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CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations

CriminalLaw,p.1

I.

GeneralprinciplesofCriminalLaw
a.

b.

Nature ExpressionandbreadthoftheStatespowertoregulateconduct.Concessionofthepeopletowhatactsarewrong (affectssocialrights,pinpointactsthatareharmfultosociety). Purposes i. Identifywrongfulbehaviour Definethenatureofcrimeanditsequivalentpunishment ii. Prescribepunishment Classical Positivist PurposeofPunishment Retribution Reformation AfflictedParties Victims Society ? Primary Secondary CauseofCrime Freewill Externalforce DeJoyav.JailWardenofBatangasacaseinvolvinganalmosthabitualBP22violatorwhentheSupreme CourtreleasedacircularregardingnonimprisonmentforBP22violators 1. 2. Retribution Prevention a. Deterrence i. General ii. Specific b. Incapacitation c. Rehabilitation

c.

d.

e.

Characteristics i. Statutoryonlythosewritteninthelawisdeemedcriminal ii. Generalliabilityofpersonsinaterritory EXCEPTIONS(!) 1. Diplomaticimmunityinterestofinternationalrelationsishigherthandomesticlaws 2. Governmentofficialsimmunityofprosecutionwhileinoffice(butnotanimmunityfromcriminal liability) iii. Territorial EnglishRulecrimecommittedinaforeignvesselofterritorialwatersonlyNOTtriedifitonly affectsthosewithinthevessel FrenchRulecrimecommittedinaforeignvesselofterritorialwatersonlytriedinthecountryif thecrimeaffectedthepeaceandsecurityofthestate Difference:BurdenofProofoftheEXEMPTION.IE,inthePhilippines,allcrimescommittedinits territorialseaswillbetried,unlessthedefendantcanprovethatitonlyaffectedthosewithinthe vessel iv. Prospectiveformedtobefollowedafteritisenacted v. Morallycondemnableauniqueaspecttocriminallaw.Impliesthattheentirecommunitycondemnsthe wrongfulact. Sources i. Constitution ii. RevisedPenalCode iii. Specialcriminallaws iv. Penalprovisionsinotherlaws v. Localordinances vi. Jurisprudence Constitutionallimitationsareasthatarebeyondlegislation i. Dueprocessandequalprotection 1. Voidforvaguenessoroverbreadth

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
CriminalLaw,p.2 Statev.Metzgeramanwaswalkingaroundnakedinhisapartmentwithagardenwindow.State ordinanceprohibitsindecentpublicconduct,butwhostosaythatmerenakednessis indecent?Thestatutewasvague. Estradav.Sandiganbayancontendsthedefinitionofgraftandcorruptionbysayingthatthe definitionofcombinationandseriesisvague.WHATEVER. 2. Equalprotection Peoplev.CarlosacaseinvolvingpostWorldWartrialofwarcrimes.Doestheestablishmentof thePeoplesCourtimpedetheequalprotectionclauseofSec.1ofourBillofRights?No,itonly providedafasterprocess,butessentiallythesameasthetrialsaffordedinregularcourts. ii. Freedomofexpression Barnesv.GlenTheatreprohibitedgirlsatadanceclubexplicitnuditynotbyvirtueofthecurtailmentof theirfreedomofexpression,buttheideathatnudityisagainstpublicinterestespeciallyifitisdoneto satisfythelustofothers.(Asseeninthepurposeofreceivingtips,obviously,itsnotjustexpression) iii. Freedomofreligion EmploymentDivision,DepartmentofHumanResourcesofOregonv.Smithrejectedthefreedomofreligion claimsoftwopeyoteuserswhoclaimedofusingtheprohibiteddruginlineofareligiousritual.Theywere dismissedfromtheirjobswithoutretirementfees,andafterthisdecision,affirmedthedenialofsuch. Estradav.EscritorrecognisedthatthecohabitationofEscritorwithhernonlegalhusbandisNOTimmoral, andthereforeshedoesnotdeservetobeadministrativelyliableforsuchcohabitationsinceshehassecured adeclarationofpledgingfaithfulnessfromJehovahsWitnesses. iv. Noexcessivefinesnorcruel,degradingorinhumanpunishment Peoplev.delaCruzamilkmanwasimprisonedforchargingmorethantheprescribedgovernmentprice. Theycontendthatitisacruelpunishment,buttheCourtsaysaslongasheisnotbeingtorturedortreated barbarously,thepunishmentisconstitutional. Peoplev.Echegarayfirstdeathpenaltyconvictionafterthe1987Constitutionsstatutoryprohibition. Discussesthejustificationoflegislationinresumingthepenalty,deathperseisnotcruel,andinthiscase, wasjustifiedwiththerampantofheinouscrimes Hardenv.DirectorofPrisonsdetainmentinamaximumsecurityprison(likeNewBilibidPrison)for contemptofcourtordersisnotacruelandinhumanepunishment. v. Nonimprisonmentfordebtornonpaymentofpolltax vi. BillofattainderpunishingsomeoneforSTATUSratherthanwhatwasdone Peoplev.FerrerdetainmentbyvirtueofbeingaffiliatedtotheNewPeoplesArmyisabillofattainder, however,Courtqualifiesthatthepenalstatuteprohibitscriminalconductinlineofbeingaffiliatedto communism,notthestateofenlistingorbelievingincommunismperse.[Aside:JudgeFerrerresignedfrom hisjudicialpostinbeliefthattheantisubversionlawwasabillofattainder] vii. Expostfactolaw USv.DiazCondeanewusurylawwaspassedinthemiddleofinstalmentpaymentsofacontractloan. Applyingthelawsinterestratestosubsequentpaymentswouldbeanapplicationoftheusurylaw,expost facto,sothecontractualinterestratewasupheld. Construction/Interpretation i. Liberalityinfavouroftheaccusedifthelawisambiguous,ruleinfavouroftheaccused[thatswhy mitigatingcircumstanceshasacatchallprovisiontoanalogouscircumstances,unlikeinaggravating circumstances] Peoplev.Sultanrobberywithrapeisthepenaltyimposedtoamanwhocommittedmultiplerapesinthat complexcrime. ii. SpanishtextoftheRPCprevailsoveritsEnglishtranslation iii. Retroactiveapplicationiffavourabletotheaccused

f.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
CriminalLaw,p.3 Peoplev.Valdezanewlawwaspassedduringthependencyofamurdertrialandconsideredtheillegal possessionoffirearmsasanaggravatingcircumstancethanaseparatecriminalcharge. Gov.DimagibaaSupremeCourtcircularadvisingjudgesnottoimprisonBP22violatorscannotbe consideredpartofcriminallawwhereasitcouldbegivenretroactiveeffecttothosealreadydetainedfor violatingsuchlaw. Mandatorydeathpenalty Peoplev.VeneracionR.A.No.7659imposesdeathpenaltyforrapewithhomicide.Thetrialcourtjudge imposedreclusionperpetuaoutofreligiousconvictions,sothecasewasremandedforproperconviction. Prescribed,butundeservedpenalties Peoplev.Formigonesamankillshiswifeduetopassion,obfuscationandmentalunfitness.Thepenalty waslightenedwiththetwomitigatingcircumstance,andtheSupremeCourthasnochoicebuttoaffirmand applyblackletterlaw,butrecommendedthemanforexecutiveclemency.

iv.

v.

