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Lei Yan Chunping Hou Shanlin Sun School of Electronic Information Engineering Tianjin University Tianjin 300072, P. R. China In this paper, we proposed a new method for wireless image transmission, in which the successive low frequency bits are located at subcarriers with longer frequency distance than that of high frequency bits. With this approach, the receiver obtains better image quality. II. SYSTEM MODEL The elements of the proposed system will be described in the following sections. A. SPIHT image Encoder The image encoder uses the embedded zerotrees wavelet coder of SPIHT as the image coding platform and divides the output bit streams of SPIHT encoder into M layers: L1 L2 , L3 ..........LM , the visual perceptual significances
Keywords-wavelet decomposition, FH-OFDM, hop frequency graphic, pseudorandom pattern

AbstractIn this paper, a new scheme for wireless image transmission is proposed. Firstly, based on wavelet decomposition theory, an image source can be decomposed into different weight levels. Then, the bit streams with different weight are modulated by FH-OFDM system, which can give low frequency bits more protection with help of hop frequency graphic design in FH-OFDM. A joint system combined with source coding and adaptive modulation method is introduced to give the image bit streams with different subcarriers, which eliminate ISI in low frequency streams more effectively. Therefore, a better reconstruction image can be obtained at receiver. Simulation results indicate that the scheme with joint source coding and adaptive modulation method can outperform the system without adaptive modulation in image quality. Under the same conditions, the proposed FH-OFDM system has better BER performance than traditional OFDM and better image quality than pseudorandom pattern FH-OFDM in the process of wireless image transmission.


LLM LH M HLM HH M LH M 1 HH M 1 .....HH1 HL1 HH1 , are shown in

I. INTRODUCTION Future wireless networks are expected to provide a variety of high bit-rate multimedia services. Wireless image and video transmissions will be the most important characteristics for the future wireless network. However the associated high bit rate and real-time requirements make the reliable transmission of the compressed image and video very difficult in wireless channel. SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees) algorithm is a wavelet compression coder[1]. It firstly converts the image into its wavelet form and then transmits the information about the wavelet coefficients. The decoder uses the received signal to reconstruct the wavelet and performs an inverse transform to recover the original imagine. In this approach, the encoder decomposes the image source into differential frequencies bit streams, of which the low frequency bit streams are critical in the reconstruct decoder[2,3]. FH-OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with frequency hopping) introduces frequency hopping technique into the frequency mapper before IFFT transform at the transmitter, so the transmitted data streams are assigned to different subcarriers based on pre-determined hopping pattern[4].

fig.1. Filtered by the concatenation of high-pass filter and 2 orders down-sample the visual detail information can be obtained. Similarly, the concatenation of low-pass filter and 2 orders down-sample filters the low frequency information of the original image, which is vital during the image reconstruction at the detector. The basic algorithm can be written as: Digital smooth approximation:
(1) xk = n (0) l( n 2k ) xn


Digital detail signal:

d k(1) =

(0) h( n 2k ) xn


(0) xn represents the original digital image source, so the (1) xk and d k(1) contain the smooth approximation signal and

detail signal of the resource after the first execution of this basic algorithm respectively. As the source signal passes through the M layers of image encoder, the iterative algorithm computes 3M+1 bit streams,

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LLM , LH M , HLM , HH M , LH M 1 , HH M 1 .....HH1 which

have degressive visual perceptual significances.

Fig.1 Wavelet decomposition of imagine encoder

B. Channel encoder and constellation mapper. In this paper, we use a concatenated channel encoder including a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) outer code followed by a convolutional inner code as our channel coding scheme. The CRC is used for error detection in order to stop decoding when unrecoverable error occurs. The convolutional coder is used as forward error correction (FEC) method. In the paper, we use 1/2 rate convolutional code (2,1,7) with Viterbi decoding. All the SPIHT layers are complemented with CRC error detection codes. Only the streams of the important layers go through FEC coding, so that the important SPIHT streams can be given better channel error protection. Since wireless channels exhibit burst error characteristics sometimes, after QPSK constellation mapper, 3M+1 independent embedded interleavers, whose size is defined by the signal burst length, are placed at each bit output stream of image encoder. The whole jointed system block diagram is shown in fig.2

C. Channel encoder and constellation mapper. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, with the purpose of dividing transmission channel into a number of orthogonal subchannels, can reach high bit rate and good spectrum efficiency. The traditional Fourier transform based OFDM (DFT-OFDM) has been successfully applied to a wide variety of digital communication applications, such as ADSL and WLAN, and is considered as the critical physical layer technology of the 4th generation wireless communication (4G) standard[5,6]. To exploit frequency diversity, OFDM module combines subcarriers frequency domain spread spectrum technique to build FH-OFDM system. FH-OFDM spread spectrum signals hop across in a pseudorandom pattern. With fast hopping, the different data streams are transmitted on different tone in each symbol. The receiver use hopping pattern to demodulate the signal. The hopping tone covers all subcarriers of an OFDM bandwidth. fig.3 shows the inner structure of FH-OFDM modulator.

