Notation
Impedance
Admittance
Reactance
Resonance
Reactive Loads and Power Factor
Complex Power
Three Phase Power
Perunit System
Symmetrical Components
Fault Calculations
Three Phase Fault Level
Thermal Shorttime Rating
Instrument Transformers
Power Factor Correction
Reactors
Harmonic Resonance
Notation
The symbol font is used for some notation and formulae. If the Greek symbols for alpha beta delta do not
appear here [ o  o] the symbol font needs to be installed for correct display of notation and formulae.
BCE
f
G
h
I
j
L
P
Q
.susceptancecapacitance.voltage
source
.frequency
.conductance
.hoperator
.current
.joperator
.inductance
.active power
.reactive power
.[siemens,
S][farads,
F].[volts, V]
.[hertz, Hz]
.[siemens, S]
.[1Z120]
.[amps, A]
.[1Z90]
.[henrys, H]
.[watts, W]
.[VAreactive,
VArs]
QRS
t
V
W
X
Y
Z

e
.quality
factorresistance.apparent
power
.time
.voltage drop
.energy
.reactance
.admittance
.impedance
.phase angle
.angular frequency
.[number][ohms, O].[volt
amps, VA]
.[seconds, s]
.[volts, V]
.[joules, J]
.[ohms, O]
.[siemens, S]
.[ohms, O]
.[degrees, ]
.[rad/sec]
Impedance
The impedance Z of a resistance R in series with a reactance X is:
Z = R + jX
Rectangular and polar forms of impedance Z:
Z = R + jX = (R
2
+ X
2
)
Ztan
1
(X / R) = ZZ = Zcos + jZsin
Addition of impedances Z
1
and Z
2
:
Z
1
+ Z
2
= (R
1
+ jX
1
) + (R
2
+ jX
2
) = (R
1
+ R
2
) + j(X
1
+ X
2
)
Subtraction of impedances Z
1
and Z
2
:
Z
1
Z
2
= (R
1
+ jX
1
) (R
2
+ jX
2
) = (R
1
R
2
) + j(X
1
X
2
)
Multiplication of impedances Z
1
and Z
2
:
Z
1
* Z
2
= Z
1
Z
1
* Z
2
Z
2
= ( Z
1
 * Z
2
 )Z(
1
+ 
2
)
Division of impedances Z
1
and Z
2
:
Z
1
/ Z
2
= Z
1
Z
1
/ Z
2
Z
2
= ( Z
1
 / Z
2
 )Z(
1

2
)
In summary:
 use the rectangular form for addition and subtraction,
 use the polar form for multiplication and division.
Admittance
An impedance Z comprising a resistance R in series with a reactance X can be converted to an admittance Y comprising a
conductance G in parallel with a susceptance B:
Y = Z
1
= 1 / (R + jX) = (R jX) / (R
2
+ X
2
) = R / (R
2
+ X
2
) jX / (R
2
+ X
2
) = G jB
G = R / (R
2
+ X
2
) = R / Z
2
B = X / (R
2
+ X
2
) = X / Z
2
Using the polar form of impedance Z:
Y = 1 / ZZ = Z
1
Z = YZ = Ycos jYsin
Conversely, an admittance Y comprising a conductance G in parallel with a susceptance B can be converted to an
impedance Z comprising a resistance R in series with a reactance X:
Z = Y
1
= 1 / (G jB) = (G + jB) / (G
2
+ B
2
) = G / (G
2
+ B
2
) + jB / (G
2
+ B
2
) = R + jX
R = G / (G
2
+ B
2
) = G / Y
2
X = B / (G
2
+ B
2
) = B / Y
2
Using the polar form of admittance Y:
Z = 1 / YZ = Y
1
Z = ZZ = Zcos + jZsin
The total impedance Z
S
of impedances Z
1
, Z
2
, Z
3
, connected in series is:
Z
S
= Z
1
+ Z
1
+ Z
1
+
The total admittance Y
P
of admittances Y
1
, Y
2
, Y
3
, connected in parallel is:
Y
P
= Y
1
+ Y
1
+ Y
1
+
In summary:
 use impedances when operating on series circuits,
 use admittances when operating on parallel circuits.
