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Chng III NH X TUY N TNH

Ta bi t cc t p h p lin h v i nhau b i cc nh x . Gi s A v B l hai t p h p khng r ng, m t nh x t A n B l m t quy t c no cho ng v i ph n t a A m t ph n t duy nh t f(a) B; f(a) c g i l nh c a a. nh x t t p A n t p B c k hi u l f: A B. nh x f c xc nh n u bi t nh c a m i aA. Cc nh x c phn lo i thnh n nh, ton nh, song nh. N u X A th t p h p f(x) = {bB | b = f(x) v i m t x no thu c X} c g i l nh c a X. N u Y B th t p h p f-1(y) = {aA | f(a)Y} c g i l nh ng c (hay t o nh) c a Y; v.v... By gi , i v i cc khng gian vect, chng t o thnh khng ch b i nh ng ph n t , m cn c nh ng php ton. V th m i lin h gi a chng cng ph i c th hi n b i nh ng nh x c lin quan n cc php ton y. l nh x tuy n tnh. Chng ny dnh cho vi c nghin c u nh x tuy n tnh, g m: - Khi ni m nh x tuy n tnh hay cc ng c u khng gian vect, cc d ng nh x tuy n tnh nh : n c u, ton c u, ng c u. - S xc nh m t nh x tuy n tnh ( ta s th y r ng mu n xc nh m t nh x tuy n tnh ch c n bi t nh c a cc vect trong m t c s ). - Khi ni m nh v h t nhn, m i lin quan gi a nh, h t nhn v i

n c u, ton c u v ng c u, m i lin h v chi u c a khng gian ngu n v i s chi u c a nh v c a h t nhn. Trn t p cc nh x tuy n tnh t khng gian V n khng gian W cng c th xc nh php c ng hai nh x v php nhn m t nh x v i m t s lm cho t p cc nh x ny tr thnh m t khng gian vect. cng l nh ng i u m b n c c n n m v ng c th hi u c cc khi ni m gi tr ring v vect ring c a m t t ng c u, s c nghin c u ti p chng V. nh x tuy n tnh cn c nghin c u ti p nh ng chng sau. N cn c m r ng thnh cc khi ni m nh x n a tuy n tnh, a tuy n tnh, a tuy n tnh thay phin. Song gio trnh ny cha th trnh by m i ng nh x nh th . M t d ng c bi t c a nh x a tuy n tnh s c trnh by chng VI. l d ng song tuy n tnh. hi u c nh ng i u trnh by trong chng ny, b n n m v ng nh ng t th c h c v khng gian vect. cc n

1.

NH NGHA NH X TUY N TNH - S M T NH X TUY N TNH nh ngha

XC

NH

1.1. Cc

nh ngha 1. Gi s V v W l hai K-khng gian vect. nh x f: V W c g i l m t nh x tuy n tnh hay m t ng c u n u:

v i m i , , thu c V v m i r K. f( ) g i l nh c a . N u W = V th nh x tuy n tnh f c g i l m t t ng c u. V d 1. Gi s V l m t K-khng gian vect. nh x 1v = V V xc nh b i 1v( ) = , v i m i V

l m t nh x tuy n tnh. N c g i l

ng c u

ng nh t trn V.

V d 2. Gi s U l m t khng gian con c a K-khng gian vect V, nh x j : U V xc nh b i j( ) = , v i m i U l m t nh x tuy n tnh. N c g i l php nhng chnh t c. V d 3. Gi s V v W l hai K-khng gian vect. nh x f. V W xc nh b i F( ) = 0 w v i m i V l m t nh x tuy n tnh. N c g i l ng c u khng. t ki m tra r ng B n c c th dng nh ngha nh x tuy n tnh ba nh x ni trn l nh ng nh x tuy n tnh. V d 4. nh x f: R3 R2 xc nh b i

f((a1, a2, a3)) = (a1, a2), v i m i = (a1, a2, a3) R3 l m t nh x tuy n tnh. Th t v y, ch c n ki m tra cc i u ki n trong nh ngha; v i (a1, a2, a3), = (b1, b2, b3) thu c R3 v m i r R, ta c:

