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OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL

For

PRE TREATMENT, UF, RO, & DM SYSTEMS


For

M/s Sitapuram Power Ltd.

Client LOI No. # : MBF060/52927 Dated 01/03/06 Triveni Order # : PXD 562

DESIGN, ENGINEERING, SUPPLY, ERECTION, COMMISIONING

Triveni Engineering & Industries Ltd.


(Water Business Group) 8th Floor, Express Trade Towers 15-16, Sector 16A, Noida 201 301 UTTAR PRADESH

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PREFACE
For ease of handling and reference, the operating and maintenance manual has been divided into two Parts (Part-1& II) Volume I - Pretreatment Volume I has been arranged in various sections that altogether deal with the procedure which must be followed to start-up, operate and maintain the plant. Volume II - UF, RO and DM system Volume II has been arranged in various sections that altogether deal with the procedure which must be followed to start-up, operate and maintain the plant.

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COMPANY PROFILE
At the onset, we take this opportunity to congratulate you for opting for a TRIVENI product. Triveni Group is a well established, dynamic and professionally managed group. With years of experience and the perfect blend of people, technology and entrepreneurship; the company has developed core competencies in the areas of Sugar, Steam Turbines, High Speed Gears and Water & Wastewater treatment. The group turnover is over INR 13 Billion. The employees strength is about 5000 across the group. Triveni is one of the top three Sugar producers in India. Triveni command almost 65% market share of Steam Turbine for sizes upto 27 MW. Triveni command almost 60% market share for High Speed Gears.

Our major Strategic Alliances with global leaders include: Lufkin Industries Inc., USA Vericor Power, USA Peter Brotherhood, UK. Memcor, Australia Sugar Research International, Australia for High Speed Gears, High Power Gears and Gear Boxes. for Gas Turbines for Steam Turbines for MF / UF / MBR systems for Sugar Plant & Equipment Manufacturing

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TRIVENIS WATER BUSINESS GROUP Triveni Engineering & Industries Limited, the leading water treatment company in India contributes to a clean environment by offering state-of-the-art products and technologies for turnkey solutions for the treatment of water and wastewater. This is for both the sectors - Municipal and Industrial. Started in 1984, we have complete range of products and services, which covers the entire spectrum of TOTAL WATER MANAGEMENT. Our strength in providing solutions for water, wastewater treatment and recycling systems using various physico-chemical for settling, clarification, filtration, disinfection, membranes and ion exchange technologies. We also have the best biological processes for removal of biodegradable organics from the effluent including nutrient removal and also offer MBR systems. We use latest technology and software for design, engineering and project management. Our strong design and engineering capabilities include process, electrical and mechanical providing optimum designing at the minimum operating cost. Our In-house project management capabilities ensure timely execution of the project. Our project team ensures site management during execution with focus on quality and on-time completion. Our service network exclusively maintain after sales service for lifecycle partnership with our clients. We ensure strict Quality Assurance for long life and trouble free performance for our products. We have established working relationship with reputed consultants and inspection agencies such as Engineers India Limited, TCE, DESEIN, MECON, H&G, Dalal Mott Macdonald, MN Dastur, RITES, KELLOGG, LLOYDS, BUREAU VERITAS, SGS, TUV, STUP, PDIL, Montgomery Watson etc. The list of our esteemed clients include reputed names like RELIANCE, BHEL, NTPC, UP Jal Nigam, Delhi Jal Board, DSIDC, RINL, SAIL, ONGC, IOCL, BPCL, EPI, JVSL, HZL, LANCO, VISA and various other private sector clients.

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We have extensive experience and expertise in the water and wastewater treatment technologies which is briefly summarized below :: Municipal Wastewater Treatment Triveni offers one of the widest ranges of treatment options for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Biological systems offered include Vertical Loop Reactor, Fine Bubble Membrane Diffusers, Oxidation ditch-type Multiple-pass aeration, Nutrient removal through nitrification/de-nitrification. Besides this, the thrust is always on efficiency and minimum operating costs. For sludge digestion, Triveni offers unique gas mixing systems for anaerobic digesters equipped with fixed or floating covers in single stage or two stage digestion systems. Our major installations include sewage treatment plant of 160 MLD (6700 m3/hr) for the city of Delhi. We offer MBR systems for advanced biological treatment requirements.

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Municipal Water Treatment Triveni offers equipment & technology for turnkey solutions for water treatment requirement ranging from process water for industries to municipal water for drinking purposes. Triveni offers entire range that involves chemical conditioning, clarification, filtration, disinfection, ion exchange and membrane based systems. Among its other installations, is a 144 MLD (6000 m3/hr) water treatment plant for the city of Agra set up under the World Bank Financing Scheme. Process Water Treatment Triveni offers complete solutions for process water requirement including Boiler Feed water, cooling water Requirement. We have complete range of products such as Clarifiers, Sand Filters, Carbon Filters, Softeners, De-ionization Plants and reverse osmosis systems including pretreatment which includes microfiltration and ultra-filtration, to provide even ultra pure water. We ensure the most appropriate technically and commercially viable system without being biased to any specific technology. Triveni has installed one of the largest process Water Treatment Plant of 6000 M3/Hr. capacity at NTPC, Vindhyachal. Intake Water Works Triveni offers equipment & technology for turnkey packages for intake water, water and sewage inflows for various applications such as Intake water works for industries, Intake water for sewage pumping station and Intake water for power plants. Systems can be offered with fixed or traversing type Trash Cleaning / Screening equipment to meet the various requirements. We can offer these packages with Through Flow and/or Dual Flow Traveling Water Screens, to suit the specific site requirement. Sludge Dewatering Triveni offers solutions for industrial / municipal sludge dewatering. Belt Filter Press and/or Vacuum Filters can be provided to meet the specific requirement of

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these packages.

We have one of the largest installations of 17 nos. Filter

Presses till now with Surat Municipal Corporation till date for their various Sewage Treatment Plants. High Purity Systems TRIVENI offers complete range of High Purity Systems including those required for Boiler Feed applications. This may include RO / MB configuration or DM / MB option. We provide pre & post options for colloidal silica removal in such systems which may include Membrane systems. TRIVENI has completed their largest installation where the combined RO / MB plant capacity is 200 M3/Hr. for Boiler Feed application in Khatauli Co-gen Power Plant.

Advanced Pre-treatment In various applications water require extensive pre-treatment so that downstream units are safe from the impurities which may otherwise damage the system which is crucial for High Purity systems where main treatment include either Membrane based solutions or Resin based technologies. We provide Micro filtration and also Ultra filtration in We are currently executing a association with Memcor, Australia.

prestigious job involving 3 x 45 M3/Hr. UF Streams as Pre-treatment to RO / MB plant at Indorama Petrochemicals Ltd., Nagpur. Effluent Recycle/Reuse To provide the total water solutions to our esteemed customers, we have strengthen ourselves with the complete range of membrane based systems. Our range of product includes cartridge filters, micro- filtration, ultra-filtration and reverses osmosis systems. We are currently executing 140 M3/Hr.

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Membrane Filtration systems for effluent recycling for Maruti Udyog Ltd., Gurgaon. Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant Triveni has the widest range of treatment systems to suit specific application in industries as diverse as: Steel Power Petrochemical/Oil Refinery Bio - Pharma Food Processing Sugar Distillery/Brewery Pulp and Paper Chemicals Textiles & Dyes... We have successfully commissioned numerous installations in the above industries including one of the largest wastewater treatment plants in the Indian steel sector treating about 184 MLD (7700 m3/hr) wastewater from the steel plant at Vizag (East Coast of India).
Trivenis Product Range At a Glance Process Water Systems High Purity System
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Municipal Water Systems Municipal Wastewater Systems Industrial Wastewater Treatment Systems Recycle / Reuse Systems Micro-filtration / Ultra Filtration (Submerged & Pressurised) Systems Membrane Bio-Reactor Systems Reverse Osmosis / Nanofiltration Systems Ion Exchange Processes Side Stream Filtration Water Softening Systems Intake Screening System (Travelling water screen / Trash cleaning machines) Mechanical Screening Systems (Fine/ Medium / Coarse) Sedimentation System (Circular/ Rectangular) Media Filtration System Biological Treatment - Aerobic Systems (Suspended Growth & Attached Growth) Anaerobic Treatment Systems (Digester / Gas Holders) Sludge Treatment Units (Thickener/ Vacuum Filters / Belt Filter Press) Oil water Separation Units (Skimmers / API / DAF) Chemical Treatment Units

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General introduction
The plant is designed to treat the raw water supplied by client at a flow rate of 235 m3/hour to produce clarified water out of which only 26 m3/hour shall be taken for further treatment by means of ultra filtration followed by reverse osmosis and demineralisation consisting of strong acid cation, strong base anion and mixed bed unit to produce finally demineralised water at flow of 14.75 m3/hour. Final demineralised water shall be stored in two DM water tanks for use by client in their plant. The system includes bulk acid and alkali tanks along with sulfuric acid tank which are utilized in the plant for regeneration and cooling water treatment. The neutralization system is also provided to treat all plant effluent to neutralize before its discharge from the plant. Plant is completely manual but all essential controls are included for safe and smooth operation of the plant, however due to regular nature of running and backwashing for ultra filtration membranes automatic operation is included.

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VOLUME 1 PRETREATMENT

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water

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INDEX

SECTION I

INTRODUCTION

SECTION II

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

SECTION III

INSTALLATION

SECTION IV

OPERATION

SECTION V

MAINTENANCE

SECTION VI

OVERHAUL / SPARE PARTS

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SECTION I

INTRODUCTION
General Feed Water Contents Water Available in nature is drawn for use from mainly two sources: (1) Surface Rivers, lakes, surface wells, Canals (2) Underground Tube Wells Natural water before reaching source traverses a long path through various geological minerals and other substances. As such it contains various impurities which can be categorized into (1) Suspended from (2) Colloidal form (3) Dissolved form As the name implies the first two categories contain impurities due to particles in suspension form of macro and micro sizes. These are settle able/suspended solids & contribute turbidity to raw water. The balance are dissolved impurities i.e. alkaline salts and neutral salts, The alkaline salts mainly comprises of Sulphates, chlorides, nitrates etc. of calcium, manganese, dissolved carbon dioxide and organic matter. Treatment of Water

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With the rise in the level of technology, the demand on the quality of water has also improved accordingly. The stringency in quality of water required is varied with its usage. For example, for high pressure boilers, dairy and laundry applications, prevention of scale formation is main important factor, whereas for pharmaceutical, laboratory, electronics, dyes etc., presence of any dissolved impurity is undesirable, since the same may contaminate the product. To satisfy the demand the natural water is treated to desired quality. Suspended impurities and to some extent colloidal impurities are removed by deaeration, sedimentation, clarification and filtration. Organic matter, if present, is treated by injecting chlorine. The above process is termed as pre-treatment. The treated water thus obtained is clear and colorless, containing mainly the impurities of dissolved salts and traces of residual chlorine. Dissolved salts are removed to desired residual level by ion exchange process in demineralising or Deionizing plant or by reverse osmosis process. Demineralising plant consists of ion-exchange columns housing ion exchange resins which systematically remove the ions in water. Reverse osmosis system consists of semi permeable membrane acting on high pressure for removal of dissolved solids depending on total dissolved solids of water.

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SECTION II

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
Triveni Reactor Clarifiers are Upflow Solids Contact Type units and are generally applied in water treatment applications for softening and elimination of turbidity and color. In the softening process, the hardness caused by divalent metallications is removed with the introduction of lime and soda ash. In case of turbidity and color removal, aluminum sulphate and ferric sulphate or chloride may be applied. When turbidity and color removal are required along with softening, the processes may be combined in one tank or separate tanks may be utilized depending on the degree of treatment desired. Reactor clarifier can be full bridge or half bridge type. Full bridge type is used in tank upto about 24 M diameter and is usually provided with side feed entry. Half bridge types are used in tanks ranging from 15 M diameter to 60 M diameter and are usually with bottom feed entry. In case of side feed entry, the influent pipe joins the draft tube while in case of bottom feed entry, the inlet pipe extends into the center column. The raw influent is brought into immediate contact with a large circulating volume of relatively dense, previously formed floc and precipitate (and treatment chemicals). The mixture of raw influent liquid and recirculated slurry is sent upward into the reaction cone by the action of turbine agitator with 75 to 90 percent being returned to recirculation with the incoming raw water. The remaining 10 to 25 percent pass under the cone and into the clarification zone. Once in the clarification zone, the solids settle to the tank floor with the clarified liquid moving into the effluent launder and existing the tank.

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The agitator acts somewhat like centrifugal pump; it draws water into the center of turbine and discharges it by propelling it outward. This action establishes mixing action in draft tube / center column and flocculating action in the secondary zone. The flocculation or reaction cone provides several functions. With gentle agitation from the turbine, floc particles form. The increasing cone cross-sectional area allows decreasing turbulence, which makes the floc particles agglomerate and become larger. As the particles become larger they settle to the bottom of the cone where they are either recirculated or become part of the sludge inventory. The cone also provides an upward increasing cross-section in the clarification to aid in the solid-liquid separation.

REACTOR CLARIFIER START-UP

To begin operation of the reactor clarifier by starting the flow, make sure the flow is within the hydraulic flow design limits. Once the flow is started, start the chemical feed to the reactor clarifier at predetermined chemical dosage rates (depending on influent flow turbidity etc.) using the appropriate feed point for each chemical. Waiting for the reactor clarifier to fill before starting the chemicals will delay attainment of steady state operation and desired effluent quality. Start the rakes and turbine on a medium setting. In order to operate the reactor clarifier properly, it is necessary to develop and then maintain a relatively constant sludge inventory. of grit. Allow the solids concentration to increase in the reactor clarifier until sludge appears at the bottom tap but not in the middle tap. This will usually take from 2 to 5 days depending on the solids production and influent flow rates. Once the desired sludge level and reaction zone concentration are achieved, begin sludge
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Until a sludge inventory is achieved, the blowdown should be off

except for an occasional short manual blow-down to keep the lines open and free

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blow-down at a frequency and flow rate to be determined based on solids production and on the volume of the sludge thickening cone. Once the reactor clarifier is operating with sludge blow-down, the sludge level, influent and effluent turbidity, chemical feed rates, pH, flow rates and mechanical operation should be monitored routinely. Sludge underflow concentrations should be checked about twice a day. The sludge slurry level should be maintained between the bottom and middle taps using sludge blow-down. During high flow periods the sludge level may rise For alum, due to their dilute above the middle tap of short periods of time.

suspension qualities, it is often difficult to maintain the sludge level below the middle tap. If this is the case, maintain the sludge level between the middle tap and top tap attempting to maintain the level near the middle tap. If the sludge level drops below the bottom tap, too much sludge has been removed and the sludge blow-down should be discontinued until the solids build-up in the reactor-clarifier. Since reactor clarifier is designed to handle variable flows, the chemical feed rate should be paced with the flow in order to maintain a constant dosage.

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TROUBLE-SHOOTING

Occasionally the steady state operation of the reactor clarifier will be upset. Upset conditions generally result in poor effluent quality. caused from one or more of the following conditions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Loss of or inadequate dosage. Excessive sludge withdrawal Excessive built-up of sludge inventory Excessive hydraulic flows Loss of solids in the reaction zone Mechanical failure. These upsets are usually

Table-1 is a tabulation of typical upset condition symptoms, probable causes, and corrective actions.

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SHORT-TERM SHUTDOWN

If the reactor-clarifier must be by-passed for more than a few days, the following procedure should be followed: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Shut-off flow Shut-off chemical(s) Turn-off turbine Blow-down all sludge Turn off the rakes If desired, drain the RC Operate turbine and rakes about once per week for 5 minutes to lubricate all running surfaces.

LONG TERM SHUTDOWN

Mechanical The following precautions cover non-operation or shut-down periods that exceed two months. They apply mainly to the Triveni or accessory mechanical drive equipment. First, completely drain the reactor clarifier. Two plans can be used depending on the availability of power. Plan-1: Power Available

When power is available, all equipment should be lubricated and operated for about five minutes, or run through a complete cycle, once each week. Drive should have accumulated water removed monthly. Plan-2 : No Power Available

Fill housing and gear cases with clean oil to maximum level. A rust inhibitive agent is recommended for adding to the oil. On certain type Triveni drives, make
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sure the primary, as well as the secondary drives, are lubricated. Check that all greased bearings are well lubricated. Cover seals, screws, chains and guides with heavy grease and cover breather caps with tape. Cover with tarpaulins, but allow ventilation. Once each month open drain plugs to remove accumulated water and return oil to maximum level. Check all greased items monthly for adequate covering.

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TABLE-I TROUBLE-SHOOTING
Symptom Probable Cause Corrective Action High Effluent Turbidity, Loss of or inadequate Increase chemical flow Suspended solids and poor chemical feed due to settling sludge Insufficient chemical flow Repair and / or unplug the chemical feed system Feed system failure Pace chemical flow with wastewater flow Line Plugging Exhaustion of chemicals No solids in the reaction Excess sludge withdrawal Turns sludge withdrawal off zone or at the bottom tap. until solids rebuild. Poor Effluent quality Insufficient chemical Repair or adjust chemical dosage feed system Sludge level above the top Inadequate blow-down due Reduce turbine speed tap or overflowing the to; launders Inadequate frequency Blowdown system failure Plugged Blow-down Excessive hydraulic flows Increase blow-down frequency (unplug pumps and lines Excessive turbine and rake Return RC to normal speed operation when upset conditions pass No solids in the reaction Excessive turbine speed Decreased turbine speed zone, thickening cone or Blow-down excess sludge blow-down, but heavy solids in clarification zone. Rake show high torque No solids in the reaction Plugged turbine or draft Clean draft tube and turbine zone, but solids at bottom tube by running at full speed 10 tap and in blow-down minutes twice a week Turbine speed too slow. Increase turbine speed Mechanical failure of Repair turbine and / or turbine and / or rakes rakes

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SECTION III

INSTALLATION

CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS STANDARD ERECTING PRACTICES SPECIAL ERECTING PRECAUTIONS SAFETY FEATURES SUGGESTED SEQUENCE AND METHOD OF ERECTION ADJUSTING TORQUE OVERLOAD MICRO SWITCHES USE OF SHEAR PIN DRIVEN SPROCKETS ESTABLISHING TRUE PLANE ROTATION ADJUSTMENT & PRE-OPERATIVE CHECK-OUT

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1. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS During any erection, primary consideration must be given to the safety of the workmen. Because the use of welding equipment and cutting torches is almost mandatory in the erection of this equipment, the possibility of a fire is an ever present hazard. Cover any wooden or cardboard crates or, better still, move them away from areas in which welding or cutting is being done. Because metallic equipment is frequently coated with inflammable substances and non-metallic substances are now used in many components of present day machinery and instruments, a fire can quickly grow to a major conflagration, sometimes emitting toxic gases, imperiling lives as well as destroying expensive machinery. Fire extinguishers and plant water must be available in the tank as well as on the surface. Workman must be able to leave the tank quickly from number locations. The sequence and method of erection of this unit can be completed in several ways. The following pages outline a sequence and method we recommend. Local site conditions, equipment and personnel available may dictate that another sequence be followed. During the erection of this equipment, the instructions should be used with the General Arrangement drawings, the Bolted connection drawing and the various assembly drawings found in the manual as well as the pocket. These drawings are to be considered a major part of this manual. reference for replacement parts and spare parts. As much they should be If there is any discrepancy referred to continually while installing the equipment and retained as a detailed between the drawings and the manual, the drawings should always prevail. Most motor reducers are shipped filled to capacity, however, some reducer manufactures ship dry, others use partial fillings of rust preventives such as
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vaporizing oils. In all cases, lacking specific tag instructions to the contrary, drain the reducer when received to eliminate any accumulation of condensation. Unless the unit is to be stored, flush and refill to operating level with the seasonal lubricant specified in the manufacturers bulletin we provide or proceed according to the name plate instructions. After fitting up chain guards, remove them until the equipment has been dry run and sprocket alignment, chain tension and electrical wiring has been double checked and all grouting has been done. Be sure that all shaft bearings, reducers and motors are properly protected against arcing across the bearing before any field welding is done. 2. STANDARD ERECTING PRACTICES

Fabricated steel equipment as manufactured by TRIVENI should pose no out-ofthe-ordinary erecting problems. However, due to the nature of such equipment and the condition of the containing structure (over which we have no control) a reasonable amount of fit-up and adaptation must be considered standard erection practice. The use of tools such as come-alongs welding and cutting torches, drift pins and reamers is considered standard erection practice. When new units are tied into existing units, it can be expected that a major amount of fit-up is required. The accumulated tolerances are already built into the existing equipment, making the job of tie-in and alignment a matter of detail fit-up.

3. SPECIAL ERECTING PRECAUTIONS

Erecting Multiple Section Bridges

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a) Field Welding Procedure

Refer to the General Arrangement drawing(s) in the manual pocket. When field welds are specified on these drawings, the welds must be completed before removing crane slings or cribbing. Fit-up bolts are to be used only to position the bridge for field welding. completed. During the erection of this equipment these instructions should be used with the GENERAL ARRANGEMENT drawing and other drawings referred to in the following pages. These drawings are considered part of the manual and should be filed with the manual for future reference. If there is any discrepancy between the drawings and the manual the drawings should always prevail. TRIVENI Reactor Clarifier is furnished with a slip connection on one end of the bridge where it lays on the tank wall. The bolts connecting the bridge to the wall are to be fully tightened, however. The location of this joint is indicated on the General Arrangement drawing. The fastenings are itemized on that drawing also. This slip joint provides for movement of the bridge due to expansion or contraction without transferring force to the tank walls. b) Repairing Painted Surfaces Damaged in Storage Stored materials may have been neglected, even though they had been properly prepared for storage. Paint or special protective surface coatings may have been disturbed or destroyed. Paint and other surfacing can be replaced or renewed just prior to start-up. The bridge will not support itself field welding is

c) Preparing Gear Reducers for Installation

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Before installing any gear reducers, check wiring for correct rotation. Gear reducers with oil sumps should be drained of lubricant and the draining checked for condensed water even if oil was added for storage. recommended seasonal lubricant.
d) Preparing Circular Drive for Installation

If water is

present, flush with hot motor oil, drain thoroughly and refill with manufacturers

Remember that TRIVENI, final, circular drives are shipped dry and should be drained of all condensate, then filled with operating lubricant according to seasonal requirement. e) Torque Overload Device Furnished (if applicable) NF-18, NF-30, H-40, H-60 & H-80 Drives for the lower rotating elements are provided with torque overload micro switch devices. Although these switches are pre-set at the factory, they must be re-set in the field.

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4. SAFETY FEATURES

TRIVENI Reactor Clarifier Bridge is provided with a well braced handrail extending to and around the drive unit. This bridge must be properly maintained as well as all other parts of the reactor. Keep the chequered floor plates clean of oil or grease. Chain guards and vari-speed drive guards are provided as required. These are to be replaced before starting up a unit shut-down for maintenance or repair. Shear pin torque overload devices are provided to protect the gear reducer and some final TRIVENI circular drives. Other TRIVENI final drives are protected by micro switches. At no time should the drives be powered without these safety devices being operable. Make no substitution for the correct shear pin. Do not wire around the micro switches.

5.I SUGGESTED SEQUENCE AND METHOD OF ERECTION

(SIDE FEED DESIGN) The erection sequence employed may deviate from that suggested due to manpower or shortage or lack of erecting machinery. The following sequence is one, which will work for most of the times. a) Assembling the Cone This is mot conveniently done out of the tank on a level ground surface or on substantial timber blocking within the tank. Refer to the general arrangement. Bolted connection drawings to assemble the component parts. Use the fit-up bolts provided, then field weld the segments together. Tack weld braces across the top, narrow end of the cone to stabilize it when being moved.

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b) Assembling the Scraper Arms

While the cone is being assembled outside the tank, the scraper arms can be assembled in the tank. Do not assemble the squeegees to the plow blades until the finished grouting of the tank is accomplished at a later point in the erection.

c) Connecting the Scraper Arms to Lower Torque Tube / Torque Cage

Prop the lower torque tubes / torque cage in a vertical position and assemble all tie rods, struts and spares between torque tube / torque cage and scraper arms. The scraper arms can be blocked up a few inches off the unfinished floor. This blocking must not interfere with the blocking which will be required for the cone and draft tube. d) Erecting the Cone Refer to the general arrangement drawing and note the elevations for the top and bottom of the cone. Place supporting members in the tanks so as to support the cone at the elevation indicated. This blocking must bridge the scraper arms and still allow access to the interior of the cone. Lift the cone using 3 or more cables with spreaders and lower it slowly on to its supports. Center the cone in the tank as best you can. Do not remove the cables at this time, but let the cones weight transfer to the blocking. inclined stabilizer tie rods. Connect all tie rods and adjust lengths so as to raise cone to its designed elevation and to locate it concentrically within the tank. With the cone completely suspended from its tie rods remove all cone blocking, leaving the props holding the lower torque tube / torque cage vertical.
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Assemble all cone support tie rods and horizontal /

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e) Erecting the Draft Tube

First remove any temporary braces tack welded across the top of the cone. Pick up the draft tube and lower it to its designed elevation. Fit-up and bolt all draft tube supports in place. Assemble all horizontal stabilizer tie rods between draft tube and cone. Check for concentricity with cone at upper and lower ends of draft tube. Do not field weld the draft tube supports in place at this time. Assembling the Upper Torque Tube to the Lower Torque Tube Bring the upper torque tube into position over the lower torque tube. Refer to bolted connection drawing for flange fastenings. Check blocking of lower torque tube before removing crane sling. Grease the bearing collars on the torque tube. f) Erecting the Bridge Assemble the chequered plate to the bridge. Note that one end of the bridge has a slip mounting or expansion joint while the other end of the bridge is held fixed to the tank wall. Secure the bridge to the tank, checking the area of drive assembly for level. Adjust till level. Note that upper flange of torque tube extends above bridge floor. g) Sub-assembly of Agitator / Scraper Drives and Agitator Shaft Raise the drive assembly and its drive base into a position where the agitator shaft can be bolted to the underside of the lower drives ring gear. Raise the subassembly over the bridge and lower it carefully over the torque already in the tank. Thread the torque tube up through both steady bearing until the drive base is within 6 inches of the bridge. CAUTION!! If the sweep arms were blocked up too high off the tank floor, you will find the torque tube bearing against the underside of the top drive ring gear. This must be avoided, so before lowering the drive base onto the bridge, remove the blocking from beneath the scraper arms and also remove any props from the torque tube.
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Lower the drive assembly on to the bridge secures the drive base to the bridge. Pull torque tube / scraper arms sub-assembly up until torque tube flange can be bolted to ring gear of upper drive. At this point entire lower rotating arms should be suspended from the drive ring gear. If any part of the scraper arms touch the unfinished tank floor, check the slope of the scraper arms against the dimensions on the general arrangement drawings. Remember that the squeegees have not yet been assembled to the underside of the plow blades! If the slope of the arms is found to be correct and contact with floor remains check drive for level on bridge and check torque tube for plumb. Assembling Agitator Disc and Blades Lower the agitator discs segments into the tank and assembles to agitator shaft. Attach agitator blades to disc. Assembling Radial and Effluent Launder Erect the radial and effluent launders by welding one end to the collecting launder around the cone and anchored the other end by bolting to the inserts provided in the tank walls as shown in the general arrangement drawing. h) Preparing the Final Drive for Operation Before any final adjustment to the cone or draft tube which would alter their elevation or concentricity with the drive, the drive must be prepared for operation and the sweep arms adjusted to rotate in a true plane.

