x 2
Vi x 0, y = |x - 2| =
2 - x nu x 2
x - 2 nu x 2

y =
2 - x nu 0 x 2
Vic dng th c thc hin trong 4 khong
-2 - x nu x -2
x + 2 nu -2 < x 0
y =
2 - x nu 0 < x 2
x - 2 nu x > 2
THS y= -2 -x
x -2
a)
THS y= x +
2
-2 < x 0
b)
THS y = 2 -
x
0 < x 2
c)
THS y = x -
2
x > 2
d)
Hnh 12
Phn th in m trong phn d) (hnh 12) l th hm
s:
y = ||x| - 2|
VIII.bi tp luyn tp
Bi 21. Dng th ca cc hm s
a) y =
1
2
3
x
b) y = 3 - 1.5|x| c) y = 1 - |x|
23
O
-2
y

x
O
-2
y
x
O -2
y
x
2 O -2
y

x
2
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Bi 22. Dng th ca cc hm s sau:
a) y = 2|x - 3| b) y = |x + 2| + 1 c) Y = -|X - 1|
Bi 23. Dng th ca cc hm s sau:
a) y = |2|x| - 3| b) y =
1
1
x

Bi 24. Dng th ca cc hm s sau:


a) |y| = 1 - x b) |y - 1| = x c) |y| = x
2
+ 1
Bi 25. Dng th ca cc hm s sau:
a) |y| = |x| b) |y - 2| = |x| c) |y - 1| = |x - 2|
ch IV: tm gi tr ln nht, nh nht ca cc biu
thc cha du gi tr tuyt i
I. cc kin thc cn lu :
Cho A, B l cc biu thc i s.
1.1 |A| 0 ( ng thc xy ra khi A = 0 )
1.2 |A + B| |A| + |B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
1.3 |A - B| |A| + |B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
1.4 |A - B| |A| - |B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
1.5 ||A| - |B|| |A + B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
1.5 ||A| - |B|| |A - B| (ng thc xy ra khi A.B 0 )
II. Cc bi tp in hnh
2.1 Tm gi tr nh nht ca biu thc: B = 2|3x - 1| - 4
Tht vy:
Ta c: |3x - 1| 0 x

2|3x - 1|- 4 -4 x

GTNN ca B = -4

3x - 1 = 0

x = 1/3
2.2 Tm gi tr nh nht ca biu thc: C =
6
3 x
vi x


Z
Tht vy:
Xt |x| > 3

C > 0 |x| > 3


Xt |x| < 3 th do x

|x| = { 0; 1; 2}
Nu |x| = 0

C = -2
24
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Nu |x| = 1

C = -3
Nu |x| = 2

C = -6

GTNN ca C = -6

|x| = 2

x = t 2
2.3 Tm gi tr nh nht ca biu thc: D = |x - 2| + |x -
3|
Tht vy:
Cch 1: p dng nh l v du ca nh thc bc nht v lp
bng ( ch I), ta c:
* Xt x < 2 th D = 2 - x + 3 - x = 5 - 2x
Do x < 2 nn -2x > -4

D > 1 (1)
* Xt 2 x 3 th D = x - 2 + 3 - x = 1 (2)
* Xt x > 3 th D = x - 2 + x - 3 = 2x - 5
Do x > 3 nn 2x > 6

D > 1 (3)
So snh (1), (2), (3) ta c minD = 1

2 x 3
Cch 2:
Ta c: D = |x - 2| + |x - 3|= |x - 2| + |3 - x| |x - 2 + 3 - x| = 1
Do minD = 1

(x - 2)(3 - x) 0

2 x 3
Cch 3:
Ta c: D = |x - 2| + |x - 3| | (x - 2) - (x - 3)| |x - 2 + 3 - x| = 1
Do minD = 1

(x - 2)(3 - x) 0

2 x 3
2.4 Tm gi tr ln nht ca biu thc: E = ||x - 1|- |x -
5||
Tht vy:
Cch 1:
Ta c: E = ||x - 1|- |x - 5|| |(x - 1)- (x - 5)|= |x -1 +5 - x| = 4
Do max E = 4

(x - 1)(x + 5) 0

5 x hoc x 1
Cch 2:
Ta c:
E = ||x - 1|- |x - 5|| = ||x - 1| + | 5 - x|| |x -1 +5 - x| = 4
Do max E = 4 khi (x - 1)(5 - x) 0

5 x hoc x 1
III. bi tp luyn tp
Bi 26: Tm gi tr ln nht ca biu thc:
a) A = 5 - |2x - 1|
b) B =
1
2 3 x +
c) C =
2 x
x
+
vi x