V d 5. Gi s Pn v Pn-1 l n l t l cc R-khng gian vect g m a th c 0 v cc a th c thu c R[x] v i b c l n l t khng qu n v khng qu n - 1, d: Pn pn-1 l php l y o hm: d(f(x)) = f '(x). Th th d l m t nh x tuy n tnh. Th t v y, v i hai a th c = f(x), = g(x) v m i r R, ta c:

V d 6. Gi s a = { 1, 2,..., n} l m t h vect trong khng gian R . nh x (cng k hi u b i a)


m

a : Rn Rm xc

nh nh sau:

V i m i = (c1, c2,..., cn) Rn, a( ) c1 1 + c2 2 +...+ cn n Rm, l m t nh x tuy n tnh. Th t v y, v i = (c1, c2,..., cn), = (d1, d2,..., dn) Rn v v i m i r R, ta c:
+ = (c1 + d1, c2 + d2,.., cn + dn) r = (rc1, rc2,..., rcn).

Theo

nh ngha c a nh x a, ta c:

V y a l m t nh x tuy n tnh. H qu . 1) nh x f: V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh khi v ch khi: f(r + s ) = rf( ) + sf( ), v i m i , thu c V v m i r, s thu c K. 2) N u f: V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh th f( 0 v) = 0 w, v 0 w l n l t l vect khng trong V v W. Ch ng minh. 1) Xin dnh cho b n c. 2) V 0 = 0 v, v f l m t nh x tuy n tnh nn f( 0 v) = f( 0 ) = 0f( ) = 0 w. nh x gi a cc t p h p c phn ra thnh n nh, ton nh, song nh. Tng ng v i chng, cc nh x tuy n tnh cng c phn thnh n c u, ton c u v ng c u. nh ngha 2. M t nh x tuy n tnh c g i l: a) n c u nn n l m t n nh; b) ton c u nn n l m t ton nh; c) ng c u nn n ng th i l n c u v ton c u. y 0 v

Khi c m t ng c u f t khng gian vect V en khng gian vect W th ta vi t: f: V W v ni r ng V v W V d 7. nh x ng c u v i nhau. ng nh t l m t ng c u.

V d 8. Php nhng chnh t c l m t n c u. V d 9. nh x tuy n tnh f: R3 R2 trong v d 4, m c 1.1, l m t ton c u. Th t v y v i m i = (a1, a2) R2 u t n t i vect (a1, a2, 0) R3 m f( ) = f((a1, a2, 0) = (a1, a2) = . i u ny ch ng t nh x tuy n tnh f l m t ton nh. V y f l m t ton c u. M nh . nh x tuy n tnh f : V W l m t ng c u khi v ch khi t n t i m t nh x tuy n tnh f -1: W V sao cho f -1f = 1v, ff-1= 1w. Ch ng minh. Gi s h m t ng c u. Khi b m t song nh. Do t n t i nh x ng c f -1 sao cho f-1f - 1v, ff-1 = 1w. Ta ch cn ph i ch ng minh f-1 l m t nh x tuy n tnh; ngha l ph i ch ng minh r ng: f-1(r + s ) = rf-1( ) + sf-1( ), v i m i , thu c W v m i r, sK. V ff-1 = 1w nn:

Theo gi thi t, f l m t nh x tuy n tnh. Do :

(2) T (1) v (2) suy ra:

V y f-1 l m t nh x tuy n tnh. N u f-1f = 1v, ff-1 = 1w th (nh bi t trong ph n t p h p) f l m t song nh. Theo nh ngha 1, m c 1.1, h m t ng c u.

Ta th y t K-khng gian vect V b t k n m t K-khng gian W tu lun lun c ng c u khng. Ngoi ng c u khng cn c ng c u no khc v c cch no xc nh chng? 1.2. S xc nh m t nh x tuy n tnh

nh l. Gi s V, W l hai K-khng gian uect, () ={ 1,..., 2,..., n} l m t c s c a V v 1, 2,.., n l n vect tu c a W. Khi t n t i duy nh t m t nh x tuy n tnh f: V W sao cho f( i) = i, v i m i i {1, 2,..., n}. Ch ng minh. Tr c h t ta xc nh nh x f: V W nh sau: v i m i = r1 1 + r2 2 +... + in n V, ta t f( ) = r1 1 + r2 2 +... + rn n W. th c s l m t nh x v () l c s c a v nn v i , n s ri c xc nh duy nh t; do f( ) c xc nh duy nh t. Ta ph i ki m tra r ng f l m t nh x tuy n tnh. V i = r1 1 + r2 2 +...+ in n) = s1 1 + s2 2 +... + sn n V v m i k K, ta c:

Theo

nh ngha c a f th:

Hn n a, v i i ta c th vi t:

Gi s c nh x tuy n tnh f: V W tho mn i u ki n f( i) = i, v i m i i {1, 2,..., n}. V f' l m t nh x tuy n tnh nn v i m i = r1 1 + r2 2 +... + in n V, ta c:

V y f' = f, t c l f xc ngha c a 1) Mu n xc vect c s . nh l:

nh nh trn l duy nh t. nh nh c a cc

nh m t nh x tuy n tnh ch c n xc

2) M i h n vect c a W xc nh m t nh x tuy n tnh t V n W Nh v y, c th c v s nh x tuy n tnh t V n W n u W 0 . V d . C s () c a R3 g m 1 = (1, 0, 0), 2 = (0, 1, 0), 3 = (0, 0, 1) v ba vect 1 = (0, 2), 2 = (1, -1), 3 = (3, 0) thu c R2 xc nh duy nh t nh x tuy n tnh f: R3 R2 sao cho f( i) = 1, i = 1, 2, 3. Khi , v i m i = (a1, a2, a3) R3,

Khi xt cc nh x gi a hai t p h p ta nh ngha khi ni m nh v nh ng c. Ch ng h n, f: X Y l m t nh x , A X, B Y, T p h p f(A) = {f(a) Y | a A} c g i l nh c a A, T p h p f -1(B) = {x E x | f(x) B} c g i l nh ng c c a B. Ni chung, chng khng c c i m g. Song, cc khng gian vect l nh ng t p h p c php ton v nh x tuy n tnh b rng bu c b i cc php ton y nn ch c h n nh v nh ng c cng c nh ng c i m ring. 2. NH V H T NHN C A NH X TUY N TNH 2.1. nh ngha v tnh ch t

nh ngha. Gi s V, W l hai K-khng gian vect, f: V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh, A V, B W. T p h p f(A) = { W | = f( ), v i m i thu c A} c g i l

nh c a A. T p h p f-1( ) = { V | f( ) B} c g i l nh ng c (hay t o nh+ c a B. Ni ring, f(V) c g i l nh c a V hay nh c a f v k hi u l Imf f ( 0 w) c g i l h t nhn c a f v k hi u l Kerf.


1

V d 1. Cho nh x f: R4 R3 xc D th y f l m t nh x tuy n tnh.

nh b i:

suy ra:

V d 2. nh x g: R4 R3 xc g l m t nh x tuy n tnh.

nh b i:

f(a1, a2, a3, a4) (a1, a2, a3). Img = { (a1, a2, a3) | ai R, i = 1, 2, 3} = R3,

suy ra

V d 3. Cho nh x h: R2 ~ R3 xc

nh b i

f(a1, a2) = (a1, a2, a1- a2). B n hy t ki m tra r ng h l m t nh x tuy n tnh.

suy ra:

V d 4. Xt nh x a: Rn Rm trong v d 6, m c 1.1.

i u ny c ngha l Im~l l khng gian sinh b i h vect

nh l. Gi s V, W l hai K-khng gian vect, f. V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh, A l m t khng gian con c a V, B l m t khng gian con c a W. Khi : 1) f(A) 1 m t khng gian con c a W. Hn n a n u h vect { 1,..,
m} l m t h sinh c a A th h vect {f( 1),..., f( m)} l m t h sinh c a f(A);

2) f -1(B) l m t khng gian con c a V. Ch ng minh. 1) V 0 v A nn 0 w = f( 0 v) f(A); t c l f(A) . Gi s 1, 2 thu c f(A) v r, s thu c K. Theo nh ngha c a f(A) t n t i 1, 2 thu c A sao cho 1 = f( 1), 2 = f( 2). V f l m t nh x tuy n tnh nn

V A l m t khng gian con c a V nn r 1 + s 2 A. Do r 1+ s 2 = f(r 1 + s 2) f(A). Theo nh l 2.2, Ch.II, f(A) l m t khng gian con c a W. By gi gi s { 1,..., m} l m t h sinh c a A. Khi f( i) f(A) v i m i i {1,..., m}. V i m i f(A), t n t i m t A sao cho = f( ). Nhng l m t t h p tuy n tnh c a h vect { 1,..., m} ch ng h n,