Reactance
Inductive Reactance
The inductive reactance X
L
of an inductance L at angular frequency e and frequency f is:
X
L
= eL = 2tfL
For a sinusoidal current i of amplitude I and angular frequency e:
i = I sinet
If sinusoidal current i is passed through an inductance L, the voltage e across the inductance is:
e = L di/dt = eLI coset = X
L
I coset
The current through an inductance lags the voltage across it by 90.
Capacitive Reactance
The capacitive reactance X
C
of a capacitance C at angular frequency e and frequency f is:
X
C
= 1 / eC = 1 / 2tfC
For a sinusoidal voltage v of amplitude V and angular frequency e:
v = V sinet
If sinusoidal voltage v is applied across a capacitance C, the current i through the capacitance is:
i = C dv/dt = eCV coset = V coset / X
C
The current through a capacitance leads the voltage across it by 90.
Resonance
Series Resonance
A series circuit comprising an inductance L, a resistance R and a capacitance C has an impedance Z
S
of:
Z
S
= R + j(X
L
X
C
)
where X
L
= eL and X
C
= 1 / eC
At resonance, the imaginary part of Z
S
is zero:
X
C
= X
L
Z
Sr
= R
e
r
= (1 / LC)
= 2tf
r
The quality factor at resonance Q
r
is:
Q
r
= e
r
L / R = (L / CR
2
)
= (1 / R )(L / C)
= 1 / e
r
CR
Parallel resonance
A parallel circuit comprising an inductance L with a series resistance R, connected in parallel with a capacitance C, has an
admittance Y
P
of:
Y
P
= 1 / (R + jX
L
) + 1 / ( jX
C
) = (R / (R
2
+ X
L
2
)) j(X
L
/ (R
2
+ X
L
2
) 1 / X
C
)
where X
L
= eL and X
C
= 1 / eC
At resonance, the imaginary part of Y
P
is zero:
X
C
= (R
2
+ X
L
2
) / X
L
= X
L
+ R
2
/ X
L
= X
L
(1 + R
2
/ X
L
2
)
Z
Pr
= Y
Pr
1
= (R
2
+ X
L
2
) / R = X
L
X
C
/ R = L / CR
e
r
= (1 / LC R
2
/ L
2
)
= 2tf
r
The quality factor at resonance Q
r
is:
Q
r
= e
r
L / R = (L / CR
2
1)
= (1 / R )(L / C R
2
)
Note that for the same values of L, R and C, the parallel resonance frequency is lower than the series resonance frequency, but if the
ratio R / L is small then the parallel resonance frequency is close to the series resonance frequency.
Reactive Loads and Power Factor
Resistance and Series Reactance
The impedance Z of a reactive load comprising resistance R and series reactance X is:
Z = R + jX = ZZ
Converting to the equivalent admittance Y:
Y = 1 / Z = 1 / (R + jX) = (R jX) / (R
2
+ X
2
) = R / Z
2
jX / Z
2
When a voltage V (taken as reference) is applied across the reactive load Z, the current I is:
I = VY = V(R / Z
2
jX / Z
2
) = VR / Z
2
jVX / Z
2
= I
P
jI
Q
The active current I
P
and the reactive current I
Q
are:
I
P
= VR / Z
2
= Icos
I
Q
= VX / Z
2
= Isin
The apparent power S, active power P and reactive power Q are:
S = VI = V
2
/ Z = I
2
Z
P = VI
P
= I
P
2
Z
2
/ R = V
2
R / Z
2
= I
2
R
Q = VI
Q
= I
Q
2
Z
2
/ X = V
2
X / Z
2
= I
2
X
The power factor cos and reactive factor sin are:
cos = I
P
/ I = P / S = R / Z
sin = I
Q
/ I = Q / S = X / Z
Resistance and Shunt Reactance
The impedance Z of a reactive load comprising resistance R and shunt reactance X is found from:
1 / Z = 1 / R + 1 / jX
Converting to the equivalent admittance Y comprising conductance G and shunt susceptance B:
Y = 1 / Z = 1 / R j / X = G jB = YZ
When a voltage V (taken as reference) is applied across the reactive load Y, the current I is:
I = VY = V(G jB) = VG jVB = I
P
jI
Q
The active current I
P
and the reactive current I
Q
are:
I
P
= VG = V / R = Icos
I
Q
= VB = V / X = Isin
The apparent power S, active power P and reactive power Q are:
S = VI = I
2
/ Y = V
2
Y
P = VI
P
= I
P
2
/ G = I
2
G / Y
2
= V
2
G
Q = VI
Q
= I
Q
2
/ B = I
2
B / Y
2
= V
2
B
The power factor cos and reactive factor sin are:
cos = I
P
/ I = P / S = G / Y
sin = I
Q
/ I = Q / S = B / Y
Complex Power
When a voltage V causes a current I to flow through a reactive load Z, the complex power S is:
S = VI* where I* is the conjugate of the complex current I.
