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List of MS-DOS commands

List of MS-DOS commands


In the personal computer operating systems MS-DOS and PCDOS, a number of standard system commands were provided for common tasks such as listing files on a disk or moving files. Some commands were built-in to the command interpreter, others existed as external commands on disk. Over the several generations of DOS, commands were added for the additional functions of the operating system. In the current Microsoft Windows operating system a text-mode command prompt window can still be used.

Command processing
The command interpreter for DOS runs when no application programs are running. When an application exits, if the transient portion of the command interpreter in memory was overwritten, DOS will reload it from disk. Some commands are internal and built into COMMAND.COM, others are external commands stored on disk. When the user types a line of text at the operating system command prompt, COMMAND.COM will parse the line and attempt to match a command name to a built-in command or to the name of an executable program file or batch file on disk. If no match is found, an error message is printed and the command prompt is refreshed. External commands were too large to keep in the command processor or were less frequently used. Such utility programs would be stored on disk and loaded just like regular application programs but were distributed with the operating system. Copies of these utility command programs had to be on an accessible disk, either on the current drive or on the command path set in the command interpreter. In the list below, commands that can accept more than one filename, or a filename including wildcards (* and ?), are said to accept a filespec parameter. Commands that can accept only a single filename are said to accept a filename parameter. Additionally, command line switches, or other parameter strings, can be supplied on the command line. Spaces and symbols such as a "/" or a "-" may be used to allow the command processor to parse the command line into file names, file specifications, and other options. The command interpreter preserves the case of whatever parameters are passed to commands but the command names themselves and filenames are case-insensitive. While many commands are the same across many DOS systems (MS-DOS, PCDOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS, etc.) some differ in command syntax or name.

List of DOS Commands


ACALC
External - PCDOS7 Calculates the value of a mathematical expression. ACALC [/T[:]format] expression /T format expression Specifies the output format type D=Decimal (default) B=Binary O=Octal X=heXadecimal A=All (decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal) Specifies a valid numeric expression.

Numbers prefixed with 'b', 'o', and 'x' are assumed to be binary, octal, and hexadecimal respectively. Decimal numbers are not prefixed.

List of MS-DOS commands

APPEND
External - DOS 3.3 and above Allows programs to open data files in specified directories as if they were in the current directory. APPEND [[drive:]path[;...]] [/X[:ON | :OFF]] [/PATH:ON | /PATH:OFF] [/E] APPEND ; [drive:]path Specifies a drive and directory to append. /X:ON Applies appended directories to file searches and application execution. /X:OFF Applies appended directories only to requests to open files. /X:OFF is the default setting. /PATH:ON Applies appended directories to file requests that already specify a path. /PATH:ON is the default setting. /PATH:OFF Turns off the effect of /PATH:ON. /E Stores a copy of the appended directory list in an environment variable named APPEND. /E may be used only the first time you use APPEND after starting your system. Type APPEND ; to clear the appended directory list. Type APPEND without parameters to display the appended directory list.

ASSIGN
External - DOS 2.0 and above Further information: Drive letter assignment Redirects requests for disk operations on one drive to a different drive. ASSIGN [x[:]=y[:][...]] ASSIGN /STATUS x y /STATUS Specifies the drive letter to reassign. Specifies the drive that x: will be assigned to. Displays current drive assignments.

Type ASSIGN without parameters to reset all drive letters to original assignments.

ATTRIB
External - DOS 3.0 and above Displays or changes file attributes. ATTRIB [+R | -R] [+A | -A] [+S | -S] [+H | -H] [[drive:][path]filename] [/S] + R A Sets an attribute. Clears an attribute. Read-only file attribute. Archive file attribute.

List of MS-DOS commands S H /S System file attribute. Hidden file attribute. Processes files in all directories in the specified path.

BACKUP
External - DOS 2.0 and above Backs up one or more files from one disk to another. BACKUP source destination-drive: [/S] [/M] [/A] [/F[:size]] [/D:date[/T:time]] [/L[:[drive:][path]logfile]] source destination-drive: /S /M Specifies the file(s), drive, or directory to back up. Specifies the drive to save backup copies onto. Backs up contents of subdirectories. Backs up only files that have changed since the last backup. /A Adds backup files to an existing backup disk. /F:[size] Specifies the size of the disk to be formatted. /D:date Backs up only files changed on or after the specified date. /T:time Backs up only files changed at or after the specified time. /L[:[drive:][path]logfile] Creates a log file and entry to record the backup operation.

BASIC, BASICA and GW-BASIC


External - DOS 1.0 to DOS 4.0 An implementation of the BASIC programming language for PCs. IBM computers had Cassette BASIC in ROM; BASIC (Disk BASIC) and BASICA (Advanced BASIC) were extensions to the ROM-based Cassette BASIC. Microsoft released GW-BASIC for IBM compatible PCs which did not have ROM BASIC. GW-BASIC was a complete BASIC interpreter which was compatible with BASICA. Some OEM releases had BASIC.COM and BASICA.COM as loaders for GW-BASIC.EXE. MS-DOS 5.0 and higher included QBasic instead of GW-BASIC.

BREAK
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Sets or clears extended CTRL+C checking. BREAK [ON | OFF] Type BREAK without a parameter to display the current BREAK setting.

List of MS-DOS commands

CALL
Internal - DOS 3.3 and above Calls one batch program from another. CALL [drive:][path]filename [batch-parameters] batch-parameters Specifies any command-line information required by the batch program.

CHCP
Internal - DOS 3.3 and above Displays or sets the active code page number. CHCP [nnn] nnn Specifies a code page number.

Type CHCP without a parameter to display the active code page number.

CHDIR or CD
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Displays the name of or changes the current directory. CHDIR [drive:][path] CHDIR[..] CD [drive:][path] CD[..] .. Specifies that you want to change to the parent directory.

Type CD drive: to display the current directory in the specified drive. Type CD without parameters to display the current drive and directory.

CHKDSK
External - DOS 1.0 and above Checks a disk and displays a status report. CHKDSK [drive:][[path]filename] [/F] [/V] [drive:][path] filename /F /V Specifies the drive and directory to check. Specifies the file(s) to check for fragmentation. Fixes errors on the disk. Displays the full path and name of every file on the disk.

Type CHKDSK without parameters to check the current disk. CHKDSK originated as an external command in 86-DOS.

List of MS-DOS commands

CHOICE
External - DOS 6.0 and above Waits for you to choose one of a set of choices. CHOICE [/C[:]choices] [/N] [/S] [/T[:]c,nn] [text] /C[:]choices /N /S /T[:]c,nn text Specifies allowable keys. Default is YN. Does not display choices and ? at end of prompt string. Treats choice keys as case sensitive. Defaults choice to c after <nn> seconds. Prompts string to display.