Fig.3 the inner structure of FH-OFDM modulator

Suppose that the input of the FH-OFDM modulator can be

Fig.2 Block diagram of the jointed system

written as x(i) (i = 1, 2,............3M ) , which denotes every symbol streams of image endoder after interleaver. So the output of the modulator is calculated:

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X(k) =

1 3M ik x(i)exp( j2 )exp( f ' (i)) i = 0,1 M (3) ,...,3 3M +1 i=0 3M +1


be found in reference paper[5], we must balance image quality, bit rate, and the size of IFFT in subcarriers allocation.

The hopping frequency function f (i ) is determined by the hopping pattern and independent variable i,, which represents time. Accordingly, the received signal at receiver is demodulated by:

y(i) =

3M k =0

X (k)exp( j2

ki )exp( f ' (i)) k = 0,1,...,3M (4) N

The wireless channel is modeled as L-path multi-path delay channel, of which the impulse response is:

h( , t ) =

l = L 1 l =0

g (l ) (t ) ( (l ) )



stands for the Diracs delta function,

(l )

denotes the propagation delay for lth path, and g (t ) is the lth path gain. It is modeled as a mutually independent complex Gaussian random with zero mean and variance. Then the received signal x(t ) is given by:

(l )

s (t ) =

x (t )h( , t )d + (t )


Fig.4 the hopping subcarriers graphic of output bitstreams at image coder

(t ) denotes

a complex Gaussian noise with zero mean

and power spectra density of N 0 .In this module , less ISI(Inter Symbol Interference) occurs since the delay spread is eliminated by hopping subcarriers. At the detector, with the given frequency hopping pattern, Log-maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm can be used in decoder, which is illustrated in our previous work[7]. III.

IV. SIMULATION To demonstrate the advantage of our proposed theory, we design the following schemes to compare their performance under various wireless channel conditions in terms of BER (bit error ratio) and decoded image quality. Scheme 1: The serial SPIHT output bit streams, after channel encoded and interleaved, is modulated by FH-OFDM, which is under the control of FH controller according to a pseudorandom pattern. In this scheme the subbcarriers assignment is based on pseudorandom pattern. Scheme 2: The serial SPIHT output bit stream is divided into parallel bit streams according to their different significances, such as, LLM , LH M , HLM , HH M , LH M 1 ,..

As described in preceding sections, based on the degressive visual perceptual significances after image wavelet decomposition, a new idea is proposed to discuss the hopping subcarriers located theory. The basic idea is that giving more weight symbol streams longer subcarrier frequency distance between successive symbols, so that the ISI can be eliminated to the greatest extent. This theory is illustrated more clearly in fig.4.

LLM , LH M are the most important components in image reconstruction process. So the adjacent subcarriers of successive symbols have the longest frequency distance in frequency domain. Less important the symbol stream is, shorter frequency distance of successive symbols is assigned.
Suppose that we make 5 layers image decomposition of the image, as a result, we get 3 5 + 1 = 16 streams. At the same time, we use IFFT of 64 points. In the implementation of FH-OFDM system, the I/Q bits are processed independently or by conjugate method which can

..HH1 , HL1 , HH1 . Then, the parallel bit streams are processed independently. The subbcarriers assignment of FHOFDM is based on the proposed theory shown in fig.4.
The simulation conditions and parameters are shown in fig.5. A. Ideal AWGN channel In the ideal AWGN channel, we compare the image transmission with traditional OFDM, pseudorandom pattern FH-OFDM, and proposed pattern OFDM systems in terms of BER and image quality. The moving channel characteristics are added to AWGN channel to validate the merit of FHOFDM systems.