Do

V y f(A) sinh b i h vect {(f 1),..., f( m)} 2) V f( 0 v) = 0 w B nn 0 v f -1(B); ngha l f -1(B) . Gi s -1 1, 2 thu c f (B) v r, s thu c K. Theo nh ngha c a nh ng c, f( 1), f( 2) thu c B. V B l m t khng gian con c a W, f l m t nh x tuy n tnh nn

Do L i theo T nh l 2.2, Ch.II, f-1(B) l m t khng gian con c a V.

ta c h qu 1 sau y.

H qu 1. Gi s f: V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh. Khi : 1) Imf l m t khng gian con c a W. 2) Kerf l m t khng gian con c a V. H qu 2. Gi s f: V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh. 1) f l m t ton c u khi v ch khi Imf = W. 2) f l m t n c u khi v ch khi Kerf = 0 v. Ch ng minh. 1) Hi n nhin. 2) Gi s f l m t n c u v Kerf. Khi f( ) = 0 w = f( 0 v). V f l n c u nn = 0 v. Suy ra Kerf = {v}. Gi s Kerf = { 0 v}. ch ng minh f l m t n c u ta ph i ch ng minh r ng n u f( 1) = f( 2) th 1 = 2. Nhng khi f( 1) = f( 2) ta c

i u ny c ngha l 1 - 2 Kerf. Suy ra 1 - 2 = 0 v v Kerf = { 0 v}. Do 1 = 2. V y f l m t n c u. V d 5. nh x tuy n tnh g: R4 R3 trong v d 2, l m t ton c u v Img = R3. V d 6. nh x tuy n tnh h: R2 R3 trong v d 3, l m t n c u v Kerh = { 0 }. Khi f: V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh th Kerf l m t khng gian con c a V cn Imf l m t khng gian con c a W. Tuy nhin s chi u c a chng c m i lin quan ch t ch v i s chi u c a khng gian ngu n V. 2.2. Lin h gi a s chi u c a nh, h t nhn v khng gian ngu n nh l. Gi s f. V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh. Khi , dimV = dimImf + dimKerf. Ch ng thinh. Gi s Imf c c s () = { 1, 2,..., m}. V i m i i ta ch n m t j c nh thu c V sao cho f( j) = j. Khi { 1,..., 2,..., m} l m t h vect c l p tuy n tnh c a V.

V h vect ()

c l p tuy n tnh nn r1 = r2... = rm = 0.

G i U l khng gian con c a V sinh b i h vect { 1,..., 2,..., m} ta s ch ng minh r ng V = Kerf + U. V i V, ta c f( ) Imf. V () l c s c a Imf nn

Do

i u ny c ngha l -

s
j j1

Kerf.

Hn n a U Kerf = 0 . Th t v y, n u U Kerf th, ch ng h n,

V () l m t c s c a Imf nn x1 = x2 =... = xm = 0; suy ra = 0 . Do U Kerf = 0 . Theo nh l 2, m c 5.2, Ch.II. dimV = dimU + dimKerf - dim(U Kerf). Nhng dim(U Kerf) = 0 v dimU = m = dimImf. V y dimV = dimImf + dimKerf. V d . Cho nh x tuy n tnh f: R4 R2 xc f(a1, a2, a3, a4) = (a1 - a2, a3). Tm s chi u c a Imf v c a Kerf. Gi i G i () l c s chnh t c c a R4. Theo nh l , m c 2.1, Imf sinh b i h vect f() = {f( 1), f( 2), f( 3), f( 4)}. Do ch c n tm h ng c a h vect (f(). Theo nh ngha c a nh x f, ta c: nh b i:

H ng(f()) b ng h ng c a ma tr n

D th y h ng c a ma tr n ny b ng 2. Do dimImf = 2. Theo l trn, ta c: dimKerf = dimR4 - dimImf = 4 - 2 = 2.

nh

Nh nh l trn, ta c c m i lin h gi a hai khng gian vect ng c u. 2.3. S ng c u gi a hai khng gian cng s chi u ng c u khi v ch khi chng c

nh l. Hai K-khng gian vect cng m t s chi u.