II.

Generalprinciplesofcriminalliability Actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea


(An act committed is not wrong if the mind is innocent)

a.

b.

Definitionoffelony Actsandomissionspunishablebylawarefelonies. Feloniesarecommittednotonlybymeansofdeceit(dolo)butalsobymeansoffault(culpa). Thereisdeceitwhentheactisperformedwithdeliberateintent;andthereisfaultwhenthewrongfulactresults fromimprudence,negligence,lackofforesightorlackofskill. Article3oftheRevisedPenalCode Elementsofcriminalliability i. Physicalelement(Actusreus) 1. Actrefersonlytoexternalacts Powellv.TXfoundamanguiltyfordisobeyingvagrancyordinancesinhisstateofdrunkenness. Thereisanactofbeinginthepublicplacewithagivenstatus,notpunishingthestateof drunkennessitself. 2. OmissionmustbeanomissionpunishablebytheRPC Peoplev.SylvestreandAtienzathereisnolegalobligationtoreport/stopacrime,sothewoman wasacquitted. Peoplev.Talingdanawoman,wellawareofherparamourandhisfriendsplanofkillingher husband,washeldliableforbeingacoconspirator,andnotintheomissionofreportingtheplan. ii. Mentalelement(Mensrea) 1. Deliberateintent(Dolo) a. Elements i. Freedom ii. Intelligence iii. Intent b. Generalandspecificintent Generalintentarequirementforcrimescommittedbydolus,presumedinanycrime Specificintentrequiredincertaincrimestoproveforconviction,theessenceofthat particularcrime Peoplev.Punoadriver,inconnivancewitharelative,robbedhisemployerata highway.HecannotbechargedforbrigandageaspenalisedintheAntiHighwayRobbery Act,becausethehighwayvenuewasmerelyincidentaltothecrime. c. Mistakeoffact(asdefence) i. Act,wasitnotforthemistake,shouldhavebeenlawful ii. Intentionshouldhavebeenlawful iii. Faultless,carefulmistake

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
CriminalLiability,p.4 USv.AhChongcookkillshisroommatewhomhemistookasanighttime burglar.Cookwasacquitted. Peoplev.Oansisinpursuitofanescapedconvict,twocopsshotasleeping manwhoturnedouttobeaninnocentbloke.Theymissedelementnumber (iii),ergo,wereconvicted. d. Malumprohibitumexceptiontotherequirementofmensrea Definemalumprohibitum. Malumprohibitum,isanactprohibitedbylaw,likejaywalkingorchewinggumin Singapore! Thereforemaluminse? Isanaction!Thatisevilinitself!Assault,murder,whiteshoesafterlabourday.Elle andEmmetfromLegallyBlonde:TheMusical Padillav.DizonajudgeerredinacquittingaChineseblokewhosmuggledcurrency basedonlackofmaliciousintent.Smugglingcurrencyisacrimemalumprohibitum,so theChinesemanwasconvicted. Magnov.CAamanwasvictimtoahighfinancingscamandissuedcheckswith insufficientfunds.HedidwarnthedepositorofthestateofISF,butcashedoutthe checkanyway.Wasacquitted.LiberalisedinterpretationofBP22infavourofaccused. Griffithv.CAsimilartoMagno,toavoidforeclosinghislease,manissuedacheckwith noticenottocashituntilfurthernotice.HewasnotliableforviolatingBP22. Estradav.Sandiganbayanplunderisacrimemaluminseandtheelementofmensrea needstobeproven. e. Distinguishedfrommotive Motivemovingpowerthatimpelsonetoactionforadefiniteresult,essentialin provingtheidentityofanassailant[partofintent] [Intentpurposetouseaparticularmeanstoeffectsuchresult] 2. Constructiveintent(Culpa) a. Elements i. Freedom ii. Intelligence iii. Intentimprudence/lackofskillornegligence/lackofforesight b. Imprudenceorlackofskillconsciouslycreatesariskofharm c. Negligenceorlackofforesightunconsciouslycreatesariskofharm *Exampletodifferentiatethetwo:Ifatruckdrivercheckedhistiresandignorestheflat tirethatisimprudence.Ifhedidntcheckitatallbeforealongtrip,thatisnegligence. Peoplev.Pugayadrunkguysawhisretardedroommateanddousedthepoorblokein gasoline.Afriendlitupthegassedretardant,killingthepoorguy.Drunkguywas convictedofrecklessimprudenceresultingtohomicide(sincehisactwaslimitedtothe pouringofgas),andhisfriendwasliableforhomicide. 3. Transferredintent a. Aberratioictusmistakeoftheblow Peoplev.GuillenanattemptedassassinationofPresidentRoxasthoughagrenade killedseveralothers. b. Errorinpersonaemistakeintheidentityofthevictim Peoplev.Sabalonesaftercommittingmurder,theganganticipatedrevengeand mistakenlykillsanothergroup. c. Praeterintentioneminjuriousresultgreaterthanintended Peoplev.Albuquerqueapartiallyparalyticfatherapprehendedtheexboyfriendofhis daughter,whoalsohappenstobetheputativefatherofhisfuturegrandchild.While threateningthemanwithaknife,heaccidentallykilledhim. Concurrence=mensrea+actusreus

iii.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
CriminalLiability,p.5 iv. v. Resultingharm Causationlogicalconsequenceofaproximatecausethatcouldbeofcriminalinnature Vda.DeBataclanv.Medinaduetoabusdriversnegligenceandanunfortunatesequenceofevents,four individualsdied.
Busleaves station Speedsdowna windingroad Tirebursts (fortuitousact) Busoverturns, gasleaks Passengersare trapped!

Busdriver disregards worntires

c.