ERRORLEVEL is set to offset of key you press in choices.

CLS
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Clears the screen. CLS

COMMAND
External - DOS 1.0 and above Starts a new copy of the DOS Command Interpreter. COMMAND [[drive:]path] [device] [/E:nnnnn] [/P [/MSG]] [/H] [/O] [/Y [/C command | /K command]] [drive:]path device /E:nnnnn /P /MSG /H /O /Y /C command /K command Specifies the directory containing COMMAND.COM file. Specifies the device to use for command input and output. Sets the initial environment size to nnnnn bytes. Makes the new Command Interpreter permanent (can't exit). Stores all error messages in memory (requires /P). Loads the Command Interpreter into a UMB if available. Disables overwrite prompt on COPY,XCOPY,and MOVE commands. Steps through the batch program specified by /C or /K. Executes the specified command and returns. Executes the specified command and continues running.

The /P and /MSG switches may be used only when COMMAND is started by using the SHELL command in the CONFIG.SYS file. /O and /Y are only available in DOS 6 and above. /H is only available in PCDOS7. COMMAND.COM originated in 86-DOS.

List of MS-DOS commands

COMP
External - DOS 1.0 and above Compares the contents of two files or sets of files. COMP [data1] [data2] [/D] [/A] [/L] [/N=number] [/C] data1 data2 /D Specifies location and name(s) of first file(s) to compare. Specifies location and name(s) of second files to compare. Displays differences in decimal format. This is the default setting. /A Displays differences in ASCII characters. /L Displays line numbers for differences. /N=number Compares only the first specified number of lines in each file. /C Disregards case of ASCII letters when comparing files. To compare sets of files, use wildcards in data1 and data2 parameters.

COPY
Internal - DOS 1.0 and above Copies one or more files to another location. COPY [/A | /B] source [/A | /B] [+ source [/A | /B] [+ ...]] [destination [/A | /B]] [/V] [/Y | /-Y] source /A /B destination /V /Y /-Y Specifies the file or files to be copied. Indicates an ASCII text file. Indicates a binary file. Specifies the directory and/or filename for the new file(s). Verifies that new files are written correctly. Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an existing destination file. Causes prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an existing destination file.

The switch /Y may be preset in the COPYCMD environment variable. To append files, specify a single file for destination, but multiple files for source (using wildcards or file1+file2+file3 format). /Y and /-Y are only available in DOS 6 and above. COPY originated as an internal command in 86-DOS.

List of MS-DOS commands

CTTY
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Changes the terminal device used to control your system. CTTY device device The terminal device you want to use, such as COM1.

DATE
External - DOS 1.0 Internal - DOS 1.1 and above Displays or sets the date. DATE [date] Type DATE without parameters to display the current date setting and a prompt for a new one. Press ENTER to keep the same date.

DEBUG
External - DOS 1.0 and above Runs Debug, a program testing and editing tool. DEBUG [[drive:][path]filename [testfile-parameters]] [drive:][path]filename testfile-parameters Specifies the file you want to test. Specifies command-line information required by the file you want to test.

After Debug starts, type ? to display a list of debugging commands. DEBUG originated as an external command in 86-DOS.

DEFRAG
External - DOS 6.0 and above Further information: Defragmentation Reorganizes files on disks to optimize performance. DEFRAG [drive:] [/F] [/Sorder] [/B] [/SKIPHIGH] [/LCD | /BW | /G0] DEFRAG [drive:] [/U] [/B] [/SKIPHIGH] [/LCD | /BW | /G0] [drive:] /F /U /S order Drive letter of disk to be optimized. Fully optimizes specified disk. Unfragments files, leaving space between files. Sort files by specified order. N By Name (alphabetic) E By extension (alphabetic) D By date & time (earliest first) S By size (smallest first) - Suffix to reverse order Restarts your computer after optimization.

/B

List of MS-DOS commands /SKIPHIGH /LCD /BW /G0 Prevents Defrag from using extended or upper memory. Runs Defrag using an LCD color scheme. Runs Defrag using a black and white color scheme. Disable the graphic mouse and graphic character set.

DEFRAG is a licensed version Norton Utilities Speed Disk.

DEL or ERASE
Internal - DOS 1.0 and above Deletes one or more files. DEL [drive:][path]filename [/P] ERASE [drive:][path]filename [/P] [drive:][path]filename /P Specifies the file(s) to delete. Specify multiple files by using wildcards. Prompts for confirmation before deleting each file.

/P is only available in DOS 5 and above. ERASE (but not its alias DEL) originated as an internal command in 86-DOS. All versions of DR-DOS support the ERA command as an alias to ERASE / DEL and add ERAQ / DELQ shortcuts identical to the DR-DOS ERA / ERASE / DEL command with the /Q (Query) option given to prompt the user for confirmation.

DELTREE
External - DOS 6.0 and above Deletes a directory and all the subdirectories and files within it. To Delete one or more directories: DELTREE [/Y] [drive:]path [[drive:]path[...]] /Y [drive:]path Suppresses prompting to confirm whether you want to delete the subdirectory. Specifies the name of the directory you want to delete.

Note: Use DELTREE with caution. Every file and subdirectory within the specified directory will be deleted.

DIR
Internal - DOS 1.0 and above Displays a list of files and subdirectories in a directory. DIR [drive:][path][filename] [/P] [/W] [/A[[:]attribs]] [/O[[:]sortord]] [/S] [/B] [/L] [drive:][path][filename] Specifies drive, directory, and files to list. /P Pauses after each full screen of information. /W Uses wide list format. /A Displays files with specified attributes.

List of MS-DOS commands attribs D Directories R Read-only files H Hidden files S System files A Files ready to archive - Prefix meaning "not" /O Lists by files in sorted order. sortord N By name (alphabetic) S By size (smallest first) E By extension (alphabetic) D By date & time (earliest first) G Group directories first - Prefix to reverse order /S Displays files in specified directory and all subdirectories. /B Uses bare format (no heading information or summary). /L Uses lowercase. Switches may be preset in the DIRCMD environment variable. Override preset switches by prefixing any switch with - (hyphen)--for example, /-W. To remove the commas from the DIR output, use the NO_SEP environment variable. Only /P and /W are available prior to DOS 5. DIR originated as an internal command in 86-DOS.

DISKCOMP
External - DOS 1.0 and above Compares the contents of two floppy disks. DISKCOMP [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/8] /1 /8 Compares the first side of the disks. Compares only the first eight sectors of each track.