Z
Bi 27: Tm gi tr nh nht ca cc biu thc
a) A = 2|3x - 2| - 1
25
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
b) B = x
2
+ 3|x - 2| - 1
c) C = |x + 2|+ |x + 3|
d) D = |2x - 1|+ | 2x + 4|
e) E = |x
2
- x - 1|+ |x
2
- x - 2|
f) F = (0,5x
2
+ x)
2
- 3|0,5x
2
+ x|
Bi 28: Tm gi tr ln nht ca biu thc H = ||x - 2|- |x + 3||
c. p n
Bi 1:
a) a > 0; b) khng tn ti; c) d) a < 0; e) a > 0; f) a < 0;
g) a = -5; h) a = 0
Bi 2:
a) a = 0; b) a = 2; c) a = 1, b = -1; d) a = - 5, b = -2
Bi 3:
a) a, b cng du hoc cng bng 0
b) b = 0 hoc a, b cng dng
Bi 4:
a) -1 a 1; b) a 3 hoc a -3; c) a = t 11; d) -3 a < -1;
1 < a 3
Bi 5:
a) 99 s; b) 20 cp s
Bi 6:
a) ; b) ; c) =; d) =
Bi 7:
a) Cch 1:
Xt hai trng hp:
Nu b 0 th a + b = |a| + b

a = |a|

a 0
Nu b < 0 th a + b = |a| - b

|a| - a = 2b

VT 0, VP < 0

ng thc khng xy ra

a 0, b 0 l cc gi tr tho
mn
Cch 2:
Ta c a |a|, b |b|. Do a + b = |a| + |b|

a 0, b 0
26
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
b) Tng t b 0, a 0 hoc b < 0, a = -b
Bi 8: |a - b| = |(a + c) + (c - b)| |a - c| + |c - b| = 3 + 2 = 5
Bi 9:
a) BT = 2a vi a 0; BT = 0 vi a < 0
b) BT = 0 vi a 0, BT = -2a vi a < 0
c) BT = a
2
vi a 0, BT = - a
2
vi a < 0
d) BT = 1 vi a > 0, BT = -1 vi a < 0
e) BT = x - 9 vi x - 3, BT = 5x + 3 vi x < - 3
f) BT = 2x + 5 vi x < 1/4, BT = -6x + 7 vi 1/4 x < 3, BT =
-2x - 5 vi x 3
Bi 10:
a) x
1
= 4, x
2
= -1; b) x = -1/2 c) x
1
= 5/2, x
2
= -2/3
d) x
1
= 1/2, x
2
= 3/2 e) x = 0 f) x = -1/2g) 1 x 2 i)
x 2
Bi 11:
a) x = 4 hoc x = - 2 b) 1 x 2 c) 2,3 v 4 d)
1 5
2
t
e) x 1 f) -3/2 g) 0 h) 0 v 3/2 i) 2,0,-4 v -6 k)
-5,7,3,-1,1
Bi 12:
a > 0 v b < 2 hoc a < 0 v b > 2
Bi 13:
a = b = 0 hoc a > 0; b< 0 hoc a = -b
Bi 14:
a)
1 1
; 2
2 2
_


,
;
1 1
2 ;
2 2
_


,
;
1 1
; 2
2 2
_


,
;
1 1
2 ;
2 2
_


,
b) (1; 3) ; (3 ; 1) ; (- 3; -1) ; (-1; -3)
c)
2
6
7
x
;
4
5
7
y
d)
1 3
;
2 2
_


,
;
1
3 ;3
2
_


,
Bi 15:
|A| -A, du " = " xy ra

A 0

x
2
- x - 2 0

(x + 1)(x -
2) 0

-1 x 2
Bi 16:
Nu a > 0 th - a < 2a; Xt trng hp x < -a, -a x 2a, x
2a ta c cc nghim x = -7a, x = a
Nu a 0 th 2a < -a; Xt cc trng hp x < 2a; 2a x -a, x
> -a th ta c nghim x = -a
Bi 17:
27
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
a) -2 x 3; b) x > -2; c)x -2; x 5; d) x > 3/2
Bi 18:
a)
3
2
2
x < <
b)
3
4
2
x < <
c)
4
; 2
3
x x < >
d) x 0, x 1
Bi 19:
a) x < 1; b) x < -1; x > 7; c) -3 < x < 5 d) x 1 e) 0 x
1
g)
2
5
x
hoc x 12
Bi 20:
a)
1 13 1 13
2 2
x
+
< < ; b)
1 15 1 15
2 2
x
+
< < c) - 3 < x <
2
3
3
d) v nghime) 1 13 1 13 x < < + f) 0 x 2 hoc x
3 21
2
+

hoc x
3 21
2

Bi 21:
a b) c)
Bi 22:
a b) c)
Bi 23:
28
x
y
-6 6
O
x
y
-2 2 O
x
y
-1 1 O
1
x
y
O
6
3
x
y
-2 O
3
x
y
-1
1
O
3
2