Death GasIgnites,bus Rescuerscome burns withtorches Liabilityforincompleteelements i. Impossiblecrime Elements 1. Attemptedactwouldhavebeenanoffenceagainstpersonorproperty 2. Evilintent 3. Inherentimpossibilityormeansemployedisinadequateorineffectual 4. ActitselfisnotaviolationoftheRPC *Differentiatingineffectualmeansfromattemptedcrimeineffectualmeanshascompletedtheactusreus, itsjustthatthechosenactusreuswasineffectualorinadequate.Attemptedcrimeinvolvesanincomplete actusreus,becausethepersonwasstoppedbyanexternalforce. Intodv.CAAgangshotaroombelievingthattheirtargetwasinsidebutwasactuallyoutoftown.Court ruledonimpossibilitybasedondistance.[Butshouldhavebeenanattemptedcrimebyitsessence] Peoplev.SaladinoTheintenttokillismissing,theprisonguardwaschargedasanaccessoryforconcealing thefelonyoftheotherprisonguard ii. Uncompletedcrimes 1. Attemptedandfrustratedfelonies,ingeneral ELEMENTS Attempted Frustrated 1) Commencementofovertacts 01) Allactsexecuted 2) Doesnotperformallactstoproducefelony 02) Wouldhaveproducedthefelony 3) Offenderdidnotstophimself 03) FelonyisNOTproduced 4) Wasstoppedbyacauseoraccident 04) Causeindependentofthewilloftheperpetrator *EssentialDifference:FrustratedcrimespassaSUBJECTIVETEST USv.Eduaveawomansparamourafterinjuringagirlwithadeadlyweapon,threwherinthe bushesbelievingshewasdead.Thegirlsurvivedsothemanwasguiltyoffrustratedmurder. Epifaniov.Peoplearelativestabsaboyinthedarkandwasrescuedintimebyafriend.Theboy didnotsustainmortalinjuriesandthemanwasliableonlyforattemptedmurder. 2. Examplesofspecificfelonies a. Illegaltrespass Peoplev.Lamahangamanwascaughtopeningtheironbarsofastoreandwas accusedofattemptedrobbery,theCourtruledthatthemanwasonlyATTEMPTINGa trespass,hisintentionwhathewilldoinsidethepremiseswasnotyetmanifestwhenhe gotcaught,soitshastytoassumethatitwasarobbery. b. Physicalinjuries,homicide,murder Peoplev.Borinagaamangaveadeadlyblowofanothermanwhowasindebtedtohim butendedupstabbingthebackofthechair.J.MalcolmruledthatitwasFRUSTRATED murderbecausethesubjectivetesthaspassed.Dissentdoctrineofmortalwoundas

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
CriminalLiability,p.6 thesubjectivetest,inthiscase,shouldhavebeenattemptedbecausetherewasno mortalwoundinflicted. Peoplev.KalaloInalanddispute,themangrabbedarevolverandshotfoursuccessive shotsbutmissed.Duetotheabsenceofthemortalwoundthemanwasonlyliablefor ATTEMPTEDmurderbecausewhilehestartedcommencementofovertacts,hewas preventedfrompassingthesubjectivetestofthecrimebytheproximitycreatedwhen theintendedvictimran. Peoplev.Trinidadamanwasconvictedoftwocountsofmurderandfrustrated murder,thefrustratedmurderwasmodifiedtoATTEMPTEDbecausethewoundonthe thirdmanwasnotfatal. Martinezv.CAaridiculousillicitlovetriangle,victimwasstabbedwithabolothree timesandwasitnotforthebloodclot,wouldhavediedasaresult.Petitionerwasguilty ofFRUSTRATEDmurder. Mondragonv.Peopleafterawarningnottodigacanal,thepetitionerdrewhisbolos andhurthisneighbour.Courtchangedhisconvictionfromfrustratedhomicidetoless seriousphysicalinjuries. Peoplev.SyPioanearlymorningshootoutataChinamansstore,thevictimwasnot fatallyinjuredandwasabletohidefromhisperpetrator,butwiththeintenttokill established,thedefendantwasconvictedofATTEMPTEDmurder. c. Theft USv.AdiaoCustomsofficialwasabletokeepastolenbeltinhisdrawerbutbefore leavingthepremises,gotcaught.HewasliableforCONSUMMATEDtheft. Peoplev.Diosmugglingofgunsfromamilitarybasebutwascaughtatcheckpoint= FRUSTRATED.Thegunswerenotfreetohisdisposalwhenhegotcaught. Peoplev.Espiritustolenhospitallinensandwasalsoapprehendedatcheckpoint= CONSUMMATED. *DifferenceinDioandEspiritu:itisthesneakinesstest.Hospitallinencouldhave beeneasilyconcealedandwaseasiertohavebeendisposedof.Gunstookextraeffort, forthecrimetobecomplete,shouldhavebeenfreefromextrareprimands. Velenzuelav.PeopleTidetheft(asinthelaundrydetergent).Contendedthatthereis nosuchthingasfrustratedtheftintheRPC.Justattempts. d. Robbery Peoplev.Dioconvictedofrobberywithhomicide,thesentenceofdeathpenaltywas loweredwhentherobberywasreducedtoitsattemptedstagebecausethewatchthey triedstealingfromthevictimwasonhiswristswhenhewaskilled. e. Rape Peoplev.Oritadeterminedthatthereisnosuchthingasfrustratedrape.Perfect penetrationisnotrequiredforrapetobeconsummated. 3. Lightfeloniespunishableonlywhenconsummated EXCEPT!whenagainstpersonsorproperty 4. Proposalsandconspiracies Notpunishableperse,EXCEPTforcrimesagainstnationalsecurity Liabilityformultiple,complex,andcontinuingcrimes i. Multiplecrimesseparatecountsofcrime,andineachcrime,alltheelementsarepresent(i.e.:double homicide) ii. Continuingcrimesasinglemensreawithmultipleacts(i.e.:rebellion) iii. Complexcrimes 1. RPCArt.48 a. Compoundcrimesingleactusreusconstitutesintwoormoregraveorlessgrave felonies[iflightoffence=separatepenalties].