DISKCOPY
External - DOS 1.0 and above Copies the contents of one floppy disk to another. DISKCOPY [drive1: [drive2:]] [/1] [/V] [/M] /1 /V /M Copies only the first side of the disk. Verifies that the information is copied correctly. Force multi-pass copy using memory only.

The two floppy disks must be the same type. You may specify the same drive for drive1 and drive2.

DOSKEY
External - DOS 5.0 and above Edits command lines, recalls DOS commands, and creates macros. DOSKEY [/REINSTALL] [/BUFSIZE=size] [/MACROS] [/HISTORY] [/INSERT | /OVERSTRIKE] [macroname=[text]] /REINSTALL Installs a new copy of Doskey. /BUFSIZE=size Sets size of command history buffer.

List of MS-DOS commands /MACROS /HISTORY /INSERT /OVERSTRIKE macroname text Displays all Doskey macros. Displays all commands stored in memory. Specifies that new text you type is inserted in old text. Specifies that new text overwrites old text. Specifies a name for a macro you create. Specifies commands you want to record.

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UP and DOWN ARROWS recall commands; ESC clears command line; F7 displays command history; ALT+F7 clears command history; F8 searches command history; F9 selects a command by number; ALT+F10 clears macro definitions. The following are some special codes in Doskey macro definitions: $T Command separator. Allows multiple commands in a macro. $1-$9 Batch parameters. Equivalent to %1-%9 in batch programs. $* Symbol replaced by everything following macro name on command line.

DRVLOCK
External - PCDOS5.02 and above Locks the drive or socket so that media cannot be removed. DRVLOCK [drive: | socket:] [/ON | /OFF] /ON /OFF Sets the lock on. Sets the lock off.

DRVLOCK is only included with PCDOS versions.

DYNALOAD
External - PCDOS7 Load a device driver after system startup. DYNALOAD filename [parameters] filename parameters Specifies the name of the device driver to load. Specifies any parameters for the device driver.

E
External - PCDOS6.1 and above Starts PCDOS editor, which creates and changes ASCII files. E [/Q] [/B] [/S] [/D] [/I] [/C] [/A] [/DM] [/80 |/132] [d:][path][filespec] [=filespec] ['command'] /Q /B /S /D Turns off display of "Loading .." message. Displays files in browse (read-only) mode. Uses EMS (or hardfile if no EMS is available) to edit files too large for conventional memory. Forces file to be loaded from disk.

List of MS-DOS commands /I Edits STACKER.INI file. /C Edits CONFIG.SYS file. /A Edits AUTOEXEC.BAT file. /DM Disables Mouse. /80 Enables 80 column, 16 color text video (CGA/EGA/MCGA/VGA/SVGA/XGA). /132 Enables 132 column, 16 color text video (XGA). [d:][path][filespec] Specifies drive, directory, and file to edit. = Is shorthand for "same path as last specified" at the DOS prompt, or "same as current file's" at the editor commandline. For example, E \PAS\LANG\FOO.PAS =FOO.BAK will load the two files FOO.PAS and FOO.BAK, both from the directory \PAS\LANG. 'command' Specifies a startup command. For example, E \FOO.PAS 'ALL /IF' will load the file FOO.PAS and then execute the ALL command on this file. Switches may be preset in the E environment variable. E is only included with PCDOS versions and replaces the MS-DOS editor EDIT.

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ECHO
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Displays messages, or turns command-echoing on or off. ECHO [ON | OFF] ECHO [message] Type ECHO without parameters to display the current echo setting.

EDIT
External - MS-DOS 5.0 and above Starts the MS-DOS editor, which creates and changes ASCII files. EDIT [[drive:][path]filename] [/B] [/G] [/H] [/NOHI] [drive:][path]filename Specifies the ASCII file to edit. /B Allows use of a monochrome monitor with a color graphics card. /G Provides the fastest update of a CGA screen. /H Displays the maximum number of lines possible for your hardware. /NOHI Allows the use of a monitor without high-intensity support. PCDOS 6.1 and later use the E editor.

List of MS-DOS commands

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EDLIN
External - DOS 1.0 and above Line-oriented text editor. EDLIN [drive:][path]filename [/B] /B Ignores end-of-file (CTRL+Z) characters.

EDLIN originated as an external command in 86-DOS.

EJECT
External - PCDOS5.02 and above Ejects the media from a drive. EJECT [drive:] EJECT is only included with PCDOS versions.

EMM386
External - DOS 5.0 and above Turns on or off EMM386 expanded memory support. EMM386 [ON | OFF | AUTO] [W=ON | W=OFF] ON | OFF | AUTO W=ON | OFF Activates or suspends EMM386.EXE device driver, or places it in auto mode. Turns on or off Weitek coprocessor support.

EMM386.EXE must be loaded as a device driver in CONFIG.SYS in order to use this command.

EXE2BIN
External - DOS 1.0 and above Converts .EXE (executable) files to binary format. EXE2BIN [drive1:][path1]input-file [[drive2:][path2]output-file] input-file output-file Specifies the .EXE file to be converted. Specifies the binary file to be created.

List of MS-DOS commands

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EXIT
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Quits the COMMAND.COM program (command interpreter). EXIT

FASTOPEN
External - DOS 3.3 to DOS 6.3 Decreases the amount of time needed to open frequently used files and directories. FASTOPEN drive:[[=]n] [drive:[[=]n][ ...]] [/X] drive: n /X Specifies the hard disk drive you want Fastopen to work with. Specifies the maximum number of file locations Fastopen retains in its filename cache. Creates the filename cache in expanded memory.

FC
External - DOS 3.3 and above Compares two files or sets of files and displays the differences between them. FC [/A] [/C] [/L] [/LBn] [/N] [/T] [/W] [/nnnn] [drive1:][path1]filename1 [drive2:][path2]filename2 FC /B [drive1:][path1]filename1 [drive2:][path2]filename2 /A /B /C /L /LBn /N /T /W /nnnn Displays only first and last lines for each set of differences. Performs a binary comparison. Disregards the case of letters. Compares files as ASCII text. Sets the maximum consecutive mismatches to the specified number of lines. Displays the line numbers on an ASCII comparison. Does not expand tabs to spaces. Compresses white space (tabs and spaces) for comparison. Specifies the number of consecutive lines that must match after a mismatch.

FDISK
External - DOS 2.0 and above Configures a hard disk for use with DOS. FDISK [/STATUS] /STATUS Displays the status of the fixed disk drive

List of MS-DOS commands

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FIND
External - DOS 2.0 and above Searches for a text string in a file or files. FIND [/V] [/C] [/N] [/I] [/S] "string" [[drive:][path]filename[ ...]] /V Displays all lines NOT containing the specified string. /C Displays only the count of lines containing the string. /N Displays line numbers with the displayed lines. /I Ignores the case of characters when searching for the string. /S Search subdirectories also. "string" Specifies the text string to find. [drive:][path]filename Specifies a file or files to search. If a pathname is not specified, FIND searches the text typed at the prompt or piped from another command. /S is only available in PCDOS7. Also PCDOS7 allows the use of wildcards in filenames while prior versions do not.