Inductive Load
Z = R + jX
L
I = I
P
jI
Q
cos = R / Z (lagging)
I* = I
P
+ jI
Q
S = P + jQ
An inductive load is a sink of lagging VArs (a source of leading VArs).
Capacitive Load
Z = R jX
C
I = I
P
+ jI
Q
cos = R / Z (leading)
I* = I
P
jI
Q
S = P jQ
A capacitive load is a source of lagging VArs (a sink of leading VArs).
Three Phase Power
For a balanced star connected load with line voltage V
line
and line current I
line
:
V
star
= V
line
/ \3
I
star
= I
line
Z
star
= V
star
/ I
star
= V
line
/ \3I
line
S
star
= 3V
star
I
star
= \3V
line
I
line
= V
line
2
/ Z
star
= 3I
line
2
Z
star
For a balanced delta connected load with line voltage V
line
and line current I
line
:
V
delta
= V
line
I
delta
= I
line
/ \3
Z
delta
= V
delta
/ I
delta
= \3V
line
/ I
line
S
delta
= 3V
delta
I
delta
= \3V
line
I
line
= 3V
line
2
/ Z
delta
= I
line
2
Z
delta
The apparent power S, active power P and reactive power Q are related by:
S
2
= P
2
+ Q
2
P = Scos
Q = Ssin
where cos is the power factor and sin is the reactive factor
Note that for equivalence between balanced star and delta connected loads:
Z
delta
= 3Z
star
Perunit System
For each system parameter, perunit value is equal to the actual value divided by a base value:
E
pu
= E / E
base
I
pu
= I / I
base
Z
pu
= Z / Z
base
Select rated values as base values, usually rated power in MVA and rated phase voltage in kV:
S
base
= S
rated
= \3E
line
I
line
E
base
= E
phase
= E
line
/ \3
The base values for line current in kA and perphase star impedance in ohms/phase are:
I
base
= S
base
/ 3E
base
( = S
base
/ \3E
line
)
Z
base
= E
base
/ I
base
= 3E
base
2
/ S
base
( = E
line
2
/ S
base
)
Note that selecting the base values for any two of S
base
, E
base
, I
base
or Z
base
fixes the base values of all four. Note also that Ohms Law is
satisfied by each of the sets of actual, base and perunit values for voltage, current and impedance.
Transformers
The primary and secondary MVA ratings of a transformer are equal, but the voltages and currents in the primary (subscript
1
) and the
secondary (subscript
2
) are usually different:
\3E
1line
I
1line
= S = \3E
2line
I
2line
Converting to base (perphase star) values:
3E
1base
I
1base
= S
base
= 3E
2base
I
2base
E
1base
/ E
2base
= I
2base
/ I
1base
Z
1base
/ Z
2base
= (E
1base
/ E
2base
)
2
The impedance Z
21pu
referred to the primary side, equivalent to an impedance Z
2pu
on the secondary side, is:
Z
21pu
= Z
2pu
(E
1base
/ E
2base
)
2
The impedance Z
12pu
referred to the secondary side, equivalent to an impedance Z
1pu
on the primary side, is:
Z
12pu
= Z
1pu
(E
2base
/ E
1base
)
2
Note that perunit and percentage values are related by:
Z
pu
= Z
%
/ 100
Symmetrical Components
In any three phase system, the line currents I
a
, I
b
and I
c
may be expressed as the phasor sum of:
 a set of balanced positive phase sequence currents I
a1
, I
b1
and I
c1
(phase sequence abc),
 a set of balanced negative phase sequence currents I
a2
, I
b2
and I
c2
(phase sequence acb),
 a set of identical zero phase sequence currents I
a0
, I
b0
and I
c0
(cophasal, no phase sequence).