d.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
CriminalLiability,p.7 Complexcrimeproperoneoffenceisnecessary[butnotindispensable]tocommit[not justtoconceal]another 2. SpecialComplexCrimedefinedbylaw,doesntmeanitfallsundercompoundorcomplexcrime proper.[i.e.:robberywithhomicide] Peoplev.Sanchezalocalpoliticianwasmurderedwithseveralothersusinganautomaticarmalite.Thiswasnot consideredforthecomplexcrimeofdoublemurderbutrather,separatecountsofmurder Peoplev.Hernandezmurders,arsonsandrobberiesaremereingredientsofthecrimeofrebellionandtherefore absorbedintheconvictionofrebellion. Enrilev.SalazarfollowsHernandezdoctrineonrebellion. Peoplev.Ducayubusannglahiimpliesmultiplecountsofmurderandfrustratedmurder. Peoplev.Valdezmultiplemurdersandfrustratedmurdersinvolvingtricyclepassengers[ComplexCrimeofMultiple Murder] LiabilityunderspeciallawsProf.Jimenezenumeratedthis,butIfailedtonoteallofthembecausehesaiditwill notbecrucialfortheexamsbutmightbehandyfortheBar. Justifyingcircumstances i. Defenceofself,relativesandstrangers Elements: 1. Unlawfulaggressionactualandimminent 2. Reasonablemeansrelativetothecircumstances 3. Lackofsufficientprovocationforinstanceswhereinthedefendantwasprotectingarelative,the relativecouldhavegiventheprovocation,butifthedefendantdidnotparticipateinsuch provocation,isjustified. Peoplev.Decenaamankillsthemantauntinghimearlieratabasketballgameandthedefenceofself defencewasnotappreciated.Oncetheaggressionhasstopped,itceasestobecomeimminent. Peoplev.DelaCruzanexparamourstormsintohisformerloversabodewithhercurrentboyfriend. Corneredintothemastersbedroom,thedefendant(currentboyfriend)shottheexparamour.Courtdidnot appreciateselfdefencebecauseitwouldhavebeensufficientforthedefendanttoclosethedoor.[another viewistheCASTLEDOCTRINEofselfdefence,justificationwasdefendantbeingcorneredinhisownhouse, extradefensive] Orientev.Peopleadrinkingsessionturnedmurder.Thedefendantclaimstohavebeenthreatenedbya gun,butonceagainthecourtdidnotappreciateselfdefencebecausethereweretoomanywoundsandthe presenceofagunwashighlyunlikely. Peoplev.JaurigueaninsistentstalkingsuitormademovesonthegirlataChurchandthegirlstabbedhim withafanknifeleadingtohisdeath.Whiledefenceofhonourisanacceptableconceptincriminallaw,it washighlyunlikelythatthestalkercouldhavepursuedhislewddesignsinawelllitChurch.Selfdefence wasnotappreciated. Peoplev.Narvaezamanprotectedhiswallfrombeingchiselledoffandshottwoguys.Courtsaysyoucan defendyourproperty,butthemeansusedwasratherexcessive. *Peoplev.BoholstCaballerodomesticviolencetakenoutonthestreet.Ahusbandwasbeatinghiswife andpinnedherdownonthegroundandthewomanhadnochoicebuttopulltheknifesheknewher husbandcarriesaroundandstabbedtheguy.ThestabbingledtothemansdeathbuttheCourtappreciated selfdefencesincetherewasonlyonewoundandthewomanturnedherselfinrightaway. Peoplev.Madridafteramansuccessfullyescapedhisaggressorafterfightingback,hisuncletanod decidedtotakecareoftheguyandkilledhim.Unclewasnotjustifiedfordefendingarelative. ii. Avoidanceofgreaterevil Elements: 1. Evilexists 2. Harmcaused<harmavoided 3. Nootherpractical/lessharmfulwaysofavoidingit Civilliabilityisincurredbythepersonbenefitedbytheavoidanceofthegreaterevil Differencefromselfdefencesunlawfulaggressioninunlawfulaggression,thereisanactual aggressor.Greaterevilcontemplatedinthisjustifyingcircumstancereferstoevilsnotcontrolled byasingleperson. b.

e.

III.

Circumstancesaffectingcriminalliability
a.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
Circumstances,p.8 Peoplev.Ricohermosoalandlordwaskilledwhenhewascollectingfromhistenantinaviolentexchange ofdefencefromthefatherinlawandbrotherinlaw.Courtdidnotappreciateavoidanceofgreatereviland feltthatitwasaconcertedefforttokillthelandlord. Peoplev.NormaHernandezthebridedidnotappearatthealtarandthegroomsfamilysuedherfor slanderofdeed.Courtletthebridegetawaysayingthatshemerelyavoidedanunhappymarriage,which wouldhavebeenagreaterevil. iii. Fulfilmentofduty Elements: 1. Defendantisperformingadutyorlawfulexerciseofrightoroffice 2. Injurycausedwasanecessaryconsequenceofthatdutyorexercise Peoplev.Delimaanexconvictarmedwithalancewasshottodeathbyapoliceofficer.Policeofficerwas justifiedforfulfilmentofdutytocontaintheconvict. Peoplev.Lagataanegligentprisonguardledtohimmissingoneofhissixwards.Inhispanic,heshottwo otherconvicts.Onediedandonewasinjured,andthecourtdidnotappreciatehisdefenceoffulfilmentof dutybecausetheguysheshotwerenotattemptingtoescape,merevictimsofhisattempttoreinstate authority. Mamangunv.Peopleinanattempttoapprehendanakyatbahayburglar,apoliceofficershotavigilante whoalreadyclaimedhewasinnocent.RepeatOansisdoctrine,thiscopshouldhavebeenmorecautious. iv. Obediencetoalawfulorderofasuperior Elements: 1. Orderissuedbysuperior 2. Orderhaslawfulpurpose 3. Lawfulmeansusedbythesubordinatetocarryoutsaidpurpose Peoplev.Beronillaamayor,uponanorder,createdaspecialtribunaltotryandexecutetraitorsduringthe Japaneseexecution.Notknowingtherewasageneralamnestygrantedtosuchperpetrators,theyexecuted atraitorwithpoliticalaffluence.Themayorandhisjuristswereconvictedforillegalexecution,but eventuallyacquittedforactingonlawfulorders. Tabuenav.Sandiganbayanmalversationchargedtotwoairportfinanceofficialsforwithdrawingmillions. Apparently,theyactedonawrittenmemorandumfromPresidentMarcos.Theywereacquitted. Exemptingcircumstances Commonalitytojustifyingcircumstances=absenceofmensrea Essentialdifference:Injustifyingcircumstances,thereisnocrimebecausetheactcommittediswithout deliberateintentornegligence/imprudence.Inexemptingcircumstances,however,thereisacompleted crimewithalltheelements,butthereisnocriminaltoblame. i. Insanity Peoplev.Bonoanamansinsanity(dementiaandmanicdepressiveness)wasintermittentandhekilled anotherman.Thedefencehadtoproveinsanityduringthecommissionofthecrimebutthedefendantwas exemptfromcriminalliability. Peoplev.DungokilledaDARofficialandafterconviction,diagnosedwithpsychosis/insanity.Defendant wasstillliablebecauseheseemedtohavebeeninfullpossessionofhisfacultiesduringthecommissionof thecrime. Peoplev.Taneoasomnambulistgotaboloandwoundedhiswife,houseguestsandfather.Court appreciatedhissleepstatedefence(hesaidhedreamtofbeingviolentlyattacked)becauseofclearlackof motiveonhisparttohurthiswifewhomheloveddearly. Peoplev.Madarangamanwasconvictedforstabbinghiswifeandduringthependencyofthetrial, diagnosedwithschizophrenia.Duetoabsenceofevidenceindicatingthathekilledhiswifeasafunctionof suchillness,theCourtsustainedhisconviction. Peoplev.GenosalandmarkcaseofBatteredWomenSyndrome(priortoenactmentofAVAWC).Awoman whokilledherhusbandwasmitigatedbythestateofbeingabatteredwife. ii. Minority JuvenileJusticeandWelfareActof2006increasedtheageofabsolutecriminalliabilityfrom9to15.15to 18y.o.areonlyconvictediftheyactedwithdiscernment(burdenofprosecution).