FOR
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Runs a specified command for each file in a set of files. FOR %variable IN (set) DO command [command-parameters] %variable Specifies (set) Specifies command Specifies command-parameters Specifies a replaceable parameter. a set of one or more files. Wildcards may be used. the command to carry out for each file. parameters or switches for the specified command.

To use the FOR command in a batch program, specify %%variable instead of %variable.

FORMAT
External - DOS 1.0 and above Formats a disk for use with DOS. FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT drive: drive: drive: drive: [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/U] [/F:size] [/B | /S] [/C] [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/U] [/T:tracks /N:sectors] [/B | /S] [/C] [/V[:label]] [/Q] [/U] [/1] [/4] [/B | /S] [/C] [/Q] [/U] [/1] [/4] [/8] [/B | /S] [/C] Specifies the volume label. Performs a quick format. Performs an unconditional format.

/V[:label] /Q /U

List of MS-DOS commands /F:size /B /S /T:tracks /N:sectors /1 /4 /8 /C Specifies the size of the floppy disk to format (such as 160, 180, 320, 360, 720, 1.2, 1.44, 2.88). Allocates space on the formatted disk for system files. Copies system files to the formatted disk. Specifies the number of tracks per disk side. Specifies the number of sectors per track. Formats a single side of a floppy disk. Formats a 5.25-inch 360K floppy disk in a high-density drive. Formats eight sectors per track. Revert to less conservative handling of bad blocks.

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/Q and /U are only available in DOS 5 and above. /C is only available in DOS 6 and above. FORMAT replaced the internal command CLEAR in 86-DOS.

GOTO
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Directs DOS to a labelled line in a batch program. GOTO label label Specifies a text string used in the batch program as a label.

You type a label on a line by itself, beginning with a colon.

GRAFTABL
External - DOS 3.0 and above Enables DOS to display an extended character set in graphics mode. GRAFTABL [xxx] GRAFTABL /STATUS xxx /STATUS Specifies a code page number. Displays the current code page selected for use with GRAFTABL.

GRAPHICS
External - DOS 2.0 and above Loads a program that can print graphics. GRAPHICS [type] [[drive:][path]filename] [/R] [/B] [/LCD] [/PRINTBOX:STD | /PRINTBOX:LCD] type Specifies a printer type. [drive:][path]filename Specifies the file containing information on supported printers. /R Prints white on black as seen on the screen. /B Prints the background in color for COLOR4 and COLOR8 printers. /LCD Prints using LCD aspect ratio. /PRINTBOX:STD | /PRINTBOX:LCD

List of MS-DOS commands Specifies the print-box size, either STD or LCD. This command uses the file GRAPHICS.PRO which contains information about the supported printer types.

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HELP
External - DOS 5.0 and above Displays command help. HELP [topic] MS-DOS versions use QBASIC.EXE and QuickHelp files for its help system. PC DOS versions use VIEW.EXE and Information Presentation Facility files for its help system.

IF
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Performs conditional processing in batch programs. IF [NOT] ERRORLEVEL number command IF [NOT] string1==string2 command IF [NOT] EXIST filename command NOT Specifies that DOS should carry out the command only if the condition is false. ERRORLEVEL number Specifies a true condition if the last program run returned an exit code equal to or greater than the number specified. command Specifies the command to carry out if the condition is met. string1==string2 Specifies a true condition if the specified text strings match. EXIST filename Specifies a true condition if the specified filename exists.

INTERLNK
External - DOS 5.02 and above Displays status of INTERLNK-INTERSVR redirected drives. INTERLNK [client=[server]] client server Specifies a client drive to redirect to a server drive. Cancels redirection if no server drive is specified. Specifies a server drive to redirect to a client drive.

Type INTERLNK with no parameters to show INTERLNK status. INTERLNK.EXE must be loaded as a device driver in CONFIG.SYS in order to use this command.

List of MS-DOS commands

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INTERSVR
External - DOS 5.02 and above Provides serial or parallel file transfer and printing capabilities via redirected drives. INTERSVR [drive:[...]] [/X=drive:[...]] [/LPT[:][n | address]] [/COM[:][n | address]] [/baud:rate] [/v] [/b] drive: Specifies the drive(s) to redirect (by default, all drives are redirected). /X=drive: Specifies the drive(s) to exclude. /LPT[n] Specifies a port to scan. (/LPT scans all LPT ports). /LPT[address] Specifies a port address to scan. /COM[n] Specifies a port to scan. (/COM scans all COM ports). /COM[address] Specifies a port address to scan. /BAUD:rate Set a maximum serial baud rate. /B Displays the INTERLNK server screen in black and white. /V Prevents conflicts with a computer's timer. Specify this switch if you have a serial connection between computers and one of them stops running when you use INTERLNK. INTERSVR /RCOPY Copies INTERLNK files from one computer to another, provided that the computers' serial ports are connected with a 7-wire null-modem cable.

JOIN
External - DOS 3.1 and above Joins a disk drive to a directory on another drive. JOIN [drive1: [drive2:]path] JOIN drive1: /D drive1: drive2: path /D Specifies a disk drive that will appear as a directory on drive2. Specifies a drive to which you want to join drive1. Specifies the directory to which you want to join drive1. It must be empty and cannot be the root directory. Cancels any previous JOIN commands for the specified drive.

Type JOIN without parameters to list currently joined drives.

List of MS-DOS commands

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KEYB
External - DOS 3.3 and above Configures a keyboard for a specific language. KEYB [xx[,[yyy][,[drive:][path]filename]]] [/E] [/ID:nnn] xx yyy [drive:][path]filename /E /ID:nnn Specifies Specifies Specifies Specifies Specifies a two-letter keyboard code. the code page for the character set. the keyboard definition file. that an enhanced keyboard is installed. the keyboard in use.

KEYB replaces the commands KEYBFR, KEYBGR, KEYBIT, KEYBSP and KEYBUK from DOS 3.0 to 3.2.

LABEL
External - DOS 3.0 and above Creates, changes, or deletes the volume label of a disk. LABEL [drive:][label]

LOADFIX
External - DOS 5.0 and above Loads a program above the first 64K of memory, and runs the program. LOADFIX [drive:][path]filename Use LOADFIX to load a program if you have received the message "Packed file corrupt" when trying to load it in low memory.