The positive, negative and zero sequence currents are calculated from the line currents using:
I
a1
= (I
a
+ hI
b
+ h
2
I
c
) / 3
I
a2
= (I
a
+ h
2
I
b
+ hI
c
) / 3
I
a0
= (I
a
+ I
b
+ I
c
) / 3
The positive, negative and zero sequence currents are combined to give the line currents using:
I
a
= I
a1
+ I
a2
+ I
a0
I
b
= I
b1
+ I
b2
+ I
b0
= h
2
I
a1
+ hI
a2
+ I
a0
I
c
= I
c1
+ I
c2
+ I
c0
= hI
a1
+ h
2
I
a2
+ I
a0
The residual current I
r
is equal to the total zero sequence current:
I
r
= I
a0
+ I
b0
+ I
c0
= 3I
a0
= I
a
+ I
b
+ I
c
= I
e
which is measured using three current transformers with parallel connected secondaries.
I
e
is the earth fault current of the system.
Similarly, for phasetoearth voltages V
ae
, V
be
and V
ce
, the residual voltage V
r
is equal to the total zero sequence voltage:
V
r
= V
a0
+ V
b0
+ V
c0
= 3V
a0
= V
ae
+ V
be
+ V
ce
= 3V
ne
which is measured using an earthedstar / opendelta connected voltage transformer.
V
ne
is the neutral displacement voltage of the system.
The hoperator
The hoperator (1Z120) is the complex cube root of unity:
h = 1 / 2 + j\3 / 2 = 1Z120 = 1Z240
h
2
= 1 / 2 j\3 / 2 = 1Z240 = 1Z120
Some useful properties of h are:
1 + h + h
2
= 0
h + h
2
= 1 = 1Z180
h h
2
= j\3 = \3Z90
h
2
h = j\3 = \3Z90
Fault Calculations
The different types of shortcircuit fault which occur on a power system are:
 single phase to earth,
 double phase,
 double phase to earth,
 three phase,
 three phase to earth.
For each type of shortcircuit fault occurring on an unloaded system:
 the first column states the phase voltage and line current conditions at the fault,
 the second column states the phase a sequence current and voltage conditions at the fault,
 the third column provides formulae for the phase a sequence currents at the fault,
 the fourth column provides formulae for the fault current and the resulting line currents.
By convention, the faulted phases are selected for fault symmetry with respect to reference phase a.
I f
= fault current
I
e
= earth fault current
E
a
= normal phase voltage at the fault location
Z
1
= positive phase sequence network impedance to the fault
Z
2
= negative phase sequence network impedance to the fault
Z
0
= zero phase sequence network impedance to the fault
Single phase to earth fault from phase a to earth:
V
a
= 0I
b
=
I
c
= 0
I
f
= I
a
= I
e
I
a1
= I
a2
= I
a0
= I
a
/ 3V
a1
+
V
a2
+ V
a0
= 0
I
a1
= E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
0
)I
a2
=
I
a1
I
a0
= I
a1
I
f
= 3I
a0
= 3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
0
) = I
e
I
a
= I
f
=
3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
+ Z
0
)
Double phase fault from phase b to phase c:
V
b
= V
c
I
a
= 0
I
f
= I
b
= I
c
I
a1
+ I
a2
= 0I
a0
= 0
V
a1
= V
a2
I
a1
= E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
)I
a2
=
I
a1
I
a0
= 0
I
f
= j\3I
a1
= j\3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
)I
b
= I
f
=
j\3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
)
I
c
= I
f
= j\3E
a
/ (Z
1
+ Z
2
)
Double phase to earth fault from phase b to phase c to earth:
V
b
= V
c
= 0I
a
= 0
I
f
= I
b
+ I
c
= I
e
I
a1
+ I
a2
+ I
a0
= 0V
a1
=
V
a2
= V
a0
I
a1
= E
a
/ Z
net
I
a2
= I
a1
Z
0
/
(Z
2
+ Z
0
)
I
a0
= I
a1
Z
2
/ (Z
2
+ Z
0
)
I
f
= 3I
a0
= 3E
a
Z
2
/ E
zz
= I
e
I
b
= I
f
/ 2
j\3E
a
(Z
2
/ 2 + Z
0
) / E
zz
I
c
= I
f
/ 2 + j\3E
a
(Z
2
/ 2 + Z
0
) / E
zz
Z
net
= Z
1
+ Z
2
Z
0
/ (Z
2
+ Z
0
) and E
zz
= Z
1
Z
2
+ Z
2
Z
0
+ Z
0
Z
1
= (Z
2
+ Z
0
)Z
net
Three phase (and three phase to earth) fault from phase a to phase b to phase c (to earth):
V
a
= V
b
= V
c
(=
0)I
a
+ I
b
+ I
c
= 0 (=
I
e
)
I
f
= I
a
= hI
b
= h
2
I
c
V
a0
= V
a
(= 0)V
a1
=
V
a2
= 0
I
a1
= E
a
/ Z
1
I
a2
= 0
I
a0
= 0
I
f
= I
a1
= E
a
/ Z
1
= I
a
I
b
= E
b
/ Z
1
I
c
= E
c
/ Z
1
The values of Z
1
, Z
2
and Z
0
are each determined from the respective positive, negative and zero sequence impedance networks by
network reduction to a single impedance.
Note that the single phase fault current is greater than the three phase fault current if Z
0
is less than (2Z
1
Z
2
).
Note also that if the system is earthed through an impedance Z
n
(carrying current 3I
0
) then an impedance 3Z
n
(carrying current I
0
) must
be included in the zero sequence impedance network.
Three Phase Fault Level
The symmetrical three phase shortcircuit current I
sc
of a power system with noload line and phase voltages E
line
and E
phase
and source
impedance Z
S
perphase star is:
I
sc
= E
phase
/ Z
S
= E
line
/ \3Z
S
The three phase fault level S
sc
of the power system is:
S
sc
= 3I
sc
2
Z
S
= 3E
phase
I
sc
= 3E
phase
2
/ Z
S
= E
line
2
/ Z
S
Note that if the X / R ratio of the source impedance Z
S
(comprising resistance R
S
and reactance X
S
) is sufficiently large, then Z
S
~ X
S
.
Transformers
If a transformer of rating S
T
(taken as base) and perunit impedance Z
Tpu
is fed from a source with unlimited fault level (infinite busbars),
then the perunit secondary shortcircuit current I
2pu
and fault levelS
2pu
are:
I
2pu
= E
2pu
/ Z
Tpu
= 1.0 / Z
Tpu
S
2pu
= I
2pu
= 1.0 / Z
Tpu
If the source fault level is limited to S
S
by perunit source impedance Z
Spu
(to the same base as Z
Tpu
), then the secondary shortcircuit
current I
2pu
and fault level S
2pu
are reduced to:
I
2pu
= E
2pu
/ (Z
Tpu
+ Z
Spu
) = 1.0 / (Z
Tpu
+ Z
Spu
)
S
2pu
= I
2pu
= 1.0 / (Z
Tpu
+ Z
Spu
)
where Z
Spu
= S
T
/ S
S
Thermal Shorttime Rating
If a conductor which is rated to carry full load current I
load
continuously is rated to carry a maximum fault current I
limit
for a time t
limit
, then
a lower fault current I
fault
can be carried for a longer time t
fault
according to:
( I
limit
I
load
)
2
t
limit
= ( I
fault
I
load
)
2
t
fault
Rearranging for I
fault
and t
fault
:
I
fault
= ( I
limit
I
load
) ( t
limit
/ t
fault
)
+ I
load
t
fault
= t
limit
( I
limit
I
load
)
2
/ ( I
fault
I
load
)
2
If I
load
is small compared with I
limit
and I
fault
, then:
I
limit
2
t
limit
~ I
fault
2
t
fault
I
fault
~ I
limit
( t
limit
/ t
fault
)
t
fault
~ t
limit
( I
limit
/ I
fault
)
2
Note that if the current I
fault
is reduced by a factor of two, then the time t
fault
is increased by a factor of four.
