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Cu 2:

Xc nh trng thi lai ha, cu trc hnh hc, gc lin kt ca cc phn t sau: CO2, NH3
-CO2: n= 0+ 2=2 lai ha sp;
cu trc ng thng gc lin kt 1800
- NH3: n = 2 + 2 = 4 lai ha sp3;
cu trc t din, gc lin kt 109028 107o1
Cu 6:
Xc nh trng thi lai ha, cu trc hnh hc, gc lin kt ca cc phn t sau: SO2, H2O
-SO2: n= 1+2 = 3 lai hoa sp2
Cu truc gp khuc do cp e hoa tri trn obitan lai hoa cha tham gia lin kt co tac dung y manh
hn nn goc lin kt la 119,5o nho hn 120o.
-H2O: n = 2 + 2 = 4 lai ha sp3;
cu trc t din, gc lin kt 109028 do 2 cp e khng lin kt y nhau nn gc lin kt nh hn,
1040,5
cu 10:
Xc nh trng thi lai ha, cu trc hnh hc, gc lin kt ca cc phn t sau: SO2, NH3
- NH3: n = 2 + 2 = 4 lai ha sp3;
cu trc t din, gc lin kt 109028 do cp e khng lin kt y manh hn nn gc lin kt nh hn,
107o3
-SO2: n= 1+2 = 3 lai hoa sp2
Cu truc gp khuc do cp e hoa tri trn obitan lai hoa cha tham gia lin kt co tac dung y manh
hn nn goc lin kt la 119,5o nho hn 120o.
Cu 18:
Xc nh trng thi lai ha, cu trc hnh hc, gc lin kt ca cc phn t sau: CO2, H2O
-CO2: n= 0+ 2=2 lai ha sp;
cu trc ng thng gc lin kt 1800
-H2O: n = 2 + 2 = 4 lai ha sp3;
cu trc t din, gc lin kt 109028 do 2 cp e khng lin kt y nhau nn gc lin kt nh hn,
1040,5
Cu 22:
Xc nh trng thi lai ha, cu trc hnh hc, gc lin kt ca cc phn t sau: NH3 , BF3.
- NH3: n = 2 + 2 = 4 lai ha sp3;
cu trc t din, gc lin kt 109028 do cp e khng lin kt y manh hn nn gc lin kt nh hn,
107o3
- BF3: n= 0+3=3 lai hoa sp2
Cu truc tam giac u, goc lin kt 120o
Cu 20:
Mg + CuSO4 MgSO4 + Cu
Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu
Cht rn B: Cu va Fe d
Dung dich C: MgSO4 va FeSO4
MgSO4 + 2NaOH Mg(OH)2 + Na2SO4

FeSO4 + 2NaOH Fe(OH)2 + Na2SO4


Mg(OH)2 MgO + H2O
2Fe(OH)2 + 1/2O2 Fe2O3 + 2H2O
Cht rn D: MgO va Fe2O3
t x, y, z l s mol Mg, Fe phn ng v Fe cn d.
Ta c: mA = 24x + 56(y+z) = 51
MB = 64(x+y) + 56z = 6,9
MD =40x + 80y = 4,5
Gii h c: x=y=z= 0,0375 mol
a. Tnh c phn trm v khi lng ca Mg, Fe
%mMg = 24.0,0375.100/5,1 = 17,65%
%mFe = 82,35%
b. Tnh nng mol ca CuSO4 :
CM = (x+y)/0,25 = (0,0375+0,0375)/0,25 = 0,3M
Cu 28:
Gi s mol Fe, Fe3O4 tham gia phn ng (1), (2) l x, y
Fe + 4HNO3 Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 2H2O (1)
x
3Fe3O4 + 28 HNO3 9 Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 14 H2O (2)
y
2Fe(NO3)3 + Fe 3Fe(NO3)2
(3)
x+3y
(x+3y)/2
Phn ng xy ra hon ton, sau phn ng cn d kim loi nn HNO 3 phn ng ht. Do xy ra phn
ng (3) nn dung dch Z1 l dung dch Fe(NO3)2
Ta c: nNO = x+y/3 = 0,1
56( x + (x+3y)/2) + 232y = 18,5 1,46= 17,04
Gii h c: x = 0,09; y= 0,03
nHNO3 = 0,64 mol
CM(HNO3) = 3,2M
mFe(NO3)2 = 48,6g
Cu 24:
Mg + CuSO4 MgSO4 + Cu
Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu
Cht rn B: Cu va Fe d
Dung dich C: MgSO4 va FeSO4
MgSO4 + 2NaOH Mg(OH)2 + Na2SO4
FeSO4 + 2NaOH Fe(OH)2 + Na2SO4
Mg(OH)2 MgO + H2O
2Fe(OH)2 + 1/2O2 Fe2O3 + 2H2O
Cht rn D: MgO va Fe2O3
t x, y, z l s mol Mg, Fe phn ng v Fe cn d.
- mA = 24x + 56y = 19,2
- mB = 64(x+a) + 56(y-a) = 64x + 56y + 8a = 24
- mE = 40x + 80a= 12
Gii ra: a= 0,1; x = 0,1; y=0,3