LOADHIGH or LH
Internal - DOS 5.0 and above Loads a program into the upper memory area. LOADHIGH [drive:][path]filename [parameters] LOADHIGH [/L:region1[,minsize1][;region2[,minsize2]...]] [drive:][path]filename [parameters] /L:region1[,minsize1][;region2[,minsize2]]... Specifies the region(s) of memory into which to load the program. Region1 specifies the number of the first memory region; minsize1 specifies the minimum size, if any, for region1. Region2 and minsize2 specify the number and minimum size of the second region, if any. You can specify as many regions as you want. [drive:][path]filename Specifies the location and name of the program. parameters Specifies any command-line information required by

List of MS-DOS commands the program. /L is only available in DOS 6 and above.

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MEM
External - DOS 4.0 and above Displays the amount of used and free memory in your system. MEM [/CLASSIFY | /DEBUG | /FREE | /MODULE modulename] [/PAGE] /CLASSIFY or /C Classifies programs by memory usage. Lists the size of programs, provides a summary of memory in use, and lists the largest memory block available. Displays status of all modules in memory, internal drivers, and other information. Displays information about the amount of free memory left in both conventional and upper memory. Displays a detailed listing of a module's memory use. This option must be followed by the name of a module, optionally separated from /M by a colon. Pauses after each full screen of information.

/DEBUG or /D /FREE or /F /MODULE or /M

/PAGE or /P

MIRROR
External - DOS 5.0 and above Records information about one or more disks. MIRROR [drive:[ ...]] [/1] [/Tdrive[-entries][ ...]] MIRROR [/U] MIRROR [/PARTN] drive: /1 /Tdrive -entries /U /PARTN Specifies the drive for which you want to save information. Saves only the latest disk information (does not back up previous information). Loads the deletion-tracking program for the specified drive. Specifies maximum number of entries in the deletion-tracking file. Unloads the deletion-tracking program. Saves hard disk partition information to a floppy diskette.

MIRROR is licensed from Central Point Software PC Tools

List of MS-DOS commands

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MKDIR or MD
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Creates a directory. MKDIR [drive:]path MD [drive:]path

MODE
External - DOS 1.0 and above Configures system devices. Printer port: Serial port: Device Status: Redirect printing: Prepare code page: Select code page: Refresh code page: Code page status: Display mode: Typematic rate: MODE MODE MODE MODE MODE MODE MODE MODE MODE MODE MODE LPTn[:] [COLS=c] [LINES=l] [RETRY=r] COMm[:] [BAUD=b] [PARITY=p] [DATA=d] [STOP=s] [RETRY=r] [device] [/STATUS] LPTn[:]=COMm[:] device CP PREPARE=((yyy[...]) [drive:][path]filename) device CP SELECT=yyy device CP REFRESH device CP [/STATUS] [display-adapter][,n] CON[:] [COLS=c] [LINES=n] CON[:] [RATE=r DELAY=d]

MORE
External - DOS 2.0 and above Displays output one screen at a time. MORE < [drive:][path]filename command-name | MORE [drive:][path]filename command-name Specifies a file to display one screen at a time. Specifies a command whose output will be displayed.

MOVE
External - DOS 6.0 and above Moves files and renames files and directories. To move one or more files: MOVE [/Y | /-Y] [drive:][path]filename1[,...] destination To rename a directory: MOVE [drive:][path]dirname1 dirname2 /Y /-Y Suppresses prompting to confirm overwriting of the destination. Causes prompting to confirm overwriting of the destination. The switch /Y may be present in the COPYCMD environment variable. This may be overridden with /-Y on the command line.

[drive:][path]filename1 Specifies the location and name of the file

List of MS-DOS commands or files you want to move. Specifies the new location of the file. Destination can consist of a drive letter and colon, a directory name, or a combination. If you are moving only one file, you can also include a filename if you want to rename the file when you move it. Specifies the directory you want to rename. Specifies the new name of the directory.

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destination

[drive:][path]dirname1 dirname2

MSCDEX
External - DOS 6.0 and above Loads the CD-ROM support utility. MSCDEX /D:driver ... [/E] [/K] [/L:letter] [/M:buffers] [/S] [/V] /D:driver /E /K /L:letter /M:buffers /S /V Specifies name of CD-ROM driver Load buffers in expanded memory (EMS) Load Kanji support Specifies first drive letter to use Specifies number of sector buffers Load server environment support Display verbose memory usage statistics

MSD
External - MS-DOS 6.0 and above Provides detailed technical information about your computer. MSD [/I] [/F[drive:][path]filename] [/P[drive:][path]filename] [/S[drive:][path][filename]] MSD [/B][/I] /B /I /F[drive:][path]filename Runs MSD using a black and white color scheme. Bypasses initial hardware detection. Requests input and writes an MSD report to the specified file. /P[drive:][path]filename Writes an MSD report to the specified file without first requesting input. /S[drive:][path][filename] Writes a summary MSD report to the specified file. If no filename is specified, output is to the screen. MSD is only included with MS-DOS versions, PCDOS uses QCONFIG.

List of MS-DOS commands

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NLSFUNC
External - DOS 3.3 and above Loads country-specific information. NLSFUNC [[drive:][path]filename] [drive:][path]filename Specifies the file containing country-specific information.

PATH
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Displays or sets a search path for executable files. PATH [[drive:]path[;...]] PATH ; Type PATH ; to clear all search-path settings and direct DOS to search only in the current directory. Type PATH without parameters to display the current path.

PAUSE
Internal - DOS 1.0 and above Suspends processing of a batch program and displays the message "Press any key to continue...." PAUSE PAUSE originated as an internal command in 86-DOS.

POWER
External - DOS 5.02 and above Reduces power used by your computer. POWER [ADV[:MAX | REG | MIN] | STD | OFF] ADV[:MAX | REG | MIN] -- Reduces power by monitoring applications and hardware devices. MAX provides the most power conservation, REG provides average power conservation, and MIN provides the least conservation. STD -- Reduces power by monitoring hardware devices. OFF -- Turns off power management. POWER.EXE must be loaded as a device driver in CONFIG.SYS in order to use this command.

List of MS-DOS commands

23

PRINT
External - DOS 2.0 and above Prints a text file while you are using other DOS commands. PRINT [/D:device] [/B:size] [/U:ticks1] [/M:ticks2] [/S:ticks3] [/Q:qsize] [/T] [[drive:][path]filename[ ...]] [/C] [/P] /D:device /B:size /U:ticks1 /M:ticks2 /S:ticks3 /Q:qsize /T /C /P Specifies a print device. Sets the internal buffer size, in bytes. Waits the specified maximum number of clock ticks for the printer to be available. Specifies the maximum number of clock ticks it takes to print a character. Allocates the scheduler the specified number of clock ticks for background printing. Specifies the maximum number of files allowed in the print queue. Removes all files from the print queue. Cancels printing of the preceding filename and subsequent filenames. Adds the preceding filename and subsequent filenames to the print queue.