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Fig.7 simulation of Multi-path + AWGN slow-moving and Multi-path + AWGN fast-moving Fig.5 simulation conditions and parameters

Multi-path + AWGN fast-moving The performances in Multi-path fast-moving can be deduced by previous simulation. However, what we care at this time is the reconstruction image quality of the two FH-OFDM systems which have similar BER performances in all channel environments. The reconstruction images of two FH-OFDM systems at different SNR are shown in fig.8

Slow-moving AWGN From the simulation results, we can see that three schemes have similar BER performances in slow-moving AWGN channel, especially between scheme1 and scheme2, and the traditional OFDM has little deterioration than FH-OFDM schemes.

Fig.6 simulation of Slow-moving AWGN and Fast-moving AWGN

Fast-moving AWGN In fast moving AWGN channels, the simulation results are different from the slow-moving channel. Scheme1 and scheme2, which adopt FH technology in OFDM subcarriers modulation, have much better performance in BER. It is proved that the subcarrier FH technology can restrain the Doppler frequency shift caused by fast moving. FH-OFDM schemes also have similar BER performance. B. Multi-path + AWGN channel With the similar conditions, we check three systems performances in multi-path+AWGN channel, in which multipaths channel characteristics in terms of slow-moving and fastmoving. Multi-path + AWGN slow-moving In the Multi-path + AWGN slow-moving channel, though the slow moving channel characteristics do not have much influence on BER differences of three systems, the FH systems are superior to the traditional OFDM system obviously, which hints that the subcarriers FH technology can eliminate the ISI caused by Multipath effect. Two FH-OFDM schemes also have similar BER performances.
Fig.8 512x512 Lena Reconstruction image Comparison over fast moving multi-path channel

We can see that the reconstruction image qualities of the proposed FH-OFDM are better than pseudorandom pattern FHOFDM, especially obvious at low SNR=4db. Since the proposed FH-OFDM system provides long FH subcarriers frequency distance for important image visual bit stream, the reconstruction image have better visual quality. V. CONCLUSION In this paper, we introduce a new scheme with the concatenation of wavelet image decomposition encoder and FH-OFDM modulator using proposed pattern for image

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transmission. After the analysis and discussion above, we can draw the following conclusions: (1) The FH-OFDM modulator has ability to restrain the Doppler frequency shift caused by fast moving, and also has the ability to eliminate the ISI caused by Multipath effect, so, it is especially suitable to be applied in wireless channel. (2) Scheme2 utilize the degressive visual significances of bit streams in FH-OFDM subcarriers assignment which can get better image quality in image reconstruction at the receiver. With longer frequency distance between successive bits, the critical image bit stream get more protection in wireless transmission. This combined system and the proposed subcarrier FH pattern are the major contribution of this paper in image wireless transmission theory. The implementation of the proposed system requires the matching of bit rate and OFDM size. REFERENCES
[1] Said A, and Pearlman W A, A new fast and efficient image coder based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syatems for Video Technology, VOL. 6, NO. 3, June,1995: 243-250.


M. Antonini, M. Barlaud, and P. Mathieu, etc., Image coding using wavelet transform, IEEETrans. Image Processing, 1992(1): 205-220 [3] A. Said, and W A Pearlman, A new fast and efficient image coder based on set partitioning in hierarchical trees, IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syatems for Video Technology, Vol.6,No.3, pp243-250, 1996. [4] Kun Hua, Lim Nquyen, and Won Mee Jang, Performance of Coded Frequency-Hopped OFDM Systems in Frequency Selective Channels, Signal processing the 8th International conference, Vol.3, pp16-20, 2006. [5] Jie Song, and K.J. Ray Li,. Robust progressive image transmission over OFDM system using space-time block code, IEEE Trans. On Multimedia, Vol.4, No.3, pp394-406, 2002. [6] Feng Zhao, Haixia Zheng, and Dongfeng Yuan, Performance of COFDM with different orthogonal bases on AWGN and frequency selective channel, IEEE 6th CAS Symp. On Emerging Technologies: Mobile and Wireless Comm., Shanghai, China, pp473-475, 2004. [7] Yan Lei, HOU Chunping, and DAI Jufeng, Combined Signal Detection Method in Differential Frequency Hopping System Tansactions of Tianjin university, Vol.13 No.3, pp215-219,2007. [8] B. Dong et al., Design of optimum receiver for dfh signal, Journal of UEST of China, vol. 32, pp. 530534, Oct. 2003. [9] L. R. Bahl, J. Cocke, F. Jelinek, and J. Raviv, Optimal decoding of linear codes for minimizing symbol error rate, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-20, pp. 284287, Mar. 1974. [10] J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications. McGraw-Hill, 2000.

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