b.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
Circumstances,p.9 Peoplev.Doqueadeclareda13y.o.boytohaveactedwithdiscernmentwhenhestabbedaclassmate whowasbullyinghim.Hewasintelligentenough(goodgrades,captainofcadetcorps)tounderstandthe consequencesofstabbing. iii. Accidenthappensoutsidethepersonssphereofcontrol Elements: 1. Personperformingalawfulact 2. Duecare 3. Causesaninjurytoanotherbymereaccident 4. Withoutfaultorintentionofcausingsuchinjury USv.Taedowhilehuntingforwildchickeninashrubbyforest,defendantkillsamanandachickenwitha singlebullet.Themanwasexemptedfromcriminalliabilitybecauseitwasanaccident. Peoplev.Castilloawomanwaskilledwithaslingandarrowbyherhusband.Husbandclaimsitwasan accident,butwithhishistoryofdomesticviolence,theCourtsustainedtheconviction. iv. Irresistibleforceoruncontrollablefearofagreaterinjurynofreedomtoact Elements: 1. Compulsionbyphysicalforce 2. Physicalforcewasirresistible 3. Physicalforcecamefromathirdperson USv.CaballerosamanwasintimidatedbygunbuttstoburythebodiesoffourmurderedAmerican teachers.EXEMPTED. Peoplev.Lorenoabaranggaycaptainshousegotransackedandhisdaughtersraped.Someofthe perpetratorsclaimtohavebeenintimidatedbythesuspectremainingatlarge,buttheCourtfeltthattheir actionswereoutoftheirownvolition(onewasalookout,theotheronegatheredtheloot) Peoplev.delRosarioatricycledriverwasnotheldliableforoperatingthegetawayvehicleofholduppers whoendedupkillingtheirvictim,MissBernas. v. Insuperablecause Elements: 1. Actwasrequiredbylawtobedone 2. Personfailstoperformthatact 3. Failuretoperformwasduetoaninsuperablecause Peoplev.Bandianawomandefecatedatthethickets,notknowingthatitwasattheoccasionofhergiving birth.Overpoweredbyseveredizzinessandextremedebility,sheleftthechildandthechilddied.The womanwasnotliableforinfanticide.[Villarealsseparateopinionrevealsthatitcouldnotbeanexemption underthisprovisionbecauseitrequiresknowledgeofthelawfulactdemanded.Thewomandidnotknow shehadachildanddefecatingislawful,sosheisexemptednonetheless] Otherexculpatorycauses Absolutorycausesactscommittedareacrimebutforreasonsofpublicpolicyandsentiment,nopenalties areimposed i. Instigation Ifapersonisinducedtocommitacrimebecausetheinstigatorwantedtocatchthepersonintheactof doingthecrime,s/heisabsolvedfromcriminalliabilitybypublicpolicy.Ifitwerentfortheinducement,the personprobablywouldnothavecommittedthecrime. Peoplev.LuaChuacustomsofficialhintedtoopiumdealersthathisportwouldbesafeforsmuggling.The dealerswerecaught.Thisisentrapment,notinstigation,sothedealerswereconvicted.[Differenceof entrapmentfrominstigation:entrapmentmerelysetsupthecriminalinhisnaturalcourseofcriminalacts] Peoplev.Doriaabuybustoperationstilldidnotlinkawomantothedrugtransactionsandwasexempt fromcriminalliabilityofmarijuanasales. ii. Consent Consenttobeinjuredordamagetopropertywithinreasonableboundaries[i.e.:legalboxing] DOESNOTrefertoconsenttoacommissionofacrime[i.e.:CrisMendezconsentedtoinitiation,nottohis death] iii. Otherspecialcircumstances

c.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
Circumstances,p.10 Voluntarydesistanceinattemptedorfrustratedfelonies Accessorieswhoarerelativestotheprincipalsunlesstheyprofited Spousekillingspouseintheactofadulteryorcatchinganunderagedaughterwithherseducer Crimeofpropertyagainstfamilyunlessstrangersattendtothecommission Mitigatingcircumstances i. Incompletejustificationorexemption Whenelementsofthejustifyingcircumstances(andexemptingcircumstancesofminority,accidentand uncontrollablefear)isincomplete,itismitigating o Forthejustifyingcircumstanceofdefence(self,relative,orstranger),unlawfulaggressionis indispensible Peoplev.Jauriquecaseofincompleteselfdefence.Thedefendantusedunreasonablemeans,butthere wasathreattohervirginity(unlawfulaggression)andnosufficientprovocationonherpart.Mitigating circumstancewasappreciated. Peoplev.Narvaezamanmitigatedfordefendinghispropertybutusingexcessiveviolenceinsodoing. ii. Age(1518orover70) Impliedlyrepealedforthoseunder18,appliesonlytothoseoverseventyfortheirsenilityanddiminished intelligence iii. Lackofintenttocommitsograveawrong Peoplev.Uraladrunkprisonguardbeatsupadetaineeandsetshimonfire,whichresultedtothe detaineesdeath.Hewasconvictedbutwiththemitigatingcircumstanceoflackofintenttocommit homicide.Thiswasmanifestedwhenheextinguishedthehumantorchhecreated. Peoplev.GonzalesanAllSaintsDaytrafficatthememorialparkdramathatinvolvedanaltercationthat ledtotheaccidentaldeathofapregnantwomanandinjuriesonchildren.Intentiontocommitsogravea wrongwasnotappreciatedbecauseagunwasused. iv. Sufficientprovocation Provocationunjustorimproperconductthatexcites,incitesandirritatesanother. Elements 1. Provocationmustbesufficient 2. Originatedfromtheoffendedparty 3. Provocationwasimmediatetotheact. Peoplev.Pagalanemployerwasrobbedandkilledbyhisemployees.Defendantsclaimthattheywere provokedbytheiremployersmaltreatment,buttheCourtdidnotappreciatethisassufficientprovocation. v. Vindicationofawrong Vindicationcouldpertaintoselforthefollowingfamilymembers:spouse,ascendants,descendants,siblings, relativesbyaffinityofthesamedegree. Timelapseisacceptablefromtheoffencetothevindictiveoffence. Peoplev.Benitoafterbeingsubtlyinsulted(Ditopalatumatabayangmgamagnanakaw)amankills hisoffender.Therewasasixhourgapbetweentheallegedslanderandhisvindictivemurder,sotheCourt didnotappreciatethedefence. Bacabacv.Peopleajuvenilerowthatledtoanuncleandotherfamilymemberspickedupgunsand attackedthebullies.Courtdidnotconsideritvindicationbecauseanephewisnotthefilialrelationship contemplatedbytheprovision vi. Passionorobfuscation Elements: 1. Actonimpulse 2. Impulseproducedpassionorobfuscation USv.Hicksafterbreakingup,theexboyfriendkilledawoman.Passion/obfuscationnotappreciatedfor thisillicitaffair. USv.DelaCruzawomanwasalsokilledbyherboyfriendwhenshewascaughtcheatingwiththebest friend.Courtappreciatedpassionasamitigatingcircumstance.[DifferencewithHicks:Lawfulsentiments]