Type PRINT without parameters to display the contents of the print queue.

PROMPT
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Changes the DOS command prompt. PROMPT [text] text Specifies a new command prompt.

Prompt can be made up of normal characters and the following special codes: $Q $$ $T $D $P $V $N $G $L $B $H $E $_ = (equal sign) $ (dollar sign) Current time Current date Current drive and path DOS version number Current drive > (greater-than sign) < (less-than sign) | (pipe) Backspace (erases previous character) Escape code (ASCII code 27) Carriage return and linefeed

List of MS-DOS commands

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Type PROMPT without parameters to reset the prompt to the default setting.

QBASIC
External - MS-DOS 5.0 and above Further information: QBASIC Starts the MS-DOS QBasic programming environment. QBASIC [/B] [/EDITOR] [/G] [/H] [/MBF] [/NOHI] [[/RUN] [drive:][path]filename] /B /EDITOR /G /H /MBF Allows use of a monochrome monitor with a color graphics card. Starts the MS-DOS editor. Provides the fastest update of a CGA screen. Displays the maximum number of lines possible for your hardware. Converts the built-in functions MKS$, MKD$, CVS, and CVD to MKSMBF$, MKDMBF$, CVSMBF, and CVDMBF, respectively. /NOHI Allows the use of a monitor without high-intensity support. /RUN Runs the specified Basic program before displaying it. [[drive:][path]filename] Specifies the program file to load or run. QBASIC replaces GW-BASIC from earlier versions of DOS.

QCONFIG
External - PCDOS6.1 and above Displays detailed technical information about your computer. QCONFIG [/?][/A][/C][/D][/E][/I][/O[file]][/P][/Q] [key="text"] /? /A /C /D /E /I /O /Ofile /P /Q key="text" Displays this help information. Displays all Micro Channel adapters supported by QCONFIG. Displays additional detail on async ports. Displays a detailed listing of hardware. Displays current environment. Displays CONFIG.SYS & AUTOEXEC.BAT. Redirects output to file QCONFIG.OUT. Redirects output to file (anyname). Pauses the output between screens. Does not display redirect message. Defines key with text to appear in output (must be last option).

QCONFIG is only included with PCDOS versions and replaces the Microsoft MSD utility.

List of MS-DOS commands

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RECOVER
External - DOS 2.0 to DOS 5.0 Recovers readable information from a bad or defective disk. RECOVER [drive:][path]filename RECOVER drive:

REM
Internal - DOS 1.0 and above Records comments (remarks) in a batch file or CONFIG.SYS. REM [comment]

RENAME or REN
Internal - DOS 1.0 and above Renames a file or files. RENAME [drive:][path]filename1 filename2 REN [drive:][path]filename1 filename2 Note that you cannot specify a new drive or path for your destination file. Use MOVE to move files from one directory to another, or to rename a directory. RENAME (but not its alias REN) originated as an internal command in 86-DOS.

REPLACE
External - DOS 3.2 and above Replaces files. REPLACE [drive1:][path1]filename [drive2:][path2] [/A] [/P] [/R] [/W] REPLACE [drive1:][path1]filename [drive2:][path2] [/P] [/R] [/S] [/W] [/U] [drive1:][path1]filename Specifies the source file or files. [drive2:][path2] Specifies the directory where files are to be replaced. /A Adds new files to destination directory. Cannot use with /S or /U switches. /P Prompts for confirmation before replacing a file or adding a source file. /R Replaces read-only files as well as unprotected files. /S Replaces files in all subdirectories of the destination directory. Cannot use with the /A switch. /W Waits for you to insert a disk before beginning. /U Replaces (updates) only files that are older than source files. Cannot use with the /A switch.

List of MS-DOS commands

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RESTORE
External - DOS 2.0 and above Restores files that were backed up by using the BACKUP command. RESTORE drive1: drive2:[path[filename]] [/S] [/P] [/B:date] [/A:date] [/E:time] [/L:time] [/M] [/N] [/D] drive1: Specifies the drive on which the backup files are stored. drive2:[path[filename]] Specifies the file(s) to restore. /S Restores files in all subdirectories in the path. /P Prompts before restoring read-only files or files changed since the last backup (if appropriate attributes are set). /B Restores only files last changed on or before the specified date. /A Restores only files changed on or after the specified date. /E Restores only files last changed at or earlier than the specified time. /L Restores only files changed at or later than the specified time. /M Restores only files changed since the last backup. /N Restores only files that no longer exist on the destination disk. /D Displays files on the backup disk that match specifications.

REXX
External - PCDOS7 Further information: REXX Execute a REXX program. REXX filename [parameters] filename parameters Specifies the name of the REXX program to execute. Specifies any parameters for the REXX program.

REXXDUMP
External - PCDOS7 Dump the variables of an active REXX procedure. REXXDUMP

RMDIR or RD
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Removes (deletes) a directory. RMDIR [drive:]path RD [drive:]path

List of MS-DOS commands

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SCANDISK
External - MS-DOS 6.2 and above Runs the ScanDisk disk-repair program. To check and repair a drive, use the following syntax: SCANDISK [drive: | /ALL] [/CHECKONLY | /AUTOFIX [/NOSAVE]] [/SURFACE] To check and repair an unmounted DriveSpace compressed volume file, use: SCANDISK drive:\DRVSPACE.nnn [/CHECKONLY | /AUTOFIX[/NOSAVE]] To examine a file for fragmentation, use the following syntax: SCANDISK /FRAGMENT [drive:][path]filename To undo repairs you made previously, use the following syntax: SCANDISK /UNDO [drive:] For [drive:], specify the drive containing your Undo disk. /ALL /AUTOFIX /CHECKONLY /CUSTOM /NOSAVE /NOSUMMARY /SURFACE /MONO Checks and repairs all local drives. Fixes damage without prompting. Checks a drive, but does not repair any damage. Configures and runs ScanDisk according to SCANDISK.INI settings. With /AUTOFIX, deletes lost clusters rather than saving as files. With /CHECKONLY or /AUTOFIX, prevents ScanDisk from stopping at summary screens. Performs a surface scan after other checks. Configures ScanDisk for use with a monochrome display.

To check and repair the current drive, type SCANDISK without parameters. Scandisk is only included with MS-DOS versions.

SET
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Displays, sets, or removes DOS environment variables. SET [variable=[string]] variable string Specifies the environment-variable name. Specifies a series of characters to assign to the variable.