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5.2 SUGGESTED SEQUENCE AND METHOD OF ERECTION

(BOTTOM FEED DESIGN) The erection sequence employed may deviate from that suggested due to manpower or shortage or lack of erecting machinery. The following sequence is one, which will work for most of the times. a) Center Pier Erecting Sequence The erecting sequence of a reactor clarifier is essentially the same. The following instructions will hold for both except where noted. Refer to general arrangement drawings for location of anchor bolts for the center pier. b) Setting of Anchor Bolts When constructing the tank, it will be necessary to locate and set the combination anchor bolt template and grout shield exactly in the center of the tank. thread to plumb and grout center pier at a later time. c) Center Pier Installation Assuming concrete around anchor bolts as above. Adjust level to design The template locates the anchor bolts for the center pier. Be sure to allow sufficient

elevation of center pier bottom flange, level to within 0.010 in two feet. Although the anchor bolts are now ready to receive the center pier, some comparative measurement will have to be made to determine which components must enter tank first, the center pier or the center cage assembly.

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Proceed as follows: Measure outside diameter of center pier top flange (part on which drive unit will rest). Measure opening of center cage assembly. If center pier top flange is larger, place center cage assembly in the center of the tank first. Block the center cage off the floor so workmen have access to center pier previously leveling. Thread center pier into tank through its leveled anchor bolts, washers and nuts. Temporarily secure center pier with another washer and full hex nut. If the center pier top flange is smaller than the hole in the center cage assembly, lower center pier on to its previously leveled anchored bolts, washers and nuts. Temporarily secure with another set of washers and full hex nuts. d) Plumbing the centre pier After checking to be sure studs and outside of pier top flange are concentric with centerline of pier, drop 4 plumb lines 90 apart from the top flange of the center pier. Let plumb bobs hang in a can of water or oil. Measure in from each plumb line to outer surface of center pier. Adjust leveling nuts under pier until the four measurements are the same within 1/16. Tighten down the hold-down nuts. A non-shrinking grout can now be used under these components, allow to dry for at least 24 hours. e) Assembling Agitator MIL Propeller and Shaft

Lower the agitator MIL propeller and shaft into the tank and assemble the agitator shaft to propeller. Lower the assembled shaft and propeller into the center pier before erecting drive head base frame and drive head.

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f) Drive Head Mounting Base Frame After lowering the shaft with coupling half and propeller into the center pier, hold the upper end of the shaft nearly vertical at the center and then bolt the drive head mounting base frame to the top flange of the center pier. Assembling the Cone and Collecting Launder This is mot conveniently done out of the tank on a level ground surface or on substantial timber blocking within the tank. Refer to the general arrangement, bolted connecting drawing to assemble the component parts. Use the fit-up bolts provided, then field weld the segments together. Tack weld braces across the top, narrow end of the cone to stabilize it when being moved. g) Assembling the Scraper Arms While the cone is being assembled outside the tank, the scraper arms can be assembled in the tank. Do not assemble the squeegees to the plow blades until the finished grouting of the tank is accomplished at a later point in the erection. h) Connecting the Scraper Arms to Center Cage Prop the center cage in a vertical position and assemble all tie rods, struts and spares between center cage and scraper arms. The scraper arms can be blocked up a few inches off the unfinished floor. This blocking must not interfere with the blocking which will be required for the cone. Setting Drive Head with Drive Head Mounting Base Frame Orient the drive unit with respect to bridge anchor bolts in the tank wall and lower the drive unit on to the drive mounting base frame. Run a washer and full hex nut down each bolt and tighten nuts. i) Erecting the Cone and Collecting Launders Refer to the General Arrangement Drawing and note the elevations for the top and bottom of the cone. Place supporting members in the tank so as to support the cone at the elevation indicated. This blocking must bridge the scraper arms

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and still allow access to the interior of the cone. Lift the cone using 3 or more cables with spreaders and lower it slowly on to its supports. Center the cone in the tank as best you can. Do not remove the cables at this time, but let the cones weight transfer to the blocking. Assemble all cone support tie rods and horizontal / inclined stabilizer tie rods. Connect all tie rods and adjust lengths so as to raise cone to its designed elevation and to locate it concentrically within the tank. With the cone completely suspended from its tie rods, remove all cone blocking. j) Erecting the Bridge Using care not to knock center pier out of plumb, set the bridge over its anchor bolts in tank wall and over final drive housing. Note: The Bridge is rigidly secure to the drive housing, but has a sliding expansion joint at tank wall. There must be adequate room to allow for expansion and contraction. If, due to misalignment of the anchor bolts, sufficient room does not exist then the slotted holes will have to be enlarged. Assembling the Center Cage to Drive Assuming that power is not available and drive chain has been removed; revolve internal gear until attaching holes line up with holes in the center cage. Lift center cage up and secure to final drive. Hand-tighten the nuts at this time. CAUTION!! At this point entire lower rotating arms should be suspended from the drive head through center cage. If any part of the scraper arms touch the unfinished tank floor, check the slope of the scraper arms against the dimensions on the general arrangement drawings. Remember that the squeegees have not yet been assembled to the underside of the plow blades! If the slope of the arms is found to
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be correct and contact with floor remains, check drive for level on drive mounting base frame and center case for plumb. Assembly of Agitator Drive and Agitator Shaft Raise and bolt the drive assembly (e.g. gear box and vari-speed drive unit) on its drive base frame so that the agitator shaft can be bolted to the underside of the reducer output shaft coupling half. Raise the agitator shaft already in the center pier and fix with reducer output shaft coupling half.

Assembling Radial & Effluent Launder Erect the radial and effluent launders by welding one end to the collecting launder around the cone and anchored the other end by bolting to the inserts provided in the tank walls as shown in the general arrangement drawing. Prepare the Final Drive for Operation Before any final adjustment to the cone or center cage which would alter their elevation or concentricity with the drive, the drive must be prepared for operation and the sweep arms adjusted to rotate in a true plane. 6. ADJUSTING TORQUE OVERLOAD MICRO SWITCHES All electrical wiring should be completed and the torque overload device field adjusted to protect the equipment during its dry tank run-in and subsequent daily usage. Note: Although the device is carefully set at the factory, rough handling during shipment or at the site can alter the shop settings. The device is located in a separate housing opposite the driven end of the worm shaft.

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A signal light and / or sound system can be connected to the device which consists of two (2) micro switches mechanically actuated through movement of the worm shaft as the torque load is transmitted to it. One micro switch should be connected so as to activate an alarm when a certain torque loading is reached. The other switch normally closed will open and shut off the motor if the torque loading continues to increase. The torque loadings have been pre-determined for your equipment and the related feeler gauge settings for both micro switches are indicated in Table Refer to that table and the other drive assembly drawings found in the manual pocket while preparing your drive to run. A dial indicator is usually attached to the outside of the micro switch housing. This indicator does not read in lbs/ft. of torque. It does, however, have These approximate warning and shutdown decals attached to its face glass. micro switch settings. Note: The torque overload device is operational only when the equipment is rotating in its designed direction.

decals are attached at the factory and relate directly to the warning and shutdown

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To set or check the micro switch you will need: 1. 2. Test light to establish when switch is activated. Feeler gauges.

Refer to the sectional views on torque overload device drawing for component part names. Set the micro-switches as follows: 1. Because the pre-travel in micro-switches varies considerably, realize beforehand that when either switch is properly adjusted, no air gap may exist after the feeler gauges are withdrawn. It is because of this pre-travel variation that a test light is an absolute necessity. It is not always possible to hear the micro-switch click as it is activated. 2. Refer now to the feeler gauge or air gap setting for the alarm setting indicated for your particular drive. Obtain feeler gauge for that dimension. For example, your drive might call for 0.017 air gap setting. 3. 4. Connect the test light to the alarm micro-switch. Loosen the setscrews in the top of the bar; loosen the jam nut on the adjustable contact capscrew and run the capscrew in until the feeler gauge will slide easily between the adjustable contact and the micro-switch plunger. Then run the adjustable contact out until the test light shows the switch has been actuated. Holding the capscrew head, run the setscrew in until it seats. Then run the jam nut up to the bar. To check the setting, remove 0.003 from the feeler gauge and insert between adjustable contact and micro-switch plunger. Test light should not light. Return to the proper feeler gauge and insert. Test light should light. 5. Repeat the above for the motor shut-off micro-switch.

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6.

Note whether the drain plug in the bottom of the housing is in place. This plug should be removed every 30 days (more frequently in humid weather) to drain out condensation or oil. It is not good practice to leave this hole open continually.

Zeroing the Dial Indicator Reset the dial indicator to zero if it has moved at all during the checking of microswitches. The drive can now be used to rotate the equipment to establish true plane rotation and, if practicable, to assist in leveling the finish grout on the tank floor. After the unit has been used for that purpose, you will find that the dial indicator will not return to its former zero. This is normal. One more zeroing may be necessary, that being shortly after the equipment has been rotating in a full tank.

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Resetting if Torque Overload Stoppage Occurs If a torque overload develops which is severe enough to activate the shut-down micro-switch, it is possible that the spring plate may have been permanently deformed. It will be necessary to replace the spring plate before attempting to reset the micro-switches or re-zero the dial indicator. Disassembly and Inspection Remove the flange bolts. The housing can then be withdrawn, bringing with it the spring plate, spring plate retainer, lock nut, bar with adjustable setscrews and adjustable plunger with nut which locks the bar to the plate retainer. To further disassemble the unit, remove the dial indicator from the housing. Next, loosen the nut on the adjustable plunger and then screw the plunger out of the spring plate retainer. The spring plate lock nut and plate-retainer can then be withdrawn and disassembled. Check the spring plate for flatness. If it has been deformed, replace it with a new plate. Re-assembly Reverse the above procedure to re-assemble. One test must be made, however, before re-setting the micro-switches. This test is to be made with the drive at rest, under no load. When all but the dial needle when assembling the indicator to the housing. The needle should move at least a quarter revolution as the indicator is being secured. If the needle does not move off the peg, loosen the nut on the adjustable plunger and screw the plunger back out of the plate retainer until it contacts the dial indicator plunger sufficiently to move the needle at least a quarter revolution. Hold the plunger while re-tightening the locking nut against the bar. To zero the indicator, simply rotate the dial. Once the above conditions have been met, refer to the instructions in the beginning and reset the air gaps with a test light.

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USED FOR DRIVE HEAD NF-18 NF-30 H-60 H-80

GAP SETTING FOR MICRO SWITCHES For Alarm 0.041 0.021 0.014 0.025 For Motor Shut-off 0.048 0.025 0.018 0.031

7. USE OF SHEAR PING DRIVEN SPROCKETS

Shear pin driven sprocket is provided at the worm shaft of the drive head. No substitute for the proper shear pin is to be allowed at any time. Clean and re-grease semi-annually. 8. ESTABLISHING TRUE PLANE ROTATION Readjusting the Rotating Members for Slope The scraper arms must be re-checked for correct slope and tip elevation. When the sweep arms were first blocked into position and then assembled to the torque tube, these assemblies were at their designed slope. Any adjustments made to level the drive mechanism will have altered the tip elevations and designed slopes off the members. If those changes were in excess of the various tie bars, etc. should now be re-adjusted to bring all scraper arms back to designed slope and floor clearances. All adjustments to be made with the tie bars and struts do not alter the drive mechanism level again. Pre-operative Check After a complete check out of the units torque overload device, if power is available, we suggest operating the unit in a dry tank for at least two complete revolutions. A better check would be to run for a period of two hours and then Grease the sprocket bore and shear pin faces before operating the drive under full load.

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check to see if the scraper arm is still operating in the same plane. Even if running under temporary power do not bypass the overload device of the unit. During the dry tank run-in, check the unit for: Smooth operation no stopping or jerking movement. Overhauling be sure proper heaters are used in the starting controls. Oil leaks through reducer seals or drain plugs. Oil leaks through main drive unit drain or level plugs Loose bolts.

9. ADJUSTMENTS AND PRE-OPERATIVE CHECK-OUT With the scraper arms rotating in a true plane, check reactor cone for concentricity with torque tube and check the elevation of its upper edge. Adjust all tie rods to bring cone into position. Add cone supports, shimming between underside of bridge and support until field weld can be made at lower end of support where it must contact the cone. Do not pull cone out of position to make these joints. Use shims or use longer angles. Now check concentricity of draft tube with torque tube. Move draft tube on its supports and adjust horizontal tie rods to obtain concentricity. Complete all electrical wiring. Erect all miscellaneous steel such as handrails, weirs, baffle plates, etc. Fit up any chain guards, and then remove until run-in period is finished. Remove all debris from tank floor and bridge. Double check the gear reducers and both final circular drives for oil. Grease all final drive grease fittings. Double check the electrical connections between micro switches and scraper drive motor.

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Start the scraper drive and let it run for an hour. Observe gear reducers for oil leaks through seals. Observe final circular drives for oil leaks. Power the agitator drive. Run speed control through its entire speed range. Allow it to run along with scraper drive. Change speed frequently so as to polish pulley if unit has been stored. If unit checks out after an hour run in, it is ready to assist in screeding the finished grout.

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SECTION IV

OPERATION

SAFETY PRECUATIONS FOR OPERATING PERSONNEL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Do not operate any drive unit without its chain guard being in place. Do not operate any drive unit if its torque overload device is not functioning properly. Do not stand outside the handrail surrounding the bridge. Do not attempt any maintenance to the main drive unit other than lubrication. Do not allow excess slack to build up in a drive chain nor tighten it to the point that the links can not flex. Do not neglect to thoroughly hose down the submerged equipment and fully drain the tank when a prolonged shut-down is necessary. possibility of scum coatings turning septic is always present. excessive build-up affects the balance. 7. 8. 9. 10. Provide forced ventilation and exhaust facilities when workmen are in a drained tank. Wipe up all oil and grease spills after any maintenance. Be alert to changes in the sound of the operating drives. Unusual noises should be investigated. Electric motors run hotter than they did years ago, and, for that reason hand contact is no longer a reasonable method of detecting an overheated motor. Provide for overload protection in the starter. The Also,

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INITIAL OPERATION Before filling the tank for the initial operation of the equipment, all previous instructions and dry tank check-out must have been completed. Start filling the tank and turn on the unit. Continue to fill the tank with the unit running, since the solids will settle out while filling. The weirs, which had previously been set at maximum water level, can now be adjusted to desired height. Continued operation should include regular preventive maintenance as outlined in the following pages. Since the turbine flocculator will not normally be run at varying speeds, it will be necessary for operating personnel to momentarily run the speed of the unit through its entire speed range once a week so that the drive pulleys stay polished and not have a groove worn in the pulley face due to unvarying speed.

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SECTION V

MAINTENANCE
CONTENTS

1. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL 2 .GENERAL MAINTENANCE 3. MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE

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SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL


Before any maintenance is performed: 01 02 Disconnect the drive, preferably at the motor and lock out electrically. Have adequate room to work in. Remove any guard or housing so that you are able to reach the part to be removed with ease. Do not work outside the handrail surroundings the bridge. 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 Illuminate the area properly. Ventilate the area properly if you intend to use volatile solvents to clean or loosen parts. Wipe up any oil spills, scum, etc. in the area where you need good footing or hand holds for leverage. Have a fire extinguisher handy if any torch work is anticipated or flammable solvents may be used. Have snubbing timbers and / or cable available for ting off heavy parts and chain. Use an overhead crane or portable hoist to support the heavier parts removed. Use a proper tool always.

Before Start-up 01 Refer to the drawings and / or manual when re-assembling. Operating elevations should be restored. If weight has been added or subtracted from rotating machinery, check the static balance of the rotating machinery See Service Manual instructions. 02 03 Realign all sprockets moved or replaced before start-up. Replace all housings and guards.

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04 05

Re tension chain before start-up. Check electrically any torque overload devices before start-up.

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GENERAL MAINTENANCE

No special tools are required to maintain or repair the TRIVENI Reactor Clarifier. Check the oil level of the reducer at 30 days intervals. Also check for water condensation in the oil. If water is present, drain completely flush out and fill to the correct level with new oil. When reducers are idle for an extended period of time, they should be completely filled with oil to prevent internal condensation. Drain down to proper level before re-starting. MAINTENANCE We suggest that the flow is diverted and the tank drained once every six months. After the tank is drained: 1. 2. 3. Clean the tank hose down walls, floor and all the submerged parts of the unit. Check adjustable brace between scraper arms and torque tube / torque cage. Check scraper arms for Missing, broken or badly bent squeegees. Clearance between floor and bottom of squeegees if this clearance is not uniform around the tank, it is possible that the machinery is no longer rotating in a true plane. Before making any mechanical adjustments, use a high pressure hose on all the rotating machinery normally submerged so as to remove any buildup of heavy bodied sludge, slime or lime.

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If, after taking the above actions, the scraping arms are found to be rotating in other than a horizontal plane, and adjust the drive on the bridge accordingly. Check chain and cable assemblies for undue wear. 4. 5. Check torque overload switches. Check drive chain and sprockets for wear and alignment.

Refill tank and begin normal operation.

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EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE


PRIMARY GEAR REDUCER Daily Observe in passing for lubricant leakage through shaft seals. Listen for unusual noises. Observe for looseness on drive support base. Weekly Check housing temperature hand contact. If main housing is more than warm, check for too little or too much lubricant. Monthly Check oil sump lubricant level(s). Grease bearings. Check for condensation and / or metal particles in lubricant. If contaminated, drain, flush, drain and refill with seasonal lubricant recommended in manufacturers bulletin. Clean out vent. Quarterly Check manufacturers bulletin for appropriate seasonal lubricant. Semi-annually When tank is drained for semi-annual inspection use this down time interval to replace leaking seals or gaskets. PRIMARY GEAR REDUCER Daily Observe for looseness on reducer. Annually If equipment is in constant use, bearings can be regreased (SPARINGLY). Remove grease relief plug if furnished. Use low pressure, high volume type gun. H-DRIVES Worm Gear Section of Drive Head Monthly Check oil level at sight gauge on worm gear housing. Clean air vent. Grease worm gear bearings with a Servogem-2 grease. Fittings are on top of worm gear housing. Clean fittings, add approximately two pumps from grease gun each fittings. Check condition of oil for condensation etc. If contaminants are found, drain, flush and refill with fresh oil, drain by removing plug in street elbow. Filter plug is located at top of drive. Final Turn Table Section of Main Drive Monthly Check oil level at sight gauge under floor plate. Oil drain plug is in tee below gauge. Filter plug is in elbow of pipe below worm gear section of main drive. Check condition of oil-use same procedure as listed for worm gear section of main drive. Change oil, use same procedure and oil as listed for worm gear section of main drive.
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When reducers are idle for an extended period of time, completely fill with oil. Torque Overload Switch Quarterly Check gap setting. Dial indicator to read zero when equipment not operating, adjust dial as necessary.

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NF-18 DRIVE HEAD Lubrication Oil Capacity 6 Quarts Oil Specification Servocyl C-460 (IOC Eqv.) Oil & Drain Plug Located in street elbow on outside of worm housing Oil Filler Plug Located on top cover (vent plug) Oil Slight Gauge Located on outside of worm gear housing Grease Fittings-3 Two on top of worm housing, one on pipe line to steady bearing) Monthly Check oil level sight gauge on side of worm gear housing. Add oil by removing vent plug in top cover. Clean out air vent. Wipe up all spills. Remove plug in bottom of torque overload micro switch housing and drain off any condensation or oil seepage. Grease worm bearings and steady bearing. Use low pressure high volume gun. Two pumps for each worm bearing. Three pumps for steady bearing. Use Servogem-2 grease. Wipe off any grease that passes worm shaft seal adjacent to driven sprocket. Remove cap plug in chain guard to draw off water. Grease chain. Check capscrews holding collector drive housing to agitator drive housing. Quarterly Check sample of oil for condensation, metal particles and or sludge. Drain, flush, drain and refill per preceding instructions. Check air gap of torque overload micro switches. See test procedure described earlier. Semi-annually When tank is drained for semi-annual inspection of rotating machinery, use this down time to replace or retension the drive chain. Retighten any loose bolts. Change oil to proper seasonal viscosity. If drive is with shear pin driven sprocket, remove shear pin, rotate sprocket to expose shear faces. Clean up faces and wipe with same grease used elsewhere. DRIVE CHAIN Monthly When checking oil level of circular drives, check drive chain for slack. Move gear reducer on its base to remove excess slack. If reducer movement has been used up, return gear reducer to its original position and remove link(s) in chain, then retension drive. Semi-annually Examine chain and sprocket for wear. Flop chain for additional wear. If sprocket teeth have hooked appearance, install new sprockets and new chain.
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BRIDGE Semi-annually

Check all fastenings Examine fastenings at expansion joint at tank wall. Retorque if loose. BOTTOM SCRAPER ARMS Semi-annually When tank is drained for semi-annual inspection, hose off with pressure hose to remove all sludge and lime deposits. Examine all joints for loose or missing bolts (and shims). Rotate machinery and test for true plane rotation. Examine scraper blades. Replace those badly bent or missing. MAIN DRIVE AND AGITATOR DRIVE (for lubricant capacities & specification Drive Housing Approx. Oil capacity Oil Specification (IOC Eqv.) (Quarts) Final Reduction NF-7 2.5 Servocyl C-460 NF-18 & NF-24 6 Servocyl C-460 NF-30 4 Servocyl C-460 Agitator Housing R-7 4 Servocyl C-460 R-18 4 Servocyl C-460 Note 1 Qts. = 0.946 Liters ELECTRIC MOTOR (for variable speed drive) Annually If drive is in constant use, bearings can be re-greased (sparingly). Remove grease relief plug if furnished. Use low pressure, high volume gun. One-fourth (1/4) ounce of grease will take 2 pumps R-7 & R-18 WORM GEAR DRIVES Oil Capacity 4 Qts. Oil Specification Servocyl C-460 (IOC Eqv.) Oil Drain Plug Located in outside of worm housing Oil Fill Plug Located on top cover (vent plug) Oil Sight Gauge Located on outside of worm gear housing. Grease Fittings 3 Two on top of worm housing, one on pipe line to steady bearing. Monthly Check oil level sight gauge on side of worm gear housing. Add oil by removing vent plug in top cover. Clean out air vent. Wipe up all spills. Grease worms bearings and steady bearings. Use low pressure high volume gun. Two pumps for worm bearing. Three pumps for steady bearing. Use Servogem-2 grease. Wipe off any grease that passes worm shaft seal.

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Quarterly Semi-Annually

Check sample of oil for condensation, metal particles and / or sludge. Drain, flush, drain and refill per preceding instructions. Re-tighten any loose bolts. Change oil to proper seasonal viscosity Remove vari-speed belt drive guard. Check drive V-belt for slack. Move motor slide base by hand wheel for proper tension of varispeed belt. Grease adjustable hand wheel screw.

AGITATOR BLADES Semi-annually When tank is drawn down for semi-annual inspection, examine all fastenings.

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SECTION VI

OVERHAUL / SPARE PARTS RECOMMENDED


CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. LIST OF SUGGESTED SPARE PARTS SUGGESTIONS REGARDING OVERHAUL OVERHAULING AGITATOR DRIVE OVERHAULING SCRAPER DRIVE OVERHAUL SUGGESTIONS FOR EQUIPMENT ERECTOR AND PLANT OPERATOR NOTE

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LIST OF SPARE PARTS


Name of Part NF DRIVES Worm W/Key Worm Gear W/Key Set of Vent Plugs Motor W/Pair of Spare Bearings Micro Switches on Bracket for Torque Overload Device Squeegees for Scraper Arm Reduction Gear Reducer with Pair of Spare Bearings and Oil seals H-DRIVES Drive Chain Drive Sprocket (W/Key & Setscrews) Driven Sprocket (W/Key & Setscrews) Worm (W/Key) Worm Gear (W/Key) Vent Plug for Drives Shaft Seals for Drives Squeegees W/Fasteners (if originally furnished) Motor W/Set of Spare Bearings Torque Overload Spring Plate Micro switches and Bracket Assembly One to Three Duplicate Units One to three Units 01 01 01 More than Three Duplicate Units 01 01 01 Set 01 One Assy One Complete set for Pair of Arms 01 More than Three Units 02 02 01 01 01 01 Set 01 Set 01 Set 01 each for various horsepower used. 01 01

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SUGGESTIONS REGARDING OVERHAULING


Suggestions regarding overhauling equipment furnished by Triveni, but of other manufacturers: 1. When a manufacturers separate operation & maintenance manual is provided, have the maintenance personnel become thoroughly familiar with its components. No brief summary of lubricating requirements can ever be considered as adequate. having read the manual. 2. Observe all safety precautions consistent with the type of machine and the extent of overhaul. Provide a crane or block and tackle for lifting and moving. Provide adequate ventilation if volatile or toxic solvents or adhesives are to be used. Provide uncluttered work space and a dry clean surface for parts layout. Provide adequate light. Have fire extinguisher handy if burning, brazing or welding is necessary. Provide adequate grounding before any electric arc welding is done on machines whose bearings could be damaged by internal arcing. Use proper tools while disassembling and re-assembling. Name plate instructions are no substitute for

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OVERHAULING THE AGITATOR DRIVE

It is unlikely that the Agitator drive will require overhaul for many years if proper maintenance procedures are carefully monitored. Refer to the drive assembly drawing in the manual pocket. Proceed as follows after locking out the drive at the panel: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Drain lubricant from collector drive. Block up scraper arms in the tank bottom, to take the weight off the drive gear. Remove top cover and remove the capscrews holding the torque tube to the drive gear. Remove the bolts holding the collector drive to the agitator drive. Remove the collector drive. Remove chain cover and chain from drive. Tie off agitator shaft to bridge. Remove capscrews holding shaft to work gear. Remove thrust bearing retainer from worm housing. Drift the worm shaft towards the torque overload housing end of the shaft. Remove worm and key and spacer. If worm teeth are chipped or pitted, replace. Remove, clean and inspect bearings. Lift out worm gear, being careful not to lose ball bearings on which it rests. If balls are pitted, replace. Surface corrosion (without pitting) can be removed with crocus cloth. If gear teeth are worn thin, replace. 10. 11. Wipe out ball races. If pitted, replace. Before reassembling, purges all grease fittings to remove any grit. Wipe all surfaces thoroughly. Solvent clean all bearings in the worm housing dry without spinning and repack with grease. 12. 13. Reassemble in reverse order, taking care not to lose any bearing balls. Secure agitator shaft to worm gear.

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14. 15.

Refill drive with seasonally appropriate lubricant. Reconnect chains and replace cover. Grease at all fittings. Lower collector drive onto agitator drive, taking care to feed collector torque tube through collector drive steady bearing without damaging either.Secure torque tube to collector worm gear.

16. 17.

Refill collector drive with seasonally appropriate lubricant. fittings. Remove blocking from beneath scraper arms in tank bottom. Note:

Grease all

The above overhauling procedure is generally applicable for all

agitator drives and especially for R-drive reducer. For standard gear reducers, refer to vendor information section of the bulletin.

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OVERHAULING REACTOR MAIN DRIVE


(FOR NF-DRIVES) It is unlikely that the final drive will require overhaul for many years if proper maintenance procedures are carefully monitored. Refer to the drive assembly drawing in the manual pocket. Proceed as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Drain lubricant from final drive. Block up the rotating members in the tank, scraper arms, headers etc. Removes final drive cover plate and gradually loosen the capscrews holding the torque tube to the worm gear. Remove chain guards and drive chain. Remove driven sprocket. Remove torque overload housing from drive housing. Drift the worm shaft towards the torque overload housing end of the shaft. Remove worm and key and spacer. If worm teeth are chipped or pitted, replace. Remove, clean and inspect bearings. Lift out worm gear, being careful not to lose ball bearings on which it rests. If balls are pitted, replace. 10. 11. Surface corrosion (without pitting) can be removed with crocus cloth. If gear teeth are worn thin, replace. Wipe out ball races. If pitted, replace. Before re-assembling, purge all grease fittings to remove any grit. Wipe all surfaces thoroughly. Solvent clean all bearings in the worm housing dry without spinning and repack with grease. 12. 13. 14. Reassemble in reverse order, taking care not to lose any bearing balls. Reassemble torque overload device and zero the indicator. micro switches with a test lamp. Refill drive with seasonally appropriate lubricant. Reset the

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15. 16. 17.

Assemble torque tube to worm gear. gradually. Replace top cover.

Draw up the joining capscrews

Assemble driven sprocket, drive chain and guard. Remove blocking from beneath rotating members.

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OVERHAULING REACTOR MAIN DRIVE (FOR H-DRIVES)

1. 2. 3.

Disconnect and lockout the drive electrically. Drain the final drive. We also recommend that the primary and secondary worm gear drives be drained, flushed and relubricated. Remove the dust shield segments, this will expose the stop blocks. Remove stop block capscrews and stop blocks. (Stop blocks can be held from turning with channel lock or vise grip pliers).

4.

Remove capscrews and taper pin joining the internal gear segments, lift and remove segments. The internal gear segments on larger units are heavy, they will require a block and tackle or small crane to lift them out. (Lifting hooks at all four flanges will keep the segment in balance when removing it from housing).

5.

Remove the ball bearings and races from the housing. Thoroughly clean housing, gear segments, bearing races, etc. with a good commercial solvent or kerosene.

6.

Examine the ball bearings and races for galling, pitting or any other roughness, if none is evident, the parts can be reused. scrape out the repaint non-machined surfaces. Check the condition of the interior of the housing for rust and loose paint. If needed,

7.

If the ball races have to be replaced on the gear segment, it will be necessary to stake them in place. When installing the ball bearings in the housing set them in gobs of grease to hold them in position until the gear segments are reinstalled. Lightly cement a new felt strip in the housing V groove. The gear segments can now be reinstalled in the housing. Use

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care when setting segments in position so as not to upset ball bearings or newly installed felt seal. Drive the taper pins into the flanges of grade 5 bolts. Reinstall stop blocks and dust seal segments. 8. Replace any drain plugs that were removed and fill with proper lubricant to operating level. ROTATING EQUIPMENT SEGMENT After overhauling the final drive, the rotating equipment which was blocked in place and then reconnected to the drive, will have to be realigned in the same manner as when it was installed.

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SUGGESTIONS REGARDING OVERHAULING EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURED BY TRIVENI 1. 2. Drain the tank, hose down the equipment and the tank so that noxious fumes are at a minimum and surfaces afford good footing. Have a small crane or portable hoist available. Many components are heavy and some procedures require lifting before timber supports are placed. 3. 4. 5. Use cable in first class condition when chain strands are to be tied off or parts lifted. Provide a dry area for storing parts prior to re-assembly. Have the Triveni Service Manual available to you. Refer to the General Arrangement and assembly drawings for locating dimensions when questions arise. 6. TRIVENI equipment other than motor reducers and electrical components do not require special tools for disassembly. Care must be taken, however, when removing cast iron or semi-steel sprockets and bearings or set collars. Clean up shafts before attempting to slide sprockets, bearings or set collars off the shafts. Use rust solvents to loosen set screws. 7. 8. Take care when burning off nuts or bolts heads that adjacent accumulations of oil, grease or paint do not start to burn. If it is necessary to use a torch to help remove a sprocket, do not attempt to burn completely through the hub. Burn a groove into the hub and use chisels to split the hub. 9. Be sure to use a proper ground when doing any welding so that arcing across any bearing in adjacent machinery is avoided. Be especially careful when welding near motors and reducers. 10. Grind all welds smooth in areas where some other part has to cross the weld.

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ERECTOR & PLANT OPERATOR NOTE We recommend incorporating the entire Triveni Service Manual into your overall plant manual for the following reasons: 1. If your unit eventually requires maintenance involving removal of the drive, it is unlikely that plant personnel will be able to properly realign and balance the rotating machinery to operate in a true plane without knowledge of installation procedures. 2. Certain data pages in installation instructions deal with dimensions to be held and clearances to maintain. These instructions are valuable during any eventual overhaul and the ensuing start-up. 3. 4. 5. Assembly and sub-assembly drawings found in the manual pocket constitute a detailed parts list from which you can order replacement parts. Do not run the circular drive in reverse under any circumstances. Determine proper rotation of drive and proper wiring before assembling drive to bridge.

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VOLUME - 2 UF, RO AND DM SYSTEM

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water
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INDEX

SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5

BASICS OF UF & RO SYSTEM BASICS OF DM SYSTEM GENERAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF PLANT MAJOR PROCESS EQUIPMENTS PROCESS CALCULATION PRECOMISSIONING CHECKS OPERATION AND COMISSIONING OF PLANT CONTROL PHILOSOPHY TROUBLE SHOOTING MAINTENANCE LAB PROCEDURE FOR CHEMICAL CONTROL DURING REGENERATION/ OPERATION ANALYTICAL SCHEDULE ENCLOSURES

SECTION 6 SECTION 7 SECTION 8 SECTION 9 SECTION 10 SECTION 11 SECTION 12 SECTION 13

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SECTION - 1 BASICS OF UF & RO SYSTEM

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water

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1.

General

Reverse Osmosis is a molecular level separation technique. This separation action is capable of removing 99% of dissolved minerals, 95 97% of dissolved organics and more than 98% of biological and colloidal matters from water. These separations are made possible by use of semi permeable membranes which allows only certain molecule to pass through easily while passage of larger molecules (i. e. Dissolved salts) is retarded. Operating Factors influencing performance of RO Membranes
PARAMETERS ACTION PERMEATE TDS

Applied Pressure Applied Pressure Feed Temperature Feed Temperature TDS TDS Percent conversion Percent conversion

Raise Lower Raise Lower Raise Lower Raise Lower

Increase Decrease Decrease Decrease Decrease Increase Decrease Increase

Ratio of brine TDS to feed TDS by membrane is called salt rejection Amount of water recovered for use as percentage of water fed into RO unit is called % recovery or conversion. In RO System pressurized feed water enters membrane vessel and flows through channels between spiral windings of spiral wound element. Some of the water permeate through the membrane in a spiral path to permeate collection tube at center of element and the balance comes out as reject The reject of the 1st membrane becomes the feed water to the next membrane in the vessel and the process is repeated. Permeate from each element exits from common permeate tube in membrane vessel. Feed water becomes more concentrated as it passes through each membrane elements and exits from membrane vessels as concentrate. Before water supply can be made available to RO system, pretreatment of water is essential to remove foul ants that would cause irreversible damage to RO membranes. Pretreatment process is to be operated efficiently and adjusted to match actual inlet water conditions encountered to produce effluent design required. An inlet

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water conditions may vary from time to time, system must be monitored analytically and must be adjusted. Sodium bi-sulfite, SMBS or Sod. Sulfite can be used to dechlorinate water. SMBS (Na2S2O5) is 100% active solid & dissolves in water to form sodium bi-sulfite. Na2S2O5 + H2O---- 2 NaHSO3 2. 2.1 GENRAL PROCESS / FILTRATION TECHNIQUES Desalination Technologies and Filtration Processes

Out of the several desalination processes considered, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, distillation and electro-dialysis are the major processes used in desalination. Of lesser significance due to their practical application as well as their less beneficial operation are refrigerant freezing, vacuum freezing, vapour compression and piezodialysis. Reverse osmosis is in general the most economical process for desalination of brackish water and sea water. As a widely accepted technology reverse osmosis became more and more competitive and is superior to the traditional thermal process when a comparison is made of capital investment and energy consumption. The most applied operating span of these four major desalination processes is shown in Figure 1.

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The various filtration technologies which currently exist can be categorized on the basis of the size of particles removed from a feed stream. Conventional microfiltration of suspended solids is accomplished by passing a feed solution through the filter media in a perpendicular direction. The entire solution passes through the media, creating only one exit stream. Examples of such filtration devices include cartridge filters, bag filters, sand filters, and multimedia filters. Microfiltration separation capabilities are generally limited to undissolved particles greater than 1 micron.

Figure: 2 For the removal of small particles and dissolved salts. Membrane separation systems are utilized which use a different method than conventional particle filtration. Termed cross flow membrane filtration, see Figure 2 this method uses a pressurized feed stream which flows parallel to the membrane surface. A portion of this stream passes through the membrane, leaving behind the rejected particles in the concentrated remainder of the stream. Since there is a continuous flow across the membrane surface, the rejected particles do not accumulate but instead are swept away by the concentrate stream. Thus, one feed stream is separated into two exit streams: the solution passing through the membrane surface (permeate) and the remaining concentrate stream. 2.2 Categories

There are four general categories of cross flow membrane filtration:


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Micro-filtration, Ultra-filtration, Nano-filtration, and Reverse Osmosis. 2.2.1 Micro-Filtration (MF) Micro-filtration removes particles in the range of approximately 0.1 to 1 micron. In general, suspended particle and large colloids are rejected while macromolecules and dissolved solids pass through the MF membrane. Application includes removal of bacteria, flocculated materials, or TSS (Total Suspended Solids). Trans membrane pressures are typically 0.7 bar (10 PSI). 2.2.2 Ultra-Filtration (UF) Ultra-filtration provides macromolecular separation for particles in the 20 to 1000 Angstrom range (up to 0.1 micron). All dissolved salts and smaller molecules pass through the membrane. Items rejected by the membrane include colloids, proteins, microbiological contaminants, and large organic molecules. Most UF membranes have molecular weight cut-off values between 1,000 and 100,000. Trans membrane pressures are typically 1 to 7 bar (15 to 100 PSI). UF is a low pressure (5 - 150 psig) process for separating larger size solutes from aqueous solutions by means of a semi-permeable membrane. Retains oils, particulate matter, bacteria and suspended solids large macromolecules and proteins Passes most surfactants, water, acid and alkaline compounds Pore sizes ranging from 0.005 0.1 micron; 1K 500K MWCO Permeate is clear (non-turbid) solution void of suspended solids Most UF membranes for industrial applications are designed for crossflow separation, where a feed stream is introduced into the membrane element under pressure and passed over the membrane surface in a controlled flow path. A portion of the feed passes through the membrane and is called permeate. The rejected materials are flushed away in a stream called the concentrate. Crossflow membrane filtration uses a high cross flow rate to enhance permeate passage and reduce membrane fouling.
Examples of UF Applications Application Permeate Concentrate Benefits of UF (Retentate) Potable Potable Water, particulate Certified for 4-log removal of bacteria, giardia, Water water free of solids cryptosporidium and viruses from drinking suspended water. solids, turbidity, Turbidity < 0.1 NTU bacteria and
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large viruses Oily Oil free (< Water, Wastewater 50 mg/L) suspended solids, water insoluble metal hydroxides, etc. Electrocoat Water, Water, paint Paint dissolved resins and salts and pigments solvents Milk Lactose and Protein salts solution concentrate Whey Lactose and Whey Protein salts solution Concentrate (WPC) Apple juice Low Juice, suspended clarification turbidity, solids, pulp, clear juice colloidal haze particles. Reuse of Water free of Water, particulate municipal suspended solids wastewater solids, bacteria & viruses Turbidity < 0.1 NTU SDI15 < 3 Malting Water Containing*: wastewater, activated sludge Suspended solids < 0.1 mg/liter BOD 2-3 mg/liter COD 100200 mg/liter Ntotal 1/2 mg/liter Ptotal <1 mg/liter *sample values

Consistent permeate water quality even when feed composition subject to upsets. Highly concentrated oil emulsion for waste disposal. Allows the recovery of valuable paint resins and pigments.

Protein concentration at lower energy cost than evaporation. Protein concentration at lower energy cost than evaporation. Removes suspended solids and turbidity while allowing the passage of juice, sugar and taste.

Polishes biologically treated municipal effluent for discharge, reuse, or feed to reverse osmosis

Industrial MBR, e.g. malting industry

Meets stringent effluent discharge requirements, eliminates solids, reduces wastewater discharge fees, and requires less space than conventional wastewater treatment

Incomplete or inconsistent removal of suspended contaminants -- such as colloidal silica and precipitated metals in the micron range -- from boiler makeup water by conventional chemical, media filtration and ion exchange processes can result in inefficient operation and premature failure of power plant equipment, leading to expensive production downtime.

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Ultra filtration Membranes provide an advanced, highly efficient alternative to these standard methods. They have proven to result in more effective and reliable pretreatment procedures for reverse osmosis and ion exchange operations. 2.2.3 Nano-Filtration (NF): Nano-filtration refers to a specialty membrane process which rejects particles in the approximate size range of 1 nanometer (10 Angstroms); hence the term Nano-filtration NF operates in the realm between UF and reverse osmosis. Organic molecules with molecular weight greater than 200-400 are rejected. Also, dissolved salts are rejected in the range of 20-98% Salts which have monovalent anions (e.g. Sodium chloride or calcium chloride) have rejections of 20-80% , whereas salts with divalent anions (e.g. magnesium sulphate) have higher rejections of 90-98%. Typical applications include removal of colour and total organic carbon (TOC) from surface water, removal of hardness or radium from well water, overall reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS), and the separation of organic from inorganic matter in specialty food and wastewater application. Trans membrane pressures are typically 3.5 to 16 bar (50 to 225 PSI). 2.2.4 Reverse Osmosis (RO) Reverse osmosis is the finest level of filtration available; The RO membrane acts as a barrier to all dissolved salts and inorganic molecules, as well as organic molecules with a molecular weight greater than approximately 100. Water molecules, on the other hand, pass freely through the membrane creating a purified product stream. Rejection of dissolved salts is typically 95 to greater than 99%. 2.3 Principal of Reverse Osmosis

How Reverse Osmosis works: The phenomenon of osmosis occurs when pure water flows from a dilute saline solution through a membrane into a higher concentrated saline solution. The phenomenon of osmosis is illustrated in Figure 2 A. semi permeable membrane is placed between two compartments. Semi permeable means that the membrane is permeable to some species, and not permeable to others. Assume that this membrane is permeable to water, but not to salt. Then, place a salt solution in one compartment and pure water in the other compartment. The membrane will allow water to permeate through it to either side. But salt cannot pass through the membrane.

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As a fundamental rule of nature, this system will try to reach equilibrium. That is, it will try to reach the same concentration on both sides of the membrane. The only possible way to reach equilibrium is for water to pass from the pure water compartment to the salt-containing compartment, to dilute the salt solution. Figure 2 also shows that osmosis can cause a rise in the height of the salt solution. This height will increase until the pressure of the column of water (salt solution), is so high that the force of this water column stops the water flow. The equilibrium point of this water column height in terms of water pressure against the membrane is called osmotic pressure. If a force is applied to this column of water, the direction of water flow through the membrane can be reversed. This is the basis of the term reverse osmosis. Note that this reversed flow produces pure water from the salt solution, since the membrane is not permeable to salt.

Figure:3

2.4

How to use Reverse Osmosis in practice

The simplified reverse osmosis process is shown in Figure 3 With a high pressure pump, pressurized saline feed water is continuously pumped to the module system. Within the module, consisting of a pressure vessel (housing) and a membrane element, the feed water will be split in a low-saline
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product, called permeate and a high saline brine, called concentrate or reject. A flow regulating valve, called concentrate valve, controls the percentage of feed water that is going to the concentrate stream and the permeate which will be obtained from the feed. In case of a spiral wound module consisting of a pressure vessel and several spiral wound elements, pressurized water flows into vessel and through the channels between the spiral windings of a spiral wound element. Up to seven elements are connected together within a pressure vessel. The feed water becomes more and more concentrated and will enter the next element, and after the last element to the concentrate valve where the applied pressure will be released. The permeate of each element will be collected in the common permeate tube installed in the centre of each spiral wound element and flows to a permeate collecting pipe outside of the pressure vessel. 2.5 Factors influencing

Reverse Osmosis performance: Permeate Flux and salt rejection is the key performance parameters of a reverse osmosis process. They are mainly influenced by variable parameters which are as follows: Pressures Temperature Recovery Feed water salt concentration The following graphs show the impact of each of those parameters when the other three parameters are kept constant. In practice, there is normally an overlap of two or more effects. Not to be neglected are several main factors which cannot be seen directly in membrane performance. These are maintenance and operation of the plant as well as proper pretreatment design. Considered of these three parameters, which have very strong impact on the performance of a reverse osmosis system, is a must for each OEM (original equipment manufacturer)and end user of such a system. 2.5.1 Pressures With increasing effective feed pressure the permeate TDS will decrease while the permeate flux will increase as shown in Figure 4.
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2.5.2 Temperature If the temperature increase and all other parameters are kept constant, the permeate flux and the salt passage will increase (see Figure 4).

2.5.3 Recovery The recovery is the ratio of permeate flow to feed flow. In case of increase of recovery the permeate flux will decrease and stop if the salt concentration reaches a value where the osmotic pressure of the concentrate is as high as the applied feed pressure. The salt rejection will drop with increasing recovery (see Figure 4). 2.5.4 Feed Water Salt Concentration Figure shows the impact of the feed water salt concentration on the permeate flux and the salt rejection.
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SECTION-2 BASICS OF DM SYSTEM

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water
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WATER DEMINERALISING PLANT Quality of influent water:Functional efficiency of the ion exchange column is affected by the impurities in the influent water. To avoid any appreciable loss of capacity and to retain the physical integrity of the resin, It is important that the quality of water fed to the ion exchange columns is strictly maintained as per the design parameters / recommendations. In general, the influent water should be:- Free from all suspended impurities since the ion exchange resin act as filters and presence of the above shall require frequent cleaning/replacement of resin. - Free from organic matter, algae, oil, oxidizing agents since the accumulation of these impurities cause loss of exchange capacity and disintegration of the ion exchange resin. Ionic Load : The Dissolved salts in water exist in ionic form cations carrying positive charge and anions carrying negative charge. Thus the influent water to demineralising plant carries cation load and anion load. Cation load is generally the sum of calcium, magnesium and sodium. Anion load is generally the sum of chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, fluoride, free carbon dioxide and silica. In natural water the total content of cations is quantitatively equivalent to the total anion content when silica and free carbon dioxide are not considered. The concentration of individual ions is normally measured in ppm as CaCO3 (or mg/litre as CaCO3 or equivalent / litre).
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The ions in the water (excluding silica and free carbon dioxide) can also be determined in the following manner: Alkaline salts as determined by measuring total alkalinity to Methyl orange alkalinity Natural salts as determined by measuring the EMA (equivalent mineral acidity) Hence the total cationic and anionic loads can be expressed in the following manner: Cationic load = M. Alkalinity + EMA Anionic load = M. Alkalinity + EMA + Silica + Free Co2 Both concentrations should be expressed in consistent units Ion Exchange Resins Ion exchange resins are made of porous hydrocarbon solid phase that carry an ionic charge either positive or negative in conjunction with free ions of opposite charge that can be displaced by similar ions. Solids phase must possess good physical properties like robust structure and should be chemically insoluble and inert. Most of the resins have solids phase made of cross linked polystyrene. Ion exchange resins as used in demineralising can be classified as follows:I) Cation Exchange Resin In water demineralising cation exchange resins are used in H form. a) Strong acid cation resins use sulphonic acid groups (SO3H) which contribute the free H+ ion for exchange. The hydrogen ions available for exchange in cations resins will remove ions of sodium, calcium and magnesium. Resultant water contains mineral acids of corresponding salts. II) Anion Resin In water demineralising anion resins are used in OH form (or basic form). There are different types of anion exchange resins which differ in basicity. Commonly used types are explained below.

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a) Strong base anion exchange resin these normally contain quaternary ammonium group of hydroxyl (OH) ions. Strong base resins completely deionise the water since these are capable of removing all weak as well as strong acids. The choice of resin depends on raw water analysis. Ion Exchange Reactions Ion exchange reactions are reversible. The following reactions illustrate the manner in which ions are removed in an ion exchange column. For simplicity the solids phase along with its fixed ionic group is represented as Z. I) Cation Exchange CaCl2 + 2ZH = Z2Ca + 2 HCl .1 Mg SO4 + 2ZH = Z2Mg + H2SO4 .2 Mg (HCO3)2 + 2ZH = Z2Mg + 2 H2CO3 3 The treated effluent from cation Exchanger column will thus contain free mineral acids of respective salts (due neutral water salts ) and carbonic acid (due alkaline slats. ) The treated water is, therefore, acidic having low pH value. Carbonic acid being weakly ionized gets readily dissociated into free carbon dioxide and H2O. However, a minute quantity of neutral salts (sodium chloride elutes first) may escape the above reaction due to various reasons and this is termed as sodium slip from the cation exchanger. II) Anion Exchange 1) Strong base anion resin: a) Removal of acids

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HCI + ZOH = ZCI + H2O ..1 H2SO4 + 2ZOH = Z2SO4 + 2H2O 2 H2CO3 + 2 ZOH = Z2CO3 + 2H2O.3 H2SiO3 + ZOH = ZHSiO3 + H2O .4 b) Salt splitting reaction ZOH + NaCl = ZCI + NaOH . ..5 The effluent from anion exchanger therefore practically contains no dissolved salts or acid excepting that there will be silica slip (since this elutes first due to various complex reasons) and sodium hydroxide (due to salt splitting reaction with slipped NaCl from proceeding cation exchanger). The production of NaOH due to salt splitting reaction also has bearing on silica slip. It may be noted that through carbonic acid can be completely removed by strong base anion exchange resin (as explained in reaction 3 above) but occasionally it is more economic to remove the free carbon dioxide by passing the water downwards through a packed column where air is blown in counter current direction by means of a blower. The unit is termed as DEGASSIFIER. (For details reference may be made under unit details if degassifier is included in the process.) Regeneration Reactions : When the supply of exchangeable ions within the resin is exhausted, the treated water quality from the ion exchange columns deteriorates. The resin is brought to its original form by regeneration (i.e. exchangeable ions are replaced in the resin matrix.)

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Cation exchange resins are regenerated with sulphuric acid / hydrochloric acid. Anion exchange resins (all type) can be regenerated with sodium hydroxide However, sodium carbonate (soda ash) can also be utilized. The following reactions illustrate the process. Strong Anion Z CI + NaOH = ZOH + NaCl ZHCI + NaOH = Z + NaCl + H2O General Demineralising Process As described in the foregoing it is important that the input water to the demineralising plant is clear, odorless and colorless. The pre-treated water obtained from pre-treatment section contains traces of chlorine, organic matter and suspended impurities. In order to ensure the efficient functioning of ion exchange resins it is recommended to include an activated carbon filter to remove these impurities to tolerable levels, where filtration is not carried out in pretreatment section a pressure filter is installed upstream of Activated Carbon filter to remove suspended impurities. The clear water then is passed upstream of Activated Carbon filter to remove suspended impurities. The clear water then is passed through columns containing cation exchange resin where all cations are removed and effluent water contains acids. The effluent water from cation exchanger then passes through a degasifying column to remove free carbon dioxide which reduces ionic load on the downstream anion exchanger. The acidic water flow through anion exchanger where all acids are removed thus effluent water obtained is deionized. As explained under ion exchange reactions in actual practice a single pass through cation and anion exchangers leaves small residual dissolved salts (normally NaOH & Silica). Where ultra pure water is required the deionized water from anion exchange is passed through a mixed bed exchanger, which contains cation and anion resins in the same column. During service step, cation and anion resins are intimately mixed offering innumerable close lined exchangeable sites (or demineralising Paris). Thus acid formed by contact of salt

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with cation bead is immediately neutralized by the neighboring anion; thereby equilibrium reaction of deionization is practically complete producing water of high quality. For regeneration of mixed bed resin, backwashing separates the lighter anion resin from denser cation resin. A distribution cum collector is placed at the interface between the two resins thus facilitating regeneration operation without removing the resin from column. A simultaneous or individual regeneration of cation and anion resin can be adopted. The combination of one set of ion exchange columns in series is termed as a stream chain of demineralising plant. For further details, reference to be made to description of individual units. Capacity of an Ion Exchange Column:Capacity of an ion exchange column is the net available volumetric capacity of treated water between two successive regeneration without exceeding the limits of specified quality of water. The capacity between two regenerations is dependant on type and quantity of resin used the quantity of acid and alkali used for regeneration & the ionic load in the influent water. Definition & determination of ionic load has been explained in the foregoing. For the units employing degassifier the carbon dioxide present in the influent water as well as that produced by exchange of alkaline salts is removed to the level its solubility at the ambient temperature. It is safe to assume an ionic load for strong base anion exchanger due to free CO2 as 5-6 ppm as CaCO3. Ion exchange columns are designed for specific ionic load and concentration. If there is any variation, the capacity shall also get affected accordingly. Treated Water Quality For the given capacity, ion exchange columns are designed specifically for the desired quality of treated water based on the input raw water analysis. Any upward variation in ionic concentration or in the level of other un-desirable

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impurities like organic matter, oxidizing agents, suspended matter, shall adversely affect the quality of treated water. It is mandatory to maintain the input water quality within the design limits to ensure the desired quality of treated water and capacity of the plant. General Comments on Regeneration: The ion exchange column is considered to be exhausted when pre-determined quantity of water has passed and/or quality of the effluent water deteriorates. The unit is regenerated with suitable chemicals to regain its exchange capacity. There are basically two methods of regenerating an ion exchange column : 1) Conventional Co current 2) Counter current In co current regeneration, as the name implies, the regenerant chemical is injected in the samedirection as that of service flow. This is the conventional technique of regeneration an ion exchange column which has been in use since long and is suitable for re-generating all type of resins. In Counter current regeneration the regenerant chemical is injected in the direction reverse to that of service flow. Counter current regeneration is adopted for strong electrolyte resins. Their selectivity for different ions leads to a typical loading pattern (For strong cation exchange resin, sodium is the most loosely bonded and for strong base anion exchange resin, it is silica and carbonic acid.) The main advantages of counter current regeneration are that since the lower portion of the bed (which acts as service water effluent) is retained under fully regenerated condition, the leakage of ions is substantially reduced, associated with lesser consumption of regenerant chemical.

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For good counter current operation, major requirement is to keep the lower portion of bed undisturbed. As such during regeneration, the bed is kept under compact form with either dynamic water in the downward direction or air pressure (which is commonly employed means). The regenerant is collected through a middle collector which is embedded into the top layer of resin over and above the operating resin bed. This is termed as insert layer. Regeneration of an ion exchange unit is carried out in three steps : 1) Backwash This is carried out with up flow of water through resin bed to remove accumulated suspended matter and regrade the resin. For exchangers operating under cocurrent regeneration technique, backwash should be carried out after every service cycle. Whereas units under counter current regeneration backwash should not be attempted till the pressure drop across the bed exceed safe operating limit. Normally this occurs after more than 2530 service cycles. When backwashed thus the column should be regenerated with double quantity of chemicals. This is required since with backwash the bottom portion of most regenerated layer is disturbed. For counter current regeneration, the ion exchange column is provided with an inert layer of resin on the top, which is backwashed during every regeneration. 2) Chemical injection A predetermined quantity of regenerant chemical is injected through resin bed at specified strength for specified time. 3) Rinse This step is carried out in order to flush out the entrapped regenerant chemical. This further divided into two steps. i) Regenerant displacement (slow rinse) this is carried out at the specified flow rate for specified time in the direction of regenerant injection. Normally slow rinse rate should roughly be equal to regenerant injection flow rate.

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ii) Final Rinse This is done in the direction of service flow and at rate equal to that of service flow rate for a specified time or till the time all remaining regenerant is removed. Circuit Rinsing of Cation and Anion It is common experience that for rinsing out the excess alkali from anion bed not only large volume of rinse water is required but rinsing time is also long. When excess alkali is rinsed out, the specific conductance of the rinsed alkali comes down appreciably in the initial stage of rinsing, but it takes longer time to rinse out the last trances of alkali during the last stage of rinsing thereby requiring a large quantity of rinse water. At the same time it is possible that the total ionic content of this last stage rinse water (which can be monitored by a conductivity meter) may be less than the total ionic content of feed water to cation. A provision, therefore, has been made in the plant to recycle such last stage rinse water back to the cation inlet (called circuit rinsing) thereby resulting in saving in rinse water quantity and gross output through the plant. However, it will he the discretion of the operator if circuit rinsing is to be taken recourse to which will depend upto the level of ionic content of feed water to cation exchanger. At the end rinsing the quality of rinse water will be at about guaranteed quality of treated effluent. Simultaneous Regeneration of Cation & Anion. It is possible to simultaneously regenerate cation exchanger and anion

exchanger to save time during regeneration. It is specially recommended when circuit rinsing is taken recourse to. Suitable provision has been made for drawing demineralised water from the D.M. water storage tanks with the help of D..M. water regeneration pump sets for re-generation steps of anion like alkali regeneration, and displacement. At the same time D.M. water will be used for acid

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regeneration and displacement steps for cation. For all other steps of regeneration of cation including dynamic balance water supply, filtered water will be used. For circuit rinsing the degassed water pumps will recirculate degassed water through Anion back to cation. Hence there will be no difficulty in almost simultaneous regeneration of both cation and anion.

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SECTION-3 GENERAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION OF PLANT

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8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water
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Process description Raw water is supplied by client at plant battery limit for further treatment in reactor clarifier after addition of chlorine, coagulant and polyelectrolyte solutions. For each chemical two dosing tanks and two dosing pumps are provided out of which one shall be working at a time. The clarified water from the clarifier is collected in clarifier water storage tank. It is then pumped to one multigrade filter to remove any suspended matters present there followed by basket filter and ultra filtration system. This consists of three U.F membranes of KOCH giving cross flow filtration to give pure filtered water to RO system which shall be having SDI less than 3. All required system for backwashing, fast flushing and chemical cleaning are included. Ultra filtered water is collected in storage tank from where it is pumped to one cartridge filter having 5 micron cartridge for fine filtration. This water after dosing of acid, antiscalant and SMBS is then pumped by high pressure pump to reverse osmosis module having membranes arranged in two arrays First array is having two vessels each having 6 membranes whereas second is having one vessel with 6 membranes. For feeding of each chemicals to RO feed water one chemical tank along with two dosing pumps are provided. Online pH meter is given for pH control along with adjustment for acid dosing. One ORP meter is also provided in order to protect the membranes from residual chlorine coming in water and with any traces of chlorine detected by the meter the water is drained back to UF water storage tank. The permeate water coming out of RO modules shall be taken to degasser tower packed with raschig rings where the carbon dioxide present in water shall be driven off by air generated by degasser air blower. The reject water from the RO module shall be drained out for safe disposal by client. The degassed water is stored in degassed water tank from where it shall be pumped by degassed water transfer pump to series of ion exchange units i.e. strong acid cation, strong base anion unit and mixed bed unit. Strong acid cation exchanger shall be removing all
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the cations present in water whereas all anions in water shall be removed by strong base anion resin. The remaining cations and anions in water shall be removed by mixed bed unit having mixture of cation and anion resin. Strong acid and strong base units are operating on countercurrent mode of operation and each units are required to be regenerated by acid and alkali respectively after passing 295 m3 water. One acid and alkali measuring tank are provided for regeneration of stong acid and strong base anion resin along with separate ejectors by using boiler make up water as power water. Mixed bed unit is regenerated once in six days by acid and alkali for which separate acid and alkali tanks are provided each with ejectors so as to feed the chemicals to mixed bed unit for regeneration. Backwashing of multigrade filter is carried once in a day by means of air coming from mixed bed air blower and water. RO membrane cleaning system is also provided to clean the membranes whenever required by selected chemicals depending upon type of fouling or scaling. This consists of one chemical tank, one chemical pump and one separate cartridge filter. Separate storage facilities are provided for storing hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide solution and sulfuric acid which consists of one storage tank along with two chemical transfer pumps for each chemical. For neutralizing the generated effluents separate acid and alkali tanks are provided along with a set of pump to drain out the neutralized effluent.

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SECTION - 4 MASTER EQUIPMENT LIST

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8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water

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SECTION 5 PROCESS CALCULATION

Process calculation for UF system ROSA Projection Process calculation for DM system

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8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water
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Process calculation for UF system Make Type MWCO Outside dia Length Membrane area Flow Flux selected No. of membranes Selected no. of membranes Fast flush rate Backwash rate Waste water in fast flush for 30 Sec. Waste water in backwash for 1 min. Reject water in service cycle Total waste water/Day KOCH TARGA-10 100,000 Dalton 10.75 inch = 268mm 72 inch = 1800mm 80m2 26m3/hr 110 Litres/m2/hour 2.95 3 72 m3/hr at 1.8 bar 33 m3/hr at 2.0 bar 0.6m3/cycle 0.55m3/cycle 0.3m3 55.2 + 7.05 = 62.25 m3

Note : 1) After 30 minutes of service cycle, fast flush followed by backwash is to be carried. 2) Chemical cleaning of membranes shall be required whenever transmembrane pressure does not go down below 0.8 bar even after repeated backwashing & fast flushing.

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PROCESS CALCULATION DM Plant has been designed on the outlet parameter of the Rosa operated at 35 Deg. C. and the ionic load as been considered as 29.6 ppm for the calculation. Mixed bed has been designed on the basis of surface velocity of 60 M/Hr. Flow Operating Hrs OBR . : : : : 14.75 M3/Hr. 140 140 x 14.75 2065 M3

Considering 500 mm bed depth for each Cation & Anion, surface velocity 60 M3, Free board 100% we conclude the resin quantity as 140 Liter. Each. Dimensions are Acid per regeneration required Alkali required per regeneration required SBA design OBR : : Wastewater Total Water/Regeneration : : : Load considered : : Exchange capacity : 14.75 M3 x 20 295 M3 15 M3 295 + 15 310 M3 31 ppm 9.6 Kg. per regeneration 25 Gm/Ltr. : : : 600 mm dia x 2500 mm ht. 25.5 Kg. as 33% 19.0 Kg. as 45%

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Resin Volume

: :

9.6 / 25 0.38 M3 60 Gm/Ltr. 1.0 M Sq. Rt. Of (0.384 / 0.785) 0.7 M 0.7 m dia x 2 m ht 22.8kg (100%) 50.6 kg (45 %) 310 + 10 320 M3 30 ppm 320 x 0.03 = 9.6 Kg. / Regeneration 50 Gm/Lit. 9.6/50 0.192 m3 14.75/40 = 0.368m2 0.7m 0.385m2 0.385 m3 0.057 m3 0.038 m3 0.48m3 50 x 0.442 22.1 kg (100%) 73.7 kg (30% HCl)

Regeneration level considered Bed Depth considered Dia

: : : :

Size Alkali/regeneration SAC Water/Regeneration

: : = : :

Load considered Total Load Exchange capacity considered Resin required

: :

: : = Based on surface load of 40 : Considered dia : Area : Active resin volume considered : Buffer resin with 0.15 m bed height : Inert resin with 0.10 m bed height : Total resin volume : Acid required for regeneration : = =

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SECTION -6
PRE COMMISSIONING CHECKS (GENERAL POINTS AS APPLICABLE TO THE PLANT)

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water

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Checking the Plant Sections on completion of erection It must be checked that all plant sections are complete and correctly assembled. The plant sections are checked accordingly to the piping and instrument diagrams as well as equipment drawings. The utility systems steam, water, instrument air etc. are included in this check. It is presumed that machinery is already checked for alignment, bearing clearance etc. during erection. Every pipeline within the plant sections as well as the connecting lines between the plant sections are to be checked for the following points:- Correct connection at both ends of the line; - Correct position and construction of branches; - Correct installation of valves, e.g. flow direction for valves and strainer; - Operability of shut-off and control valves; - Correct and complete installation of instrument nozzles, sampling nozzles etc; - Possibility of expansion at operating temperature and position of fixed points; - Anchorage; - Vibration;

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- Possibility of drainage at low points and venting at high points vessels and equipment are to be checked for; - Correct connection of all pipelines; - Correct installation of all instrument nozzles, sight glasses, reference vessels for level control, drains etc.

Line blinds which had been inserted during erection for purging, flushing or pressure testing are to be recorded in a list. The tags of the line blinds are to be marked conspicuously. Until the pipelines, have been flushed, the pumps which do not have strainer are provided with temporary strainer, which are fitted between 2 flanges in the intake line. These strainers are to be cleaned periodically and removed again after the lines have been flushed. All faults and emissions detected during the check must be eliminated before further preparations for operation of the plant are performed. Cleaning the Plant Sections by Purging, Flushing etc. All Plant sections and piping systems, including the entire utility systems, must be thoroughly cleaned of all impurities such as scale sand, welding beads etc. The system is cleaned by purging or flushing with a suitable fluid, such as air, steam or water. Auxiliary connections as required and lines which are necessary for this purpose may be drawn temporarily from the nearest available point.

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It is advisable to carry out to purging or flushing in sections and in such a way that as high a velocity as possible of the fluid is ensured uniformly throughout the length of the section to be cleaned. Upstream equipment can be used for storage. For this it must be previously checked that the platform load is not too high when the equipment concerned is filled. The cleaning should be effected preferably in the same flow direction as during operation. Orifice plates, control valves and steam traps are to be bypassed or removed. Connections on machinery are to be shut off or isolated from the lines during cleaning. If necessary, drain valves are to be removed. Care to be taken that impurities which have been removed do not enter equipment where they could settle. The lines upstream of the equipment are to be cleaned first via appropriate branches. Once the plant section or utility system is cleaned in this way, the main supply line is flushed or purged first either in one operation or in sections, depending on the situation. Then the main line is pressurized and the pipelines branching off from it are cleaned in succession. All connections for instruments must likewise be purged or flushed.

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The purging or flushing of each individual line is to be continued until the flushing/purging fluid is clean when it is discharged. After the cleaning process, the clean plant section is to be prepared for operation, i.e. orifice plates, control valves, strainers etc., are to be replaced, the instrument connections are to be made ready for operation. Provided they are not required for the pressure test and trail run, the line blinds and auxiliary lines are to be removed and the auxiliary connections are to be blocked. Testing the plant Sections for leaks at operating pressure The test for leaks cover all plant sections and utility systems. The tightness at operating pressure of all connections within the plant must be ensured. When the test is carried out in sections in line with the erection progress, all system which are to be tested are to be isolated from other plant sections by means of line blinds. First, the section to be tested is pressurized to slightly above atmospheric pressure and tested for serious leak by touch. If any leaks are defected, they must be eliminated after the section has been depressurized. If any welding work was necessary for this purpose, the items concerned must be thoroughly cleaned before being reassembled. The pressure is gradually increased until operating pressure is reached and all connections are tested for leaks. Leaks which cannot be eliminated by moderate tightening of the screw are to be marked conspicuously.

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Leaks on stuffing boxes of valves must not be repaired by tightening the stuffing box gland because then the stem cannot turn freely enough. Stuffing boxes with serious leaks must be repacked. If no leaks are detected, the section remains under pressure for half an hour minimum. The tightness is satisfactory when the pressure drop lies within the permissible limits. A carefully performed pressure test is essential for unit start-up If liquid fluids are used for the pressure tests, the following points must be checked. - That the permitted foundation or platform load of the equipment and vessels is not exceeded. - That the systems can be vented at all the necessary points. - That the plant can be completely drained. Preparation for Start-Up of Machinery All bearings, gears etc. are to be filled with suitable oil or grease. The appropriate oil types, quantities etc. are specified in the schedule of lubrication. But it is advised that it must be cross checked with sub- vendors operating instruction manual provided for each equipment separately.

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Finally, all driving motors are to be checked for correct sense of rotation with the couplings disconnected. The manufacturers special instructions are to be observed during the trial runs of machinery.

Resin Charging Whether this is for initial plant commissioning or for a recharge it is important to prepare an advance schedule so that you are fully prepared. 1. This is the right time to make a thorough inspection of the vessel and the collection and distribution systems and attend to necessary repairs and replacements. 2. Check that you have identified the resin properly-drum markings may not be clear after long storage-if in doubt check with the manufacturer the right resin must be charged in the vessel. 3. Check the condition of the resin in each drum and ensure that the packing is still satisfactory. Do not charge resin contaminated with rust or other foreign matter. 4. Where a silex underbed is used, it is important that it is in properly graded layers. It may be wiser to charge fresh material to ensure this. 5. There must be water in the vessel during resin charging. To make sure that the collecting system is satisfactory, first charge a 150-200 mm layer of resin only, box up the vessel, carry out a backwash and run the unit to drain at the

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maximum flow rate no resin should escape satisfactory result is obtained should the rest of the resin be charged. 6. After a thorough backwash and removal of any foreign matter from the top surface, check and record the bed depth. 7. Keep a composite control sample (500 mls.) of the resin: this should be taken out from the vessel itself after charging. Send half of it for analysis the results should be kept for comparison on with test reports of future samples after the resin has been in use. 8. An updated operation manual will have a vessel internal arrangement drawing which details the type of internals used, the resin bed depth, etc do you have a copy? If not, ask for one from the supplier of your water treatment plant.

Backwash: Whether after normal plant exhaustion or a resin recharge, this is the first operation on your plant. For an ion exchange unit containing only a single resin charge, the purpose is to remove the extraneous matter that may have deposited on the resin bed and also to reclassify the resin beads and to de-compact the resin bed. For a mixed bed, this also serves the additional purpose of separating the cation and anion resins for regeneration. 1. Check the water temperature. If your plant is situated in a region where there are wide fluctuations in temperature, this is very important. Cold water has a higher viscosity and will give you a greater bed expansion. His may cause

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resin loss. On the other hand with warmer water, the backwash rate expansion may be insufficient.

and

2. Check the backwash water outlet. Is the water clear? Continue backwash till effluent is clear. 3. An open manhole extended backwash is necessary periodically. Foreign matter is more easily removed by this. 4. Scrape off fines and foreign matter form the bed surface after the open manhole backwash. Measure and record the bed depth and collect resin sample for analysis. 5. Maintain a record of normal backwash time. Increased timing for backwash indicate the accumulation of dirt on the resin bed. Check your pretreatment and filtration. 6. For mixed bed, check after back wash and setting the separation of the resins through the inspection window at the interface. It may be necessary to repeat the backwash to ensure that the interface is in the correct position. 7. The operation manual specifies the wash flow rates. Do you have a Rota meter on the back wash line? Is the marking strip on the orifice board legible? It is worthwhile checking this. The backwash operation is one of the most important operations in a water treatment plant and sometimes also the most neglected one. Accumulation of dirt on the resin bed, channeling of the bed and subsequent loss and drop in capacity are the results because of inadequate precautions at backwash.

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Note: In counter current regenerated units, however, backwash of the entire resin bed is not carried out during each regeneration as such a step will affect the treated water quality. The portion of the resin above the top collector however is backwashed (this operation is referred to as Middle Collector Wash) to sieve the debris collected on top of the resin.

Regenerant Injection: The next stage after backwash is the introduction of regenerant an important step that will determine the quality of treated water and the capacity of your plant. You may be employing one or more of the following methods for injection: a) Co-flow Where the service and the regenerant flows are in the same direction. b) Countercurrent (CCR) or counter-flow Where the service and the regenerant flows are in opposite directions. c) Split-flow countercurrent - Where a part of the regenerant flows concurrent to the service direction; the rest being in the opposite direction. d) Thoroughfare Where the regenerant effluent from one column contains a large amount of unused chemical and is therefore passed through a preceding unit to economies on overall chemical consumption. Each of these methods has its own advantages and a designer chooses one which is more relevant in a given situation. However, irrespective of the actual method of regeneration, there are some basic guide lines that you should follow.

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1. Check and ensure that you have sufficient stock of regenerants. Whenever you buy the regenerant, take a sample and have it analysed and ensure that the regenerant meets the relevant specifications for your immediate reference note. Caustic Soda (Iye) IS 252 Tech. grade Hydrochloric Acid IS 265 Tech. grade Sulphuric Acid IS 266 Tech. grade Sod. Chloride** IS 797 (Gr. 2) Soda Ash IS 251 Tech. grade ** For alkaline brine wash treatment use common salt vac dried quality to IS 797 Gr. 1. 2. Prepare regenerant solutions of required concentrations in measuring/dilution tanks well ahead of the time of regeneration. This will prove time-saving as well as provide sufficient time for cooling of regenerant when injection is proposed to be carried out at ambient temperature (note that dissolution of caustic soda as well as sulphuric acid is exothermic in nature. However, with sulphuric acid, usually, very low concentration are employed and because of too large quantity of dilution water, the temperature rise is negligible. (This is why with sulphuric acid, a continuous dilution tank followed by on line dilution is invariably practiced without problems). 3. In some cases, hot caustic injection is recommended to ensure desired silica residual in treated water. Check that the heating system and its controls are working satisfactorily. Ensure you have thermostatic cut off at inlet to the unit.

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4. Ensure that the specified concentration of regenerant is injected into the unit; Too low or too high concentrations is undesirable. A simple reading on a density meter is adequate in most cases, but volumetric analysis may be necessary sometimes. 5. Maintain the time for regenerant injection. Too short a time may result in insufficient contact between regenerant and resin. The operation manual specifies this and the concentration at which regenerant must be injected. If injection takes too long, this could also be due to a mechanical or hydraulic reason the back pressure may be too high this need investigation. 6. Two important parameters have been highlighted injection concentration and time. The third parameter is injection flow rate and you will note that it is automatically fixed when you fix the first two, along with the total volume. It is the flow rate that your can read from either rotameters or the orifice-board in the drain dumpdepending upon your plant design. There are few other points which are useful in ensuring better performance of the plant when you regenerate it next. 1. In the mixed bed unit when you have separated the cation and anion exchangers by backwash, it is essential that you do not allow the diffusion of acid of alkali into the anion or cation exchangers respectively. This is quite simply achieved by maintaining a down-flow through the top distributor during acid injection and an up-flow through the bottom collector during alkali injection. Alternatively, Simultaneous regeneration of cation and anion exchangers maybe employed.

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2. In counter current (CCR) units it is essential that the bed remains undisturbed, i.e. no fluidization takes place during regenerant injection. Either an air-hold down or water-hold down system is practiced. 3. In air-hold down, compressed air prevents the fluidization of the bed. In case of water-hold down a down-flow of water is used for the same purpose. The down-flow rate is carefully predetermined at the design stage. Ensure that all the above systems are actually serving their purpose by observing through the inspection window. 4. Whatever be the system employed to prevent fluidization in your unit there is always an inert layer above the regenerant collector and the same should be maintained even though you know that this layer is not considered for capacity computations 5. Remember that when you have a thoroughfare regeneration, you have to check the regenerant concentration of both units primary as well as secondary.

4. Rinse A unit rinse is the next sequential stage after regenerant injection in the regeneration of an ion exchanger. It is an important step that provides the final contact time between regenerant and the resin. It is a valuable guide also in predicting resin condition with time. So it is essential for you to which this stage carefully.

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1. Do not rinse at a higher flow rate. This will reduce the contact time of the regenerant with the resin bed during the initial part of the rinse and could cause quality and capacity problems and thus waste regenerants. 2. Do not rinse at a lower flow rate. It will only increase your down time for regeneration. 3. Keep a record of the time required to rinse a unit to a particular end point. 4. Does this time increase over a period? A gradual increase in the rinse time could indicate that your resin is getting fouled up and is an advance notice to treat the resin to remove the foulants. 5. Watch the effluent during anion exchanger rinse. Is it amber yellowish colored? If so, it is a sure indication that organic matter is present in the feed water. By the term organic matter we refer to the high molecular weight carboxylic acids of natural vegetable origin present in most surface waters. Presence of organics in water can be easily estimated by the KMnO4 4hr 270 C test and is expressed as ppm O2. Take action expressed as ppm O2. Take action to arrest the organic matter in your pretreatment section. Other wise you may have to carry out regular treatment of the resin with alkaline brine to remove the organics from the bed. 6. In counter flow cation units an upward rinse is given in the same direction as acid flow to distribute the acid injected over the entire bed. Do you use cation treated water or demineralise water for this purpose? It is essential to use a water low in sodium content to derive the full benefit of the counter-flow system.

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7. In mixed bed units where the cation and anion resins are regenerated in situ care must be taken to avoid diffusion of acid/alkali into the anion or cation resin during the rinse stage. Do you maintain a buffer flow of water down-flow through the anion bed and up-flow through the cation bed during the rinse stage of the cation and anion resin respectively? This will greatly help improve your treated water quality and capacity. Is the rinse time logged by your plant operator?

5. Service We have so far seen the importance of the regeneration and rinse operational parameters; any abnormalities or deviations in the regeneration and rinse sequence will ultimately affect the service cycle of your water treatment plant. Let us see what we look for in the service cycle.

1. Quantity a) Rated out put at design flow. b) Rated output between regeneration at design analysis.

2. Quality Conveyance Specified quality of treated water at design analysis. Quality specifications very with the type of plant, other things being equal. For a

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softener, the treated water quality will be with respect to residual hardness i.e. calcium and magnesium. For a DM plant, it will be either conductivity of conductivity and residual silica. For a split stream plant, residual hardness and residual alkalinity will be the criteria. The way of monitoring the various parameters may also vary. Some of you my have online local instruments and you may be recording the values at fixed intervals in the log book. Some may have instruments fitted with alarms for critical values such as pH or conductivity. Some may even have an automatic recording device with periodic monitoring.

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SECTION-7 OPERATION AND COMMISIONING OF PLANT

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water

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A1.Clarifier section Raw water has to be made available by client at the flow rate of 235 m3/hour at 2 bar pressure at plant battery limit. Fill water in polymer dosing tanks CMT 1101 A/B one after other and start agitator of the tanks. Prepare 0.2% solution of the selected polyelectrolyte in the tanks by adding the desired chemicals in the tanks. Fill water in coagulant dosing tanks CMT 1102 A/B one after the other and start agitator of the tanks. Gradually add desired quantity of coagulant in both the tanks so as to make chemical solution of 10 % concentration. Transfer desired quantity of hypochlorite solution in one of the dosing tanks CMT 1103 A/B Start one of the polymer dosing pumps D 1101 A/B for feeding the polymer solution at a flow of about 235 liters/hour for full flow of water. Start one of the coagulant dosing pump D 1102 A/B for feeding coagulant at a flow of 94 liters/hour for full flow of water. Start one of the hypochlorite dosing pumps D 1103 A/B for feeding the solution at a flow of 40 liters/hour at full flow of water. Start taking water to reactor clarifier HRSCC 1101 where the drives shall also be started after taking water. Through telescopic arrangement sludge shall be taken out from the bottom to a sludge tank ST 1101. This sludge slurry shall be discharged from the tank with the help of sludge pumps P 1102 A/B at regular intervals of time or whenever necessity arises. Clarified water shall be taken out from the clarifier to the clarified water storage tank CWST 1101 where it shall be stored for further processing in the plant. By online turbidity meter the turbidity of raw water and clarified water are measured at regular intervals of time. With the change in feed water turbidity, required adjustments are made in dosing of the chemicals suggested earlier. The clarified water tank is provided with the level transmitter LT 1101 and float type level gauge FLG 1101. With high level in the tank the raw water pump

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feeding water to plant is tripped to avoid overflow of water from the tank. At low level tripping of the running clarified water pump P 1103 shall be resulted. Only 26 m3/hour flow shall be taken out by the pump P 1103 A/B for further treatment in our plant and the rest of water shall be taken by the client by their pumps to other sections. A2. Multigrade filter section MGF 1101 Clarified water from clarified water tank is fed to MGF1101 by the help of MGF feed pump P 1103 A/B. During service run of the filter inlet valve V 1121 shall be opened followed by opening of vent valve V1126 till the air is driven out from the filter. Close the vent and open drain valve V 1125 for 5 minutes so as to clear the water hold up at the bottom of filter. Close the valve V 1125 and open outlet valve V 1123 to take water for ultrfiltration at a flow of 26 m3/hour as observed by RT 1102. A part of the filtered water shall be taken to service water tank as well for use by client. Service run for the filter shall continue for the full day or till pressure drop across filter increases beyond set limits. At this stage all the valves shall be closed for the filter. During running of the filter the turbidity of the filtered water shall be noted by online turbidity meter at regular interval of time. At the end of service run filter shall be taken out for backwashing. During backwashing valves V 1123 shall get open with the vent valve V 1126 followed by starting of both clarified water pumps so as to give flow of 52 m3/hour required for backwashing . Vent valve shall be closed at the time when water coming out is noted free from air and backwash outlet valve v 1124 shall be opened for draining out the water. This shall continue for at least 10 minutes or till clear water is obtained. At the end close all the valves. A3. Ultra filtration section

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Filter water is taken through basket filter at flow rate of 26 m3/hour to Ultra filtration for further processing to produce water at the rate of 23.4 m3/hour. The operation of this section is automatically controlled by PLC. The operation and control of this section is separately given which includes normal service run, backwashing, fast flushing, chemical cleaning etc. Ultra filtered water is collected in water tank UFPWST 1101 for further treatment in the plant. The tank is equipped with one float type level gauge FLG 1103 and level transmitter with the high level in the tank the clarified water pump running shall stop along with running of ultra filtration section whereas at low level the pumps taking water from this tank including UF backwash pump P1105 A/B and RO feed pump P 2101 A/B. A4. Reverse Osmosis Feed Section Take degassed water to SMBS dosing tank CMT2101 and start the agitator. Gradually add sodium Meta bisulfite to make 10% solution in the tank. With the help of dosing pump D2101 A/B the dosing of solution is made at the rate of 1.1 liters/hour to the feed water to RO. However exact dosing of the chemical shall depend upon residual chlorine coming in water. If at any point of time the dosing of chemical is less giving presence of residual chlorine in RO feed water as observed by online ORP meter ORP 2101. Immediately the feed valve V 2114A shall close with simultaneous opening of drain valve V 2113 taking water back to ultra filtered water tank. Take degassed water to antiscalant tank CMT 2102 and start the agitator. Gradually add chemical to make 10 %solution in the tank and with the help of dosing pump D2102 A/B the dosing of solution is made to water to RO feed at flow of 1.1 liters/hour. Take 30 % hydrochloric acid to acid tank CMT 2103 A/B. Start dosing of acid to RO feed water at the rate of 1.4 liters/hour. However the exact dosing of acid shall

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depend upon the pH of RO feed water which is fixed at 6.5 as indicated by pHI 201. This chemically fed water shall be taken to cartridge filter MCF1 by means of RO feed pumps P2101 A/B in order to take care of any suspended particles present in feed water. For running of the pump the suction valve V 2101 A/B shall be opened first followed by gradual opening of discharge valve V 2103 A/B to give water. A 5. Reverse osmosis section The silt density of the RO feed water coming out of cartridge filter shall be tested frequently by SDI kit which is to be observed within 3. Ensure that after cleaning of pressure vessels six RO membranes are properly positioned in each vessel with inter-connector and end caps. Ensure that all piping and valves are installed in position with online instruments along with its mounting and supports. Open suction valve V1215 a/b of the high pressure pump p 2102 a/b and start the pump followed by gradually opening of discharge valve V 2217 a/b so as to get the desired pressure with simultaneous opening of RO module reject valve V2129. Gradually close RO reject valve to such position so that required flow rate of 15.25 m3/hour is achieved from RO module as indicated by FT 2101. At this position note down flow of the reject by RT 2101. Record the discharge pressure of the pump with reject pressure giving the pressure drop across the RO module. Record the conductivity of the RO permeates water by conductivity indicator CI 2101. For the safety of high pressure pump low pressure switch LPS 2101 A/B is provided along with high pressure switch HPS 2101 a/b which shall trip the pump beyond preset point at low suction pressure or high discharge pressure respectively.

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The running of section shall be continued till the pressure drop goes beyond 15 % or the permeate water flow drops down to 10 %. At that stage cleaning of the membranes is to be taken by the chemical. For this a provision of CIP system is given where the chemicals shall be selected depending upon type of fouling occurring in the membranes. A6. CIP system Ensure that CIP tank is clean along with connected piping and valves for CIP pump and cartridge filter. Ensure that cartridges are mounted properly in the cartridge housing. RO water is taken from degassed water transfer pump P 2104 A/B to CIP tank CCT to a particular level and add desired chemical in the tank. Chemical solution is prepared in the tank by recirculating it with the help of operating CIP pump P 2103 by opening suction and discharge valve V2132 and V2134 followed by opening of recirculation valve V 2130A through micron cartridge filter MCF-2 till clear solution of desired concentration is achieved. In case solution concentration is less add more chemical in the tank. the cleaning of the RO membranes are to be carried separately for each arrays of the RO module. For cleaning of the first array start the CIP pump P 2103 after opening its suction valve V 2132 and gradual opening of discharge valve V 2134 followed by opening of V2121B and V2121C for recirculation of the solution in the CIP tank at a flow of 18 m3/hour for one hour. Allow the solution to be left in the membranes for another one hour. Check the pH of the solution which must be the same as of feed. For any drop of pH in case of alkaline solution or increase is there in case of acidic solution fresh solution of chemical is to be prepared and similar procedure as mentioned earlier is to be carried till solution concentration remains same as per the pH. At that stage chemical solution is to be drained from first array by opening of tank drain valve V 2131. RO water is then passed to first array by opening valve V 2142 C

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and V2142 D with CIP tank drain valve open to drain water for some time till membranes are fully washed from the solution. After cleaning of first array cleaning of second array of the RO membranes are to be carried in similar manner but with the operation of feed valve V 2121 D in place of V 2121 B and V 2130 B in place of V2121C for recirculation at a flow rate of 9 m3/hour only with control of CIP pump discharge valve. After chemical cleaning flushing of the second array is to be made by opening flushing water valve V2142C, V2142 D and V 2129 D till water free from chemical is achieved. A7. Degasser section Ensure that degasser tower is clean and packed with rasching rings of proper sizes randomly. Ensure that degasser blowers DGBM 2101 A/B are properly installed and tested for run Ensure that all piping and valves are properly installed along with instruments on the tank DGWST2101. Check that air from the blowers is passing through the tower smoothly. Allow RO water to come from RO module through the tower to the degassed water tank DGWST2101. Start one of the air blower DGBM 2101 A/B to give air to tower for removal of dissolved carbon dioxide from degassed water and collect it in the tank. The level of water in the tank can be observed on panel by LIT2101 with local indication as well. A8. Strong acid cation section Ensure that degassed water pump P 2104 is installed with piping, valves, instruments and tested for no load test before feeding degassed water at a flow of 14.75 m3/hour to SAC unit.

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Ensure that SAC unit is properly cleaned and fitted with laterals, strainers and also packed with desired quantity of cation exchange resin. Ensure that acid measuring tank AMT 2101 is installed along with piping, valves, instruments along with acid ejector E2101 and flow meters RT 2102 and RT2103 to indicate flow of power water and acid regenerant flow. Ensure that power water is available from client at desired flow of 1 m3/hour at pressure of 2.5 m3/hour. Open suction valve V2140 A/B of the pump and start the pump P2104 A/B followed by gradual opening of discharge valve V 2142 A/B to give water to SAC unit. Open backwash inlet valve V 2145 of the unit followed by opening of backwash outlet valve V 2147 to drain the water. Allow it to continue till clear water is achieved in the drain. During the operation it is to be observed that no resin is going out except fine particles. Close the operation. Take desired quantity of 33 % hydrochloric acid in the tank AMT 2101. Allow power water to be taken in acid ejector E 2101 by opening V 2161, V2162, V2164, V2165 along with unit valves V 2156, V2148A, and V 2143. Check the power water rate at flow of 0.8 m3/hr on RT 2102, RT 2103 and keep the same flow on unit flow meter RT 2110 as well. After proper setting only open acid valve2160 to give acid to the unit. Check the acid concentration going to unit by density indicator to 5 % concentration. Firstly double quantity of acid is to be used for regeneration by taking acid two times in acid tank and feeding it to unit one after other. Even for next three regeneration same procedure is to be followed. As system is countercurrent so no regular backwashing of the unit is desired. Normally it is to be carried once after seven regenerations and at that time double quantity of regenerant is to be used for regeneration. After acid feeding, close acid valve V 2158 C and keep all other valves open to give slow acid rinse of the unit at the same flow rate for 50 minutes. At end close all the valves but keep the degassed water pump P 2104 A/B running.

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Fast rinsing of the unit is to be carried by opening service inlet valve V 2143 along with drain valve at service flow rate of 14.75 m3/hour till it is free from adhered acid which is normally expected around 10 minutes. At end close all the valves. During service run of the unit service inlet valve V 2143 is opened along with vent valve V2150 to drive out all entrapped air of the vessel. Close vent and open service outlet valve V 2146 to take decationised water for further processing of water. Under normal case the unit shall run for 24 hours and each day one regeneration shall be carried for the unit.

A9. Strong Base Anion unit section Ensure that decationised water is available from SAC unit at desired flow rate of 14.75 m3/hour. Ensure that SBA unit is properly cleaned, fitted with strainers and packed with desired quantity of strong base type 1 resin Ensure that all the piping, valves and online instruments are installed in position with mounting and supports. Ensure that the alkali measuring tank CDT 2101 is cleaned fitted with agitator, piping valves etc along with ejector E2102 and flow meters RT 2104 and RT 2105. Take water in the tank by opening valve V2182B and run the agitator of the tank. Add desired quantity of alkali to the tank and prepare alkali solution to 45 % concentration. In case caustic solution of rayon grade is available the same can be used. Open valve V 2179, V2178 followed by opening of backwash inlet valve V 2169 and backwash outlet valve V2171. Adjust the inlet valve in such a way that no resin is coming out except fines in the outlet. Continue the operation till clear water is achieved. Close backwash valves of the unit.

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Allow power water to be taken in alkali ejector E 2102 by opening V 2184, V2185, V2187, V2188 along with unit valves V 2181, V2172, and V 2167. Check the power water rate at flow of 0.8 m3/hr on RT 2104, RT 2105 and keep the same flow on unit flow meter RT 2111 as well. After proper setting only, open caustic valve V 2183 to give caustic to the unit. Check the alkali concentration going to unit by density indicator to 5 % concentration. Firstly double quantity of alkali is to be used for regeneration by taking alkali two times in alkali tank and feeding it to unit one after other. Even for next three regeneration same procedure is to be followed to stabilize the resin. As system is countercurrent so no regular backwashing of the unit is desired. Normally it is to be carried once after seven regenerations and at that time double quantity of regenerant is to be used for regeneration. After alkali feeding, close alkali valve V 2182C and keep all other valves open to give slow acid rinse of the unit at the same flow rate for 50 minutes. At end close all the valves but keep the degassed water pump P 2104 A/B running. Fast rinsing of the unit is to be carried by opening service inlet valve V 2167 along with drain valve at service flow rate of 14.75 m3/hour till it is free from adhered alkali which is normally expected around 10 minutes. At end close all the valves. During service run of the unit service inlet valve V 2167 is opened along with vent valve V2174 to drive out all entrapped air of the vessel. Close vent and open service outlet valve V 2170 to take deanionised water for further processing of water. Under normal case the unit shall run for 24 hours and each day one regeneration shall be carried for the unit.

A10. MIXED BED EXCHANGER Cations and Anions are Regenerated Simultaneously. Middle Collector wash This operation is carried out with SBA treated water. Open valve V2191 & V2195. Carry out flush @ 2.5 M3/hr for 2 min.

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Backwash This operation is carried out in every regeneration. Open Valves V2192 & V2194. Continue Operation for 10 min @ 2.5 M3/Hr with SBA Treated water. Acid/Alkali Pre Injection Ensure that acid measuring tank AMT 2102 is installed along with piping, valves, instruments along with acid ejector E2103 and flow meters RT 2106 and RT2107 to indicate flow of power water and acid regenerant flow. Add desired quantity of acid (33% HCl) to the tank. In case rayon grade caustic solution is available, it can directly be taken to alkali measyring tank without any dilution. Ensure that the alkali measuring tank CDT 2102 is cleaned fitted with agitator, piping valves etc along with ejector E2104 and flow meters RT 2108 and RT 2109. Take water in the tank by opening valve V2217B and run the agitator of the tank. Add desired quantity of alkali to the tank and prepare alkali solution to 45 % concentration. Preinjection is carried out using Power Water from DM Water Storage Tank with boiler makeup pump P2105-A,B on. Establishing water flow through acid ejector E2103 by DM water with opening of valve V2219, V2122, V2214,V2215 followed by opening of unit valves V2205 and V 2195 to give flow of 0.3 M3/hour in up flow direction. Similarly maintain flow through alkali ejector E2104 by DM water with opening of valve V2219, V2220, V2222, V2223 followed by opening of unit valves V2206 and V 2195 to give flow of 0.3 M3/hour in Down flow. Continue this for 2 minutes and keep all valves open. Acid and Alkali Injection Injection of alkali & acid carried simultaneously by opening alkali valve V 2218 and acid valve V2210 to ejector along with all other valves opens from above operation. Final alkali & Acid concentration after ejector is to be maintained at 5%. Continue operation for 30 minutes. Acid/Alkali Rinse

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Rinsing to be carried by keeping all valves open of above operation except acid and alkali valves V 2210 & V 2218 closed. Continue this for 50 minutes and close all valves at the end. Drain Down Open vent valve V 2198 and Drain Valve V2197 for draining the water just above to 100mm resin bed level. Expected time is around 3 minutes but it is to be adjusted at site during commissioning. Air Mixing Start MB air blower MBAB 2101 A/B followed by opening of valve V2225A/B and header drain valve to drain the water followed by opening of unit valves V 2196 & Vent valve V2198. Continue the operation for 10 minutes or till mixing of resin is complete in unit. At end close all the valves with stopping of air blower. Refill Open service inlet valve V2190V and vent valve V2198 at flow of 10 M3/hour and allow unit to be filled with water free from air. Keep filling the unit till water free from air comes out of Vent valve V2198. After that close Vent Valve and keep service inlet valve open. Fast Rinse By keeping service inlet valve V2190V open, drain valve V 2197 to be opened at flow rate of 14.75M3/hour normally for 10 minutes or till desired conductivity is achieved from the unit. After closing all valves keep unit ready for use. Service Open service inlet valve V2190 along with vent valve to drive off all air from the unit. Then open outlet valve V2193 at flow rate of 14.75 M3/hour for 140 Hrs. In case conductivity of treated water deteriorates in between, the unit shall be taken out for regeneration irrespective of running hours. Whenever service cycle is started, it is better to carry out final rinsing as per above given procedure for 5 minutes or till outlet conductivity is achieved within desired limits.

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Allow MB treated water to store in DM water tanks DMWST2101A/B. pH correction of this water is carried online by pH correction dosing system having one dosing tank and one set of dosing pump. 10% alkali solution is prepared in dosing tank by taking water and alkali.

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SECTION-8 CONTROL PHILOSOPHY

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water
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1. POLY DOSING SYSTEM LOW LEVEL IN TANK---------TRIPPING OF DOSING PUMPS D1101 A/B (CMT 1101 A/B ) WITH ALARM THROUGH LS 1101 2. COAGULANT DOSING SYSTEM LOW LEVEL IN TANK---------TRIPPING OF DOSING PUMP D 1102 A/B WITH (CMT 1102 A/B) ALARM THROUGH LS 1102 A/B 3. CHLORINE DOSING SYSTEM LOW LEVEL IN TANK----------TRIPPING OF DOSING PUMP D 1103 A/B (CMT 1103 A/B) WITHALARM THROUGH LS 1103 4. RAW WATER HEADER FLOW RATE----------------------BY BYPASS ROTAMETER RT-1101 LOCALLY TURBIDITY------------------------BY ONLINE TURBIDITY METER TE-1101 5. CLARIFIER WATER TANK CWST-1101 LOW LEVEL IN TANK----------TRIPPING OF CLARIFIED WATER PUMP P-1103 A/B WITH ALARM TURBIDITY------------------------BY ONLINE TURBIDITY METER TE-1101 HIGH LEVEL IN TANK----------TRIPPING OF RAW WATER PUMP P-1101 A/B ALONG WITH TRIPPING OF ALL POLY, COAGULANT,CHLORINE DOSING PUMPS AND TO GIVE ALARM 5. MULTIGRADE FILTER MGF 1101

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FEED FLOW RATE---------------BY BYPASS ROTAMETER RT 1102 TURBIDITY-------------------------FILTERED WATER BY ONLINE TURBIDITY METER TE-1101 6. SERVICE WATER STORAGE TANK SWST 1101 LOW LEVEL IN TANK-----HIGH LEVEL IN TANK-----TRIPPING OF CONNECTED PUMPS OF CLIENTWITH ALARM ALARM

7. ULTRAFILTRATION SYSTEM. FEED FLOW RATE----------------BY ONLINE ROTAMETER RT 1103 AT INLET HEADER LOW FEED PRESSURE-----------BY PRESSURE SWITCH PS 1102 ON FEED AND TO STOP SERVICE RUN CERTAIN SET PRESSURE. TREATED WATER FLOW RATE-----BY FLOW TRANSMITTER FIT 1101AND AT PRESET FLOW RATE STARTING OF BACKWASHING AND FAST FLUSHING DRAIN WATER FLOW RATE----------BY ONLINE ROTAMETER RT 1104 BACKWASH FLOW RATE--------------BY ONLINE ROTAMETER RT 1105 FAST FLUSH FLOW RATE------------ BY ONLINE ROTAMETER RT 1103 8. ULTRAFILTRATION WATER TANK UFPWST 1101 LOW LEVEL IN TANK--------------------TRIPPING OF RO FEED PUMP 2101 A/B AND UF BACKWASH PUMP P 1105 A/B WITH ALARM HIGH LEVEL IN TANK------------------TRIPPINF OF CLARIFIED WATER PUMP P 1103 A/B WITH ALARM 9. FAST FLUSH TANK FFT 1101

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LOW LEVEL IN TANK-------------------TRIPPING OF FAST FLUSH PUMPS P 1104 A/B WITH ALARM HIGH LEVEL IN TANK-------------------ALARM TO CLOSE PNEUMATIC VALVES V 1131, V 1146 10. RO FEED PUMP DISCHARGE HEADER PH INDICATOR-----------------------------TO INDICATE PH OF FEED WATER ON PH 2101 AT PRESET POINT WITH CONTROL OF ACID DOSING PUMP ORP INDICATOR---------------------------TO INDICATE ORP OF FEED WATER ON ORP 2101 AND TO DRAIN WATER AT PRESET POINT BY CLOSING PNEUMATIC VALVE V 2114 A AND OPENING OF PNEUMATIC VALVE V 2113 TO UFWATER TANK LOW PRESSURE SWITCH---------------TRIPPING OF RUNNING HIGH PRESSURE PUMP WITH ALARM AT PRESET POINT BY LPS 2101 A/B 11. SMBS,ANTISCALANT AND ACID DOSING TANKS LOW LEVEL IN TANKS-------------------TRIPPING OF RUNNING DOSING PUMP WITH ALARM 12. HIGH PRESSURE PUMP P 2102 A/B DISCHARGE HIGH PRESSURE SWITCH-------------TRIPPING OF RUNNING HIGH PRESSURE PUMP WITH ALARM AT PRESET POINT BY HPS 2101 A/B 13. REVERSE OSMOSIS MODULE PERMEATE CONDUCTIVITY------------PANEL INDICATION WITH LOCAL TO GIVE PERMEATE QUALITY BY CI 2101 PERMEATE FLOW--------------------------- PANEL INDICATION WITH LOCAL TO GIVE PERMEATE FLOW BY FIT 2101 REJECT FLOW---------------------------------LOCAL INDICATION TO GIVE
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REJECT FLOW BY RT 2101 14. DEGASSED WATER STORAGE TANK DGWST 2101 LOW LEVEL IN TANK-----------------------TRIPPING OF DEGASSED WATER PUMP P 2104 A/B WITH ALARM HIGH LEVEL IN TANK-----------------------TRIPPING OF HIGH PRESSURE PUMP P 2102 A/B WITH ALARM 15. STRONG ACID CATION UNIT SAC 2101 FEED FLOW------------------------------------- BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOWMETER RT 2110 POWER WATER FLOW-----------------------BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOWMETER RT 2102 REGENERANT FLOW ------------------------BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOWMETER RT 2103 16. STRONG BASE ANION UNIT SBA 2101 FEEDFLOW--------------------------------------BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOWMETER RT 2111 POWER WATER FLOW----------------------BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOWMETER RT 2104 REGENERANT FLOW------------------------BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOWMETER RT 2105 TREATED WATER QUALITY--------------- BY LOCAL CONDUCTIVITY METER CI 2102 17. MIXED BED UNIT MB 2101 FEED FLOW-------------------------------------BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOWMETER RT 2112 TREATED WATER QUALITY---------------BY LOCAL CONDUCTIVITY METER CI 2103 POWER WATER FLOW FOR ACID ------BYLOCAL ONLINE FLOWMETER RT 2106
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ACID REGENERANT FLOW----------------BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOW METER RT 2107 POWER WATER FLOW FOR ALKALI----BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOW METER RT 2108 ALKALI REGENERANT FLOW-------------- BY LOCAL ONLINE FLOW METER RT 2109 18. FINAL DM WATER HEADER PH INDICATOR---------------------------------TO INDICATE PH ON PANEL AND TO CONTROL ALKALI DOSING AT PRESET POINTBY PHI 2102 CONDUCTIVITY--------------------------------TO INDICATE CONDUCTIVITY ON PANEL BY CI 2104 19. CAUSTIC DOSING TANK CMT 2104 LOW LEVEL------------------------------------TO TRIP ALKALI DOSING PUMP WITH ALARM 20. NEAUTRALISATION PIT LOW LEVEL ------------------------------------TRIPPING OF NEAUTRALISATION PUMP P 3104 A/B WITH ALARM HIGH LEVEL-------------------------------------ALARM

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b) Control philosophy for UF system


All the operation shall be carried automatically by PLC SERVICE RUN a. Passing of filtered water at flow rate of 26 M3/Hr. coming from Multigrade Filter (MGF-1101) through Basket filter (BF) by operating pneumatic valve V1142, V-1150 with opening of Reject Valve V-1154 so as to get reject flow at 8% of total flow as set by manual valve on reject line. b. c. d. Flows to be noted for feed flow by RT-1103, for permeate flow by FIT-1101 and for reject flow by RT-1104. Permeate water to be collected in UF permeate tank. Service run to continue for one hour and in case back pressure develops more than set pressure as indicated by PS-1102 in between the given time, the run to be stopped at that time. e. At end close all the valves.

NOTE---In next service run cycle the mode of operation in service run shall be reversed where the water flow shall be from top to bottom. In this case the valves V 1168, V1169 and V1154 C shall be operating at flow of 26 m3/hour again for one hour. During this flow reject flow shall be adjusted once by manual valve on RT 1106. BACKWASH

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a.

Backwashing to be done by starting of backwash pump P-1105 A/B at flow of 33 M3/Hr.as noted by RT1106 followed by opening of pneumatic valves V1161 V1171 and V-1153A.

b. c. d. e.

Continue the operation for 30 seconds and note down flow by RT-1105. Backwash pressure is to be set at particular desired pressure by PS-1103. At end close all the valves along with stopping of pump. For next 30 seconds during backwash cycle the flow shall be reversed where the valves V 1161, v1171 and v 1153C shall be operating. At end close all the valves along with stopping of backwash pump.

FAST FLUSH a. b. c. d. Filtered water for fast flush collected in fast flush tank by opening pneumatic valve V-1131 in between service run. Running of Fast Flush pumps P-1104 A/B at flow of 72 M3/Hr. at 1.8 bar followed by opening of pneumatic valves V-1143 and V-1153 A. Continue this operation for 60 seconds by noting flow at RT-1103. At end close all the valves along with stopping of pumps.

CIP CLEANING a. b. c. It is to be carried normally once a week or when transmembrane pressure develops beyond certain set point. For cleaning solution permeate water is collected in Fast Flush / CIP tank (FIT-1101) by opening pneumatic valve V-1146 during service run. Desired cleaning chemical such as sodium hypochlorite or hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide are added in Fast Flush tank. By running the Fast Flush Pump P-1104 A/B chemical solution is prepared by recirculation in the tank. d. After chemical solution preparation, start pump P-1104 A/B followed by opening of valve V-1143 V1146 and Valve V-1147. Recirculate the chemical

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solution through membrane for 60 seconds followed by soaking of chemicals for 15 minutes by stopping of pumps and closing all valves. e. Again start fast flush pump and open valve V1143 along with drain valve V1153 A and V1154 and drain the chemical solution .At end close all valves and stop the pump f. Take filtered water in Fast Flush Tank by opening Valve V-1131 and fill the tank. Start Fast Flush pump followed by opening of Valve V-1143 and V1153 A AND v1154. Continue it for 5 minutes. g. h. Stop the pump and close all pneumatic valves at the end. Start normal service run as per details given above from bottom to top.

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SECTION-9 TROUBLE SHOOTING

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water

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Trouble shooting for RO section


9.1

Introduction Loss of salt rejection and loss of permeate flow are the most common problems encountered in reverse osmosis. If the salt rejection and/or the permeate flow decreases slowly, this may indicate a normal fouling/scaling which can be handled by proper and regular cleaning. A rather fast or an immediate performance decline indicates a defect or mis-operation of the plant. In any case ,it is essential that the proper corrective measure is taken as early as possible, because any delay decreases the chance of restoring the plant performance apart from other problems that might be created by an excessively low permeate flow and /or too high permeate TDS. A prerequisite for early detection of potential problems is proper record keeping and plant performance normalization. This includes proper calibration of all instruments. Without accurate readings it might be too late before a problem can be detected and corrected. Once a performance decline has been identified, the first step in solving the problem is to localize the problem and to identify the cause(s) of the problem. This can be done using the date of the record keeping log sheet or of some additional on-line measurements. If these data are not sufficient to determine the cause(s) and to recommend corrective action, one or more membrane elements must be taken from the plant and analyzed. Element performance analysis includes nondestructive and destructive analysis.

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9.2

Localization of High Salt Passage A loss in salt rejection may be uniform throughout the system or it could be limited to the front or to the tail end of the system. It could be a general plant failure or it could be limited to one or few individual vessels. Therefore, all individual vessel TDS values have to be checked. A well designed system contains a sample port located in the permeate stream from each vessel. All permeate samples are then tested for their concentration of dissolved solids with a TDS meter. The permeate samples of all pressure vessels in the same array should give readings in the same range. Notice that from on array to the next the average permeates TDS usually increases, because for example the second array is fed with the concentrate from the first array. To determine the salt passage of all modules from their permeate TDS. The TDS of the feed stream to each array must also be measured. The salt passage is the ratio of the permeate TDS to the feed TDS. Then the high salt passage of the system can be assigned to the first or the last array, or to individual vessels. If one pressure vessel shows a significantly higher permeate TDS than the other vessels of the same array, then this vessel should be probed. Probing involves the insertion of a plastic tube (approx. 1/4for 8 module) into the full length of the permeate tube (see figure 1). This can be accomplished by removing the vessel's product manifolds or by removing the opposite end cap's product plug. When the product manifolds remain in place, it must be ensured that no permeate from other vessels can influence the probing. While the RO system is operating at normal operating conditions, water is diverted from the permeate stream of the vessel in question. A few minutes should be allowed to rinse out the tubing and allow the RO system to equilibrate. The TDS of the permeate sample from the tubing can then be measured with a hand-held meter and the date be recorded. This

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measurement should reflect the TDS of the permeate being produced by the FILMTEC** element at that position. The tubing is then pulled out to the next element and another sample is taken. This sample represents a blend of the permeates of the first and of the second element. The tubing is then withdrawn in further increments to obtain a conductivity profile (see Figure 1). The sampling locations should be at the middle of the element and at the ends of the element (to check coupler/adapter O-rings). The tube can be marked so that the desired sampling locations can easily be accessed. The conductivity of a probe sample is the average of product water produced upstream, Better results in the sense of measuring the permeate TDS being actually produced at the location of sampling can be obtained when the permeate exits both ends of the vessel. A normal conductivity profile shows a steady increase of the permeate produced at the feed side of the pressure vessel towards the concentrate end of the vessel. An unusually large deviation from this profile locates the source of the high salt passage problem. O-ring problems are generally indicated by a step change in the conductivity profile at coupler/adapter locations, while a marked increase outside this region points to an element problem. 9.3 Element Analysis Sample Selection When the causes of a plant performance loss are not known or when they have to be confirmed, one or more elements of the system have to be analyzed individually. The element(s) which should be analyzed are those with a step increase in the conductivity profile. When there is a general plant failure, a front-end element or a tail-end element should be selected, depending on where the problem are fouling problems, typical tail-end problems are scaling problems. When the

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problem cannot be localized, and element from both ends of the system should be taken. Sampling a second element from a neighbor position is advisable when cleaning tests are planned . Then one of the elements can be used to analyze the fouling layer and to perform lab scale cleaning tests, the results of which can then be applied to the other element. 9.3.1 Leak Test A FILMTEC Leak Test a FILMTEC** element with a high salt passage should first be checked if leaks are present in which there is a direct communication between the feed/concentrate side and the permeate side. Leaks may occur through damage of the membrane surface itself by punctures or scratches or by glue-line failure. The following method may be used to detect leaks or to confirm the mechanical integrity of a FILMTEC element. This test, also called a vacuum test, is useful as a screening procedure and is not intended as a means of absolute verification of leaks, Only such leaks are detected which are significant enough to prevent the element from holding a vacuum. a. Drain the element. b. Seal one end of the permeate tube with a suitable leak-tight cap (not necessary for TW30-1512, TW30-1812, AND TW30-4611 elements). Connect the other end of the permeate tube to a vacuum gauge and a valve vacuum source. c. Evacuate the element to 100 to 300 m bar absolute pressure. Close the isolation valve and observe the reading on the vacuum gauge. Note the rate at which the vacuum decays. A rapid decay (greater than 200 m bar per minute) will indicate the presence of a leak. Slowly release the vacuum and allow the element to reach atmospheric pressure before disconnecting.

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9.3.2 Standard Test The standard element test is used to determine the desalinating ability and permeate flow rate of a FILMTEC element under FILMTEC Standard Test Conditions. The test results can then be compared with the specification of the element in question. The element performance is determined before and after any cleaning trial in order to assess the efficacy of the treatment. The apparatus for the standard test consists of a feed holding taste to maintain the feed solution at 2510C, a booster pump, a high pressure pump, and a reverse osmosis device. Sodium chloride solution is used as feed water. The NaCI concentration and the feed pressure are given in the Standard Test Conditions in the Technical Bulletin of the relevant FILMTECH element. The feed flow rate should be adjusted to obtain the element recovery as indicated in the mentioned Standard Test Conditions. The feed water pH should be adjusted to a pH of 8 by adding HCI or Na OH. The following date are recorded one hour after start-up, and repeated 2 to 3 hours after start-up and hourly there after until three successive permeate flow rates (corrected to 25 oC) and salt passages agree within 5% relative: .. .. .. .. Feed, concentrate, and permeate pressures Permeate and concentrate flows (use calibrated flow meters or a calibrated volume container and stopwatch) Permeate temperature Conductivity of feed, permeate, and concentrate, or chloride content of the three streams. The salt rejection is calculated from the permeate conductivity Kp and the feed conductivity Kf: Rejection, %=(1 -Kp / Kf) X 100

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9.3.3 Cleaning Test When the permeate flow rate of the tested element is too low compared with the specified value, a cleaning can be tried. Cleaning cannot be successful, however, when the membrane itself is damaged, or when the membrane itself is damaged, or when the membrane is heavily fouled/scaled (typically when the permeate flow is <50% of specification), When the cleaning test had proven effective, the treatment can be applied to the whole RO system. 9.3.4 Destructive Analysis The ultimate method to determine the cause(s) of a performance loss is the destructive analysis (autopsy) of the FILMTEC** ELEMENT. The Technical Service and Development Department of Dow must be involved if destructive analysis is required in warranty cases. When the end caps and the wrapping of the element have been removed, the membrane leave(s) can be unrolled. A visual inspection of the membrane surface and the glue lines can already provide valuable information. A massive fouling layer, if present, can be sampled for chemical analysis. Aching of a membrane sample with known surface area and subsequent analysis of the residual oxides provides quantitative data of the composition of a fouling / scaling layer. The morphology of deposits is determined with a stereo and standard light microscope (SEM). A semi-quantitative analysis of the chemical elements contained in the membrane or its fouling/scaling layer is obtained from an X-ray analysis. This method can also furnish evidence of a halogen damage of the membrane.

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An oxidation damage can be made visible by cutting coupons out of the membrane leaves and operating them in a plate and frame test unit (lab 20) with a ethylene blue dye solution. The membranes treated in this manner show a more or less equally colored back side, while the back side of an undamaged membrane remains white. 9.4 Causes and Corrective Measures < a. Membrane Oxidation A high salt passage in combination with a higher than normal permeate flow is mostly due to oxidation damage. When free chlorine, bromine, ozone, or other oxidizing chemicals are present in the incoming water, the front end elements are typically more affected than the others. A neutral to alkaline pH favors the attack to the membrane. An oxidation damage may also occur by disinfecting with oxidizing agents, when pH and temperature limits are not observed. In this case, a uniform damage is likely. Autopsy of one element and analysis of the membrane can be used to confirm. No corrective action is possible, all damaged elements must be replaced. <b. LEAK A severe mechanical damage of the element construction or of the permeate tubing can allow feed/concentrate to penetrate into the permeate, especially when working at high pressures. Possible causes are discussed in the next section. 9.4.1.2.1 Normal Permeate Flow High salt passage at normal permeate flow may have different cause. <a. LEAKING O-RING 9.4.1 High Salt Passage

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Leasing o-rings can be detected by the probing technique. Inspect O-rings of couplers, adapters, and end plug for correct installation and as-new condition. Replace old and damaged O-rings. O-ring may leak after exposure to certain chemicals, or to mechanical stress, e.g. Element movement caused by water hammer. Sometimes, Orings have simply not been installed, or they have been improperly installed or moved out of their place during element loading. < b. TELESCOPING FILMTEC** elements can be mechanically damaged by an effect called telescoping, where the outer membrane layers of the element unravel and extend downstream past the remaining layers. A modest telescoping does not necessarily damage the membrane, but in more severe cases the glue line and /or the membrane can be ruptured. Even the end cap, whose function is to prevent telescoping, can be forced out of the fibre glass wrapping. Telescoping is caused by excessive pressure drop from feed to concentrate. Eight inch elements are more critical because of their greater feed side area. Make sure that a thrust ring is used with eight inch elements to support the element's outer diameter. Elements with smaller diameter are supported by their permeate tubing. An excessive pressure drop occurs when the recommended feed flow rates are exceeded. It can also occur when the feed pressure builds up too fast during start-up (water hammer). The effect is dramatically increased with a fouling being present. Especially a bio-film causes a high pressure drop. Water hammer, a hydraulic shock to the membrane element, can also happen when the system is started up before all air has been flushed out. This could be the case at initial start up or at operational start-ups, when

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the system has been allowed to drain. Ensure that the pressure vessels are not under vacuum when the plant is shut down (e.g. By installation of a vacuum breaker). In starting up a partially empty RO system, the pump may behave as if it had little or no back pressure. It will suck water at great velocities, thus hammering the elements. Also the high pressure pump can be damaged by cultivation. A telescoping damage can be identified by probing and confirmed by a leak test. Replace the damaged element(s) and correct the causes.

MEMBRANE SURFACE ABRASION

This is not an individual element failure, but the front-end element is typically most affected by crystalline or sharp-edged metallic suspended solids in the feed water. Check the incoming water for such particles. Microscopic inspection of the membrane surface will also reveal the damage. No corrective action is possible. The pretreatment must be changed to cope with this problem. Ensure that no particles are released from the high pressure piping. After wards all damaged membranes must be replaced. < d. PERMEATE BACKPRESSURE When the permeate pressure exceeds the feed/concentrate pressure by more than 0.3 bar (PSI) at any time, the membrane may tear. The damage can be identified by probing. It is confirmed by the leak test and a visual inspection. Adhesive-tape-wrapped tap water elements appear more soft, and the adhesive tape has moved back some millimeter's from its original position. When a leaf of a back pressure damaged element is unrolled, the outer membrane typically shows creases parallel to the permeate tube, preferably close to the outer glue line. The rupture of the membrane occurs

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mostly in the edges between the feed-sided glue line, the outer glue line, and the concentrate-sided glue line. 9.4.1.3 Low Permeate Flow High salt passage combined with low permeate flow is the most commonly occurring condition for plant failure. Possible causes are: < a. Colloidal Fouling Colloidal fouling occurs predominantly in the first array. The problem can more easily be localized when permeate flow meters have been installed in each array separately. Check SDI on a more regular basis to identify upset. Inspect SDI filters and cartridge filters for deposits. Clean the membranes (see cleaning instructions, Section 8) and correct the pretreatment accordingly. <b. Metal Oxide Fouling Metal oxide fouling occurs predominantly in the first array. Check feed water for levels of iron and aluminum. Check the materials of construction upstream the membranes. Inspect SDI filters and cartridge filters for deposits. Clean the membranes (see cleaning instructions, Section 80 and analyze the spent cleaning solution for metals to identify cause. Correct the pretreatment and/or material selection. < c. Scaling Scaling will involve deposits starting on the last array, and then gradually moving to the upstream arrays. Analyze the concentrate for levels of calcium, barium, strontium, sulfate, fluoride, silicate, pH and LSI (S&DSI for sea water)< TRY to calculate the mass balance for those salts, analyzing also feed water and permeate.

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Scaling occurs typically very slowly because of the low concentrations involved (CaCO3 and CaSO4 scaling can also develop rapidly). The crystalline structure of the deposits can be observed under the microscope. The type of scaling is identified by a chemical analysis or X-ray analysis. Cleaning with acid and /or an alkaline EDTA solution with subsequent analysis of the spent solution may also help to identify the type of Antiscalent. In the case of carbonate scaling, adjust the pH of the pretreatment. For the other salts, either use an appropriate scale inhibitor or other suitable pretreatment techniques or lower the recovery. Make sure that the design recovery is not exceeded, and the worst case feed water composition has been taken into account. Clean the membranes with a suitable chemical. 9.4.2 Low Permeate Flow 9.4.2.1 Normal Salt Passage < a. Bio-fouling

A bio-fouling of the membranes in indicated by the following changes in the operating parameters, predominantly at the front end of the system: Permeate Flow:

drop when operated at constant feed pressure and recovery Feed Flow: drop when operated at constant feed pressure and recovery, in cases where bio-fouling is advanced to large biomasses. Feed Pressure:

has to be increased if the permeate flow is to be maintained at constant recovery. The increase of the feed pressure is however self-defeating when done for a long time, since it increases the fouling, making it more difficult to clean later.

Pressure vessel normally increases when bacterial fouling is present.

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Differential Pressure:

increases sharply when the bacterial fouling is massive or when it is combined with silt fouling.

In view of the above, it is strongly recommended to provide the PV's with adequate fittings to measure P and to provide differential manometers or other devices to monitor P. This can be done for the whole array of several PV's in parallel on a continuous base, or installing the fillings to plug a pressure meter to each individual array when needed. Salt Passage:

normal or even low at the beginning, increasing when fouling becomes massive.

High counts of microorganisms in water samples taken from the feed, concentrate, or permeate stream indicate beginning or the presence of bio-fouling.

Corrective measures include the installation or optimization of the pretreatment system to cope with the fouling potential of the raw water. In order to clean the membranes effectively it is important that the whole plant, including pretreatment, is disinfected. Chlorine can be used to disinfect the pretreatment line. Cleaning and disinfection of the membranes is described in Section 8. An incomplete cleaning and disinfection will result in rapid recontamination. < b. Aged Preservation Solution

Elements or RO systems preserved in a bi-sulfite solution, can also become biologically fouled, if the preservation solution is too old, too

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warm, or oxidized buy oxygen. An alkaline restore the permeate flow. < c. Incomplete Wetting

cleaning usually helps to

Dry original FILMTEC elements, or membranes that have been allowed to dry out, may have a too low permeate flow, because the fine pores of the poly-sulfone layer are not vetted. 1.

9.4.2.2 Low Salt Passage < a. Compaction

Membrane compaction is typically associated with low permeate flow and improved salt rejection. Although the FT30 membrane shows little compaction when operated properly, there might occur significant compaction under following conditions:

High Feed Temperature High Temperature Water hammer Water hammer can occur when the high pressure pump is started with air in the system. Membrane compaction can be evidenced by a special membrane thickness measurement. Often, intrusions of the membrane into the permeate channel pacer fabric are visible. Thus, the permeate flow is not only restricted by the compaction of the poly-amide or the poly-sulfone layer, but also by the reduced cross-section of the permeate spacer that is available for permeate flow. Damaged elements must be replaced, or additional elements must be added at the tail-end of the system. < b. Organic Fouling

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The adsorption of organic matter present in the feed water on the membrane surface causes flux loss, especially in the first array. In many cases, the adsorption layer acts as an additional barrier for dissolved salts, or plugs pinholes of the membrane, resulting in a lower salt passage. Organics with a high molecular mass and with hydrophobic or cationic groups can produce such an effect. Examples are oil traces or cationic polyelectrolyte, which are sometimes used in the pretreatment. Analyze the incoming water for oil and organic matter, and check the SDI filter and the cartridge filter for organic deposits. Conduct SDI and TOC measurements on a more frequent basis. Improve the pretreatment accordingly . An oil fouling fan is removed with an alkaline cleaning agent, for example Na OH (pH 12) or Henkel P3-ultrasil 10. Cationic polyelectrolyte may be cleaned off at an acidic pH, if it is not a precipitation product with other compounds, e.g. Antiscalent. 9.4.2.3 High Salt Passages Low permeate flow in combination with high salt passage has already been discussed Whether the loss of permeate flow or the loss of salt rejection occurs first depends on the specific type of fouling/scaling layer and cannot be categorized. 9.4.3 High Differential Pressures The feed-to-concentrate differential pressure is a measure of the resistance to the hydraulic flow of water through the system. It is very dependent on the flow rates through the element flow channels and on the water temperature. It is therefore suggested that the permeate and concentrate

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flow rates be maintained as constant as possible in order to notice and is causing an increase in differential pressure. An increase in differential pressure at constant flow rates is usually due to the presence of debris, foulants, or scale within the element flow channels (feed spacer), It usually comes together with a decreasing permeate flow, However, the knowledge of the extent and location of the differential pressure increase provides a valuable tool to identify the cause(s) of a problem. Therefore it is useful to monitor the differential pressure across each array as well as the overall feed-to-concentrate differential pressure. Some of the common causes and prevention of high differential pressure are discussed below. < a. Bypass in Cartridge Filters Cartridge filters have to protect the RO system from large debris that can physically block the flow channels in the lead-end elements. Such blocking can happen when cartridge filters are loosely installed in their housing, connected without using inter connectors, or completely. Sometimes cartridge filters will deteriorate while in operation due to hydraulic shock or the presence of incompatible materials. Cellulose-based filters should be avoided, because they may deteriorate and plug the FILMTEC elements. < b. Pretreatment Media Filter Breakthrough Occasionally, some of the finer media from sand, multimedia, carbon, weak acid CATION exchange resin, or diatomaceous earth pretreatment filters may break through into the RO feed water, Cartridge filters should catch most of the larger particles: but certain types of fine media, such as carbon

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fines and diatomaceous earth, can pass right through a five-micron nominally rated cartridge filter and physically plug the lead elements. Chemical cleaning is difficult, it can be tried to rinse out the deposits with detergents. Separate singly-element cleaning is recommended to avoid the transport of removed particles into other elements. Diatomaceous earth filters should be taken off-line when such problems are encountered. Soft carbons made from coal should be replaced by coconut-shell-based carbons with a hardness rating of 95 or better. New media should be sufficiently backwashed to remove fines before the bed is put into service. < c. Pump Impeller Deterioration Most of the multistage centrifugal pumps employ at least one plastic impeller. When a pump problem such as misalignment of the pump shaft develops, the impellers have been known to deteriorate and throw off small plastic shavings. The shavings can enter and physically plug the lead end RO elements. It is suggested that the discharge pressure of RO pumps be monitored before any control valves as part of a routine maintenance schedule to see if the pump is maintaining its output pressure. If not, it may be deteriorating. < d. Scaling Scaling can cause the tail-end differential pressure to increase. Make sure the scale control is properly taken into account and clean the membranes with the appropriate chemicals (see Section 8.6 ). Ensure that the designed system recovery will not be exceeded. < e. Brine Seal Damage Brine seal damage can cause a random increase in differential pressure. Brine seals can be damaged or turned over during installation or due to

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hydraulic surges. This results in a around the element and less flow and velocity through the element, thus exceeding the limit for maximum element recovery. When this occurs, the element is more prone to fouling and scaling. As a fouled element in one of several multi-element pressure vessels becomes more plugged, there is a greater tendency for the downstream elements to become fouled due to insufficient concentrate flow rates within that vessel. < f. Biological Fouling A biological fouling is typically associated with a marked increase of the differential pressure at the lead end of the RO system. Bio-films are gelatinaceous and quite thick, thus creating a high flow resistance. Corrective measures have been described in Section 9.4.2.1. < g. Precipitated Antiscalent When polymeric organic Antiscalent come into contact with multivalent cations, like aluminum, or with residual cationic polymeric flocculants, they will form gum like precipitants which can heavily foul the lead elements. Cleaning will be different repeated application of an alkaline EDTA solution may help.

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9.4.4 Overview Changes of the permeate flow, the salt passage, and the different pressure re symptoms which can be attached to specific causes in many cases. Although the symptoms of different causes may overlap in reality, and the symptoms are more or less pronounced in specific cases, an overview of symptoms, their possible causes and corrective measures are given in Table 1).
Permeate Salt Different Direct Cause Indirect Cause Flow Passage Pressure Oxidation Damage Free chlorine,
Ozone, KMnO4 Membrane Leak O-Ring Leak Leaking Tube Scaling Colloidal Fouling Permeate pressure: BackReplace O-Ring

Corrective Measure Replace Element

Improper Installation Replace O-Ring ProductDamaged DuringReplace Element Element Loading Insufficient Control Insufficient Pretreatment ScaleCleaning: Control Scale

Cleaning, Improve Pretreatment

Bio fouling

Contaminated RawCleaning, Water, InsufficientDisinfection Improve Pretreatment Pretreatment

Organic Fouling

Oil: CationicCleaning, Improve Polyelectrolyte Pretreatment Water Hammer Replace Element or Add Elements

Compaction

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Trouble shooting for DM Section


9.5. Cation Exchanger

Problem Loss of Capacity

Cause Improper regeneration Change in Na/TC. Over exhaustion of unit in raw

Action Carry regeneration as per specification water Increase acid quantity

characteristics,

Increase Normal acid will not

restore capacity increase acid quantity. Channeling Remove or resin fines Faulty Replace broken strainer laterals distribution system-check and rectify. Loss of Resin Resin fouling Inspect resin bed depth Control Backwash flow 1.Get Resin analyse 2.Clean with acid 3.Replaceifanalyse broken too much decrosslinking and

beads. Poor Quality of treated Valve leakage

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water Higher flow greater than Increase Na/TC has more normal design range profound flow rate Low flow rate The flow rate should be maintained Temperature Does not above have 0.5 much GPM/ft3 of resin. effect except for very low temperature Increased TDS Increased (Analyze correct).Add required. Hardness in Raw water Valve leakage, High flow rate, change water High sodium slip in Raw . composition resin leakage and if effect on increases leakage leakage from increased

Inefficient regeneration in Over exhaustion (Double injection) Improper (Correct) regeneration treated water

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9.6 Strong Base anion Problem Loss of capacity Cause Increase in Ionic load Action Put more resin, use more regenerant. Long Rinsing time Cation not check for Degasser functioning working, Organically fouled resin. Give brine treatment. Increase in Alkalinity Fouled Resin Check. Add resin or reduce output Chemically clean with hot caustic for silica & brine treatment fouling Precipitation by Ca, Mg Check if Regenerant for by Use Ca/Mg etc. Check cation regenerated H2SO4. for dilution. Resin ageing Bacterial contamination Use Unit idle. specified Do not keep concentration of NaOH unit idle. Very important where high purity water required. for organic

Decationised or DM water

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Iron in regenerant or Heavy metal fouling through lining. Poor treated water quality High pH, high Check cation. Rinsing conductivity meter Low pH, High conductivity Check anion. Regeneration not carried. properly. Organic fouling, check pH meter High silica Resin organically fouled. (Clean chemically). Carry regeneration specification. Regenerant temperature low (carry regeneration by hot caustic). service water temperature, check. Chloride leakage Valve leakage, chloride in regenerant working precipitation Rectify. in WBA not silica WBA. High as per Do more Check conductivity leakage from cation. Damaged Rubber

Hardness Check cation. Use cation or DM water for dilution

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and rinsing. Check Sodium leakage raw water for sodium, check cation for sodium slip, Na slip give rise conductivity.

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SECTION - 10 MAINTENANCE

Dos & Donts Recommended Maintenance Schedule Equipment Ion Exchange Resins Precautions Against Maloperation

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water

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DOS 1. Ensure proper ventilation of all plant buildings. Special Care to be taken during regeneration. 2. Always wear gloves, gum boots & safety goggles while handling chemicals 3. Keep safety & first aid kits easily approachable. Ensure proper working of safety showers at all times. 4. Conduct safety drills regularly for the personnel manning plant operations. 5. Keep regular watch on probable resin escape routes especially during regeneration. 6. Flush the floors & equipment immediately with sumptuous water after any chemical spillage. 7. Clean/replace air filters, suction strainers regularly. 8. Keep all storage/measuring tank covers leak tight.

DONT S 1. Let exchangers run over their achievable/specified design capacities. 2. Expose resins unduly to oxidizing agents and organic matters. 3. Let resin bed become dry. 4. Leave strong base anion exchanger in regenerated from for a long time. 5. Let anyone use water from any process line for drinking/washing purposes. 6. Drain any vessel without proper venting. 7. Fill any empty/partially empty vessel without proper venting. 8. Fill overflow seals, liquid filled absorbers, below/above specified limits. 9. fill the oil chambers of equipment below/above specified limits. 10. Let a pump run dry/under cavitations. 11. Run a pump under shut off condition. 12. Stand/ hang/take support from nonmetallic pipes, unsupported nozzles, pipes, instrument pipes/ tubes, cables. 13. Let unauthorized personnel operate or fiddle with equipment pipes/cables/instruments 14. Leave any open wire ends uninsulated. 15. Leave covers of instruments loose

9. Keep running flow through fume absorbers & proper liquid levels in absorbers & overflow seals. 10. Keep all opening & doors in the control panel sealed. 11. Prevent bypassing of safety interlock at all costs. 12. Keep equipment under auto operation running with auto mode 13. Keep control room dust & vermin proof. Occasionally check control panel internals & clean with light duty vacuum cleaner. 14. Handle, protect & care for instruments like infants. 15. Keep valve spindles & other auxiliary, non-

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frequent moving assemblies, property lubricated. Normally closed/ non-operational equipment must be operated occasionally to prevent jamming. 16. Keep track record of performance of various equipment & instruments. 17. Keep proper drawing record of any modifications/ changes made in the equipment, circuitry etc. 18. Watch physical state of resin regularly by drawing samples. 19. Prevent corrosion at all costs.

after opening.

16. Open any equipment if proper instructions are not available. 17. Plug/ isolate any safety devices. 18. Take any supports from grounding mat. 19. Expose resins to higher than specified temperatures. 20. Let corrosion take over the best of the plant.

20. Visit regularly all areas of plant & check for any abnormalities, because every equipment cries before it fails

RECOMMENDED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE Job-1 Job-2 Job-3 Job-4 overhauling of Job-5 overhauling. - Daily - Weekly - Monthly - Quarterly/ Half Yearly -Visual Checks. -General Checks. - Routine Checks. - Routine Checks and rotating equipment. - Yearly Complete inspection and

Note: Whenever equipment maintenance is to be carried out, ensure that it is covered by appropriate safety documents which covers the work to be undertaken Job 1 Daily Maintenance Visual checks should be made on all the plant equipment to observe any abnormality, leakages, spillages and Cleanliness.

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Job 2 Weekly Maintenance General Checks 1. Check all connections are leak tight. 2. General checks on all rotating equipment as per the manufacturers recommendation. 3. Wash away the plant area with water remove the deposits taking care that the instruments & electrical connections are well protected. 4. Check all personal safety & protection devices and first aid equipment are available, accessible and working properly. Job- 3 Monthly Maintenance Routine Checks 1. Check all pipe & valve connections are free from leaks, tighten flanges or renew gaskets as necessary. 2. Check all valves for satisfactory operations. 3. Inspect all vessels and associated pipe work externally for damage or distortion. 4. Check through sight glasses levels of filling media. 5. Ensure that vessel vents are clear and from any obstruction. 6. Check security of all instrument connections and ensure all electrical connections are clean 7. Ensure all rotating equipment are checked as per manufacturers instructions and inspect critically for any abnormality in operation. Makeup/replace lubricants as required. 8. Ensure access ladder, platform are clear and fasteners are tight. 9. Check the pipes for any undue vibrations etc. 10. Check all the instruments are functioning. 11. Check all strainers for choking.

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Job-4 Quarterly/Half Yearly Maintenance 1. Complete all the checks for rotating equipment and instrument as per manufacturers instructions. 2. Overhaul pumps and drive motors as per manufacturers instruction. 3. Remove the suction strainers & replace after cleaning. Job-5 Yearly Maintenance 1. Completely check all the plant equipment. 2. Overhaul the equipment as per manufacturers instruction. 3. Check all the instruments for their functioning & calibration. 4. Check all electrical connections. 5. Inspect the vessels and tanks internally taking due precautions as described separately. Carryout repairs, wherever required. 6. Clean the whole plant & paint wherever required. MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT (THIS SECTION DEALS WITH MAINTENANCE OF VESSELS, TANKS, TANK INTERNALS, PIPELINE AND INSTRUMENT PANEL ONLY)

MAINTENANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER : The internal surface of activated carbon filter is coated with three coats of epoxy paint to avoid galvanic corrosion of shell material in presence of activated carbon and water. Once in a year during general maintenance of the plant and shut down, check the integrity of this coating and, if required, repaint.

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Maintenance of Rubber-lined Vessels & Tanks If there is emergency situation when any corrosion on rubber-lined vessels and tanks is noticed, immediately isolate the unit, open up, take out the media or charge, dismantle the internals and check the continuity of rubber-lining by spark test. Wherever defect noticed, repair the same with patch work if possible. Otherwise refer to the plant manufacturer for repair. Patch work to be done by cutting rubber in the affected area ensuring at least six inch more length is cut around the area, then repairing the affected metal surface ensuring at least six inch more length is cut around the area, then repairing the affected metal surface ensuring wet Hessian sack are kept on lining all around while cutting or welding, surface cleaning, putting new lining and curing applying hot electric iron, testing the final lining for continuity and hardness. It is preferable expert is taken for patch work. Even if there is no emergency situation, check the lining once in a year as a routine and take necessary steps. It is important to consult the plant manufacturer or rubber technologist for recommendation of correct type of rubber sheets depending upon service condition. While opening up the vessel and internals, be particularly sure that all gaskets are in good condition. Replace if necessary.

Maintenance of Pipelines For rubberlined pipelines, if there is any defect in lining causing corrosion to pipeline, remove the same and either replace with PVC/HDPE piping as temporary measure or repair/replace rubberlined piping as permanent measure. Flange joints should not leak.

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Tighten flanges or use tapered gasket joints if required. Although in rubber lined piping ideal alignment may not be possible, keep pipes aligned as far as possible. Ensure there is no undue stress in piping and use supports, clamps etc., wherever found necessary. Any fall in flow rate through rubber lined pipe may indicate blocking of line with foreign matter or swelling of internal lining. Remove the pipe and check internally and take suitable steps. For underground pipes, if area over ground if found wet unnaturally, dig up ground carefully and check the piping and target lining wherever applied. BEFORE ENTERING THE VESSEL ALWAYS ENSURE THAT IT IS WELL VENTILATED AND PROPER LIGHTING IS AVAILABLE. Precautions for acid/alkali handling tanks before taking up maintenance : (Ref: Job No.5 ) Ensure the tanks are drained to the maximum possible extent. Ensure the tanks are completely drained out. For this purpose make a local bund of sufficient size and discharge out all the remaining acid by adding water into the local bund. Simultaneously add water and soda solution to the discharged acid in bund area. Neutralisation can be checked with litmus paper turning blue. Similarly neutralize any remain ant acid in the tank with water and soda ash solution added through manhole. Completely wash the walls of the tank. Remove the local bund and let it drain to neutralizing pit and, drain the tank. Clean the tank further with water jets and drain completely. Hydrochloric acid is known to generate hydrogen which if not removed may form explosive mixture. Therefore no naked light or sparking tools should be brought near the tanks till the tanks are certified free from objectionable gases. If personnel entry is required at this stage

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operator must enter with protective clothes, goggles, breathing apparatus & lifeline attached. One person must remain stationed outside the tank. To make the tank free from gases first ventilate the tank by pushing air through the tank manholes. Then fill the tank completely with water to remove all entrapped gases and then drain. Competent station authority must certify that the tank is free from gases and is fit for entry. However, during personnel entry ventilation of the tank must continue. Examine all tank joints, lining for corrosion, integrity and carryout repairs as necessary. Similar precautions are required for alkali measuring tank as well. In this tank way be drain to N. pit by diluting the contents to approximately 10% strength. Since alkali lye may contain some mercury therefore before entry all vapours must be removed as explained above for removal of hydrogen gas.

Maintenance of Tanks Internals The mixed bed interphase distributor are perforated rubberlined pipes would with alkathene net of 60 mesh. Ensure wrapping are in position and secure them by tightly binding with the pipe with the help of alkathene wires. End should be turned inside and stitched in the similar fashion as that mentioned for resin traps. For counter-current system inert bed distributor it is preferable to keep spare distributor pipes. Check the clearance between discs of the special nozzles fitted on the distributor to remain between 2 to 2.5 mm. Position of nozzles should be such they are immersed in inert bed layer. If the lining on the distributor pipes of specially of its threaded connection is damaged, replace the distributor pipe with spare pipes and repair it outside. During withdrawl of distributor pipe through side nozzles on the vessel, take care that the special nozzles on the pipe are removed first, the pipe is positioned properly to enable it to be withdrawn through internal support windows by operating the handle on outside flange of the pipe, the water level is brought down about 150 mm below top of resin surface.

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The bed plate strainers are to be kept fitted tight on the bed plate. Check the nuts on the strainer stem fitted in position by opening bottom manhole and inspecting the bottom of the bed plate.

General Maintenance and Cleanliness Keep the outer surface of all equipment clean. Repaint wherever and whenever necessary. Specially the equipment and piping handling acid and alkali and any other equipment around acid/alkali storage/handling/regeneration area should be painted with chloro rubber paint twice in a year as a routine. Check all gaskets in fuming tanks are placed in position and lids are closed properly. Once in a time, the ion exchange vessels and other equipment can be washed with water after ensuring no water leak into the equipment and protecting the instruments and electrical gadgets by covering them properly with waterproof material like polyethene sheets etc. Keep the sampling cock bibs connected with rubber tubes which should go upto the nearest drains so that sampling water do not fall on the floor. Check the foundations, drain lining and neutralization pit lining from time to time for its integrity.

Maintenance of Control-cum-Instrument Panel/PLC System From time to time the control-cum-instrument panel may be checked not only from functional point of view but also from general maintenance point of view. While for the

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Maintenance of individual equipment on the panel refer to volume 4, for general maintenance of the panel the following tips are given : a) After ensuring the functional correctness of individual PLC system check the continuity of the wiring point by point according to schematic drawings and locate the defects and replace wiring. b) Replace burnt out lamps and fuse as necessary. c) Keep the panel dust and vermin proof. For this always keep shut the doors and other cut outs unless maintenance etc. are being done. All unused/surplus cable entries should be blocked by blanks to avoid entry of reptiles and rodents. If required, after switching off the power, clean the inside of panel using light brush. d) Ensure no tools or other materials left inside the panel. e) Please refer to PLC operation manual and carry out the routine maintenance accordingly.

Management of Chemical Spillages: Whenever there is spillage, block the nearby drain channel rope off the work area. For acid spillage neutralize immediately with soda ash before flushing. For alkali neutralize with saw dust. Thereafter remove the block in drain channel. Flush away the area with water jet directed at the edge of spillage. Never direct the jet at the centre of spillage to minimize splash. Always wear protective clothes, face shield and gloves.

Maintenance Resins

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Maintenance and Handling of Resins This section deals with some important precautions to be taken during operation, maintenance, idle time and storage. Precautions against deterioration of resin column functional capability. The deterioration in the functional capability of resin column may be of the following types:a) Break-up of the resin beads due to either attrition during column operation under varying pressure and flow conditions is called attrition loss. The same also occurs due to chlorine attack or osmotic shock. Such break-up of resin beads leads either to higher pressure drop requiring quicker interval of total backwash in counter-current system or to physical loss of resin as fines resulting into lower bed depth. While the feed water to resin columns should not contain free chlorine, osmotic shock cannot be avoided entirely if hot alkali is used during regeneration of anion exchange bed. This effect can be minimized by using hot rinse water instead of cold rinse water. This attrition loss is a normal phenomenon. Since the resin beads become fines which normally tend to rise up the bed during backwashing etc., these fines have to be removed from time to time in order to reduce the pressure drop through bed during normal operation. The fines removal procedure has been explained. b) Organic fouling of resin is another phenomenon. These organic matters in the feed water to be plant-which cannot be removed during normal regeneration process-may lodge themselves in the anion exchange resin beads and are difficult to elute. This will result in prolonged time of rinsing of alkali from anion bed and deterioration in the quality of the treated effluent. Conductivity of the deanionised / demineralised water may not fall below a stipulated figure and silica in the treated effluent may rise slowly. In case high conductivity is encountered from anion treated water it should be ascertained whether the same is due to sodium slip from cation in amount more than that envisaged

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or whether this is due to organic fouling of anion bed. Recommendation should be taken accordingly. Use of macroporous anion exchange resin minimize the problem of organic fouling to same extent. But whenever such fouling is suspected as will be known from the effect on plant operation and effluent quality, special treatment of resin bed with brine should be taken recourse to as explained. It is recommended to carryout alkaline brine wash of anion exchanger once in three months. c) Loss in exchange capacity of resin (which is sometimes called chemical loss) with the message of time and usage is also normal phenomenon. The useful life of resin is normally recommended when due to such chemical loss cannot be prevented under normal operation condition. d) Loss in functional capability due to either dryness of resin or silica-miscalling caused by long storage and idle time.

Removal of Fines from the Resin Bed a) Connect MB air blower outlet to the exchanger through a hose so that air can enter from the bottom of the exchanger. b) Take out resin trap and (if provided) put back head box on the top in position by inserting a make up flange, if necessary. c) Do backwash under close monitoring for 15-20 min. by allowing water to enter slowly through the backwash inlet valve and to out through backwash outlet valve. Ensure good resin beads do not go out. Close backwash inlet and outlet valves. d) Bring down the level of water to about 200 to 300 mm above resin bed by opening drain valve.

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e) Pass air with the help of blower and opening regenerant inlet valve for 15 20 min. f) Again do backwash. g) Bring down level of water below resin bed by 200-300 mm. Open top manhole and scrape off resin layer from top (say 5 to 10 mm). h) Make up the bed depth with fresh resin. i) Close all manhole, resin trap, valves etc., and regenerate with double the quantity of regenerant (double regeneration) for counter-current exchanger. Treatment of Organic Fouling of Anion Resin The Treatment of organic fouling involves treating the anion resin with alkaline brine solution. The solution contains mixture of 10% of brine solution and 1% of caustic soda. The solution should be injected through resin bed at a flow rate of 1.6 1.75 bed volume per hour and approximately two bed volumes of resin should be passed. After injection of solution allow the resin bed to be soaked in alkaline brine solution for two hours. After soaking, rinse the exchanger with degassed/DM water at the flow rate specified for final rinse. Continue rinse for about 45 minutes or till effluent is clear of alkaline brine wash. Check effluent for chloride content. After rinsing double regenerate the anion exchanger. Double regeneration means injection regenerant displacement and final rinse at normal quantities twice in succession in normal way.

Precautions Against Resin Storage and Idle time

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It is important that ion exchange resins whether stored in an ion exchange column or in drums, should never be allowed to be dry, since once the resin becomes dry, it has a tendency to swell when immersed in water. This leads to physical stress and cracking of the beads. Ion exchange resins are the heart of the plant and are a very costly item. As such proper maintenance should be ensured.

Following Checks Should be Made Regularly :a) Ion exchange resins when supplied are in moist condition and are contained in drums having polythene liner bags. Upon receipt of the resin check the physical condition of the drums and check the moisture in the resin by opening the top cover of the polythene bag. The top layer of the resin should be in moist form. In case found satisfactory, close the polythene bag and replace the top cover properly. If it is suspected that moisture content is not proper, take the following actions:For cation resin add clear and colorless water in small quantity. Shake the drum and repeat the procedure till the top layer is found to be in proper moist

condition. For anion resin the same procedure should be adopted. However, care should be taken that the water used is of demineralised quality. Resin drums during storage should never be allowed to remain in open for long. It is recommended to keep the resin drums inside a shed or under shade at least under a tarpauline cover. During prolonged storage, the water having the tendency to percolate settles down in the bottom portion of the drum Hence, to avoid any likely damage to the top layer of the resin, the drum should be rolled once in a month and place with bottom up for about half

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an hour. After this bring the drum to right position. It is recommended that the resin should be checked for moist condition once in a three months by opening the drum as described above. b) when any of the ion exchange columns are under prolonged shut down, ensure that the water level never falls below the top layer of the resin bed. c) Special care should be taken for the exchanger columns containing strong base anion resins which should not be exposed to stagnant water containing silica for a period more than 10-14 days, to avoid silica miscalling. Under the circumstances when it is anticipated that the strong base anion resins shall not be in use for more than the above mentioned period, the exchanger column should be filled up with demineralised/deionised water.

Complete Removal of Resin from Ion Exchanger and Recharging When it is necessary to complete remove the resin column from an ion exchanger due to expiry of its life (economic life) or due to any extraordinary deterioration caused in the resin property the following procedure for resin removal may be followed:a) Keep a spool piece with double flanges at two ends ready. One flange should match with vessel handhole pad while the other flange should be fitted with a C.I. rubberlined diaphragm valve. b) Good quality hessian sacks ;placed over sack should be laid below and around the bottom hand hole of the vessel. c) Open the air vent valve and top manhole. d) Drain the standing water by opening rinse drain valve.

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e) Open the hand hole blind and fit the spool piece with valve to hand hole pad. f) Open the inlet valve partially and allow water to push resin through hand hole and collect the resin on Hessian sacks. Throttle the spool piece valve as necessary. g) When all resin up to the hand hole has been removed, close the inlet valve and open backwash inlet valve to fluidize bed and remove resin below the hand hole level. Close all vales, manholes, hand hole etc. While recharging resin, first fill the vessel up to about 50% with water. While for cation exchanger raw water may be used. For anion exchanger and mixed bed preferably use decationised water or demineralised water. Pour the correct quantity and type of : Resin by opening top manhole or head box. Measure the bed depth As described in subsequent clause and ensure the vessel has been filled up with correct quantity of resin.

Drawing of Resin Sample of Analysis If at any time there is any doubt about the physical and chemical property of resin, suitable samples of resin have to be drawn from the bed and sent to expert laboratory or to the plant supplier and designer for analysis stating clearly the type of analysis required or the symptoms in plant operation for which the resin characteristics to be probed as well as other relevant information like (a) unit number from where resin is drawn (b) approximate location of bed where from the sample were drawn (c) at what point of time the resin samples were drawn, i.e. whether exhausted or regenerated (d) type of resin (e) total quantity of water passed through bed since used and number of regenerations carried out so far etc.

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For taking sample near the bottom bed plate one can open the hand hole, slowly backwash if necessary, and take sample. For taking sample from top of bed, top manhole may be opened and resin sample may be scooped out from top surface. For taking sample from inside the bed say about 500 mm from top, the top manhole or head box with resin trap may be opened and a 25nb pipe with one end open and other end closed with a stopper may be inserted in the resin bed after the bed is once backwashed, settled and water level brought down to the top of the bed. Release the stopper for a minute or so and again put back the stopper. Quickly withdraw the pipe and hold a polythene bag at the open end to collect the sample. Release the stopper and tap the pipe or blow into the pipe if necessary. Seal the bag after pouring a small quantity of demineralised water and seal the bottle. Put identification tag on the bag or bottle. Each resin sample should be 300 gm to 500 gm.

Resin Bed Depth Measurement Procedure Correct bed depth for resin bed as specified in design parameters is important as lower bed depth will give less output and higher bed depth will result in less regeneration level in cocurrent system or excessive inert depth in counter-current system. The distance between bed plate top and a reference point (say top flange of the nozzle where head box is fitted or the flange of the top manhole as the case may be ) is known already before the resin was filled. Say this is distance A. Otherwise this can be indirectly measured by hanging a plumb line from the above mentioned flange and measuring the distance on outside of the vessel cylinder by locating the weld line of the bed plate. For this first open the head box/top manhole.

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Now for measuring the bed depth backwash the bed and allow the bed to settle. Open head box/or top manhole. Allow the water level to come down to surface of resin by opening the rinse drain valve. Insert a flexible steel tape through the head box holding nozzle and touch the top surface of resin bed. From the same reference point i.e. top of flange surface of head box holding nozzle measure the distance upto surface of resin bed. Say this distance is B The difference between A and B is the bed depth. By knowing the internal cross sectional area of the vessel and space occupied by internals, if any, the total volume of resin charged can be computed.

PRECAUTIONS AGAINST MAL-OPERATION OF THE PLANT AND SAFETY OF EQUIPMENT Assuming that the plant as a whole and the individual equipment have been properly maintained, regularly lubrication, operated as per routine operation procedures mentioned in earlier sections and individual equipment operation done as per instructions given in volume IV, there may still be some areas on which the operators are to keep a vigil to avoid maloperation of the plant and equipment. Some important areas are as stated below. Mixed bed unit should not be run for more than 14 days between regenerations even if the exhaustion of the bed has not occurred. Long residence of silica in bed may cause silica miscalling in resin beads and then it may be difficult to elute silica. However, it is particularly recommended that the mixed bed should always be regenerated after the recommended gross output. After air mixing of mixed bed unit, always close air inlet valve first and then stop M.B. blower to avoid water from M.B. unit going back into air line. Plants under semiautomatic circuit provide suitable interlock to achieve the same. Occasionally open the drain valve in air line to drain out any accumulated water in the line.

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In case the feed water analysis to plant has changed in such a way that silica to total anion ratio in the feed water to anion exchanger becomes more than the original refer to plant designer for regeneration of revised operation recommendations.

Once the ion exchangers have been stopped during service before exhaustion and they are again required to be started after some time, always first rinse to drain for 5-10 minutes (extra rinse) before putting the units back to service after ensuring the quality of rinse water.

Do not run any stream of the plant at a flow rate less than 5 bed volumes/hour to avoid channeling through the resin column. It is preferable to run the plant at design flow rate. However, if reduced flow rate is absolutely necessary run within limit as specified above.

During reduced flow rate or running of one stream only, in case excessive throttling of valves is required, provided recycle from the filtered water pump outlet back to the filtered water storage tank suitably.

Similarly do not run plant at a rate higher than recommended maximum flow rate. It is preferable to run each stream of the plant with all the ion exchangers of the stream in series rather than mixing the operation of one individual exchanger of one stream with others in a different stream. During semi-automatic operation of the plant this is particularly recommended to avoid complications. However, during manual operation of the plant the operation of one stream with other can be mixed after carefully selecting the units and checking the inter-connecting line etc.

During running the plant stream wise if any particular exchanger exhausts first when others have not exhausted, stop the entire stream and regenerate the complete stream

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except for mixed bed unit which is to be regenerated as per scheduled interval unless exhaustion of this M.B. unit occurs earlier. To protect the resin trap against chocking with resin beads, too high flow rate during backwash should be prevented. When more than one degassers are connected with a single outlet header from cation, there is a possibility of higher flow passing through the operating stream prior to degasser due to tendency of the level in degassed water storage tank coming down in order to supply water to the regenerating stream (as there is no inflow from regenerating stream to degasser) with consequent action of the level control valve. Hence at this time suitable manual adjustment of flow rate through operating stream may be required. Take care no foreign matter is lodged in the degassed water storage tanks. This may lead to malfunctioning of the anion exchanger. Check, if necessary, the mineral cationic content of degassed water and compare with that of cation effluent water. Change the degasser blower suction filter element from time to time. Do not pass alkali to anion bed at temperature more than 40 degree C. Ensure that the temperature of alkali solution in the alkali day tank does not exceed 40 degree C. For this sufficient time to be allowed for natural cooling with continuous stirring in the day tank after alkali is transferred from alkali preparation tank. During preparation of alkali solution in the alkali preparation tank from caustic flakes of crystals, ensure the caustic is added in sufficient small batches in the dissolving basket after filling the tank and then continuously stirred and charge is recycled with the help of alkali transfer pumps in such a way that the temperature of the charge does not exceed 50 degree C at any time. Allow some time (say 10 minutes) before starting an agitator after the same has been stopped while in operation. Such hot starts should be as minimum as possible.

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Before starting an agitator ensure the tank is filled at least 50% otherwise in an empty tank, the agitators may deform.

Inspect the dissolving baskets regularly. If required take out of the tank and clean extremely. Any foreign matter and specially fibrous material should not be allowed to go into the tanks.

Ensure the availability and flow of water through the fume absorbers for acid tanks. Ensure the drain leg from fume absorber kept immersed in water in a pit below and pit water will always overflow to drain. Keep the lids of acid measuring tanks closed properly.

As in case of fume absorber, the overflow line from the degassed water storage tank will be kept immersed at the free end under water in a pit.

CO2 absorbers are to be filled with about 40% caustic soda solution upto about half inch above the inner tip of the serrated end of down comer pipe fixed with top Lid. This can be checked through the sight glass in the absorber body. Vent air will force its way through the soda solution. Soda solution after absorbing CO2 will gradually convert into sodium carbonate. One can take sample from drain line and check its composition from time to time to know the strength of soda solution and when it is below 30 % strength, fill fresh charge through top funnel after draining the depleted charge.

For diaphragm type metering pumps, ensure the hydraulic fluid level in the metering pumps are kept filled as required/ instructed. Keep diaphragms handy in stock.

Suction strainers where provided should be checked periodically for any chocking. For pump and blower operation, ensure that the revolution in working with different sets are followed instead working with one set only continuously without using spare set.

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While pre-selecting various tanks and pumps out of spare sets available, take care that tank selector switches and pumps selector switches are intelligently used to ensure pumps trip off at low level wherever such provisions have been made.

When a particular stream and unit is off or idle for long time, it may happen that the outlet conductivity meter high alarm appears on the panel due to gradual but a low rise in conductivity of stagnant water in conductivity cells even if the power supply to particular cell is off. Ignore such events.

During any fault annunciation of audio-visual alarm annunciation system on control panel, the hooter should be turned off by pressing the acknowledge push buttons within 2 minutes of start of the hooter for better life of hooter.

The space heater inside instrument cum control panel should be always switched on except during maintenance, if necessary.

Check earthing combination continuity regularly. During idle time of any unit of any stream, or during manual operation of any unit of any stream, push the group off buttons to isolate the relevant solenoids of the particular unit from electrical circuit to prevent inadvertent operations.

Even if the plant is being operated manually, operate the pneumatic valves occasionally to ensure its smooth operation when called for duty.

During pumps test and quick test of the circuit in semi-automatic system do not put group on-off switches in ON position. The auto manual selector switches for pumps and blowers and service auto-manual selector switches for anion units are to be put in manual position only.

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Whenever air is filled up in the pneumatic valve actuator chamber of one stream, when other streams are in operation, take are to gradually fill the unit valves one by one.

While filling up the pneumatic valves with air under precommissioning activity to switch over from manual operation to semi-automatic operation, ensure the valve handwheels are first operated to preferably make the valves in full open condition and then fill with air and set the limit switches.

It is not recommended to manually operate the pumps/blowers/exchanger units having auto start interlock with regeneration programme of a particular filter/exchanger during auto control made of regeneration programme of that filter/exchanger.

For operation of the auto regeneration step over-ride switch do not press longer than two seconds. Otherwise there may be continuous change over of steps till it reaches final completion step.

Precautions for Personnel Safety The following safety measures are recommended in good faith only. Use hand gloves, gum boots, goggles with face shields and protective clothing during handling of acid and alkali. Operate safety showers occasionally to ensure system is working and water is always coming to the shower. Do not attend to pumps, blowers, agitators, drives, control panel/relay panel etc. Unless power to these units has been disconnected. Do not burn anything near acid tanks. Acid fume may certain hydrogen gas.

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Exchanger water is not fit for human consumption. Do not allow waste effluents to be discharged at pH below 5.5 and above 8.5. This may endanger the habitant around.

First Aid of caustic Soda Burn in Skin If there is any chance burns of the skin by caustic soda, immediately drench the affected portion by 58% solution of ammonium chloride. For this purpose the 5% ammonium chloride solution should be kept ready in a 5 gallon covered drum or bucket with a drain rubber hose with a pinch cock at a suitable place near caustic handling area. If there is delay in such washing and the bum has already affected the epidermis, still drench the affected part with 5% ammonium chloride for 10-15 minutes and then wash continuously with running water or saline/boric lotion for a period of an hour. The burn should then be dressed with a four fold pad of lint soaked in bonneys blue paint. The dressing should be left undisturbed until it drops off without aid, when the bum will be found as healed.