d.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
Circumstances,p.11 Peoplev.Gelaveranabandonedhusbandcaughthiswifeintheactofhavingcarnalknowledgewith anotherman.Courtdidnotappreciatethemitigatingcircumstancebecauseofhedidnotvoluntarily surrender,itsoundedlikeafeddefencefromhislawyer. vii. Voluntarysurrenderorpleaofguilt Eachiscountedasaseparatemitigatingcircumstance Elementsofvoluntarysurrender 1. Offenderwasnotarrested 2. Surrenderhimselftoapersoninauthorityoragent 3. Voluntariness Peoplev.Amaguintwobrothersturnedthemselvesinoneweekaftertheykilledandinjuredanotherset ofbrothers.Sinceitwasvoluntaryandfollowedtherequisites,itwasappreciatedasmitigating. Elementsofpleaofguilt 1. Spontaneousconfessionofguilt 2. Doneinopencourt 3. Priortocaseofprosecution Peoplev.DelaCruzinitiallypleadednotguiltybutaftertwowitnessesfortheprosecution,pleaded guilty.Courtdidnotappreciateittobemitigating. viii. Deafness,muteness,blindnessorotherphysicaldefectwhichrestrictstheoffendersmeansofaction, defence,orcommunication Regardlessifthecrimeisrelatedtothephysicalinfirmities,thisshouldbemitigating. Thosewhohavelessinlifeshouldhavemoreinlaw.myfavouritelegalmaxim ix. Illnessaswoulddiminishtheexerciseofwillpowerwithoutdeprivingtheoffenderofconsciousnessof hisacts Peoplev.FormigonesamankilledhiswifeinajealousragebuttheCourtfoundhimtobefeebleminded whileindetainment,soitwasconsideredmitigating. x. Analogouscircumstancescatchallprovisouniquetomitigatingcircumstances Aggravatingcircumstances(Art.14) i. Placeofcommission 1. PalaceoftheChiefExecutiveorplaceofreligiousworship(5)mustestablishthedeliberate intentofusingthevenuetoaddinsult. Peoplev.JauriguenotaggravatingbecauseChurchwasnotdeliberatelychosenandshedidnot havemurderinherheartwhenshestabbedthebloke. 2. Uninhabitedplace(6)uninhabitedregardlessofthetime Peoplev.Damasokillingwasdoneinasugarcaneplantationnearanationalhighway.The aggravatingcircumstanceofuninhabitedplacewasstillappreciatedbecausethesugarcanemakes itdifficultforaidtobeaccorded. 3. Dwelling(3)aggravatingbecausethisistheareawherepeoplesickrefugeandfeelmoresecure Peoplev.Dalanonwhileaskingforaglassofwateratahouse,themalefactorsinvadedsuchan robbedthehouseandrapedtwooftheinhabitants.Convictionaggravatedbydwelling. Peoplev.Arizobalrobberyinbandwithhomicidewasappreciatedwithaggravating circumstanceofdwelling. ii. Timeofcommission 1. Nighttime(6) o Subjectivetestnighttimewassought o Objectivetestneededtocommitthecrime o Onlyonetestisneededforittobeaggravating o Aggravatingnotonlybecauseofthedarkness,butbecausetherearefewerchancesofhaving witnesses Peoplev.Garciaapostdrinkingspreemurderdoneat3inthemorning.Aggravated. Peoplev.Arizobalkillingwasdoneat9:30p,areawaslitbykerosenelamps,highmoon.NotAggravated.

e.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
Circumstances,p.12 Peoplev.Rodasmultipleaggressorskilledthevictimatnightbutwasnotaggravatingbecauseareawas welllitbyPetromaxthatevenledtothepositiveidentificationoftheaggressors. 2. Ontheoccasionofacalamity(7) Personalcircumstancesofoffender 1. Recidivism(9) Requisites: a. Trialforanoffence b. Previouslyconvictedbyfinaljudgementanothercrime c. Bothoffencesarewithinthesametitleofthecode d. Convictionofthenewoffence *Pointistopenalisesomeonemoreforpropensitytodosimilarcrimes Peoplev.Balderadoctrinefortheimpliedrequirementinrecidivismthatthesubsequentcrime shouldbetriedafterthefinaljudgementoftheearliercrime.Inthiscase,amancommitteda robberyandthentheft,butwasconvictedforthetheftFIRST,duringconvictionoftheearlier robbery,recidivismwasnotappreciatedasanaggravatingcircumstance. 2. Reiterationorhabituality(10) Requisites: a. Trialforanoffence b. Previouslyservedasentenceforanotheroffencewithanequalorgreaterpenaltyor servedtwoormoresentenceswithlighterpenalties c. Convictionofthenewoffence *Pointis,theoffenderseemstobeimpervioustorehabilitationandhasnothingtodo withpropensity Motivation 1. Price,promiseorreward(11)shouldhavebeentheprimarymotivation;pecuniaryortangible Meansofcommission 1. Takingadvantageofpublicoffice(1) o PublicOfficer=personsinauthority(onechargedwithjurisdiction)oragentsofpersonsin authority(solongastheyparticipateintheperformanceofpublicduties,includingGOCCs) Peoplev.Capalacnotaggravating,policeofficerkilledtovindicatebrother,beingacopwas merelyincidental Peoplev.Gapasinaggravating,PCofficerusedanofficiallyissuedweapontocommitcrime 2. Insulttopublicauthority(2) Requisites 1. Publicauthoritywasexercisinghisfunctions 2. Saidauthoritywasnotthevictim 3. Offenderknewthathewasapublicauthority 4. Thepresenceofthepublicauthoritydidnotpreventtheoffenderfromconsummatinghis felony Peoplev.TiongsonafterescapingmunicipaldetainmenthekillstwoPCsandacop.Not aggravatingbecausetheyaremereagentsofthepeopleinauthority Peoplev.Magdueoafiscal,whowasapublicauthority,waskilled,butitwasnotaggravatedby thiscircumstancebecausethecrimewascommittedTOthatofficer. 3. Disregardofrank,age,orsex(3) o Shouldberelativetotheoffenderandthevictim o Rankreferstotherelativesuperiorityofthevictimtotheoffenderintermsofsocialstandingor position. o Rank,ageandsexislogrolledintooneaggravatingcircumstanceiftheyhappensimultaneously Peoplev.Colladoanoldwomanwasheldupbutherageandgenderwasnotaggravating becauseitonlyappliestocrimesagainstpersonorhonour.