Ch ng minh. Gi s f. V W l m t ng c u. Khi f ng th i l m t n c u v m t ton c u. Do Kerf = 0 v Imf = W. Theo nh l 2.2, dimV = dimW + dimKerf. V dimKerf = 0 nn dimV = dimW. Gi s dimV = dimW - n , () = { 1,..., 2,..., n} l m t c s c a v, cn () = { 1, 2,..., n} l m t c s c a w. Theo nh l m c 1.2, c nh x tuy n tnh f: V W s ao cho f( i) = i, v i m i i {1, 2 ,..., n}. Theo nh l 2.2, Imf cng sinh b i h c s (). Do Imf = W; ngha l f l m t ton c u. Theo nh l 2.2, dimKerf = dimV - dimImf = dimV - dimW = 0. Theo h qu 2, m c 2.1, f l m t n c u. V y f: V W. H qu . Gi s V v W l hai K-khng gian vect. nh x tuy n tnh f: V W l m t ng c u khi v ch khi n bi n m t c s c a V thnh m t c s c a W.

Ch ng minh. Xin dnh cho b n

c.

Theo nh l trn y, m i R-khng gian vect n chi u u ng c u v i khng gian Rn. V th , mu n nghin c u cc tnh ch t chung c a Rkhng gian vect, ch c n nghin c u trn khng gian Rn. i u ny cho th y t m quan tr ng c a khng gian Rn. 3. CC PHP TON TRN T P CC NH X TUY N TNH - HOMK(V, W) K hi u t p h p cc nh x tuy n tnh t K-khng gian vect V n K-khng gian vect W b i HomK(V, W). Ta s xc nh cc php ton trn HomK(V, W). 3.1. Php c ng hai nh x tuy n tnh M nh v nh ngha. V i hai nh x tuy n tnh b t k f, g HomK(V, W), nh x f + g: V W xc nh b i:

l m t nh x tuy n tnh. f + g c g i l t ng c a hai nh x tuy n tnh f v g. Ch ng minh. Th t v y, v i , V v v i r, s k, ta c:

V y f + g l m t nh x tuy n tnh. V d . Cho f, g HomK(R4, R2), xc nh b i:

Xc Theo

nh f + g. Tm Im(f + g) v Ker(f + g. Gi i nh ngha, v i = (a1, a2, a3, a4) tu thu c R4, ta c:

Nh v y v i m i (x1, x2) R2, n u ch n a1 =

1 x1 v a4 = x2, th 2

ngha l f + g l m t ton c u. V y Im(f + g) = R2.

Suy ra

3.2. Php nhn m t nh x tuy n tnh v i m t s M nh . V i nh x tuy n tnh b t k f HomK(V, W) v s k K, nh x kf: V W xc inh b i: l m t nh x tuy n tnh. kf c g i l tch c a nh x tuy n tnh f v s k. V i k = - 1, nh x (- 1)f c g i l nh x b i f. Ch ng minh. Xin dnh cho b n c. i c a f v c k hi u

V d . Cho P2 l khng gian vect g m a th c 0 v cc a th c c b c b hn hay b ng 2, thu c R[x], nh x f: P2 R3 xc nh b i:

Ch ng minh r ng f l m t nh x tuy n tnh v 3f l m t Gi i

ng c u.

Ta ch ng minh f l m t nh x tuy n tnh. Gi s ax2 + bx + c, a'x2 + b'x+ c' thu c P2 v r, s R. Khi

r(ax2 + bx + c) + s(a'x2 + b'x + c) = (ra + sa')x2 + (rb + sb')x + rc + sc'. Theo gi thi t f(r(ax2 + bx + c) + s(a'x2 + b'x + c')) = f((ra + sa')x2 + (rb + sb')x + rc + sc') = (ra + sa', -(rb + sb'), -(rc + sc')) = r(a, -b , -c) + s(a', -b', - c') = rf(ax2 + bx + c) + sf(a'x2 + b'x + c'). Theo h qu m c 1.1, f l m t nh x tuy n tnh. ng c u. By gi ta ch ng minh 3f l m t

Tr c h t, n u ax2 + bx + c Ker3f th (0, 0, 0) = 3f(ax2 + bx + c) = 3(a, -b, -c) = (3a, -3b, -3c). Suy ra 3a = - 3b = - 3c = 0 hay a = b = c = 0. Do Kerf= {0}. V y f l m t n c u. V i (r1, r2, r3) R3 , n u ch n a th c
r1 2 r2 r x - x - 3 P2 th 3 3 3

i u ny ch ng t 3f l m t ton c u. V y f: P2 R3.