3
2
O
3
y
x
y
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
a)
1 1
b)
Bi 24:
a) b) c)
Bi 25:
a) b) c)
29
O
x
y
x
1
O
y
x
1
O
1
y
x
1
O
x
O
y
x
y
O
y
O
x
2
1
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Bi 26:
a) max A = 5

1
2
x
b) max A =
1
3

2 x
c) Xt cc trng hp

max C = 3 max A = 5

x = 1
Bi 27:
a) min A = -1

2
3
x
b) min B = -1

x = 0; y = 2
c) min C = 5

-2 x 3
d) min D = 5

1
2
2
x
e) min E = 3

-1 x 2
f) t |0,5x
2
+ x| = y

min G = -9/4

y = 3/2

x
1
= 1; x
2
=
-30
Bi 28: max H = 5

x 2 hoc x -3
d. ti liu tham kho
1. Gi tr tuyt i- I.I. GAIDUCOP- NXB Gio dc - 1973
2. Mt s vn pht trin i s 7- V Hu Bnh - NXB
Gio dc - 1994
3. Ton nng cao v chuyn i s 7- Nguyn Ngc m -
V Dng Thu - NXB Gio dc - 1997
4. Ton c bn v nng cao i s 7- V Hu Bnh- NXB Gio
dc 1999
5. Ton Bi dng hc sinh lp 7 - V Hu Bnh - Tn Thn -
Quang Thiu NXB H ni - 1995
6. Mt s vn pht trin i s 8 - V Hu Bnh- NXB
Gio dc 1994
7. Ton nng cao i s 8- V Hu Bnh- NXB Gio dc 1999
8. Mt s vn pht trin i s 9 - V Hu Bnh- NXB
Gio dc 1994
30
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
E : Kt lun chung
Vic nghin cu mt s vn gi tr tuyt i l mt
trong nhng vn tng i hay v kh. Mi mt phng
php gii nh l mt cha kha gip chng ta tm c nhng
con ng i ngn nht trong qu trnh khm ph chn l ca
tri thc nhn loi.
Qu trnh nghin cu ca ti phn no gip
cho hc sinh c cch nhn mt cch khi qut hn v gi tr
tuyt i.
ti gip cho cc em h thng c cc dng bi tp
v gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS trn c s m cc em
c c tt c cc cng c khi ng trc mt bi ton cha gi
tr tuyt i.
Tm li, ti ny phn no gii quyt c nhng v-
ng mc c bn khi gp bi ton cha gi tr tuyt i.
Ti xin chn thnh cm n cc thy c gip ti
hon thnh ti ny.
Ngy 15 thng 5 nm 2006
Ngi vit

31
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
Bi Dy thc nghim
Tun: 14. Ngy
son:2/12/ 05.
Tit: 42. Ngy dy:
9/12/ 05.
Th t trong tp hp cc s nguyn
A/ Mc tiu:
- Hs hiu v bit so snh 2 s nguyn, tm c gi tr tuyt
i ca 1 s nguyn.
- Rn k nng so snh 2 s nguyn v tm gi tr tuyt i ca
1 s nguyn.
- Rn tnh cn thn trong so snh v tm gi tr tuyt i ca
s nguyn.
B/ Chun b:
-GV: Bng ph, thc thng.
-HS: n tp cc kin thc v s nguyn hc, thc thng.
C/ Ln lp
I/ T chc: (1

)
Kim tra s s.
II/ Kim tra bi c
? HS1:Vit tp hp cc s nguyn. Lm BT7 (SGK).
?HS2:Th no l 2 s i nhau? Lm BT 10 (SGK).
III/ Bi mi:
Hot ng ca
thy
Hot ng ca
tr
Ghi bng
?So snh 3 v 5?
? So snh v tr 2
im biu din 2
s trn trc tia
s?
-Gv a ra t/c tng
t i vi s nguyn.
- Hs so snh:
3<5.
- im 3 nm bn
tri in 5 trn
tia s.
- Hs theo di gv
hng dn.
1. S snh hai s
nguyn. (15)
+ Ta c: 3 <5
trn tia s: im 3
bn tri im 5.
+ Vi 2 a,b