iii.

iv. v.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
Circumstances,p.13 Peoplev.RodilalieutenantwaskilledbyanordinaryofficerofthePhilippineConstabularyand disregardforrankwasappreciated Peoplev.Pagaltheemployeeswhokilledtheiremployersontheoccasionoftheirstealingfrom himwasnotappreciatedwithdisregardforrankbecauseitismoreacrimeagainstpropertythan againsttheperson. 4. Abuseofconfidenceorobviousungratefulness(4) o Requisitesforabuseofconfidence a. Victimtrustedtheoffender b. Abuseoftrustbycommittingthecrime c. Confidencefacilitatedthecommissionofthecrime o Obviousungratefulnessisintegratedsothattrustneednotbeestablished,yettheessenceinthe aggravatingcircumstancestands. Peoplev.Mandoladoanincidentalhitchhikerincrossfireleadstothedeathofhisridehost. Obviously,therewasnotrustestablishedandthedriverprobablylethiminoutoffear,and unfortunatelyledtohisuntimelydeath. 5. Band(6) 6. Aidofarmedmen(8) o Armedmenhiredarenotdirectparticipantstothecrime,canbeusedmerelyforintimidation 7. Inundation,fire,etc.(12) o Inundationcreationofgreatwasteandruin(astheendingphrasesuggestsinthisaggravating circumstance) 8. Evidentpremeditation(13) Requisites: a. Plantocommitcrimedoneatanearliertimeframe b. Offenderstickstotheplanpreparesforit c. Lapseoftimebetweenthedeterminationandtheexecution USv.Manalindeafterbeingbribedwithwomentokillanyrandompersonhewantsatwill,a manwasconvictedandaggravatedwithevidentpremeditationbecauseeveniftheidentityofthe victimwasnotpremeditated,thecrimeitselfwas. Peoplev.Ilaoaaviolentbrawlledtothedecapitationanddismemberingofthevictim.No evidentpremeditationbecauseitseemedtobeoutofdrunkenrage. Peoplev.Bibatfratrelatedviolencewhereevidentpremeditationwasappreciatedbecauseit wasreportedbyaneyewitness 9. Craft,fraud,disguise(14) Peoplev.Empasisrobberywithhomicidewasfacilitatedwiththeoffenderpretendingtobea customer.Aggravatingcircumstancewasappreciated 10. Abuseofsuperiorstrength(15) o Superiorstrengthphysicalcapabilities Peoplev.Bigcasduringanothermanlybrawl,thetwoaccusedgotawaywithaggravating circumstanceofabuseofsuperiorstrengthbecausetheydidntseemtohavethoughtaboutit. 11. Treachery(16) o Bynature,culminationofvariouscircumstances o Importantaspectistheelementofsurprise Peoplev.Sangalangsurpriseattackwhilevictimwascollectingcoconutsatopthecoconuttree Peoplev.SanPedrorobberywithhomicideinvolvingcraftandtreachery Peoplev.Castillopubroomattackwherethevictimwassurprisinglystabbedtodeath Peoplev.Arizobalrobberywithhomicideisprimarilyacrimeagainstpropertysonotreachery Peoplev.Escoterobberywithhomicidecanbeappreciatedwithtreachery(butwasinanobiter, dispositivedidnotappreciatetreacheryduetotechnicalities)

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
Circumstances,p.14 Peoplev.Villonezagangwarbuttreacherywasstillappreciated Peoplev.Bacabactheentirefamilyganginguponthebullyrenderinghimdefencelessis qualifiedastreachery Peoplev.Guzmananadultattackingaminoristreacheroussincetheyarenotexpectedto defendthemselves 12. Ignominy(17) o Crimemademoreoffensivefromamoralstance Peoplev.Torrefielrapewasdonewiththeoffenderspeniswrappedincogongrass.Ignominy wasappreciated. Peoplev.JosetheMaggiedelaRivastory.IgnominywasappreciatedformakingMaggiedelaRiva standaroundnakedbeforehermalefactorsrapedherseveraltimes. Peoplev.Butleroutragingandscoffingatthecorpseofthevictimwhentheoffenderhadanal sexwiththewomanhekilledwithaJesusstatue.Acquittedforage. Peoplev.Saylanrapeinthedoggypositionisaggravatedwithignominy. Peoplev.Sultanhomicidewithmultiplerape,buttheadditionalrapesareabsorbedbythe specialcomplexcrimeandcannotbeaggravatedwithanaggravatingcircumstance(because unlikemitigatingcircumstance,nocatchallproviso) 13. Unlawfulentry(18) o EssenceoftheACisthatthecriminalhadnorespectforthesecurityorsanctityofthebuilding. 14. Breakingawall,door,etc.(19) 15. Withtheaidofpersonsunder15,orwithmotorvehicles,etc.(20) o Minority o Takingadvantageoftheimmunitytocriminalliabilitythatthechildprovides[becauseif hegetscaught,hedoesnothaveanincentivetopointbacktotheoriginatoroftheplan] o Useofmotorvehicles o Includesgetawaycarsandcarsusedtorunovervictims o Doesnotincludemotorvehiclesincidentalonlytothecrime[thejeeptheoffenderrode togettothehouseofthesourceofloot. 16. Cruelty(21) o Crimemadeoffensivefromaphysicalstance Peoplev.Ilaoanocrueltyfordismemberedvictimbecausewithouttangibleproof,the dismemberingcouldhavebeendonewhenhewasdeadalreadysohedidnotfeelthephysical tortureanymore. Specialaggravating,qualifyingoraggravatingqualifyingcircumstances Qualifyingcircumstanceschangeonecrimetoagravercrime[i.e.homicidemurder] Specialaggravatingaredefinedinspeciallaws Aggravatingqualifyingapplieseitherasanaggravatingorqualifyingcircumstance,dependingonwhat crimewascommitted. o Thisisjustaguessbecauseeventhelegislativerecordsdonotshowthemeaningofaggravating qualifyingcircumstances i. SpecificfeloniesunderBookII,RPC ii. Speciallaws 1. Useofillegalfirearmsorexplosives o PD1866asamendedbyRA8294theuseofillegalfirearmsorexplosivesincrimesdefinedinthe RPCorspeciallawsthatresulttothedeathofapersonorpeoplewillmaketheuseofenumerated illegalfirearmsandexplosivesanaggravatingcircumstance. 2. Useofdangerousdrugswhilecommittingafelony o RA9165apositivefindingfordangerousdrugswouldbeaggravatingtothecrimecommitted o Theproblemis,apositivetestcouldturnupeveniftheuserhasstoppedusing.Thelawisvaguein emphasisingthatthefelonshouldhavebeenundertheinfluence.