3.3. Khng gian vect HomK(V, W) M nh . Php c ng hai nh x tuy n tnh v php nhn m t nh x tuy n tnh v i m t s tho mn cc tnh ch t sau: f+ g = g + f, (f+ g) + h = f+ (g + h); f+ 0 = f trong 0 l f+ (- t) = 0; k(f+ g) = kf+ kg; (k + 1)f = kf + lf, (k1)f= k(1f); ng c u khng;

1f= f, v i m i f, g, h thu c HomK(V, W), k, 1, 1 thu c tr ng K. Ni cch khc HomK(V, W) l m t K-khng gian vect. Ch ng minh. V i cc nh ngha c a hai php ton ni trn, b n c th d dng ki m tra cc tnh ch t ny. 3.4. Tch hai nh x tuy n tnh M nh 1. Gi s f: V W, g: W~ Um hai nh x tuy n tnh. Th th nh x gf : V U xc nh b i (gf)( ) = g(f( )), v i m i V, cng l m t nh x tuy n tnh. N c g i l tch c a hai nh x tuy n tnh f v g. Ch ng minh. V f v g l nh ng nh x tuy n tnh nn v i , V v v i r, s K, ta c: c

i u ny ch ng t gf l m t nh x tuy n tnh. V d . Cho f. R3 R4. g: R4 R2 xc nh b i:

Khi nh x tuy n tnh gf c xc

nh b i:

Ta th y r ng tch gf ch c xc nh khi t p ngu n c a g l t p ch c a f. Do n u V W th, ni chung, trong HomK(V, W) khng c khi ni m tch ni trn c a hai nh x tuy n tnh. M nh 2. Gi s f, g , h l nh ng nh x tuy n tnh. Khi :. h (gf) = (hg)f, h(f + g) = hf + hg, (f + g)h = fh + gh, n u cc php ton hai v c a ng th c u c ngha. Ch ng minh. ng th c th nh t l ng i v i ba nh x b t k. Ta ph i ch ng minh hai ng th c cn l i. lm v d , ch ng minh

ng th c h(f + g) = hf + hg. Gi s f, g: U V, h: V W, ta ph i ch ng t r ng h(f + g)( ) = (hf + hg)( ), v i m i U. Theo cch xc nh t ng hai nh x , ta c (f + g)( ) f( ) + g( ). Theo cch xc nh c a tch hai nh x ta c:

V h l m t nh x tuy n tnh nn: L i theo L i theo K tc c V y B n nh ngha c a tch hai nh x , ta c: nh ngha c a t ng hai nh x : h(f + g)( ) = (hf + hg)( ), v i m i U. h(f + g) = hf + hg. c t ch ng minh ng th c cn l i.

TM T T V, W, U l nh ng K-khng gian vect. f: V W, l m t nh x tuy n tnh n u f( + ) - f( ) + f( ), f(r ) = rf( ) hay f(r ) + s ) = rf( ) + sf( ) , v i m i , V, m i r, s K. N u () = { 1, n} l m t c s c a v th m i h vect { 1,..., n} c a W xc nh duy nh t m t nh x tuy n tnh f : V W sao cho f( i) = i, v i m i i {1,..., n}. f l m t n c u n u n l m t n nh, l m t ton c u n u n l m t ton nh v l m t ng c u n u n ng th i l n c u v ton c u. f: V W dimV = dimW. nh x tuy n tnh f t o nn m i lin h gi a t p cc khng gian con c a V v t p cc khng gian con c a W. A l m t khng gian con c a V th f(A) = { W | = f( ) v i m t A} l m t khng gian con c a W. B l m t khng gian con c a W th: f l i) = { V | f( ) B } l m t khng gian con c a V. Imf = f(V) c g i l nh c a V hay nh c a f, Kerf = f-1{ 0 w} c g i l h t nhn c a f. N u { 1, 2, ,..., m} l m t h sinh c a khng gian vect V th {( 1), f( 2), ,..., f( m)} l m t h sinh c a Imf. f : V W l m t ton c u khi Imf = W, h m t n c u Kerf = { 0 }. dimV = dimImf + dimKerf. HomK(V, W) l t p cc nh x tuy n tnh t V HomK(V, W), k K, n W. V i f, g

f + g xc kf xc

nh b i: (f + g) ( ) - f( ) + g( ),

nh b i: (kf)( ) = kf( ), v i m i V.