Instrument Transformers
Voltage Transformer
For a voltage transformer of voltampere rating S, rated primary voltage V
P
and rated secondary voltageV
S
, the maximum secondary
current I
Smax
, maximum secondary burden conductance G
Bmax
and maximum primary current I
Pmax
are:
I
Smax
= S / V
S
G
Bmax
= I
Smax
/ V
S
= S / V
S
2
I
Pmax
= S / V
P
= I
Smax
V
S
/ V
P
Current Transformer
For a measurement current transformer of voltampere rating S, rated primary current I
P
and rated secondary current I
S
, the maximum
secondary voltage V
Smax
, maximum secondary burden resistanceR
Bmax
and maximum primary voltage V
Pmax
are:
V
Smax
= S / I
S
R
Bmax
= V
Smax
/ I
S
= S / I
S
2
V
Pmax
= S / I
P
= V
Smax
I
S
/ I
P
For a protection current transformer of voltampere rating S, rated primary current I
P
, rated secondary current I
S
and rated accuracy limit
factor F, the rated secondary reference voltage V
SF
, maximum secondary burden resistance R
Bmax
and equivalent primary reference
voltage V
PF
are:
V
SF
= SF / I
S
R
Bmax
= V
SF
/ I
S
F = S / I
S
2
V
PF
= SF / I
P
= V
SF
I
S
/ I
P
Impedance Measurement
If the primary voltage V
pri
and the primary current I
pri
are measured at a point in a system, then the primary impedance Z
pri
at that point
is:
Z
pri
= V
pri
/ I
pri
If the measured voltage is the secondary voltage V
sec
of a voltage transformer of primary/secondary ratioN
V
and the measured current is
the secondary current I
sec
of a current transformer of primary/secondary ratio N
I
, then the primary impedance Z
pri
is related to the
secondary impedance Z
sec
by:
Z
pri
= V
pri
/ I
pri
= V
sec
N
V
/ I
sec
N
I
= Z
sec
N
V
/ N
I
= Z
sec
N
Z
where N
Z
= N
V
/ N
I
If the noload (source) voltage E
pri
is also measured at the point, then the source impedance Z
Tpri
to the point is:
Z
Tpri
= (E
pri
V
pri
) / I
pri
= (E
sec
V
sec
)N
V
/ I
sec
N
I
= Z
Tsec
N
V
/ N
I
= Z
Tsec
N
Z
Power Factor Correction
If an inductive load with an active power demand P has an uncorrected power factor of cos
1
lagging, and is required to have a
corrected power factor of cos
2
lagging, the uncorrected and corrected reactive power demands, Q
1
and Q
2
, are:
Q
1
= P tan
1
Q
2
= P tan
2
where tan
n
= (1 / cos
2

n
1)
The leading (capacitive) reactive power demand Q
C
which must be connected across the load is:
Q
C
= Q
1
Q
2
= P (tan
1
tan
2
)
The uncorrected and corrected apparent power demands, S
1
and S
2
, are related by:
S
1
cos
1
= P = S
2
cos
2
Comparing corrected and uncorrected load currents and apparent power demands:
I
2
/ I
1
= S
2
/ S
1
= cos
1
/ cos
2
If the load is required to have a corrected power factor of unity, Q
2
is zero and:
Q
C
= Q
1
= P tan
1
I
2
/ I
1
= S
2
/ S
1
= cos
1
= P / S
1
Shunt Capacitors
For starconnected shunt capacitors each of capacitance C
star
on a three phase system of line voltageV
line
and frequency f, the leading
reactive power demand Q
Cstar
and the leading reactive line current I
line
are:
Q
Cstar
= V
line
2
/ X
Cstar
= 2tfC
star
V
line
2
I
line
= Q
Cstar
/ \3V
line
= V
line
/ \3X
Cstar
C
star
= Q
Cstar
/ 2tfV
line
2
For deltaconnected shunt capacitors each of capacitance C
delta
on a three phase system of line voltageV
line
and frequency f, the
leading reactive power demand Q
Cdelta
and the leading reactive line currentI
line
are:
Q
Cdelta
= 3V
line
2
/ X
Cdelta
= 6tfC
delta
V
line
2
I
line
= Q
Cdelta
/ \3V
line
= \3V
line
/ X
Cdelta
C
delta
= Q
Cdelta
/ 6tfV
line
2
Note that for the same leading reactive power Q
C
:
X
Cdelta
= 3X
Cstar
C
delta
= C
star
/ 3
Series Capacitors
For series line capacitors each of capacitance C
series
carrying line current I
line
on a three phase system of frequency f, the voltage
drop V
drop
across each line capacitor and the total leading reactive power demand Q
Cseries
of the set of three line capacitors are:
V
drop
= I
line
X
Cseries
= I
line
/ 2tfC
series
Q
Cseries
= 3V
drop
2
/ X
Cseries
= 3V
drop
I
line
= 3I
line
2
X
Cseries
= 3I
line
2
/ 2tfC
series
C
series
= 3I
line
2
/ 2tfQ
Cseries
Note that the apparent power rating S
rating
of the set of three series line capacitors is based on the line voltage V
line
and not the voltage
drop V
drop
:
S
rating
= \3V
line
I
line
Reactors
Shunt Reactors
For starconnected shunt reactors each of inductance L
star
on a three phase system of line voltage V
line
and frequency f, the lagging
reactive power demand Q
Lstar
and the lagging reactive line current I
line
are:
Q
Lstar
= V
line
2
/ X
Lstar
= V
line
2
/ 2tfL
star
I
line
= Q
Lstar
/ \3V
line
= V
line
/ \3X
Lstar
L
star
= V
line
2
/ 2tfQ
Lstar
For deltaconnected shunt reactors each of inductance L
delta
on a three phase system of line voltageV
line
and frequency f, the lagging
reactive power demand Q
Ldelta
and the lagging reactive line currentI
line
are:
Q
Ldelta
= 3V
line
2
/ X
Ldelta
= 3V
line
2
/ 2tfL
delta
I
line
= Q
Ldelta
/ \3V
line
= \3V
line
/ X
Ldelta
L
delta
= 3V
line
2
/ 2tfQ
Ldelta
Note that for the same lagging reactive power Q
L
:
X
Ldelta
= 3X
Lstar
L
delta
= 3L
star
Series Reactors
For series line reactors each of inductance L
series
carrying line current I
line
on a three phase system of frequency f, the voltage
drop V
drop
across each line reactor and the total lagging reactive power demandQ
Lseries
of the set of three line reactors are:
V
drop
= I
line
X
Lseries
= 2tfL
series
I
line
Q
Lseries
= 3V
drop
2
/ X
Lseries
= 3V
drop
I
line
= 3I
line
2
X
Lseries
= 6tfL
series
I
line
2
L
series
= Q
Lseries
/ 6tfI
line
2
Note that the apparent power rating S
rating
of the set of three series line reactors is based on the line voltage V
line
and not the voltage
drop V
drop
:
S
rating
= \3V
line
I
line
Harmonic Resonance
If a node in a power system operating at frequency f has a inductive source reactance X
L
per phase and has power factor correction
with a capacitive reactance X
C
per phase, the source inductance L and the correction capacitance C are:
L = X
L
/ e
C = 1 / eX
C
where e = 2tf
The series resonance angular frequency e
r
of an inductance L with a capacitance C is:
e
r
= (1 / LC)
= e(X
C
/ X
L
)
The three phase fault level S
sc
at the node for noload phase voltage E and source impedance Z perphase star is:
S
sc
= 3E
2
/ Z = 3E
2
/ R + jX
L

If the ratio X
L
/ R of the source impedance Z is sufficiently large, Z ~ X
L
so that:
S
sc
~ 3E
2
/ X
L
The reactive power rating Q
C
of the power factor correction capacitors for a capacitive reactance X
C
per phase at phase voltage E is:
Q
C
= 3E
2
/ X
C
The harmonic number f
r
/ f of the series resonance of X
L
with X
C
is:
f
r
/ f = e
r
/ e = (X
C
/ X
L
)
~ (S
sc
/ Q
C
)
Note that the ratio X
L
/ X
C
which results in a harmonic number f
r
/ f is:
X
L
/ X
C
= 1 / ( f
r
/ f )
2
so for f
r
/ f to be equal to the geometric mean of the third and fifth harmonics:
f
r
/ f = \15 = 3.873
X
L
/ X
C
= 1 / 15 = 0.067
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