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SYSTEMS

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A system is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole or a set of elements (often called 'components' ) and relationships which are different from relationships of the set or its elements to other elements or sets. Fields that study the general properties of systems include systems theory, cybernetics, dynamical systems, thermodynamics, and complex systems. They investigate the abstract properties of systems' matter and organization, looking for concepts and principles that are independent of domain, substance, type, or temporal scale.

Most systems share common characteristics, including:

  • Systems have structure, defined by components/elements and their composition;

  • Systems have behavior, which involves inputs, processing and outputs of material, energy, information, or data;

  • Systems have interconnectivity: the various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships to each other.

  • Systems may have some functions or groups of functions

SIMULATION

Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The act of simulating something first requires that a model be developed; this model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected physical or abstract system or process. The model represents the system itself, whereas the simulation represents the operation of the system over time. Simulation, according to

Robert E. Shannon (1975), is “the process of designing a model of a real system and

conducting experiments with this model for the purpose either of understanding the behavior of the system or of evaluating various strategies (within the limits imposed by a criterion or set of criteria) for the operation of the system. Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games. Training simulators include flight simulators for training aircraft pilots to provide them with a lifelike experience. Simulation is also used with scientific modeling of natural systems or human systems to gain insight into their functioning. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may simply not exist.

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SIMULATION AS A DECISION MAKING TOOL

Simulation is a decision analysis and support tool. Simulation software allows you to evaluate, compare and optimize alternative designs, plans and policies. As such, it provides a tool for explaining and defending decisions to various stakeholders. Simulation should be used when the consequences of a proposed action, plan or design cannot be directly and immediately observed (i.e., the consequences are delayed in time and/or dispersed in space) and/or it is simply impractical or prohibitively expensive to test the alternatives directly. For example, when implementing a strategic plan for a company, the impacts are likely to take months (or years) to materialize. Simulation is particularly valuable when there is significant uncertainty regarding the outcome or consequences of a particular alternative under consideration. Probabilistic simulation allows you deal with this uncertainty in a quantifiable way. Perhaps most importantly, simulation should be used when the system under consideration has complex interactions and requires the input from multiple disciplines. In this case, it is difficult for any one person to easily understand the system. A simulation model can act as the framework to integrate the various components in order to better understand their interactions. As such, it becomes a management tool that keeps you focused on the "big picture" without getting lost in unimportant details.

2 SIMULATION AS A DECISION MAKING TOOL Simulation is a decision analysis and support tool. SimulationProbabilistic simulation allows you deal with this uncertainty in a quantifiable way. Perhaps most importantly, simulation should be used when the system under consideration has complex interactions and requires the input from multiple disciplines. In this case, it is difficult for any one person to easily understand the system. A simulation model can act as the framework to integrate the various components in order to better understand their interactions. As such, it becomes a management tool that keeps you focused on the "big picture" without getting lost in unimportant details. TYPES OF SIMULATION STATIC SIMULATION VS DYNAMIC SIMULATION A static simulation model is a representation of a system at a particular point in time.We usually refer to a static simulation as a Monte Carlo simulation A dynamic simulation is a representation of a system as it evolves over time.Within these two classifications, a simulation may be deterministic or stochastic " id="pdf-obj-1-10" src="pdf-obj-1-10.jpg">

TYPES OF SIMULATION STATIC SIMULATION VS DYNAMIC SIMULATION

A static simulation model is a representation of a system at a particular point in time.We usually refer to a static simulation as a Monte Carlo simulation

A dynamic simulation is a representation of a system as it evolves over time.Within these two classifications, a simulation may be deterministic or stochastic

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A deterministic simulation model is one that contains no random variables. A stochastic simulation model contains one or more random variables.

DISCRETE EVENT VS CONTINUOUS EVENT SIMULATION

Discrete event:- state of system changes only at discrete points in time(events)

ex. Machine repair problem

Continuous event:- state of system changes continuously over time

Ex. Level of fluid in tank

SIMULATION LANGUAGES

Several special-purpose computer simulation languages have been developed to

simplify

programming.

The

best

known

and

most

readily

available

simulation

languages, including

 

GPSS

GASP IV

SLAM.

Arena

Most

simulation

languages

use

one

of

two

different

modeling

approaches

or

orientations; event scheduling or process interaction

GPSS uses the process-interaction approach.

SLAM allows the modeler to use either approach or even a mixture of the two,

whichever is the most appropriate for the model being analyzed Of the general-purpose languages, FORTRAN is the most commonly used in simulation

In fact, several simulation languages, including GASP IV and SLAM, use a FORTRAN base

To use GASP IV we must provide a main program, an initialization routine, and the event routines.

For the rest of the program, we use the GASP routines.

 

Because of these prewritten programming flexibility.

routines,

GASP

IV

provides a

great

deal

of

GPSS, in contrast to GASP, is a highly structured special-purpose language.

GPSS does not require writing a program in the usual sense.

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Building a GPSS model then consist of combining these sets of blocks into a flow diagram so that it represents the path an entity takes as it passes through the system.

SLAM was developed by Pritsket and Pegden (1979). It allows us to develop simulation model as network models, discrete-event models, continuous models, or any combination of these.

ARENA

Arena is a discrete event simulation software simulation and automation software developed by Systems Modeling and acquired by Rockwell Automation in 2000 [1] . It uses the SIMAN processor and simulation language. In Arena, the user builds an experiment model by placing modules (boxes of different shapes) that represent processes or logic. Connector lines are used to join these modules together and specifies the flow of entities. While modules have specific actions relative to entities, flow, and timing, the precise representation of each module and entity relative to real-life objects is subject to the modeler. Statistical data, such as cycle time and WIP (work in process) levels, can be recorded and outputted as reports. Arena is used by many large companies engaged in simulating business processes. Some of these firms include General Motors, UPS, IBM, Nike, Xerox, Lufthansa, Ford Motor Company, and others. The original Arena Software was developed in Cambridge UK by completely different individuals as a Job Costing and Accounting system. It was originally programmed via Silicon Office, then moved to Modula-2 and finally to Microsoft Visual Basic. It was sold to BP, BAE systems and John Lewis as well as many architectural firms. Arena Software closed in 2000. The trademark was left to lapse at that time.

GPSS

General Purpose Simulation System (GPSS) (originally Gordon's Programmable Simulation System after creator Geoffrey Gordon; the name was changed when it was decided to release it as a product) is a discrete time simulation general-purpose programming language, where a simulation clock advances in discrete steps. A system is modelled as transactions enter the system and are passed from one service (represented by blocs) to another. This is particularly well-suited for problems such as a factory. It was popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s but is little used today. GPSS is less flexible than simulation languages such as Simula and SIMSCRIPT II.5.