Type SET without parameters to display the current environment variables.

SETVER
External - DOS 5.0 and above Sets the version number that DOS reports to a program. Display current version table: Add entry: Delete entry: [drive:path] SETVER [drive:path] SETVER [drive:path] filename n.nn SETVER [drive:path] filename /DELETE [/QUIET]

Specifies location of the SETVER.EXE file.

List of MS-DOS commands filename n.nn /DELETE or /D /QUIET Specifies the filename of the program. Specifies the DOS version to be reported to the program. Deletes the version-table entry for the specified program. Hides the message typically displayed during deletion of version-table entry.

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SETVER.EXE must be loaded as a device driver in CONFIG.SYS in order to use this command. While the internal version setting functionality was present in DOS 4, the SETVER command did not appear until DOS 5.

SHARE
External - DOS 3.0 and above Installs file-sharing and locking capabilities on your hard disk. SHARE [/F:space] [/L:locks] [/NOHMA] /F:space /L:locks /NOHMA Allocates file space (in bytes) for file-sharing information. Sets the number of files that can be locked at one time. Don't load code into the HMA.

/NOHMA is only available in PCDOS7.

SHIFT
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch file. SHIFT

SMARTDRV
External - DOS 6.0 and above Installs and configures the SMARTDrive disk-caching utility. SMARTDRV [/X] [[drive[+|-]]...] [/U] [/C | /R] [/L] [/V | /Q | /S] [InitCacheSize [WinCacheSize]] [/E:ElementSize] [/B:BufferSize] /X drive + /U /C /R /L /V /Q /S InitCacheSize WinCacheSize Disables write-behind caching for all drives. Sets caching options on specific drive(s). The specified drive(s) will have write-caching disabled unless you add +. Enables write-behind caching for the specified drive. Disables all caching for the specified drive. Do not load CD-ROM caching module. Writes all information currently in write-cache to hard disk. Clears the cache and restarts SMARTDrive. Prevents SMARTDrive from loading itself into upper memory. Displays SMARTDrive status messages when loading. Does not display status information. Displays additional information about SMARTDrive's status. Specifies XMS memory (KB) for the cache. Specifies XMS memory (KB) for the cache with Windows.

List of MS-DOS commands /E:ElementSize /B:BufferSize Specifies how many bytes of information to move at one time. Specifies the size of the read-ahead buffer.

29

SORT
External - DOS 2.0 and above Sorts input and writes results to the screen, a file, or another device. SORT [/R] [/+n] < [drive1:][path1]filename1 [> [drive2:][path2]filename2] [command |] SORT [/R] [/+n] [> [drive2:][path2]filename2] /R /+n [drive1:][path1]filename1 [drive2:][path2]filename2 command Reverses the sort order; that is, sorts Z to A, then 9 to 0. Sorts the file according to characters in column n. Specifies a file to be sorted. Specifies a file where the sorted input is to be stored. Specifies a command whose output is to be sorted.

SUBST
External - DOS 3.1 and above Associates a path with a drive letter. SUBST [drive1: [drive2:]path] SUBST drive1: /D drive1: [drive2:]path /D Specifies Specifies a virtual Deletes a a virtual drive to which you want to assign a path. a physical drive and path you want to assign to drive. substituted (virtual) drive.

Type SUBST with no parameters to display a list of current virtual drives.

SYS
External - DOS 1.0 and above Copies DOS system files and command interpreter to a disk you specify. SYS [drive1:][path] drive2: [drive1:][path] Specifies the location of the system files. drive2: Specifies the drive the files are to be copied to. SYS originated as an external command in 86-DOS.

List of MS-DOS commands

30

TIME
External - DOS 1.0 Internal - DOS 1.1 and above Displays or sets the system time. TIME [time] Type TIME with no parameters to display the current time setting and a prompt for a new one. Press ENTER to keep the same time.

TREE
External - DOS 2.0 and above Graphically displays the directory structure of a drive or path. TREE [drive:][path] [/F] [/A] /F /A Displays the names of the files in each directory. Uses ASCII instead of extended characters.

TRUENAME
Internal - DOS 4.0 and above Returns a fully qualified filename. TRUENAME [drive:][path]filename This command was undocumented in DOS 3.x.

TYPE
Internal - DOS 1.0 and above Displays the contents of a text file. TYPE [drive:][path]filename TYPE originated as an internal command in 86-DOS.

UNDELETE
External - DOS 5.0 and above Restores files previously deleted with the DEL command. UNDELETE [[drive:][path]filename] [/DT | /DS | /DOS] UNDELETE [/LIST | /ALL | /PURGE[DRIVE] | /STATUS | /LOAD | /UNLOAD /S[DRIVE] | /T[DRIVE]-entrys ]] /LIST /ALL /DOS /DT /DS /LOAD Lists the deleted files available to be recovered. Recovers files without prompting for confirmation. Recovers files listed as deleted by MS-DOS. Recovers files protected by Delete Tracker. Recovers files protected by Delete Sentry. Loads Undelete into memory for delete protection.

List of MS-DOS commands /UNLOAD /PURGE[drive] /STATUS /S[drive] /T[drive][-entrys] Unloads Undelete from memory. Purges all files in the Delete Sentry directory. Display the protection method in effect for each drive. Enables Delete Sentry method of protection. Enables Delete Tracking method of protection.

31

UNDELETE is licensed from Central Point Software PC Tools

UNFORMAT
External - DOS 5.0 and above Restores a disk erased by the FORMAT command. UNFORMAT drive: [/J] UNFORMAT drive: [/U] [/L] [/TEST] [/P] UNFORMAT /PARTN [/L] drive: /J /U /L /TEST /P /PARTN Specifies the drive to unformat. Verifies that the mirror files agree with the system information on the disk. Unformats without using MIRROR files. Lists all file and directory names found, or, when used with the /PARTN switch, displays current partition tables. Displays information but does not write changes to disk. Sends output messages to printer connected to LPT1. Restores disk partition tables.

UNFORMAT is licensed from Central Point Software PC Tools

VER
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Displays the DOS version. VER The undocumented /R switch displays the revision level and where DOS is loaded (low, HMA or ROM) in DOS 5 and above. Version returned: MS-DOS up to 6.22, typically derive the DOS version from the DOS kernel. This may be different from the string it prints when it starts. PCDOS typically derive the version from an internal string in COMMAND.COM (so PCDOS 6.1 COMMAND.COM reports the version as 6.10, although the kernel version is 6.00.) DR-DOS reports whatever value the reserved environment variable VER holds.

