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Ex. No.

LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR


Aim: To conduct the load test on DC shunt motor and draw the performance characteristics. Apparatus Required: S.No. Apparatus Range Quantity

Name plate details:

Fuse Rating: Fuse Rating = 125% of rated current Formulae used: 1. Input power Pi = (V I) Watts; V- Input voltage (Volts) I- Input current (Amps.) 2. Torque, T = [R (S1-S2) 9.81] N-m R-Radius of brake drum in meters S1, S2 tensions of the belt 3. Output power =
N T (watts) 60 N- Speed of the motor in rpm 2

4.

% Efficiency =

Output power 100 Input power

Precautions: 1. The DPST switch must be kept at open position. 2. Make sure that the starter handle is in OFF position. 3. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position at the time of starting. 4. At the time of starting, there should not be any load connected to motor. 5. While running on load, the brake drum is cooled by pouring water inside the brake drum. Theory: The shunt motor has a definite no load speed hence it does not run away when load is suddenly thrown off provided the field circuit remains closed. The drop in speed from noload to full load is small hence this motor is usual referred to a constant speed motor. The efficiency curve is usually of the same shape for all electric motors and generators. The shape of efficiency curve and the point of maximum efficiency can be varied considerable by the designer, though it is advantageous to have an efficiency curve which is fairly flat. So that there is little change in efficiency between load and 25% overload and to have the maximum efficiency as near to the full load as possible. From the curves it is observed that is certain value of current is required even when output is zero. The motor input under no-load conditions goes to meet the various losses, occurring within the machine. As compared to other motors a shunt motor is said to have a lowest starting torque. But this should not be taken off mean that is shunt motor is incapable of starting heavy load. Actually it means that series and compound motor as capable of starting heavy load with les excess of current inputs over normal values then the shunt motor and the consequently the depreciation on the motor will be relatively less. Procedure: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. The DPST switch is closed and the starter handle is slowly moved from OFF to ON position. 3. The machine is brought up to rated speed by adjusting the field rheostat after which its position is not changed. 4. The no load speed, no load current and no load voltage of the motor are noted. 5. The motor is gradually loaded by tightening the belt on the brake drum. 6. The motor is loaded in steps such that in each step, the load current is increased by 1 Amps. 7. In each step, all the meter readings and belt tensions are noted. Also, speed is measured using tachometer. 8. The motor is loaded upto 125% of full load current. 9. After completion of the experiment, the load on the motor is released by loosening the belt on the brake drum. 10. The motor is stopped by opening the DPST switch. 11. Calculations are made as shown in model calculations and various performance characteristic curves are drawn

Circuit diagram:
(0-30)A MC

30A

3-point Starter
L

A
D P S T
220V DC Supply

S1 185 , 1.5A (0-300)V V mc A2 F2 F1 A1

S2

S W I T C H

M
Brake Drum

30A

Model Graph:

Speed Speed, IL, % , % IL Torque

Output Power (W)

Tabulation: Input Voltage VI (V) Input Current II (A) Output Power P0(W) Input Power Pi(W)

S. No.

S1 Kg

S2 Kg

Torque (Nm)

Speed N(rpm)

% Efficiency

Model calculation: Circumference of the brake drum Radius of brake drum, R Torque, T Output power, P0 = = = = cm m [R (S1-S2) 9.81] N-m

N T (Watts) 60

Input power, Pi % Efficiency

= =

V x I (Watts) Output power 100 Input power

Result: