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START UP ACTIVITIES The following auxiliaries and systems are to be commissioned before starting the Turbine: Condenser Circulating Water System

1. Open CW valves at condenser inlet. 2. Ensure that condenser CW outlet pipe seal pit is established. 3. Start water box priming pump so as to evacuate air in the condenser water
boxes & C.W. piping and establish initial vacuum in the water boxes to achieve desired syphon. 4. Start circulating water pump(s). Establish cooling water flow through the condenser.

5. Place the condenser on-load tube cleaning system is in service.

Oil System LOADING UNLOADING & SHUTDOWN PROCEDURE FOR STEAM TURBINES:PREPARATION OF THE SYSTEMS: Ensure completion of all erection and pre-commissioning checks for main and sub-systems. Lube oil and governing oil systems. Ensure normal oil level in the reservoir. Start the cooling water system and ensure cooling water to the lube oil coolers. Start the auxiliary oil pump / main oil pump and ensure lube oil header pressure and governing oil header pressure as per the previous reports.

Ensure lube oil temperature after cooler at 40C Keep the standby oil pump and the emergency oil pump ready for Auto start up. Fill up the lube oil over head tank. Ensure proper Nitrogen supply to the lube oil and governing oil accumulators.

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Energies the turbine solenoid valve, engage the tripping device and check for smooth operation of the emergency stop valve and governing valve. Check for smooth functioning of the non-return cum quick closing valve mechanism provided in the extraction and injection steam lines. De-energize the solenoid valve. Ensure full closure of emergency stop valve, governing valve and non-return cum quick closing valve. Then turn the starting device hand wheel to its minimum position and lock it. Keep the speeder gear in minimum position. (in case of Sr-3 and Sr-4 governors) Start the turbine barring device.

STEAM AND DRAIN SYSTEM: Ensure full closure of the isolation valves in the main steam, extraction and back pressure steam lines. Open drain of turbines casing and steam piping. Open turbine warm up vent. Gradually heat up the steam piping up to the emergency stop valve at a rate of 2-3C per minute. Ensure that the inlet lines are warmed up to such a temperature which facilitates admission of super heated temperature for sold start up. Ensure charging of down stream extraction and back pressure steam headers in customers scope to their rated condition. pressure turbines). CONDENSER AND EJECTOR SYSTEMS: (in case of extraction and back

Ensure cooling water supply to the surface condenser (and the ejector and de aerate the water chambers) Ensure normal level in the condenser hot well. Commission the condenser level control system. Start the main condensate pump and stabilize it. Kept the standby condensate pump ready for auto start up Start the pilot ejector. Give sealing steam to the turbine shaft glands when the vacuum is approximately 0.2 atg. Switch over to one set of main ejector with the system vacuum is 0.6 atg.

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Cut off the pilot ejector after stabilizing the system vacuum at about 0.8 atg. Keep the automatic gland sealing system into service and stabilize.

START UP : Ensure readiness of the driven equipment. Lock hand barring device / electro hydraulic barring electric turning gear which will get disengaged automatically on picking up the speed, is to be kept running.

Energize the solenoid valve. Engage the tripping device. Operate the starting device gradually and open the emergency stop valve fully which observing the oil pressures above the piston and below the disc of the emergency stop valve.

Operating the starting device further and start building up the secondary oil pressure till the gradually opening of the servo motor and governing occurs. Ensure gradual opening of the governing valve such that the turbine does not rise to high speed. Ensure disengagement of the turning gear and stopping of its motor. Maintain the speed at about 500 rpm and check the vibration, bearing temp & mechanical noise etc., and establish the smooth running of the set. Increase the speed further as per the specified starting diagram while checking vibration levels bearing temp. and other parameters. And all critical speed including that of the driven equipment.

Ensure that the holdings down washers are free. Observe the casing expansion. After reaching the rated speed / minimum governing speed as in the case of turbo generator set respectively that the starting device to its extreme open position and lock it.

Ensure take over of the main oil pump in case of TG driven compare the oil pressure with previous valves and stop the auxiliary oil pump. Record performance of the machine after stabilizing.

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LOADING : TG drives excite the generator and load the set above 5 to 10% of the rated output Gradually increase the load using the starting and loading curve as the guide line TG drives increase the speed / load further from the minimum governing speed either manually or with the pneumatic controller as per the process requirement. Observe and record the following at various loading step. Shaft vibration Bearing metal and drain oil temperature. Curits wheel pressure other parameters Ensure the following while putting the uncontrolled extraction into the service. Open the isolation valve in the bleed line after ensuring the proper warming up of the same. Operate the bleed steam solenoid valves. Throttle the drains of the piping between the turbine bleed stop valve and the drain of the stop valve itself. After ensure constant flow from the turbine. During the operation it becomes necessary to close the bleed stop valve immediate opening of the drains then slowly to be closed. Increase the load on the turbine inlet pressure and temperature parameters at measuring point as reached, the reference value indicated load the turbine gradually. Ensure the machine synchronize with the grid.

Note: Speeder gear should not be adjusted any more in case of electrically operated regulator acting directly on the speeder gear. Set the speeder gear to maximum speed. If any abnormality like high vibrations, high bearing temperature etc., is notice the reason should be investigated and corrective action is to be initiated. Ensure that the rate of change of inlet steam parameters is within the limits. Periodically ensure easy movement of control valve and emergency stop valve spindles. Watch the differential pressure across the oil filters and clean them. if necessary.

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UNLOADING AND EMERGENCY SHUT DOWN : If an immediate load shedding and stopping is required, shut down the turbine by operating the automatic trip gear, regardless of load.

In case of gradual unloading, decrease the load by means of speeder gear up to about 5% of the rated load, disconnect the generator and the actuate the automatic trip gear.

While unloading, observe the boiler control system, auxiliaries, as well as power distribution system, as far as possible. Ensure smooth running of the rotor while unloading. Check thrust bearing temperature as the load changes. In case of sudden unloading, all bleeder valves should close immediately. Fully open the drain between the bleeder stop valves and the turbine, after the turbo set has been shutdown.

Unload the condensing turbine according to loading curve starting from hot.
Bring the extraction pressure controller position corresponding to zero extraction position gradually in case of regulated extraction machines. In case of condensing machines ; cut off the system vacuum after the rotor comes to stand still, but maintain gland sealing team till the system vacuum drops to about 0.1ata. In case of turbine does not slow down after tripping, check whether the valves are open either due to mechanical blockage or buy trip oil pressure not dropping. If so, immediately shutdown the steam supply by closing, the inlet steam header isolation valve. After the machine coasts down to zero rpm, engage the machine on barring gear or hand bar as the case may be. Open the turbine casing and steam line drains. Continue cooling down operation till the hottest part of the turbine records around 100C. EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN OR AUTO TRIP OF THE UNIT BY ANY OF THE PROTECTION ACTUATION: 1) If any trouble is faced running the machine on load, calling for immediate shutdown of the set, stop the unit irrespective of the load on the set by pressing the shutdown push button on the panel. The machine may get an automatic trip due to actuation of the protection device.

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The balance shutdown procedure is to be followed as indicated in the item of normal shutdown.


Everyday Basis: S.N. 1 Equipment Shaft position indicator Temperature measuring Device Test Condition Service Instructions Pull measuring spindle unto the stop. Compare actual value with reference value given in Test Report of First Commissioning. Additional checks to be made after major load changes. Monitor oil temperatures at bearing inlets and outlets. Compare indicated temperatures with the values noted in the Test report of First Commissioning. Starting Service & Where contact thermometers are provided, check them by allowing the temperature to rise a few degrees above the adjusted value with oil cooler kept closed. Re-calibrate thermometers as required in order to get correct reading so that the mal appropriate decisions can be avoided. Compare indicated pressure with the value noted in the Test Report of first commissioning. With steam conditions of live and exhaust steam being the same in the Test report, the pressure in the impulse wheel chamber and in the intermediate state as far as accessible for measurement ought to be the same as in the report on condition that the steam throughout is identical in both cases. If appreciable deviations are observed, the flow sections at the blades are likely to be clogged by deposits of salt, silicate, or other contaminants. Caution: Restricted steam flow increase the non balanced part of the blading thrust. The


Pressure Gauges


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risks to jeopardize the thrust bearing and the instructions. 4 Oil Filter Service Look for the pressure across the oil filter. If the difference exceeds the permissible value (normally 0.8 bar), operate change over valve and clean the contaminated filter. Check indicated temperatures across oil cooler. If differential temperature between oil inlet and outlet is decreasing, while quality and temperature of the cooling water remain constant, the tube banks are likely to be contaminated. Operate the change over valve and clean the cooler. The washers or, where Belleville washers are being used, the cup spring bushes must be easily movable. The play left between the head of the bolt and the washer should amount to approx. 0.1 mm.

Oil Cooler


Washers underneath casing bracket and bearing pedestals hold down bolts

Standstill & Service

Every Month Basis : S.N. 1 Equipment Emergency Governor Test Condition Service Speed Instructions It can be checked only with the help of an emergency governor testing device. By means of speeder lever increase turbine speed till the over speed tripping speed. Compare actual speed value to the reference value given in the Test Report of the First Commissioning. This function test has to be repeated at least a second time in order to get satisfied that the test values are correct. This test can be dispensed with when an emergency governor testing device is provided. Test emergency trip gear for proper functioning. a) by operating the knob or lever at the trip gear b) by remote operation Observe the response of the emergency stop valve, extraction valve and servo valve. 3 Emergency valve stop Standstill Open or close emergency stop valve by means of the starting device. Observe response. Further testing possibilities refer above instructions under Emergency trip gear.

Over speed

Emergency gear



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Service 4 5 Automatic pump control Bleeder extraction valves oil or stop Standstill Standstill

Checking becomes possible only when using the special testing device. May be checked after shutting down when the turbine is running out. Stop valves for bleed steam uncontrolled steam extraction: Where a change over valve is provided, turn its hand-wheel in the opening or closing direction after having made sure that the emergency-trip-oil circuit and consequently also the secondary oil circuit has attained the prescribed pressure. Stop valves for steam extraction controlled extraction After trip oil circuit has attained the prescribed pressure, check for smooth operation by operating the weighted lever.

Oil Level

Standstill Service


Check oil level in the tank both at standstill and under service conditions of the turbine. The oil level must never fall below the minimum value laid down in the Test Report of First Commissioning nor must it exceed the maximum value noted there. At appropriate intervals have the quality of the oil thoroughly tested by either laboratory of the plant at where the turbine is installed or by the supplier of the lubricant.

Oil Quantity


In addition to above, the following testing are to be performed as indicated in the test condition: S.N. 1 Equipment Differential expansion measuring devices Pressure monitors Test Condition Starting Instructions Observe indicated value if it happens to be excessively high, stop starting operations immediately. Check whether all pressure monitors are opening properly at their adjusted valves as shown in the Test Report of the First Commissioning. Check for easy spindles. Adjust valve stroke will values from Commissioning). instruction as manufacturer. smooth operation of the oil pressure so that entire be covered (Take pressure Test Report of First Follow lubricating recommended by the


Control valves



If the Turbine is operated for protracted

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periods with unaltered valve opening, check for smooth and easy operation of the spindles by short actuation of speeder lever. 4 Auxiliary pump oil Standstill Service & When the turbine is operated with auxiliary oil pump, the oil pressure in the governor and bearing oil circuits must show the value listed in the Test Report.

Fault Tracing : Fault Other symptoms Rapid or instantaneous increase in vibration over the permissible limits or the range of measuring system. (alarm of instrument display) Loud noises and /or the following operating parameters exceed their limits. Mall temperature because of rapid temperature changes. Suspected damage, e.g. broken blades or metal to metal rubbing. Clearances eliminated by casing distortion. Caution : Stop turbine immediately even when accuracy of reading is doubtful; Check whether increased vibration is maintained after load is reduced and when running down. Measure the taken to run down; Listen for noises during this period. Reduce turbine load immediately until vibration decreases; Examine vibration; Load turbines slowly to stability limit. Cause Remedy

Clearances eliminated casing distortion. Casing temperatures. deferential


Axial clearances eliminated bearing damaged. Unstable running due to self excited vibration.

Differential expansion bearing metal temperatures Low frequency vibration, vibration frequency less than rotational frequency. Irregular point trace from recording instrument.

Vibration increases above normal values for specific power outputs and operation conditions. Vibration values less than permissible limits.

Many possible causes

Carry out the following tests to find out the causes; Determine main frequency of vibration measure vibration at all bearings in

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Increased vibration and rated speed. Increased vibration over entire load range under steady state operation. Vibration increased above previous valves, including when passing through critical speed ranges

Change in shaft system balance due to Rotor condition induced by eccentric coupling

the three planes H - horizontal V - vertical A - axial Measure shaft vibration in two direction at right angles if possible; Measure the phase relationship of the bearing and shaft vibration; Measure the foundation vibration; Measure the vibration in relation to all principle operation parameters and their variations. Examine magnitude and direction of vibrations; Firm and proper fit of coupling bolts; Fit of centering rabbet and recess; Radial run out of couplings and centering rabbets; Axial run out of coupling faces; Alignment; Initial corrective action; Dynamically rebalance the turbine (expect if coupling bolts are not tight and aligned unsatisfactory); Correct and discrepancies found during the checks. Measure radial run out of shaft; Initial corrective action; Dynamic rebalancing of turbine; Final corrective action ; Corrects shrink fits; Hot check on concentricity; Shim shaft required to correct any bearing accuracies; Inspect blading; If blade in final lp stages are damaged a temporary corrective measure is to shorten the blade in the 180deg. opposite position to damage blade or to attach a balancing weight in the plane of damage to compensate for missing

Permanent shaft distortion due to slipping of shrinks fits and/or metal to metal rubbing

Blade damage.

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piece (consult manufacture). If the blade damage is suspected elsewhere the appropriate turbine casing must be opened Dynamic rebalance of turbine; Reduction speed load and/or temperature rates of change; wait until vibration improves when study-state conditions are reached Reduce load and/or temperature rates of change.

Temporary increase in vibration during nonsteady-state operation conditions (start-up, loading and unloading main steam temperature changes)

Modification to repair on the blades during on the overhaul temporary shaft distortion due to temporary non-uniform temperature distribution during temperature changes. Temporary distortion of shaft resulting from metal to metal rubbing at the seal rings caused by misalignment due to temperature changes. Alignment changes due to restricted expansion and turbine casing and bearing housings. Many possible causes

Constant relationship between vibration and specific operating conditions and changes.

Removal restriction to expansion by improving sliding of bearing housing and casing guides. Determine relationship by measuring magnitude and direction of vibration under varied conditions; If possible vary one operating parameter at a time; After each variation there must be a delay of steadystate conditions. Check the following operating parameters and conditions; Speed; Active load; Reactive load; Valve lift; Steam temperatures; Casing temperatures; Steam pressure; Oil temperatures; Bearing metal temperatures; Casing expansion; Differential expansion; Thrust bearing position; Shaft eccentricity; Check turbine casing and bearing housing for ; freedom of spacing washers seating and freedom of expansion of casing paws; freedom of movement for

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bearing housing ; freedom of movement of pipe work; Note : Change in vibration characteristics due to changes in temperature usually occur slowly and at a constant rate.

Fault Other symptoms Increase vibration during warm-up Increased vibration during turbine acceleration. Vibration is normal at rated speed. Increased vibration during turbine acceleration. No improvement in vibration at rated speed.

Cause Warm-up speed near a critical increased vibration passing through critical speeds.

Remedy Change the warm-up speed in within permissible ranges; Pass through critical speed ranges rapidly.

Distortion remaining from an interruption of turning gear operation before start-up.

Reduce turbine speed to less than 400rpm and eliminate shaft distortion before increasing speed.

Sudden sharp increase in vibration with accentuated low-frequency components Vibration frequency less than rotational frequency Irregular point trace from recording instrument. Many possible causes. After finding out the stability limits, determine operating parameters affecting vibration to aid in determining cause. Oil temperature Load Control valve lift Expansion Shaft displacement Bearing metal temperatures; Increase bearing loading by changing the alignment (consult ACPSI) Change oil temperature

Vibration ins related to load and valve fit.

Bearing loading too low . Bearing clearances excessive. Changes in damping properties due to changes in viscosity

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Casing Temperature Fault Tracing Annunciation: Casing temperature differentials top/bottom high.

+ (Positive ) = higher temperature - (Minus) = lower temperature in top half casing During start up t + or

Uneven heat dissipation due to not enough steam flow through casing As above

If possible increase steam flow through turbine to obtain uniform warm-up as above

After load reductions during low power operation t + or Steam backflow or entry of water into turbine through extraction lines. (applies only for turbines with extractions) Open drain valves in extraction lines test functioning and leak tightness of extraction valves; take measures at the feed water heaters to prevent backflow; Check condition and measure clearances at sealing elements during overhaul and refit or replace leaky elements as necessary; Notify manufacturer and ask to calculate if turbine can be operated at higher temperature differentials for the time being. Check position of drain valves; Open and close drain valves; Close drain valves further or completely.

After load reduction t +

During power operation t + or

Casing temperatures affected by leaks in sealing elements inside the turbine

During start-up t

Casing or steam lined not properly drained Drain valves still open too wide causing uneven steam flow through turbine Uneven cooling due to air

During start-up t

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During standstill or turning gear operation

currents within the foundation or inside the turbine.

During standstill of power operation

Uneven heat dissipation due to imperfect lagging.

Start turbine carefully; wait until the steam admitted begins to reduce temperature differentials before running up to rated speed; Repair lagging.

Casing temperature differentials excessive. In any operating mode (additional turbine protection not operative) Turbine generator comes to standstill after rundown (in turning gear operation) Observe proper functioning of additional turbine protection and rundown; record rundown time; Carefully try to run shaft system using manual shaft running device; Warning ! Do not rotate the shaft system forcibly; Wait unit temperature differential has fallen to permissible level; Set turning device in operation.

Expansion Fault Tracing Alarm of Differential high display : expansion Rotor longer than casing Check the annunciation to see if positive (+) or negative (-) expansion is high Determine transient of expansion; Start measure to stop further differential expansion; Shutdown turbine generator unit if permissible differential; Expansion is reached and waits for expansion to recede.

Positive (+) differential expansion or

Rotor shorter than casing Negative differential expansion (-)

Differential expansion of turbine at front and high.

Positive differential


During non-steady-state operation rotor heats up sooner than casing




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Main steam temperature too high Poor sliding of bearing housing at front end of turbine during warmup of turbine casing

Negative differential expansion


During non steady state operation rotor cools down sooner than casing Main steam temperature during start-up too low Poor sliding of bearing pedestal at front end of turbine during cool down of turbine casing

equalization between rotor and casing or for differential expansion to recede before performing speed or load changes. Reduce main steam temperature; Improve sliding of bearing housing during next inspection; Check if bearing housing tilted. Wait for temperature equalization between rotor and casing or for differential expansion to recede before performing load changes. Raise main temperature ; steam

Reading of shaft position in thrust bearing differs from previous readings under otherwise identical conditions Check position changes in positive (+) direction (thrust towards the rear) or negative (-) direction (thrust towards the front)

Higher residual thrust on thrust bearing; wear in thrust bearing

Improve sliding of bearing housing during next inspection; Check if bearing housing is tilted. Check stage pressure; Check bearing temperature at bearing. metal thrust

Protective Devices Fault Tracing Fault Other symptoms Turbine trip Manual trip-out Automatic trip-out Cause Main trip valve actuated locally or from control room Protective device operated . Many causes possible. Remedy Check condition that was the reason for tripping turbine locally or from the control desk and find out if turbine generator unit can be restarted. Find out cause of trip form recorder plots or annunciation; if trip is started due to protection criteria within turbine, check for damage or irregularities that would preclude further operation of the unit;

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Automatic out


tripvalves The main trip valves operate whenever trip is started

If trip started due to fault outside the turbine check whether turbine trip operation was called for in accordance with the protection concept; The cause of trip must be identified and must be rectified before the unit is started up again. Check annunciation to findout if both main trip valves operated, if only one main trip valve has operated, test signaling circuit (limit switches, wiring, lamps) and repair any mechanical fault affecting the defective valve. Operation of over speed trips in normally prevented by the turbine governor if load rejection occurs i.e when the generator breaker is open. Check if trio was caused by these. Perform oil pressure test on over speed trips; Find out oil pressure where trips operate and compare with pressures previously set; Perform over speed test with turbine at operating at operating temperature. Adjust over speed trips. Check if spring fatigued; Check free movements of hydraulic control elements; Control valves. Converter etc Remove blockages or other malfunction. Check solenoid valves; Actuate contactor and notice effect on secondary pressures of solenoid valves opening. If secondary pressures do not collapse, test coils of

Main trip operated

Over speed operated


The over speed trip valves operate whenever trip is started.

Over speed trips operate too early

Turbine control malfunction

Loading shedding relay failed to respond

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solenoid valves for operation; If actuation of load rejection relay is not annunciated, check measuring circuit. Leak in turbine control valves. Check for leaks in turbine control valves; Notice operation of reverse power protection if turbine control valves are closed during synchronized generator operation. Check position of extraction check valves. Check temperature in extraction lines. Rapid temperature drops after load rejection or probably due to extraction check valves leaking. Check bearing temperatures check bearing. Find out cause of high bearing wear (axial damage lack of oil); metal thrust thrust thrust

Extraction check valves fail to close or leaking.

Thrust bearing responded


Excessive bearing




False response bearing trip



Check thrust bearing trip particularly the latching edge. Identify the cause of condenser vacuum loss Check circulating water pumps; Check flow of circulating water through condenser. Fault in gland seal steam supply.

Hydraulic vacuum responded

low trip

Loss of condenser vacuum Fault in supply. circulating water

Check position of control valves, check controller If fault in controller of it control valves malfunction, switch off controller and maintain gland seal steam pressure manually or by local operation of valves. Check operation of vacuum pumps . test of leaks Shutdown vacuum pumps and

Electrical vacuum responded

low trip

Fault in vacuum pumps air entry into condenser. As started earlier

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Trip solenoids.

measure pressure rise; Locate and repair leaks Examine rupture disks for cracks loss of condenser vacuum Fault in solenoid

Do not operate in turbine generator unit if trip solenoid are not functioning perfectly. Locate repair fault. Repeat testing by test oil pressure several times until turbine trip starts at normal test oil pressure valves. If defective over speed trip still does not operate satisfactorily, operation of the turbine generator unit must not be continued. Locate and repair fault immediately. Check speed indicator. (compare frequently of excited generator with system frequency by means of synchronizing device) adjust speed indicator. Perform testing by test oil pressure If testing by test oil pressure reveals that the two over speed trips respond at slightly staggered settings no further action necessary. Check speed indicator. (compare frequently of excited generator with system frequency by means of synchronizing device) Correct speed. Adjust speed indicator; Repeat testing by test oil pressure several times until turbine trip operates at the test oil pressure values previously measured. Check test oil line at next opportunity. Adjust test oil pressure.

Both over speed trips fail to operate during over speed testing

Over speed trip jammed or fouled

Attention : Normal trip speed must not be exceeded by more than 2%

Trip devices jammed incorrect speed reading

One over speed trip fails to operate during over speed testing

Jammed or fouled Staggering of over speed trip settings.

Over speed trip operates at too high test oil pressure when tested by test oil pressure

Turbine generator unit speed too low when generator not synchronized.

Movement of over speed trip mechanism impaired

Over speed trip fails to operate when tested by test oil

Lead in test oil line inside the bearing pedestal. Cause of operation may be

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too high a test oil pressure. Movement of over speed trip mechanism impaired Increase speed with generator unsynchronized and perform test. If the defective over speed trip still does nor operate satisfactorily, operation of the turbine generator unit must not be continued until Ault has been corrected.

Over speed trip operates at too low test oil pressure when tested by test oil pressure.

Turbine generator unit speed too high, when generator not synchronized Drift of trip speed (e.g. : spring fatigue ).

Check speed indicator (as for at too high a trip speed ) Test over speed trip by over speeding at next opportunity. Adjust over speed trip setting is necessary. Turbine generator unit may continue in operation but may be liable to premature tripping. Test intact over speed trip daily by trip by test oil pressure until fault can be corrected at next opportunity.

One over speed trip fails to operate when tested by test oil pressure Test oil pressure maximum second trip responds normally Thrust bearing trip fails to operate during testing using the automatic turbine tester Hydraulic low vacuum trip operates too late (at too low a condenser vacuum)

Movement of one over speed trip mechanism impaired.

Malfunction of test device.

Check test device and control medium pressure.

Malfunction due to jamming or drift is setting

There is a danger of the condenser and last-stage blades in the L.P. turbine being damaged; therefore correct malfunctions as quickly as possible or adjust trip setting; Until this can be done, test intact low vacuum trip at frequent intervals. See above consequences; Overhaul piston for speeddependent release for

Speed-dependent release for operation faulted by jamming of position.

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operation see above for interim measures pending correction of fault. Hydraulic low vacuum trip operates too early at too high a condenser vacuum Danger of outage of turbine generator unit due to premature trip; find out causes of premature trip. Correct setting Check diaphragm and replace. Check signal transmitter. Check signal path. Check protective device.

Drift in setting Diaphragm damaged.

Protection system operating largely with electrical signal formation fail to operate or operate at too high or too low limit levels

Fault in signal transmitter or fault in signal path or fault in protective device.

Oil Characteristics Insufficient Air release property > limit valve acc. To specification

Oil contamination Water content high Improper sealant Oil mixed with too much antifoam additive

Examine oil samples (operator, oil supplier, turbine manufacturer); Increase filtering, install additional by-pass fine mesh filter Remove water Check sealant used do not used any sealants containing silicon; Consult oil supplier.

Foaming on oil surface of oil tank

Foaming during start-up due to simultaneous release of air trapped in the oil and air entrained in the system as a result of temperature increase in the oil tank. Entry of steam vapour into oil system.

Introduce waiting period between closure of turning gear oil valve and run-up of the turbine. Check oil level and correct by topping up or draining. Remove water from oil system by separation or draining, Check pressures in bearing housings. Locate cause of excessive leak of steam from shaft seals and repair.

Water content

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Oil level in oil tank low: During rated speed operation During turning gear operation

Normal oil loss (oil level drops slowly) High oil loss

Top up with oil of the same make and type. Examine system of leaks, if a large leak occurs unload turbine generator immediately and/or initiate fire protection measure. Measures as for oil level changes during rated speed operation. On topping up make allowance for oil level recorded during turning gear operation. Open oil tank cover, check strainer and if heavily fouled change strainer and clean ; Examine residues in strainer. Observe start-up of auxiliary oil pump; If sub loop control fails; start auxiliary oil pump manually from control desk.

During rated speed or turning gear operation

Oil builds up in return compartment due to fouled strainer.

Oil pressure low. In pressure oil system during shutdown of turbine generator unit. In pressure oil system immediately after rated speed has been reached.

Normal procedure

Main oil pump is not taking over delivery. Check valve downstream of auxiliary oil pump leaking.

Turning gear oil valve still open. Oil level too low. Main oil pump faulty Air content of oil too high.

See incorrect operation of main oil pump Check pressures down stream of auxiliary oil pumps and pumps for reverse rotation. Start-up and shutdown auxiliary oil pump with defective valve once more. Shut down turbine generator and ensure freedom of check valve movement by alternating auxiliary oil pumps. Overhaul check valve. Close turning gear oil valve from control desk or locally by hand. Check oil level in oil tank. Top-up if necessary Check main oil pump Examine air release capability (ARC) (common investigations by operator, oil supplier and turbine manufacturer).

In pressure oil system during rate speed operation.

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In lubricating system


Examine as for oil pressure drops in pressure oil system With heavy pressure loss observe whether turbine trip is initiated. Filter not filled and vented before changeover. Standby oil cooler not filled and vented before changeover. Check bearing metal temperatures. Check bearing after temperature increases. Measure as for pressure loss on filter changeover; Warning : Danger of bearing damage is considerably greater than with improper filter changeover. Change over properly; Clean filters inserts. See faults Oil level lows See faults Oil properties insufficient Check main oil pump Turbine speed may be temporarily raised to force main oil pump to take over Check positions of cooling water isolating valves for oil cooler in service Open if closed or throttled. Set selector valve. Check vents. Look for cause of cooling water temperature increased and correct. Change oil cooler over. Note ; Follow change over instruction Clean fouled oil cooler.

In lubricating oil system on filter changeover In lubricating oil system on oil cooler change over

Differential pressure across filter high.

Filter fouled. Oil level in tank low Air content of oil too high Main oil pump faulty.

Main oil pump does not take over oil supply start-up

Oil Temperature high. During rated speed operation after startup

No flow of cooling water through oil cooler in services (malfunction can also occur on oil cooler changeovers ) Oil temperature not yet set. Oil cooler not vented on oil side or cooling water side. Cooling water inlet temperature too high. Oil cooler fouled on cooling water.

During oil start-up power operation

Oil temperature During shutdown of turbine generator unit.

Oil temperature control valve not closed.

Close oil control valve.


Turning gear does not start-up automatically Turning gear oil valve OPEN shaft lift

Compare actual shaft lift oil pressure with set pressures commissioning record. Correct pressure if necessary

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oil pump ON

Check oil temperature if too high (>35C) lower. Check using manual turning gear whether shaft turns easily. Warning : Do not rotate the shaft system forcibly. Let turbine cool down. Jacking oil pump must be operating.

Radial clearance bridged by casing or rotor distortion.

Turning gear oil valve OPEN shaft lift oil pump ON. Differential temperature in the casing > limit temperature. expansion >

Axial clearance bridged by high differential expansion.

OR Differential limit valve

OR Turbine generator unit shut down due to high bearing metal temperature. Turning gear oil does not open. OR On start-up On shut down of the turbine generator valve

Rubbing of rotor due to destruction of bearing or shaft journal in bearing not jacked,

Warning : Do not rotate the shaft system forcibly. With reverse criteria (temperature expansion) try to turn shaft using manual turning gear. If shaft turns freely: start-up turning gear. Check bearing and replace.

Turning gear oil valve faulty drive control

Open turning gear oil valve manually in place. Exhaust oil vapour. Prohibit naked flames in the proximity of oil tanks Repair fan or its control system.

Failure of vapour fan of oil vapour exhaust system.

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CONDENSING PLANT FAULT TRACING Meaning of Symbols P = Reference output g1 = Circulating water inlet temperature g2 = Circulating water outlet temperature difference g3 = Condensate temperature ) g4 = Exhaust steam temperature difference P1 2 = Circulating water pressure drop Across condenser of condenser (condensate/circl.water ) g = g3 g2 Circulating water temperature rise Fault Other symptoms Hydraulic low vacuum trip or electric condenser protection automatic trip. Condenser vacuum fallen to trip value No condenser circulating water circulating water temperature rises g =g2 - g1 greatly increased Shaft seal steam pressure TTD of condenser 9g = g4 g2 and Cause Remedy g = g3 g2 Terminal temperature of condenser ( steam / circulating water h / T = Rate of change of condenser vacuum during a leak test g = g3 g2 Terminal temperature

Main possible causes, see below Disturbances to circulating water supply.

Find fault and rectify

Defective shaft seal steam supply

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9g = g3 g2 greatly increased. Server air leak. TTD of condenser. 9g = g4 g2 and 9g = g3 g2 greatly increased Condenser water level high TTD condenser. 9g = g4 g2 in increased 9g = g3 g2

Malfunction of ejector/vacuum pumps in conjunction with severe air leak.

Rectify malfunction ejector / vacuum pumps.


Defective condensate transfer systems. Level regulator malfunction sudden increase of generator load.

Correct water level by rectifying malfunction of condensate transfer systems; level regulator reduces load on generator.

Normal (sub cooling ) Condenser vacuum normal

Defective low vacuum trip or electric condenser protection.

Low condenser vacuum Condenser circulating water flow too low. Circulating water temperature rise. 9g = g2 g1 increased

Up-set supply.



Cit in pump.



Failure of one or more circulating water pumps. Circulating water mass flow reduced by fouled filters. Malfunctioning steam supply. shaft seal

Inspect vacuum pump for the circulating water system. Clean filters.

Shaft seal steam pressure too low. TTD of condenser. 9g = g4 g2 and 9g = g3 g2 increased Alarm condenser water level high TTD of condenser 9g = g4 g2 increased 9g = g3 g2 normal (sub cooling ) One of the condenser gauges risen. several vacuum

Ensure steam supply of shaft seals by manual operation of regulating valves or local operation. Find water level to normal by rectifying condensate transfer systems malfunction; level regulator malfunction; reduce generator load. Find fault and rectify

Condensate transfer systems malfunctioning level regulator malfunction; sudden load increase of generator. Alarm system faulted.

Remaining condenser vacuum readings of normal Rapid fall in condenser vacuum

Measure system leaking blocked or turned off.

Find fault & rectify.

Severe air leak due to mal

Close vacuum pump suction

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Circulating water supply, shaft seal system, air extraction And condensate transfer system satisfactory.

operation, Suction valve of nonoperational vacuum pump open. Condenser drain valve open. Severe air leak due to a malfunction. Explosion diaphragm damaged. Local water damaged level gauge


Close condenser drain valve. Shut down turbine replace explosion diaphragm. Repair water level gauge.

Leak test reveals a more rapid condenser vacuum loss h / T than usual. Vacuum pump/ejector nor working Shaft seal steam temperature. Glands of drain valves blow as valves are opened. Air bubbles in water level gauges. Rate of condenser vacuum fall lower when all vacuum fall lower when all vacuum pumps are operated with the suction valves closed. No air leaks at the equipment mentioned above. Air leak in turbine zone. Shaft seal steam system malfunctioning Drain valve glands loose or packing defective Water level gauge leaking Leaking stop valves are check valves in the suction lines. Find air leak and rectify Repack drain valve glands Attend to sealing of water level gauges. Overhaul the stop valves and check valves in the suction lines at the next opportunity. Locate air leaks with a leak detector and repair.

Air leaks at flanges manhole covers pipe work, stop valves, instruments pockets, instrument lines condenser vacuum switches Air leaks associated with the turbine and charging from vacuum zone to pressure zone according to load (extractions feed heaters.)

A leak test reveals that the rate of condenser vacuum fail is higher at low loads only. At higher loads the rate of condenser vacuum fail is normal. Terminal temperatures differences of condenser 9g = g4 g2 and 9g = g3 g2

Locate air leaks with leak a detector at low load and repair.

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Higher than the value at reference output. circulating water inlet temperature t1 normal circulating water temperature rise 9g = g2 g1 =f(p) normal pressure of condenser P1 2 normal. Rate of condenser vacuum fall h / T = f(p) increased Circulating water inlet temperature g1 normal circulating water temperature rise 9g = g2 g1 = f(p) normal. Pressure drop across condenser P1 2 normal. Rate of condenser vacuum rise h / T = f(p) normal during leak testing circulating water inlet temperature rise 9g = g2 g1 = f(p) normal. Pressure drop across condenser P1 2 increased. Rate of condenser vacuum rise h / T = f(p) normal during leak testing. * Circulating water inlet temperature V1 normal. Circulating water inlet temperature rise 9g = g2 g1 = f(p) normal. Increased pressure drop across condenser P1 2 fallen Rate of condenser vacuum fall h / T = f(p) normal during leak testing . .

Air leak in vacuum zone.

See above.

Vacuum pumps/ejector malfunctioning.

Change over pumps/ejector.


Condenser tubes fouled on circulating water side.

Clean condenser tube.

Circulating water mass flow too low.

Increase circulating mass flow.






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inlet temperature V1 normal circulating water temperature rise 9g = g2 g1 =f(p) pressure drop across condenser P1 2 normal. Rate of condenser vacuum fall h / T = f(p) normal Increased water level in condenser Differential between terminal temperature difference 9g = g4 g2 = f(p) and . 9g = g3 g2 = f(p) = g3 g2 < 9g = g4 g2

transfer regulator.



Correct water level by rectifying malfunction in condensate transfer systems; Level regulator.

Condensate level in condenser too high. Condensate transfer systems defective.

Correct water level by rectifying malfunction in the condensate transfer systems.

Raw water leakage into the condensate steam due to a damaged condenser tube.

Locate leak and condenser tube. Find cause of tube damage.



Conductivity of condensate after condenser exceeds maximum value. During steady-state operation

Air leak in vacuum zone. Find cause of air leak and rectify.

Oxygen content of condensate after the condensate exceeds maximum value. During steady-state operation.

Leakage on circulating water side of condenser. Localize roughly. Shut down both condenser valves one after the other; A reduction in condensate conductivity after shut down of one condenser half is a sign that the leaks are in the condenser half shut down. Shut down the condenser half in which leaks are suspected. Pinpoint by means of helium test. Connect helium leak detection unit up-stream of vacuum pumps evacuate one condenser water box to produce a strong air flow

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through condenser tube. Admit helium into a no of condenser tubes through a bell sealed tight against the tube wall; The leaky tube section is indicated by the leak detection unit OR pinpoint by means of vacuum test; cover tube sheets in both condenser water boxes simultaneously with thin plastic film, leaky tubes will be suck plastic film in OR close of certain tube sections in one water box using rubber plugs. Use U tube pressure gauges to measure pressure in tubes sealed off at one end (connect flexible tube of pressure gauge to rubber plug) Leaks may also be pinpointing using suitable sound detectors or foam. Attention : when using a foam method check the foam for compatibility with the system have plugs on hands. Loss of condenser vacuum Increase in rate of pressure change during leak test and Air entering condenser. Seal off leaking condenser tubes with plugs at both ends. Extract defective condenser tubes and ascertain cause of leakage.

Gland Steam fault tracing

systems Seal steam pressure set point too high. Check position of valves e.g. vents and drains in vacuum area; Pressure gauge valves in vacuum area. Lower set point

Seal steam pressure high, no fault in valve or controller functions Seal steam pressure supply valve open; seal steam leak off valve in 100% position

Mechanical or electrical fault in seal steam supply valve.

Mechanical or electrical fault

Switch of controller ;

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in seal steam leak-off valve. Seal steam supply valve and seal steam leak-off valve closed

Close Steam supply valve locally maintain constant seal steam pressure manually or using the controller. Switch of f controller Open seal steam leak-off valve locally until seal steam pressure can be maintained constant manually are using the controller via the steam supply valve.

Seal steam pressure low. No Fault in valves or controller Seal steam supply and leak-off valve closed Seal steam pressure set point low. Mechanical or electrical fault in seal steam supply valve. Raise set point Switch off controller. Open seal steam supply valve locally until gland steam pressure can be maintain constant manually are using controller via the seal steam valve supply. Switch off controller; Close leak off valve. Maintain constant sea, steam pressure manually or using the controller via supply valve.

Seal steam supply valve and leak-off valve (100%)

Mechanical or electrical fault in seal steam leak-off valve; more steam is discharges through leak-off valve than entering to the turbine through supply valve.

Mechanical fault in seal steam control valve. Valve fails to follow control signals Pressurizer Valve faulty or set too low. Filter fouled (annunciation) Check pressure, pressurizer valve; Clean filter, reset

Electrical fault Valves Many causes possible

Determine problem on the basis of valve description and correct. Determine cause on the basis of instrumentation and control manual and correct.

Control systems

Many causes possible

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OPERATION OF GENERATOR & AUXILIARIES LINE UP: Before executing and synchronizing the generator, following systems are to be commissioned: Seal oil system: Seal oil system commissioning is required prior to filling of hydrogen in the generator. 1. The turbine main oil tank filled up to the required level with centrifuged oil. 2. Following services should be made available: a. Electric power for A.C seal oil pump motor. b. DC power for DC seal oil pump motor, control relays, starting and signaling panels. c. Cooling water supply for seal oil coolers. d. Dry clean compressed air for filling the generator.

3. Open the valves for suction and discharge of AC seal oil pump, its cooler and oil
filters. Open the valves leading, the discharge oil to damper tank. 4. Close all other valves. 5. Charge the seal oil line with oil by gravity from MOT. Vent air from cooler, filter etc., and close the discharge valves of A.C. seal oil pump. 6. Check the venting of pressure gauges. 7. Start the AC seal oil pumps and slowly open the discharge valve.

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8. Wait till damper tank is full and the oil level in hydraulic seal rises to a point midway. 9. Check the oil level in hydraulic seal oil tank above lower gauge glass but below upper gauge glass. 10. Check the alarms for high/low level in hydraulic seal tank and damper tank to be working all right by simulating both the conditions by level switch with help of C & I personnel. 11. Charge the cooling water flow to seal oil cooler. 12. Check the centrifugal fan in service in the main oil tank. 13. Check the suction and discharge pressure of A.C. seal oil pump. 14. Check oil pressure before and after the filter. 15. Apply thrust oil pressure by regulating inlet and outlet valve of P.O.R. carefully to get the required pressure. 16. Open inlet and outlet valves of DPR. 17. Open damper tank by pass valve.

18. Ensure AP of the seal oil. Now there will be flow through the seals. Ensure that
the flow on H2 side is normal. Wherever the pressure of air or gas inside the generator is less, drain the oil from the hydraulic seal tank. 19. Now bring the damper tank in service. 20. Ensure that there is no leakage of oil into the casing. 21. Check seal oil pressure at generator seal. 22. Check the flow of oil from return sight glasses at generator seals to be uniform and continuous. 23. Seal oil system is now in operation and healthy.

HYDROGEN COOLING SYSTEM ( For Hydrogen Cooling Generators ) PURGING : 1. Admit CO2 manifold to generator casing at bottom by opening the valves of several cylinders at a time. 2. Control rate of admission by regulating the valves on the manifold. The generator should be at stand still or on barring gear. must be in operation. Shaft sealing system

3. Stop filling CO2 when CO2 concentration reaches 98%. The sample of gas taken
from the generator casing should be periodically analyzed by means of portable gas analyzer. 4. Now Hydrogen filling can be started.

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Hydrogen Filling: 1. Ensure 98% CO2 concentration and a pressure of 0.15 to 0.2 kg/cm2 inside the machine. 2. Before admitting H2 into machine ensure: a. Generator is gas tight. b. All the air has been purged out by CO2 c. All valves of gas system are set at the completion of air purging. d. Auto starting of stand by seal oil pump. 3. Connect all H2 cylinders at a time. During process of filling with H2 the CO2 air mixture is discharged through CO2 feed pipe from bottom. 4. Stop filling operation if the H2 concentration attains a concentration of 98% and H2 pressure attains rated value 3.5 kg/cm2. During H2filling, continuously analyze the concentration of H2 in gas mixture inside the machine. PURGING OF H2 BY CO2 1. Admit CO2 to the bottom of the casing through the CO2 feed pipe. Hydrogen is discharged to the atmosphere through hydrogen feed pipe line. 2. Stop filling CO2 concentration in the CO2 hydrogen mixture reached 98%. PURGING CO2 BY AIR 1. When CO2 concentration in the CO2 hydrogen mixture reached 98%, air filling may be started to expel the CO2 before the machine is opened for maintenance. For this purpose dry instrument air is used. STATOR WATER COOLING SYSTEM 1. Keep the pump interlocking switch in off position. 2. Check up 415V, 50c/s supply for stator water cooling pumps. 3. Ensure that one D.M. make up pump / running and fill-up the expansion tank and D.M water make up tank (if provided) up to their normal value by opening respective inlet valves. 4. Supply clarified water to the water line valve to ejector by opening clarified water line valve to create vacuum and thus maintain vacuum in the expansion tank. 5. Open the D.M. water valves before and after the stator water pumps, stator water coolers and mechanical filters. 6. Open the stator bypass valve; start the pump and slowly open the discharge valve to full. 7. Adjust the cooling water pressure and flow.

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8. Charge the other cooler from DM water side and bring the temperature of DM water to 40C. 9. Charge the cooling water for secondary stator water cooler. 10. Charge rectifier for exactor (RCU) by opening D.M water inlet valve and adjust the flow by the control valve. 11. Proper venting of stator winding cooling lines is to be done. Now adjust the pressure and flow of D.M water entering the hallow stator winding. As soon as D.M. water circulation is achieved through stator winding at normal pressure and flow. Interlock switch of stator water cooling pump should be placed on auto position. 12. During normal operation constant watch to is to be kept on parameters such as pressure, temperature, specific resistivity, pH value, DM water level in expansion tank etc.,

STEPS FOR GENERATOR SYNCHRONISING 1. Ensure the availability and completeness of all the equipment and circuits. 2. Take clearance from electrical division for synchronizing. 3. Ensure that the insulation resistance of the system is within permissible limits especially if the generator is being synchronized after a long time or in rainy season. If the insulation resistance of the system is low, dry out of stator winding and associated bus duct should be carried out. 4. Check seal oil system for seal oil pressure, flow and temperature. 5. Check H2 cooling system for H2 pressure, purity and gas leakage. 6. Charge stator winding coolers with distillate and ensure quality, pressure, flow and temperature of the distillate. 7. Check that generator breaker and generator field breaker are open. If not, open generator breaker or field breakers as the case may be. 8. Advice rolling of turbine to rated full speed (3000 rpm). 9. Check bearing vibrations and rubbing etc., if any, inside the generator during rolling or any abnormal sound. 10. Check temperature of bearing seal babbit and drain oil. 11. Throttle inlet and outlet valve of H2 gas coolers according to gas temperature. Do not allow the gas temperature to rise above 55C. 12. Ensure that the machine has attained the rated speed of 3000 rpm. Obtain a go forward signal from boiler and turbine operator to synchronize the machine.

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13. Enquire from the switchyard control room about synchronizing of machine to the required bus. 14. Close the isolator for bus. 15. Ask switchyard control room operator to close transformer side isolator and report back to unit controller about proper closing of the isolators after physically verifying the same. 16. Check that the synchroscope cut off switch is 'off' and synchronizing check relay 'SKE' bypass switch is on "IN CIRCUIT" position. If not, put these switches in the said positions.

17. Close exciter field breaker. Give closing impulse for about 5-sec. and release
the switch when red lamp glows indicating the closing of breaker. Voltage will start building up due to residual magnetism. Check that the voltage is equal in all three phases. If voltage on the phase is not equal, check PT fuse and If the difference is more than 1 kV, inform replace and blown one, if any.

electrical maintenance division for thorough check up. Open the exciter field breakers and isolators. Check insulation resistance of all the three phases and take necessary action. 18. Put auto/manual excitation mode selector switch on "auto" position. Voltage will start building up. Check that the rate of building up is normal. If the rate of voltage build up is more than the permissible limits, switch over the "manual" mode and build up voltage manually.

19. When the voltage has built up approx. up to 10 kV, check that the voltage and
frequency of the incoming machine and that of the system are approximately equal. If the frequency is not approximately equal, give impulse to the load. Change to bring the frequency approximately equal. If the excitation mode is on "auto" it will automatically match the voltage; otherwise in "manual" mode, give impulse to field rheostat switch to match the voltage. 20. Switch on the synchroscope. If the frequency of the incoming m/c is higher than the system frequency, the synchroscope pointer will move in the clockwise director, and if the frequency is lower, it will move in anti-clockwise direction. Speed of rotation of the pointer will depend upon the difference in frequencies. 21. Give impulse by load change switch to have very slow clock-wise rotation. 22. When the voltage and frequency match, the synchroscope will move very slowly in the clockwise direction. 23. Give closing impulse to generator breaker the instance when the synchroscope pointer is in between 11 and 12 clock position which indicates synchronism by the glowing of lamp at the gen. Annunciation panel.

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24. Take 10-20 MW load on the machine. Ask boiler operator to carry out necessary operations on boiler side to raise the steam pressure and temperature, so that load can be raised. 25. Put synchroscope switch to "off" position. Ask turbine operators to carry out necessary operations on turbine on turbine side required for raising the load. 26. Put "antimotoring" protection switch on "ON" position after taking some load on the machine (say 20 MW). 27. Gen. Voltage and P.F. (power factor) will be maintained by AVR if the excitation mode is on "Auto"; otherwise, maintain generator voltage and PF by varying the field rheostat from the gen. control desk. If excitation mode is on manual then change over to "Auto", mode after matching the parameters. 28. Slowly raise the load on generator up to 80 MW (follow the guide lines given for loading the machine). Now the voltage and power factor will be maintained by the automatic voltage regulator (AVR). However, the level can be changed by varying the rheostat resistance. 29. Changeover 6.6 kV auxiliary bus from station supply to unit auxiliary supply taking both the unit auxiliary transformer in to circuit. Check that the unit auxiliary supply incoming breakers are racked in service position. Springs are changed and "local / remote" switches are on "remote" position. 30. Keep generator winding & core temperature, generator transformer winding temperature, H2 gas temperature, generator seal and bearing metal temperature within limits by adjusting cooling water flow to generator gas coolers and oil coolers. Load the generator up to 150 MW as per guide lines available. 31. At this load check generator bearing and seals temp. generator winding / core temperature, generator transformer winding temperature, H2 gas temperature performance of automatic voltage regulator and cooling water flow to R.C.U. If generator wdg / core temp. is higher, adjust the distillate flow and cooling water flow to gas coolers. If generator T/F wdg. Temp. is high, check that all the cooling fans and pumps of cooler banks are in service. If the AVR is not functioning properly take the voltage control on "Man mode".

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32. Check exciter winding temp. & slip ring sparking. voltage and current are within permissible limits.

Ensure that the exciter

33. Check H2 pressure, purity & temp, performance of seal oil system & stator water cooling system. Fill more H2 as if pressure and purity are low. If the performance of seal oil system is not satisfactory take corrective measures. 34. Increase load on the generator as per loading guidelines up to full rated load. Check generator wdg/core temp. gen T/F wdg. Temp. and vibrations. 35. If gen wdg/core temp. can not be controlled by increasing cooling water flow to gas coolers and distillate to stator water coolers. Reduce load. 36. If all parameters are within limits, maintain load on the generator according to boiler and turbine parameters and conditions. 37. If the vibrations increase beyond limits reduce load and investigate cause. 38. Check that all the cooler bank fans and pumps are running, if not, start them, even then if the temperature of T/F wdg. does not come down, reduce load.

ROUTINE OPERATION AND PERIODIC CHECKS It is important that the generator and its auxiliaries be kept under observation during operation. The annunciation system will give warning of abnormal conditions, but regular observation is needed to detect any gradual deterioration in the operating conditions and take appropriate corrective action even before any alarm comes. All those parameters should be noted by the operator in the log sheets specially maintained. These are over and above the automatic recording done by instruments. It is recommended that a full inspection of the generator should be made after it has been in operation for approximately one year after commissioning. Hourly Checks: Temperature: Hourly checking of temperature of following should be done and any abnormal rise in temperature should be reported to the concerned personnel without delay. Remedial measures should be taken. Stator winding Stator core Rotor winding Cold and Hot gas

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cooler Pressures

Distillate temperature and inlet and outlet stator winding. Babbitt temperature of bearing and seal liner. Inlet and outlet oil temperature of generator bearings and shaft seals. Inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water to gas coolers.

Temperatures of cooling water at inlet and outlet of stator water cooler and seal oil Generator transformer winding and oil temperatures. Unit auxiliary transformer winding temperature.

Hydrogen pressure and purity Differential pressure of seal oil and hydrogen and pressure of oil after D.P.R. Seal oil and thrust oil pressure at seal. Distillate pressure at inlet and outlet of stator winding. Cooling water pressures at inlet and outlet of H2 gas cooler, stator water cooler and seal oil cooler. Flows Oil pressure at inlet and outlet of seal oil filter.


Cooling water to H2 gas coolers Distillate to stator winding Cooling water to stator water cooler and seal oil cooler.

Vibrations at generator front and rear bearings and exciter end bearings should be noted in axial, vertical and transverse direction. Specific resistivity of distillate Specific resistivity of stator winding cooling distillate should be checked. Daily checks Surroundings of various equipments should be clean. Care should be taken so that oil or dust does not settle on the insulation, bearings, oil seals, slip rings and brush gear etc., Daily gas consumption should be recorded. Any abnormal increase in gas consumption indicates leakage for which necessary corrective measures may have to be taken.

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Check the gas sample to find out whether H2 is leaking in to water circuit. Examine the condition of H2 drier and reactivate, if necessary. Brush gear should be examined for: a. Unusual sparking between brushes and slip ring; b. Chattering of the brushes; c. Dust or oil accumulation; Take corrective actions wherever necessary. Check for water or oil traces inside stator body. Drain out the accumulated water or oil, if necessary. Check the settings of all the electrical contact, pressure gauges and other instruments. Check the conditions of the lamps in the signaling system of H2 cooling seal oil and stator water system. Check stator water system for presence of any gas. Check the leakage rate of H2. Check the H2 content in oil tank. Check the insulation of excitation system. Test run the stand by A.C. seal oil pump and the emergency D.C. seal oil pump. Run them for few minutes to check that they supply oil at the correct pressure and also run smoothly. Check the interlock between two pumps. Weekly checks Examine the conditions of brush gear. brushes are freely sliding in their holders. Replace if any, short brushes, check that Adjust pressure on the brushes so that it is

uniform on all the brushes and is about 1.1 to 1.3 kg on each brush. Check interlocking between working and standby stator water pump for automatic take over, run stand by pump for few minutes to check that it develops correct pressure of water and also runs smoothly. Check the operation of automatic D.C. bridge recorders. Check the operation and calibration of hydrogen purity indicator. Check the differential pressure across the filters in the seal oil and stator water system to ascertain whether they are choked or not. If necessary switch over to stand by and take corrective action.

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Check interlocking between working and stand by H2 cooler booster pump. Test run the stand by booster pump and check flow and pressure. Check resistivity of distillate by laboratory testing. Check purity of H2 by laboratory testing. Check for H2 concentration in bearing chamber. Check H2 concentration in bus duct enclosure. Check the gas sample taken from hydraulic seal for oxygen content. Check the bearing vibrations by portable and accurate vibration measuring instruments. Monthly checks Check all accessible bolts for tightness. Check all the protection and signaling circuits. Check that all the alarms operate correctly by simulating abnormal conditions wherever possible or by manually operating the initiating contacts. Check once in three months the polarity of slip rings in order to have uniform wear of the slip rings. Shut down checks Check insulation resistance of stator winding and rotor winding immediately after shut down. A further check should be carried out immediately prior to starting up. Check the calibration of H2 purity recorder. Check the slip rings and brush gear for any abnormality and take corrective measures. Periodic checks If required, clean the tubes of gas coolers. If necessary, clean the tubes of seal oil and stator water coolers. Check the calibration of H2 purity indicators with pure gas or with gas of known chemical analysis. Emergency operation

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Stator water flow low

: Check expansion tank level is normal and drains are closed. Check position of recirculation value. Check whether running pump has tripped. Reserve pump should start on

auto, if not start manually. Check differential pressure across the filter is normal. Stator water conductivity High : Check D.M water conductivity from the D.M plant. If normal, then purge same Water from system. If D.M tank water Conductivity is high, then close D.M make Up valve. Check stator water cooler for leakage. Regenerate polishing unit resin beds & take it into service. Hydrogen pressure low : Charge fresh hydrogen. If consumption is

high then investigate leaking points. If the pressure is persist to drop then pressure set. Hydrogen purity low : Purge some hydrogen from casing and charge fresh hydrogen. Check seal performance is normal. Seal oil differential high / low : Check DPR is functioning normally. attended. If not, reduce load on Generator. If the cant be maintained then trip the

change to the bypass line and get DPR

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Adjust the pressure at injector/pump discharge. Liquid in generator : Open the low point drain of generator and check nature and amount of leakage. Check proper functioning of DPR. Check thrust oil pressure. Check stator water pressure. Generator stator cooling water : Check gas trip and analyse the gas from it. In case leakage stator water leakage is suspected, then shut down the unit and Damper tank level low the bypass attend the leak. : Check DPR operation. If required open

valve and make up the level. If the level approaches low unit will trip.

Rotor temperature high

: Check gas cooler water flow and cooler inlet / outlet temperature. Check and maintain H2 pressure. Reduce excitation and load.

Stator winding temperature

: Check stator water cooling temp. pressure high and flow. Check load on unit and reduce if required. Check for hot spots.

Loss of excitation

: Check if unit has tripped and generator breaker has opened if not do so manually. Check for reason of field failure and correct them.

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Generator transformer cooling : System trouble

Check load on m/c and ambient temp. Check all cooling fans are in service. Check transformer oil quality and cooling oil pumps operation is normal.

Generator rotor earth fault

:The set can be allowed to run with careful watch over generator and excitation parameters. Check for the fault & continue to run as per instruction. In case of second motor earth fault unit trips, it is not to be restarted unless the fault is identified and rectified.