N u f : V W v g: f : W U th (gf)( ) - g(f( )), v i m i V.

BI T P 1. TNH NH NGHA - S XC NH M T NH X TUY N

1. Trong cc nh x sau y, nh x no 1 nh x tuy n tnh? a) f: R3 R3 xc b) g: R3 R3 xc d) k: R3 R2 xc f) P: R3 R2 xc g) q: R3 R4 xc h) t: R3 R3 xc 2. Trong cc nh x ng c u ? nh b i f(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, 0, 0), nh b i g(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, 0, a1-a2); nh b i k(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, a2 + a3); nh b i p(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, 3a2); nh b i q(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, a1-a2, 0, a2-a3); nh b i t(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, a1 + a2,a3) ? bi t p 1, nh x no 1 n c u, ton c u,

c) h: R3 R3 xc d nh b i h(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, a2-2 , 0); e) l: R3 R2 xc d nh b i l(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, a2a3);

3. Cho 1 = (1, 0, 0), 2 = (0, 1, 0), 3 = (0, 0, 1) 1 p thnh c s chnh t c c a R3 v ba vect 1 = (1, 2, 0), 2 = (1, 0, -1), 3 (0, - 2, 2). nh x tuy n tnh f : R3 R2 c xc nh b i f( i) = i = 1, 2, 3. Tm nh c a cc vect = (- 3, 0, 5), = (2, 2, - 7), = (0, 5, 0) , = (x1, x2, x3). 4. Cho cc vect 1 = (2, 3, 1), 2 = (0, 1, 2), 3 = (1, 0, 0), 1 = (1, 1, -1), 2 = (1, 1, 1), 3 = (2, 1 , 2). Ch ng minh r ng t n t i duy nh t m t nh x tuy n tnh f : R3 R3 sao cho f( i) = i. Tm f(1, 0, 0). 5. Cho nh x tuy n tnh f : R3 R3 tho mn i u ki n: f(1, 1, 0) = (1, -1 0) , f(1, 0, 1) = (2, 0, 1), f(0, - 1, 0) = (0, - 2, 0). Tm sao cho: f( ) - (3, 0, 0). 6. Cho nh x tuy n tnh f : V W v h vect a = { 1, 2,..., m} trong V. Ch ng minh r ng n u h vect {f( 1), ( 2),..., ( m)} c l p tuy n tnh th h a cng c l p tuy n tnh.

7. Cho V, W l hai K-khng gian vect, f : V W l m t n c u v h vect a = { 1, 2,..., m} c l p tuy n tnh trong V. Ch ng minh r ng h vect {f( 1), ( 2),..., ( m)} c l p tuy n tnh trong W. 8. Cho V, W l hai K-khng gian vect, f : V W l m t ton c u v h vect b = { 1, 2,..., m} c l p tuy n tnh trong W. V i m i i ta ch n m t ; c nh sao cho f( i) = i - 1, 2,..., m. Ch ng minh r ng: c l p tuy n tnh trong V. ng c u. a) H vect a = { 1, 2,..., m}

b) N u h vect a l m t c s c a V th f l m t

2. NH V H T NHN C A NH X TUY N TNH 9. Xt cc nh x tuy n tnh trong bi t p 1. a) Tm nh v h t nhn c a m i nh x . b) Nh nh v h t nhn suy ra nh x no l n c u, l ton c u. c) Tm s chi u c a nh, c a h t nhn c a m i nh x . 10. Cho P2 l R-khng gian vect g m a th c 0 v cc a th c f(x) R[x] v i b c f(x) 2. d: P2 P2 xc nh b i d(f(x)) = f '(x), y f'(x) l o hm c a f(x). Tm Imd, Kerd, dimImd, dimKerd. 11. Cho A v B l hai K-khng gian vect. V = A B l K-khng gian vect v i hai php ton sau: ( 1, 1) + ( 2, 2) = ( 1 + 2, 1+ 2), k( , ) = (k , k ). (xem bi t p 5, Ch. II) Ch ng minh r ng: a) nh x p: V A xc Kerd. b) nh x u: B V xc Imu. nh b i p( , ): l m t ton c u. Tm nh b i u( ) = ( 0 , ) l m t n c u. Tm