a. Tnh c khi lng v phn trm v khi lng ca Mg, Fe


mMg = 2,4; mFe = 16,8
%mMg = 2,4.100/19,2 = 12,5%
%mFe = 87,5%
b. Tnh nng mol ca CuSO4 : CM = 0,2/0,5 = 0,4M
Cu 4:
Al + 3AgNO3 Al(NO3)3 + 3Ag
(1)
2Al + 3Cu(NO3)2 2Al(NO3)3 + 3Cu (2)
Fe + Cu(NO3)2 Fe(NO3)2 + Cu
(3)
Dung dich D: Al(NO3)3 va Fe(NO3)2
Cht rn E: Ag , Cu va Fe d
Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2
nAl = 0,81/27 = 0,03 mol
nFe = 2,8/56 = 0,05 mol
nFe d = 0,672/22,4 = 0,03 mol
suy ra s mol cua Fe phan ng 3 la 0,02
t x, y la s mol cua Al cac phan ng 1,2
Ta co: mE = 324x + 96y + 0,02*64 = 8,12
Va
nAl =
x + y = 0,03
Giai h phng trinh trn, x = 0,017 ; y = 0,013
nAgNO3 = 3x = 0,051 mol CM = 0,051/0,2 = 0,255 M
nCu(NO3)2 = 1,5y + 0,02 = 0,0395 mol CM = 0,0395/0,02 = 1,975 M
Cu 8:
2Al + 3CuSO4 Al2(SO4 )3 + 3Cu (1)
Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu
(2)
t x, y, z la s mol cua Al , Fe va Fe d
Ta co
mA = 27x + 56(y + z) = 8,3
mB = 96x + 64y + 56z = 15,68
nCuSO4 = 1,5x + y = 0,21
giai h phng trinh trn, x = 0,1 ; y = 0,06
Suy ra: mAl = 27* 0,1 = 2,7 g ; % mAl = 2,7*100/8,3 = 32,53%
%mFe = 100 - 32,53 = 67,47%
Cu 17:
a/.
Cu hnh electron ca ion X3+: 1s22s22p63s23p63d1
Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t X: 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2
b/.
22
chu k 4
nhm IVB
c/.
B bn s lng t ca electron 3d1 l:

n=3
=2
m = -2
ms = +1/2
K hiu hm sng AO ca electron ny l: (3, 2, -2)
Cu 25
a/.
Cu hnh electron ca ion X3+: 1s22s22p63s23p63d5
Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t X: 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2
b/.
26
chu k 4
nhm VIIIB
c/.
B bn s lng t ca electron 3d5 l:
n=3
=2
m = +2
ms = +1/2
K hiu hm sng AO ca electron ny l: (3, 2, +2)
Cu 21
a. lp 3
phn lp p
e th 6 thuc phn lp ny
b. cu hnh electron: 1s22s22p63s23p6
c. 18
chu k 3
nhm VIIIA
Cu 13
a/.
Cu hnh electron ca ion A2+ : 1s22s22p63s23p63d1
Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t A: 1s22s22p63s23p63d14s2
b/.
21
chu k 4
nhm IIIB
c/.
B bn s lng t ca electron 3d1 l:
n=3
=2

m = -2
ms = +1/2
K hiu hm sng AO ca electron ny l: (3, 2, -2)
Cu 9
a/.
Cu hnh electron ca ion A2+ : 1s22s22p63s23p63d3
Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t A: 1s22s22p63s23p63d34s2
b/.
23
chu k 4
nhm VB
c/.
B bn s lng t ca electron 3d3 l:
n=3
=2
m = 0
ms = +1/2
K hiu hm sng AO ca electron ny l: (3, 2, 0)
Cu 5
a/.
Cu hnh electron ca ion A2+ : 1s22s22p63s23p63d2
Cu hnh electron ca nguyn t A: 1s22s22p63s23p63d24s2
b/.
22
chu k 4
nhm IVB
c/.
B bn s lng t ca electron 3d2 l:
n=3
=2
m = -1
ms = +1/2
K hiu hm sng AO ca electron ny l: (3, 2, -1)