List of MS-DOS commands

32

VERIFY
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Tells DOS whether to verify that your files are written correctly to a disk. VERIFY [ON | OFF] Type VERIFY without a parameter to display the current VERIFY setting.

VOL
Internal - DOS 2.0 and above Displays the disk volume label and serial number, if they exist. VOL [drive:]

XCOPY
External - DOS 3.2 and above Copy entire directory trees. XCOPY [/Y|/-Y] source destination /A /M /D:date /P /S /E /V /W /Y /-Y source [destination] [/A|/M] [/D:date] [/P] [/S] [/E] [/V] [/W] Specifies the file(s) to copy. Specifies the location and/or name of new files. Copies files with the archive attribute set, doesn't change the attribute. Copies files with the archive attribute set, turns off the archive attribute. Copies files changed on or after the specified date. Prompts you before creating each destination file. Copies directories and subdirectories except empty ones. Copies any subdirectories, even if empty. Verifies each new file. Prompts you to press a key before copying. Suppresses prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an existing destination file. Causes prompting to confirm you want to overwrite an existing destination file.

The switch /Y may be preset in the COPYCMD environment variable. This may be overridden with /-Y on the command line /Y and /-Y are only available in DOS 6 and above. Renaming the XCOPY program file to MCOPY under MS-DOS 3.2, the command will no longer ask for confirmation if the target was meant as file or directory. Instead, it will then automatically assume the target to be an directory, if the source was given as a directory or as multiple files or was ending on "\".

List of MS-DOS commands

33

External links
Command Reference [1] : Microsoft TechNet Database "Command Reference" The MS-DOS 6 Technical Reference on TechNet [2] contains the official Microsoft MS-DOS 6 command reference documention. DR-DOS 7.03 online manual [3] MDGx MS-DOS Undocumented + Hidden Secrets [4] There are several guides to DOS commands available that are licenced under the GNU Free Documentation License: The FreeDOS Spec [5] at SourceForge is a plaintext specification, written in 1999, for how DOS commands should work in FreeDOS MS-DOS commands [6] A Collection of Undocumented and Obscure Features in Various MS-DOS Versions [7]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / technet. microsoft. com/ en-us/ library/ cc754340. aspx http:/ / technet. microsoft. com/ en-us/ library/ cc749839. aspx http:/ / www. drdos. com/ dosdoc/ http:/ / www. mdgx. com/ secrets. htm

[5] http:/ / fd-doc. sourceforge. net/ wiki/ index. php [6] http:/ / www. computerhope. com/ msdos. htm [7] http:/ / www. textfiles. com/ hacking/ MICROSOFT/ dosundoc. txt

Article Sources and Contributors

34

Article Sources and Contributors


List of MS-DOS commands Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=517049766 Contributors: A412, Aacini, Aamrun, Abdull, Alansohn, Alksentrs, Amniarix, Ananyasen1998, Anna Lincoln, Anonymous Dissident, Anoop, Antonrojo, Apokrif, Arny, Arsenalboi19, Arsenalboi22, Arun shan s, Arunsingh16, Asmpgmr, BRIANNALUNDIN, Ben Ben, Bevo, Bigdumbdinosaur, Bmusician, Bobo192, Bogolov, Borgx, Brian G. Wilson, Calabe1992, Capricorn42, Carmichael, Charles dye, Chris the speller, Chzz, Cibi3d, Ckraju, ComradeAxe, Crackwood, Crystallina, Cxz111, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Dalva24, DanielRigal, Danielleevandenbosch, Danielpop10, Darkfalz, Darrien, David Haslam, Dcljr, DeadEyeArrow, Dirk Gently, Dojarca, Doktor Who, Donarreiskoffer, Draynivra, Drunkenmonkey, Edmapa, Edurant, EdwinHJ, Egumtow, Ehheh, Emre D., Epeefleche, Eric Kvaalen, Fabartus, Falcon Kirtaran, Family Guy Guy, Fatal!ty, Feuer, Fieldday-sunday, FinalRapture, Flamy, Flewis, Foobar, Frecklefoot, Fresheneesz, Furrykef, GSMR, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gary King, Gerbrant, Ghettoblaster, Giftlite, Gilliam, Govermantman aka G man, Gowr, Grey Shadow, Griffdb, Guanaco, Gurch, Guy Harris, Gwern, H2.818, Helpsloose, Henry W. Schmitt, Humphrt, Hyad, Icseaturtles, Insanity Incarnate, Intgr, IsaacGS, Isarra (HG), J.delanoy, JHunterJ, JIP, JNW, JRSpriggs, JamesBWatson, Jarin42, JenKilmer, JeremyMcCracken, Jerryobject, Jesenglish, Jesse Viviano, Jim1138, John Nevard, John78547, Josh the Nerd, Jusdafax, Katherine, Kirtag Hratiba, Kubigula, Kwertii, Lacrymocphale, Larklight, Lifemaestro, Llywrch, Loadmaster, Luiscolorado, MC10, MDGx, MER-C, Magioladitis, Magnoaldus, Mani260580, MarkSpearmint, Markvs88, Marshall Williams2, MattGiuca, Matthiaspaul, Mcrookucsd, Merek, Michael Devore, MichaelBillington, Michaeldadmum, Mimarx, Miss Madeline, MrBurns, Mrt3366, Nautilator, NellieBly, NewEnglandYankee, Niceguyedc, Norm mit, NoychoH, Nsnagesh, OlEnglish, Olivier Mengu, Oneyork, Orange Suede Sofa, Otisjimmy1, Parent5446, PeteX, Pgimeno, Philip Trueman, Pie4all88, Pinikas, Pnm, Poccil, Pol098, Pumeleon, Punkermunker, Python eggs, QSquared, RCX, RainbowOfLight, Rajordan, Regancy42, Rfc1394, Rich Farmbrough, Richardcavell, Rick Sidwell, Rjwilmsi, Ronhjones, Royote, Rwwww, Sander123, Santryl, Scepia, Scohoust, Seaphoto, Sethsummers, Shirleydj, Skizzik, SkyWalker, Sonofsam06, South Bay, Spoon!, StuGeiger, Surv1v4l1st, Tabletop, Tawker, Tech77, The Rambling Man, The Thing That Should Not Be, The man stephen, Tide rolls, Tiles, Todd Peng, TonyW, Trevj, Uncle G, Vina, Vincom2, Visor, Vlad, Vrenator, Vundicind, Waqas1987, Warren, Waterjuice, Wbm1058, Wendy.krieger, Wermlandsdata, Wernher, WhisperToMe, Winterst, Wmrwiki, Wpktsfs, Wtshymanski, Wwmbes, X570, Xorx77, Yath, Ysangkok, Zombie13, Zzuuzz, 595 anonymous edits

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