f.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
Circumstances,p.15 g. Alternativecircumstances Couldbemitigating,couldbeaggravating i. Relationship o Relationshipscontemplated:spouse,ascendant,descendant,legitimate/natural/adoptedsiblings, relativesofaffinitywithinthesamedegree. o Generallymitigatingincrimesagainstproperty(assumethatincertainconditions,propertyisco owned) o Generallyaggravatingincrimesagainstpersonsiftheoffenderisyounger(showsdisrespectofthe youngerforhis/herelders).Butmitigatingforolderontheyounger(likephysicalinjuries, excessiveformofpunishmentonly) o Alwaysaggravatingincrimesagainstchastity Peoplev.Atoptherapevictimwasthegranddaughteroftherapistscommonlawspouse.Relationshipdid notaggravatethecharges. Peoplev.Fetalinorapevictimwasdaughteroftherapist.Aggravated. ii. Intoxication Generalruleisaggravating,burdenofproofthatitisnotaggravatingisinthedefence o Mitigatingonlywhen:intoxicationisnothabitualANDnotsubsequenttoaplantocommita felony[mustbebothemphasisontheequalimportanceofnonhabitualityandintentionality] o Aggravatingwhen:intoxicationishabitualORintentionalandsubsequenttotheresolutionto commitafelony[either] iii. Degreeofinstruction Mitigatingforindividualswithlowerdegreeofeducation o Exceptforcrimesthatareinherentlywrong.[i.e.,killingisauniversalevil] Peoplev.SanPedrodefendantallegesthathecanonlyreadandwrite,butinrobberywith homicide,itisjustwrongeventotheignorant. o Includesindividualsfromdifferentcultureswhohavedifferentvaluesystem[i.e.,amemberofan indigenouscommunitywhohasnoconceptofprivatepropertybecauseeverythinginthetribeis communalwillnotbeheldfullyliableforstealinginthecity] Aggravatingforindividualswithhigherdegreeofeducation o Useofspecialisedskillstofacilitatethecrimeislikecraft

IV.

Personswhoincurcriminalliability
a. Conspirators ConspiracyAvoluntaryagreementtocommitafelonyanddecideonit.Amentalprocess,anexpressionof sharedmensreaofalltheconspirators. Allconspiratorsshareequalcriminalliabilityascoprincipals,regardlessofwhateachdidinthefulfilmentof thecriminaldesign Inferredfromouteracts Peoplev.Jorgethedefendanthelddownthevictimwhileanotheronewasstabbingdidnotindicateconspiracy Peoplev.Elijordedefendantwaskickingthevictimrightbeforehewaskilledbyanother,thekickingdidnotindicate acommondesigntokill Peoplev.Sanchezagroupmurderwheretheywaitedforthebaranggaycaptain,armedandthencommencedhis killingwhiletheotherscrowdedaroundtoobstructtheview.Conspiracywasestablished. Peoplev.DeVerathelookouttoamurderisnotaconspirator,mereaccomplice Peoplev.SandiganbayanatechnicalcasefortheSadiganbayanallowingJinggoyEstradasbailforlackofstrong evidenceintheallegedconspiracytocollectjuetengmoney.Prosecutorfounditanovelcaseforimpliedconspiracy (butallconspiraciesareimplied!). Principals TypesofPrincipals: i. Directparticipationpersonallytookpartinthecommissionofthecrime ii. Inducement 1. ByForcePersoninducedmayormaynotbeliable,liabilitywouldcomefromtheinducer.It shouldbeeffective.Andoffendershouldnothavepreconceiveddesiretocommitthefelony exceptforthatinducement 2. ByPrice,RewardorPromise

b.

CriminalLaw1SyllabusAnnotations
Persons,p.16 iii. Indispensiblecooperationcommitsanact,andwithoutthisact,thecrimewouldnothavebeenpossible Peoplev.Banzalesrapecasewithrapist(principalbydirectparticipation)andatomboyassistant(principalby indispensiblecooperation)whoabductedandhelddownthevictim. Peoplev.YansonDumancasBahalakanasadalawangyanarenotwordstomakesomeoneliableforbeinga principalbyinducement. Peoplev.Maluendaakidnappingcasewherethedefendantwasgivenashareoftheransomforhelpingthe proponentsescape.Heisnotaprincipalbutamereaccessory. Accomplices Notinconspiracywiththemastermind/s,butisawareofthecriminaldesign(knowledge) Aidsandabetsacrimebyprovidingdispensableservicesbeforeorduringthecrime Abejuelav.Peopleamantrustedhisbankerandhisbankerusedhispassbookforfraud.Passbookownerwasnot heldliableasanaccomplicebecausehetrustedhisbankeringoodfaith. Peoplev.Dobleaplannedrobberybyaseaside,nocturnalbank,theoperatorsofthegetawaybancawerenotheld asconspirators,butratheraccomplices. Peoplev.Doctoleroaccomplicestoarobbery+abduction+murdereveniftheirknowledgeofthecrimewasthatof therobbery+abduction. Peoplev.DeVeraearliermurderwhereinthelookoutwasheldasanaccomplice Garcesv.Peopleadaterapelookoutisalsoanaccomplice Accessories TypesofAccessories: i. Profitfromthecommissionofthefelony,orallowtheoffendertoprofit[ex:Fences,sellingoftheftstuff]; Includesfamilymemberswhoprofitfromtheiroffenderfamilymember[bloodtiesdoesnotcountasmuch astheprofitmotive] ii. Dispose/concealoftheinstrument[murderweapon]oreffectofthecrime[corpse] iii. Assistintheescapeofthecriminals 1. Publicofficerabusinghisposition[allfelonies] 2. Privatepersonshelpingintheescapeofcertaincrimes:treason,parricide,murder,attemptto takethelifeofChiefExecutive,orwhentheoffenderisahabitualoffender foraccessoriestypeiiandiii,relationshipisexempting. Peoplev.Talingdanadaughterwasthreatenedbyamothernottorevealthemurderofherfather.Wifewasnot merelyanaccessorybutacoconspiratorbecauseherdaughtersawherconnivingwiththeperpetrators,andaside fromthat,directlythreatenedthedaughter. Proponents Similartoconspirators,butproponentsaretheonesdirectingotherstocommitthecrime

c.

d.

e.

CriminalLawISyllabusAnnotated Basedon: *Prof.IldelfonsoJimenezsSyllabusandLectures *TheRevisedPenalCode th *LuisB.ReyesTheRevisedPenalCode:CriminalLaw,BookOne(17 Ed.) *PersonalcommentsofCeleniGuinto LastEdition:18/10/08