Z: khi
im a bn tri
im b trn trc s
32
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
? Nhn trn trc s
ri so snh?
-Gv treo bng ph ?
1.
- Cho hs trao i
theo nhm bn ri
gi ln bng in.
- Yu cu hs nhn
xt, b sung.
- Cho hs tm hiu
ch SGK.
? Tm s lin trc
(sau) ca 1; -1; -3;
0; -4?
-Y.cu hs tm
hiu ?2.
- Cho hs trao i
tho lun theo
nhm.
-Gi hs ln bng
lm.
-So snh cc s
nguyn dng
(nguyn m) vi s
0?
? So snh cc s
nguyn dng vi s
nguyn m?
- Gv treo bng ph
trc s.
? Tm cc im
cch 0 mt khong
bng 2 v?
- Hs lm theo yu
cu ca gv.
- Hs trao i
theo bn ri len
bng in vo
bng ph.
-Hc sinh nhn
xt, b sung.
- Hs tm hiu
phn ch SGK.
- Hs da vo trc
s tr li.
-Hs c v tm
hiu yu cu ?2
- Hs trao i
theo nhm bn
ri i din ln
bng lm.
- Hs so snh theo
y.cu ca gv.
- Hs ln bng
tm theo y.cu
ca gv.
-Hs c v tm
hiu ?3.
- 3 hs ln bng
trnh by.
- hs c lp cng
lm vo v.
th a < b (hay b>a).
* Tng qut:(SGK).
+ m<n; a<b; m<a;
n<a .
+ m<0; n<0; a>0;
b>0.
?.1.
a) bn trinh
hn<
b) bn philn
hn>
c) bn trinh
hn<
* Ch : (SGK).
?.2. a) 2<7; d)
6<0.
b) -2>-7; e)
4>-2.
c) 4<2; g)
0<3.
*Nhn xt: (SGK).
2. Gi tr tuyt i
ca mt s nguyn.
(11).
2v 2v
+ im 2 v -2 cch
O mt khong bng 2
n v.
?.3.
+Kh. cch t 1 n 0
33
O
n m a b
0 1 2 3 4
-1 -2 -3
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
-Y.cu hs tm
hiu ?3.
-Gi hs ln bng
lm.
-Gv gip hs di lp.
- Yu cu hs nhn
xt, b sung.
- Gv cht bi.
-Gv nu N gi tr
tuyt i ca mt
s nguyn.
-Y.cu hs tm
hiu ?4.
- Cho hs trao i .
? Em c NX g v
GTT ca mt s
nguyn dong (m)
v s 0?
? So snh 2 s
nguyn m ri so
snh 2 gi tr tuyt
i ca chng?
?NX g v GTT ca
2 s i nhau?
-Hc sinh nhn
xt, b sung.
- Hs theo di v
tm hiu thm
trong SGK.
-Hs c v tm
hiu ?4.
- Hs trao i
theo nhm ri c
i din ln bng
lm.
-Hc sinh nhn
xt, b sung.
- Hs rt ra NX nh
SGK.
l 1 v.
+Kh. cch t -1 n
0 l 1 v.
+Kh. cch t -5 n
0 l 5 v.
+Kh. cch t 5 n 0
l 5 v.
+Kh. cch t -3 n
0 l 3 v.
+Kh. cch t 2 n 0
l 2 v.
+Kh. cch t 0 n
0 l 0 v.
* nh ngha: (SGK).
-Gi tr tuyt i ca
a k hiu l:
a
.
?.4.
2 2
;
2 2.
1 1;

1 1.


1 1;
0 0;


5 5.

1 1;
5 5;
0 0;


3 3.

* Nhn xt: (SGK).
IV/ Cng c:(9).
-Gv treo bng ph
BT 11.
- Gi hs ln bng
lm.
- 2 Hs ln bng lm.
- Hs c lp cng lm.
-Hc sinh nhn xt,
b sung.
BT11:
3 < 5 ;
-3 > -5.
4 > -6;
34
Gi tr tuyt i trong trng THCS
- Yu cu hs nhn
xt, b sung.
-Y.cu hs tm hiu
BT 12.
- Chia lp thnh 2
na v thi lm
nhanh.
-Y.cu hs tm hiu
BT 14.
- Cho hs trao i
theo nhm.
- Gv quan st v
sa cho cc nhm.
- Yu cu hs nhn
xt, b sung.
- Gv cht bi.
- Hs 2 na lp lm
nhanh v i din
ln bng lm.
-Hs c v tm
hiu BT.
- Hs trao i theo
nhm ri c i
din ln bng lm.
- 1 hs i din ln
bng lm.
-Hc sinh nhn xt,
b sung.
10 > -10.
BT 12.(SGK).
a) 17; -2; 0; 1; 2; 5.
b) 2001; 15; 7; 0; -8;
-101.
BT14(SGK).
2000 2000.
3011 3011.

10 10.
V/ H ng dn: (1

).
- Hc v lm bi tp y .
- Xem k cc VD v BT cha.
BTVN: BT13+15+16+17 (SGK).
BT22+23+24 (SBT)
Xc nhn ca nh trng thc hin ti
35

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