12. Cho f. V W l m t ton c u, { 1,..., r} l m t c s c a Kerf. B sung vo h vect ny c m t c s { 1,..., r, r+1,..., n} c a V. Ch ng minh r ng:

a) H vect {f( r+1),..., f( n)}l m t c s c a W. b) G i U l khng gian con sinh b i h vect { r+1,..., n}. Ch ng minh r ng f|U: U W l m t ng c u.

3. CC PHP TON TRN CC NH X TUY N TNH 13. Trong m i tr ng h p d i y hy xc nh f + g, f - g, fg, gf r i tm nh, h t nhn, s chi u c a nh, s chi u c a h t nhn c a chng: a) f: R3 R3 , f(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, a2, 0), g: R3 R3 , g(a1, a2, a3) = (ai- a2' 0, a3). b) f: R2 R2 , f(a1, a2) = (a1 + a2, a1 - a2), g: R2 R2 , g(a1, a2) = (2a1, 0). 14. Cho f. R4 R3, g: R3 R2, trong f(a1, a2, a3, a4) = (a1 + a2, a3, a4), g(a1, a2, a3) = (a1, a2 - a3,). a) xc inh nh x gf. b) Tm Imgf, Kergf. c) gf c ph i l m t ton c u khng? 15. Ch ng minh r ng: a) Tch c a hai n c u l m t n c u; b) Tch c a hai ton c u l m t ton c u; c) Tch c a hai ng c u l m t ng c u. 16. T ng c a hai n c u c ph i l m t n c u khng? Cho v d minh h a cu tr l i. Cng cu h i i v i hai ton c u. 17. Cho f. U V, g: V W l hai nh x tuy n tnh. Ch ng minh r ng: a) N u gf l m t n c u th f l m t n c u; b) N u gf l m t ton c u th g l m t ton c u. 18. Cho f: V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh. Ch ng minh r ng: a) N u f l m t n c u th t n t i m t ton c u g: W V sao cho gf

= Iv, (1v l

ng c u

ng nh t trn V).

b) N u f l m t ton c u th t n t i m t n c u g: W V sao cho fg = 1w, (1w l ng c u ng nh t trn W). 19. Cho f, g HomK(V, W). Ch ng minh r ng: a) Ker(kf) + g) Kerf Kerg; b) Ker(kf) = Kerf v i m i k K, k 0. 20. Cho f. U V, g: V W l hai nh x tuy n tnh. Ch ng minh r ng: a) Im(gf) = g(Imf); b) Ker(gf) = f-1(Kerg). 21. Cho f: V W l m t nh x tuy n tnh, A l m t khng gian con c a V, B l m t khng gian con c a W. Ch ng minh r ng: a) f -1(f(A)) = A + Kerf, b) f(f-1(B)) = W Imf. 22. (Bi t p t ng h p) Cho f v g l hai nh x t khng gian vect R n R4 xc nh l n l t b i :
4

f(a1, a2, a3, a4) = (a1, a2, - a3, a4), g(a1, a2, a3, a4) = (2a1, a2, a3, - a4). a) ch ng minh r ng f v g l nh ng t ng c u c a R4. b) K hi u h = f + g. nh x tuy n tnh h c ph i l m t n c u, m t ton c u khng? c) Tm m t c s () c a Kerh v m t c s () c a Imh. d) V i m i vect j trong c s c a Imh ta ch n m t j sao cho h( j) = j. G i U l khng gian vect sinh b i cc vect j v a ch n. Ch ng minh r ng R4 l t ng tr c ti p c a U v Kerh (xem bi t p 28, Ch. II). e) Tm vect (x1, x2, x3, x4) sao cho gf(x1, x2, x3, x4) = (- 2, 0, 1, 0). f) G i W l khng gian con c a R4 sinh b i hai vect 1 = (0, 2, -1, 0), 2 = (1, 0, 1, 0). Tm m t c s c a f-1(w). Tm m t c s c a g(w).