First Aid of Caustic Soda Contamination in Eyes In case of caustic soda contamination in the eyes, which is a serious matter, immediately drench the eyes with one bottle ( 8 1602) 5% ammonium chloride solution kept handy in a first aid box near the caustic handling area. The eyes should then be irrigated with saline/boracic lotion or in its absence by plain running water for an hour. Care should be taken that the lotion reaches the lower sulcus of the eyes. If 5% ammonium chloride

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solution is not available, a buffered phosphate solution can be used having following composition:Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) Dibasic sodium phosphate (Na2HPO4. 12H2O) Distilled water Brilliant green hospital. First Aid for Acid Burn Drench the affected part in prolonged way in water. Then removed to hospital, if necessary. First Aid for Acid Contamination in Eyes Prolonged irrigation of the eyes with water is necessary followed by medical attention in hospital. Water Quality Monitoring: Now that your unit is in service, you must monitor the water quality from your plant to ensure that you are using product water as per specification. = = = = 27.22 gm. 71.63 gm. 1 litre 0.01 gm

The prolonged irrigation with water is very important before the affected man is removed to

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TABLE 1 Feed Water Quality Feed Water Analysis Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potasium TC Alkalinity Chlorides Sulphates Nitrates Flourides TA Silica (Reactive) Free CO2 pH @ 25 C Turbidity Free Chlorine Organic Matter (KMnO4 4hr 270C test Units ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm CaCO3 ppm SiO2 ppm CO2 NTU ppm Cl2 ppm O2 203.5 158.3 545.5 6.4 913.7 310.4 369.7 204.5 13.1 5.3 903.0 31.25 8.25 Nil Design Actual

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TABLE 2
Treated Water Quality
Units U.F 1. SDI Design Actual

<3 < 50

R.O 1. T.D.S DM Plant 1. Conductivity @ 250 C 2. Silica (Reactive) 3. pH @ 250C

ppm mS / cm ppm SiO2 < 0.5 0.002

The monitoring of water quality will help you to know when your product water goes off specification and guide you to regenerate your plant or take appropriate your plant or take appropriate action. Instruments are used widely for monitoring water quality and in many cases analytical tests must be done to check the water quality from your plant. It is not enough to monitor the quality of water from your terminal unit only. A stage to stage check on water quality will tell you how efficiently a particular exchanger is working; besides it will weed out the troublesome unit. Needless to say water quality monitoring is an invaluable aid to trouble shooting. Check the water quality before and after your pretreatment section at least once a day. This will tell you the efficiency of your pretreator. It will also make you aware of the quality of water that flows into your ion exchange system. Most of the problems that are caused to the resin can be prevented right here by ensuring proper quality of pretreated water to the

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ion exchange resin. It is important that heavy metals, free chlorine, organics and oil are absent in the feed to the ion exchange column for efficient functioning of the resin. Check the water quality at the inlet to the first ion exchange unit at least once a day. It tells you many things. From its analysis and comparing it with the design water you can predict the expected quality of water from each exchanger and the capacity per regeneration from each unit. Many false alarms can be avoided if you are aware of the nature and content of ions in the feed water to the exchanger. Maintain a record of raw water pre-treated (filtered) water & water quality from individual exchangers. This will tell you at a glance the condition of your plant. Keep a watch over the water quality from each exchanger over a period of time. Recommended frequency is at least once every hour. For a nearly constant influent, if treated water quality deteriorates it should warn you about some fault in the system and to take corrective action immediately. When did you last check the water quality from all your exchanger? Make it a routine procedure. It will prove to be a rewarding exercise.

Maintenance: Good maintenance is the key to the satisfactory functioning of your water treatment plant. Just as it is good engineering practice to have a schedule of regular and preventive maintenance so also it is good practice in water treatment to check and maintain your resin condition and that of associated equipment at periodic intervals. 1. Check at six monthly intervals (or as experience tells you) the internal condition of vessels and tanks and fittings. Repaint, reline and renew material as and where required. Do not delay action when necessary. It could prove costly.

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2. Keep adequate spares available to meet normal and contingent needs. Order out spares well in advance. 3. Check resin condition periodically every six months. Have it analysed and maintain a record of its condition. This could help your project your resin requirements and make arrangements for topping-up or recharges. 4. Watch the quality of water that is fed to the ion exchange system. Ensure that foul ants are absent or at least kept down to the minimum permissible limits. This will help prolong the life of the resin in your plant. 5. See that the right quality of regenerants are used to get the best results from your exchangers. 6. Should your resin get contaminated or fouled try the following techniques to restore in part or full the resin exchange capacity. a) For iron fouling of the cation resin, soak resin in dilute hydrochloric acid (10%) b) For an anion resin organically fouled soak the resin in alka line brine solution containing 10% sodium chloride and 1% sodium hydroxide. c) For silica fouled anion resin soak the resin in warm caustic soda solution. A minimum soaking period of 12 hour is recommended for the effective removal of the foulants. Your plant operation manual should give more details on the clean up solutions and procedure.

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7. Your resin is supplied in a moist condition. Preserve it that way. 8. Regularly carry out an extended backwash to clean the bed. Periodically give an open manhole backwash and air scour the bed at the time if possible. Scrap off any broken resins from the top surface of the resin bed. Do these at a frequency that the best dictated by your experience. 9. Maintain your daily log sheets well. These log sheets are a valuable guide to troubleshooting. They tell you of changes occurring within a cycle and from cycle to cycle. 10. Record important events and milestones in your water treatment plant covering mechanical breakdowns, resin topping-up and resin recharges, quantity of water treated per charge and so forth. These tell at a glance the life history of your unit. How good is your log sheet? Does it contain the necessary information required? Or is it too elaborate? It is worth while re-examining your log sheets and summarized log books to effectively run and maintain your plant. Exhibit (1) shows the format for a typical log sheet.

EXHIBIT 1 WHAT YOUR LOG SHEET/REGISTER SHOULD CONTAIN A. Water Analysis: Sample 1. Cation Inlet Test Turbidity, Equivalent Mineral Acidity (EMA) Alkalinity, Chloride, Total Hardness, Silica, Organic matter

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(OA), Fe, Oil, Free Chlorine. 2. Ex-Cation 3. Ex-Degasser 4. Ex-Anion 5 Ex-MB B. Plant Data : For each ion exchange unit indicate data otherwise in :I SERVICE : a. Inlet pressure, outlet pressure, pressure drop b. Flow rate c. Integrator reading d. Capacity between regeneration Free Mineral Acidity (FMA), Hardness Free CO2 P-Alkalinity, Chloride, Silica, pH, Conductivity Silica, pH, Conductivity

II REGENERATION : a. Number of regeneration i.e. first, second, so forth b. Backwash time c. Injection time d. Rinse time e. The respective flow rates f. Concentration of regenerant in measuring / dilution tank g. Total draw of regenerant h. Concentration/specific gravity of regenerant at the point of injection i. Temperature of regenerant at point of injection into unit. j. Total quantity of regenerant used in kg.

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III MAINTENANCE : a. Type of breakdown b. Cause for the same c. Remedy d. Frequency of similar breakdowns i.e. for every months or as the case may be C. Resin Data : For each ion exchange unit indicate unit-wise data as follows: 1. Original bed depth/resin quantity/resin analysis at a time of commissioning 2. Current bed depth/resin quantity/resin analysis period of air-scour backwash 3. Period of air-scour/backwash 4. Quantity of fines removed 5. Quantity of resin lost during maintenance 6. Quantity of resin topped up 7. Alkaline brine treatment given. 8. Iron fouling treatment given 9. Resin analysis at time of discarding 10. Life of resin in years

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SECTION - 11
LABORATORY PROCEDURE FOR CHEMICAL CONTROL DURING REGENERATION/OPERATION

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Laboratory Procedure for Chemical control During Regeneration / Operation The status of the plant regeneration and operation is generally known for the various instrument provided. However, for certain process parameters like dissolved residual carbon dioxide in degassed water sodium content in cation effluent water instruments are not provided. For this as well as for assisting and augmenting instrument control, laboratory analyses of samples drawn from the plant at different points and different stages are recommended to be carried out if found necessary by the operator. While resorting to chemical control of the plant by carrying out relevant laboratory analyses the following should be noted down:-

1. Alkalinity The dissolved impurities in the feed water may be bicarbonates and rarely carbonates and hydroxides of mainly calcium, magnesium and sodium (and some times potassium). The type of alkalinity can be found out by alkalinity test using either screened methyl orange indicator or phenolphthalein indicator. The result thus obtained is called either M.O. alkalinity or P. Alkalinity depending upon the indicator used. The relative distributor of type of alkalinity is then found out from the following chart:Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide

If P = Nil M = Positive If P = <1 / 2 M If P = 1 / 2 M If P = >1 / 2 M

M M-2p Nil Nil

Nil 2P 2P 2 (M-P)

Nil Nil Nil 2PM

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If P = M

Nil

Nil

The alkalinity test has been explained later under test procedure.

2. EMA and FMA The feed water may also contain neutral salts like chlorides, Sulphates, nitrates, phosphates etc. The acidity equivalent to these dissolves, neutral salts in the feed water is called equivalent mineral acidity of E.M.A. The FMA can be found out by individually determining the chlorides, Sulphates, nitrated etc. in the feed water or by a test as explained under test procedures. The individual chlorides, Sulphates, nitrates etc. can be determined either by volumetric methods or by spectrophotometer for which refer to other reference books like 1978 Annual Book of ASTM standards part 31 etc. The free mineral acidity (FMA) is the mineral acidity present in cation effluent water (when cation is regenerated with acid). The test for the same is explained under test procedures. It is obvious that when the cation unit is regenerated the FMA in the effluent will be more than EMA but at the rinse end point FMA will approach EMA. Theoretically FMA in cation effluent at end point of cation rinse should be somewhat lower than EMA as:- FMA = MA Sodium Slip. However, practically the rinse end point reaches when FMA is 10 to 15% higher than EMA or when two successive FMA test of cation effluent at an interval of 5 minutes found give almost some results. If EMA is too low as compared to EMA, possibly the cation exchanger has exhausted.

3. Hardness The hardness is the alkaline salts and neutral salts having cationic part as calcium & magnesium. The alkaline hardness and the rest, if any, is permanent hardness. The cation

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effluent water during service should have hardness nil. Hence at the end of cation rinse run check for hardness as nil.The test for hardness in decationised or soft water is described under test procedures.

4. Free CO2 The alkaline salts are converted to carbonic acid in the cation exchanger and this splits into CO2 and water in the degasser tower where CO2 is removed. The residual CO2 in the degassed water is expected to be 5 ppm as CO2. If this residual CO2 increases in quantity, it will mean anion load on anion exchanger increases. Hence the necessity for checking residual CO2 in the degassed water for which test procedure is described separately. 5. Silica conductivity and pH in Strong Base Anion Exchanger Effluent When the strong base anion exchanger exhausts silica appears first in the effluent. Silica does not affect the conductivity reading. The conductivity in anion exchanger outlet is due to sodium slip from cation which is converted to hydroxide in the anion. The P. alkalinity test will indicate the sodium slip. Hence if the silica and conductivity is low (conductivity commensurate with hydroxide generated by sodium slip from cation) unit is satisfactory when conductivity is low put silica high, the unit requires regeneration. At the same time after exhaustion of strong base anion exchanger, the alkalinity and pH will fall. However if due to reduced sodium slip from cation exchanger, alkalinity and pH fall but silica is low, the nit is still satisfactory. The conductivity of anion effluent water per ppm of alkalinity (as NaOH) is approximately 5 micromhos/cm. The test of silica for raw water as well as for demineralised water is described under test procedures.

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6. Silica, Conductivity, pH of Mixed Bed Exchanger Effluent The mixed bed exchanger conductivity conductivity and silica will be very low. The pH will be in the range of 6.8 to 7.2. At the time of exhaustion silica will appear first and conductivity will increase. The conductivity of mixed bed effluent is approximately 2 micromhos/cm per ppm of TDS in effluent. Test Procedures The various common test procedures applied for control of a water treatment plant (D.M. Plant) are described here under:Alkalinity Test (Methyl Orange alkalinity & phenolphthalein alkalinity) Regenerants and Apparatus Burette for standard acid Nitric acid 0.02 N (N/50) 100 ml. graduated measuring cylinder Conical flask (150 ml.) Conical flask (150 ml.) Phenolphthalein indicator solution 10 ml. graduated pipette Sodium Thiosulphate 10% W/V solution. Note Preparation of screened methyl orange indicator solution preparation of indicator solution Dissolve 0.2 g of crystalline methyl orange in a mixture of 25 ml of methylated spirit and 25

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ml of deionized water. Dissolve 0.28 g xylene cyanol FF in a mixture of 25 ml methylated spirit and 25 ml of deionized water. Mix the two solutions together.

Method If the alkalinity of the water is low, 100 ml. of sample should be measured using the graduated cylinder. Otherwise a 10 or 20 ml. portion of sample should be taken with the pipette. 1. Transfer the appropriate amount of sample to the conical flask and add 5 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. 2. Run in 0.02 N nitric acid from the burette until the pink coloration is just discharged. 3. Note the volume of acid used, multiply by the appropriate factor (see table) and record as P ml of sample taken 100 20 10 Factor 10 50 100

4. If water is chlorinated, add 2 drops of sodium Thiosulphate solution. Add 2 drops of screened Methyl orange indicator and continue the addition of acid until the solution just turns to Smokey grey. 5. Read the burette again, note the total amount of acid used in both titrations multiply by the appropriate factor (see the table) Record result as N.

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Equivalent Mineral Acidity Test E.M.A. Regenerants 1. Strongly acidic, cation exchange resin. 2. Approximately 2N hydrochloric acid. 3. Screened methyl orange indicator. 4. 0.02N sodium hydroxide solution. Method Measure under water 50 mls. Settled volume of strongly acidic cation exchange rein into a chromatographic tube. The tube should be fitted with an outlet tap of screw clip at the bottom. If an ordinary glass tube is used, above this outlet a plug of glass wool to support the bed of ion exchange resin is required. Backwash the ion exchange resin in an upward direction with distilled or deionized water to loosen the bed, allow the bed to settle, drain water down to the resin surface or deionized water to loosen the bed, allow the bed to settle, drain water down to the resin surface and pass 250 mls. Of 2N hydrochloric acid in a downward direction through the column at a rate of 3-5 ml/min. Rinse the column with distilled or deionized water until the effluent is alkaline to screened methyl orange. Pass 60 ml of sample and discard the effluent. Pass two 100 ml. aliquots through the column at the same rate collecting the respective effluents separately. Titrate each of the effluents in turn with 0.02 N sodium hydroxide using screened methyl orange as indicator. Calculation ml of titration (b) x 1000 = ppm E.M.A. as CaCO3

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ml of sample (a) 1. The column prepared in the above manner may be used for several determinations before it is exhausted. It is capable of exchanging the equivalent of 5000 mgm of calcium carbonate, when exhausted it need simply be washed, regenerated and rinsed again. 2. See F.M.A. test sheet for preparation of screened methyl orange indicator solution. Free Mineral Acidity (F.M.A.) Reagents and Apparatus Burette for standard sodium hydroxide Conical flask. 100 ml. graduated cylinder 0.02 N (N/50) sodium hydroxide solutions Screened methyl orange indicator. Preparations of indicator solution dissolve 0.2 g of crystalline methyl orange in a mixture of 25 ml of methylated spirit and take 25 ml of deionized water. Mix the two solutions together. Method 1. Measure out 100 ml, of the sample and pour into the flask. 2. Add three drops of screened methyl orange indicator. The sample should turn RED. 3. Run in 0.02 N sodium hydroxide solution a few drops at a time until the sample turns Smokey-Grey. Mix thoroughly while adding the solution. Calculation Free mineral acidity = Burette reading x 10 ppm as CaCO3 Hardness Test Reagents and Apparatus 1. N/50 E.D.T.A.

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40 grams of disodium dihydrogen ethylene d-amine tetra acetate are dissolved in 800 mls. of water and standardized and adjusted against a standard hardness solution until 1ml = 1mg CaCO3 2. Ammonia Buffer a) Dissolve 16.9 g ammonium chloride, NH4 CL in 143 mol conc. Ammonium hydroxide, NH4 OH; add 125 g of magnesium salt of EDTA (this salt is available commercially) and dilute to 250 ml. with distilled water. b) A buffer containing the magnesium salt EDTA may also0 be made as follows: Dissolve 16.9 g NH4 CL in 143 ml. conc. NH4 OH. Weight out 0.25 G MG C12. 6H20 or MgSO4 7H20 & transfer quantitatively to a 100ml volumetric flask, and make up to volume with distilled water pipette 500 ml. of this solution into a porcelain dish; add a few drops of the NH4 CI NH4 OH solution (sufficient to achieve pH of 10.0-10.1); add 2.3 drops of indicator solution and titrate with EDTA with continuous in stirring until a steel-blue color with no ting of red is present. To the 50ml of solution remaining in the volumetric flask add exactly the volume of EDTA required in the above titration. Add this solution to the NH4 CI NH4 OH mixture and make up to 250 ml. with distilled water. Keep the solution (a or b) in a plastic or resistant glass container, tightly closed to prevent loss of NH3 or pick up of CO2. 3. Indicator Mix 0.5 g of erichrome black T with 4.5 g hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Dissolve this mixture in 100ml. of 95 percent methyl or esorprophl alcohol. 4. Burette for N/50 EDTA. 250 ml. beaker 50 ml. measuring cylinder stirring rod 750 ml. evaporating dish and magnetic or electric stirrer. 50 ml. measuring cylinder. Method. A) For raw water A 50ml; quantity of the water is measured out in measuring cylinder. 40 ml. of this are placed in a 250 ml. beaker: 1 ml. of buffer solution and 6-8 drops indicator are added. The

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titration is then carried-out by adding EDTA solution from the burette, until the last tinge of red disappears. The last 10 ml. of water are then added and the titration completed to the same end-point. The liquid in the beaker is stirred and supported on stand, through which the beaker is illuminated from underneath by blue light. B) For soft water 1. Rinse the cylinder and the evaporating dish thoroughly with water to be used. 2. Measure 500 ml. of the sample into the evaporation dish and add 3 ml. of buffer solution followed by 10-12 drops of indicator solution. 3. Run 0.5 ml. of EDTA from burette and stir the liquid in the dish thoroughly. 4. If a steel blue color is obtained with no ting of Red, the hardness is less than 1 ppm as CaCO3. 5. If a red color is observed add EDTA drop by drop with continuous stirring until a steel blue color with no ting of red is obtainer i.e. until the last ting of red just appears. Calculation: A. For raw water If titration reading is T mls. HARDNESS = T*20 ppm CaCO3. B. For soft water HARDNESS = T*2 ppm CaCO3. Note: 1. As the strength of the red tinge diminishes, the EDTA should be added carefully one drop at a time with stirring between each addition. 2. If the end point has not been reached after adding total of 10 ml. of EDTA the test should be repeated using 250 ml. of sample with 2 ml. of buffer and 8-10 drops of indicator. Suitable allowance should then be made when calculating the result. 3. The indicator solution should be kept in a cool place and out of the light as much as possible. It must be replaced after two months.

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Free Carbon Dioxide Test: Regents and Apparatus : Burette for sodium Carbonate solution Sodium Carbonate solution 0.040 (N/25) Phenolphthalein indicator (solution or tablets) 100 ml Nessler cylinder; Glass stirring rod. Procedure: 1. Fill the Nessler cylinder to the 100 ml mark with the water being treated avoiding splashing and add 2 tablets or 200 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. 2. Run in 0.040 sodium Carbonate, a few drops at a time with gentle stirring until a pale pink color is produced which persists for one minute. Take the burette reading: Interpretation of Result Free Carbon Dioxide Content = Burette reading x 10 (Expressed parts/million) (ppm) as CaCO3 Residual CO2 in Cation Exchanger Treated 9H. 1.0 Water Test Reagents and Apparatus Sodium hydroxide 0.02N (N/50) Phenolphthalein in indicator solution. Methyl orange indicator solution. Burette for standard alkali CO2 flasks 100 ml graduated cylinder. Procedure 1. 100 ml. samples H.I. water are measured into two 250 ml. CO2 flasks. 2. The first is carefully titrated with N/50 Na OH to M.O. end point and the reading (A) noted.

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3. The second sample is now titrated with carbonate free N/50 NaOH to phenolphthalein end point and the reading *B) noted. Calculation (B) (A + 0.8) X 8.8 PPM Co2 Note The N/50 NaOH is rendered free from carbonate by passing the solution through a strongly basic anion exchanger such as deacidite FF (IP) in the hydroxide during the titration i.e. the lower half of the burette with de-acidite FF (IP) (OH) form originally washed to an N/50 NaOH in/out balance with N/50 NaOH. Chlorides Test Reagents and Apparatus Burette for silver nitrate Silver nitrate solution 0.02 N (N/50) 100 ml. graduated cylinder 10 ml. graduated pipette (for boiler waters with a high chloride content) 150 ml. Conical flask. Method 1. Measure a 100 ml. sample of the water to be tested in the graduated cylinder, then pour sample into the conical flask. 2. Add five drops of phenolphthalein indicator, if the sample turns pink, run in 0.02 N nitric acid until the pink color is just discharged. 3. Add five drops of potassium chromate indicator 4. Run silver nitrate into the sample drop by drop with constant shaking until the yellow color begin as to acquire a faint orange tint. 5. Note the burette reading A Measure out 100 ml. of distilled (or deionized) water, pour into the flask and repeat the test procedure. Note the burette reading B

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Calculation Chloride content = (A B) ml. of 0.02 N silver nitrate used x 10 expressed in parts per million (ppm) as CaCO3. Note In the case of boiler water or water with a high chlorine content, a smaller sample should be taken e.g. if a 20 ml. sample is used, multiply the burette reading by 50. Silica 1-20 ppm) Test of Raw Water Regents and Apparatus BDH Lovidbond nessleriser. Disc with color standards 0.05 mg. to 1.0 mg SiO2 10% w/v aqueous solution of ammonium molybdate 2N sulphuric acid solution. Method 1. Fill one of the Nessler glasses to the 50 ml. mark with the sample and place in the left hand compartment of the nessleriser. 2. Fill the other Nessler glass with the sample, at 25-30 deg. C. Add 4 ml. of the 2N sulphuric acid and 2 ml. of the ammonium molybdate solution. Mix thoroughly, place in the right hand compartment and allow to stand for 10 minutes. 3. Fit the glass standard disc in the hanged lid. 4. Stand the nessleriser facing a uniform source of light, looking north info possible, and compare the color of the sample with the colours in the disc. Rotate the disc. Until the colours are matched. Interpretation of Result Silica content in parts/million (ppm) = disc. Reading x 20 as SiO2. should the color in the test/solution be cheaper than the deepest standard, a fresh test should be carried out using a smaller quantity of sample, and dilution to 50 ml. with distilled water before adding the regents. Note Most colorless salts, even when present in relatively large quantities, are without influence upon the color produced in the test provided the concentration of free acid is not unduly

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disturbed. Phosphates, however, must be absent, since they respond to the test and yield a yellow color similar to that produced by silica. Phosphates may be removed by treating 100 cc. of the solution under test with 50 ml. of Sorensens borate buffer solution (ph 10.0) and 2 ml. of 2N calcium chloride solution; after mixing and allowing to stand for 2 hours the mixture is filtered. The test is made on 50 ml. of the titrate by the method described above. As sorensens borate buffer invariably contains silica derived from the glass bottle, a blank test should be carried out and the necessary correction made. The result must be multiplied by 1.5. Silica (0-1 PPM) Molydeenum Blue method test (For Treated Water) Regents 1. Acid Molybdate Solution 75 gms. of ammonium molybdate danalar are dissolved in 500 ml. of distilled water, 322 ml. of 10/N sulphuric acid are added gradually with constant shaking. The solution is then made upto 1 litre with silica free water. Note Approx. 10/N sulphuric acid is prepared by mixing 100 ml. of conc. Acid with 260 mls. Silica-free water. 2. 10% w/v tartaric acid solution (or 10% oxalic acid solution). 3. Reducing Agent a) 90 gms, sodium metabi-sulphite are dissolved in 800 ml. of silica-free water. b) 7gms anhydrous sodium sulphite are dissolved in 100 ml. silica-free water, together with 1.5 gms of 1-amona, 2-naphthol, 4-sulphonic acid. Solution (b) is mixed with solution (a) and the total volume made upto 1 litre with silica-free water. Apparatus Lovibond Nessleriser Disc for silica 0.2 2.0 ppm Two 50 ml. graduates tubes for Nessleriser Pipettes.

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Alternatively a spectrophotometer may be used at the wave length corresponding to a maximum absorption (approx 810 mu, but the exact wave length will have to be checked on each individual instrument). Method 50 mls. Of the water under test is treated with 2.0 ml. acid molybdate solution and allowed to stand for 5 mins. At a temperature of 20-30 deg. C. If a tinge of yellow appears in the sample there is more than 1ppm silica present, and the test described for 1-10 ppm silica should be carried out on a fresh aliquot. If no tinge of yellow appears, 4 ml. of 10% tartaric (or oxalic) acid is added to the sample followed by 1.0 ml. of reducing agent and the sample is compared with that of a blank comprising the same water without reagents, using either a B.D Lovibond Nessleriser or a previously calibrated absorption/m Note: Silica Free Water Prepare and store in a polythene bottle a large batch of water containing not more than 0.0005 ppm SiO2. Determine the silica content of the water by treating it as a sample as under Method. This water is used to repair reagents and standards, and to dilute samples when necessary-distilled water from an all metal Still or water which has been passed successively through a mixed bed deionization unit and a strongly basic anion exchanger unit regenerated with NaOH at a level of 20 lbs/cu. Ft. has been found to meet this specification.

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ALKALINITY RELATIONSHIPS (Special calculations are necessary when phosphate ions are present)

Alk. A. (M.O. Alkalinity) = all bicarbonates + all carbonates + all hydroxides. Alk. B. (Ph. Alkalinity) = carbonates, all hydroxides. 1. If Alk. B. is 0., Alk. A. is all bicarbonates. No carbonates or hydroxides. 2. If Alk. B. is less than Alk. A., both bicarbonates and carbonates are present No hydroxides. a. Alk.B x 2 = carbonates = bicarbonates.

b. Alk. A. Carbonates

3. If Alk.B. is exactly Alk.A., all alkalinity is carbonates. No bicarbonates or hydroxides. 4. If Alk.B. is more than Alk.A., alkalinity is carbonates and hydroxides. 5. If Alk.A. = alk.B., alkalinity is all hydroxides. a. Alk. B x 2 b. Alk.A. 6. If Alk.A. = = carbonates = bicarbonates.

carbonates

Alk.B., alkalinity is all hydroxides.

7. Bicarbonates and hydroxides to not exist together nor does carbon dioxide (CO2) exit with carbonates.

O& M for M/s Sitapuram Power Ltd

SECTION - 12
ANALYTICAL SCHEDULE

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water

O& M for M/s Sitapuram Power Ltd

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD. Water Business Group

Analytical Schedule
In order to have better control of the plant operation following analysis is required in the laboratory at different time intervals: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Source Feed Water Filter outlet UF outlet RO outlet Degasser outlet Strong Acid Cation Strong Base Anion Mixed Bed Treated water after dosing Sampling Once in a day Once in 4 hours Once in 4 hours Once in 2 hours Once in a day Once in a day Once in 4 hours Once in 4 hours Once in a day Once in 4 hours Once in a day Once in a shift Parameter pH, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Alkalinity, Chloride, Sulphate, Silica, Turbidity, TDS Turbidity Turbidity, Suspended solids pH, TDS, Conductivity pH, Calcium, Magnesium, chloride, Sulphate, Silica, Dissolved Carbon dioxide pH, FMA, Hardness pH, Conductivity Silica pH, Conductivity Silica pH

O& M for M/s Sitapuram Power Ltd

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD. Water Business Group

SECTION 13 ENCLOSURES
P&I LAYOUT INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD.


8th, Floor, Express Trade Towers, 15-16, Sector 16-A, Noida- 201301 (UP) India Telephone: +91-120-4308100 Fax: 91-120-4311010 E-mail: wbg@projects.trivenigroup.com Website: www.trivenigroup.com/water

O& M for M/s Sitapuram Power Ltd

TRIVENI ENGINEERING & INDUSTRIES LTD. Water Business Group

O& M for M/s Sitapuram Power Ltd

O& M for M/s Sitapuram Power Ltd