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ARAB OPEN UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF COMPUTER STUDIES INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMPUTING T305: DIGITAL COMMUNICATION FALL 2006/2007

FINAL-PART I KEY FORM A


IMPORTANT: 1) This exam has 4 parts with a total of 53 questions (30 in Part 1, 12 in Part 2, 10 in part 3 and 1 in Part 4). 2) Part 1 questions carry a WEIGHT of 1 mark each. 3) Part 2 questions carry a WEIGHT of 2.5 marks each. 4) Part 3 questions carry a WEIGHT of 6 marks each. 5) Part 4 question carries a WEIGHT of 14 marks. 6) The exam paper consists of 17 pages including this page. 7) Exam duration is 180 minutes (3 hours). 8) Write your name, student ID, section number, and tutor name on the front page. 9) Fill in your answers in the Answer Area Provided on this Exam Paper. 10) At the end of the exam, there is a data sheet on page 17 that includes a summary of Formulas that will help you in solving the exam. : 1( ) 35( . ) )03( )21( .( 01(( ) 1( .2( )1( .3( .25 4( 6 .5( 41 .6( )17( . 7( )081( .8( .9( . .01( 1

Part I: Multiple Choice questions (30 marks)


This part consists of 30 questions carrying a WEIGHT OF 1 mark each. You must answer ALL of the following Multiple choice questions by circling the correct answer choice for each question (advised time about 45 minutes). 1. Which layer is immediately below the data link layer? a. Physical b. Network c. Transport d. Application 2. What does flow control determine? a. When a device can transmit b. Whether a device is connection oriented or connectionless c. Both a and b d. Neither a nor b 3. Converting data into signals by transforming and encoding the information to produce electromagnetic signals is the functionality of a ___________. a. source b. transmitter c. receiver d. destination 4. Which of the following describes stop-and-wait flow control? a. It is simple b. It is complex c. It is best with small frames d. It is best over long distances 5. What must a sender do before a receivers sliding windows buffer can expand? a. Send an acknowledgment b. Receive an acknowledgment c. Either a or b d. Neither a nor b 6. Controlled access line discipline is used with which type of circuit? a. Point-to-point b. Multipoint c. Either a or b d. Neither a nor b 7. Which of the following is the simplest error-detection method? a. Parity b. Longitudinal redundancy checking 2

c. Checksum checking d. Cyclic redundancy checking 8. Which type of error detection uses binary division? a. Parity b. Longitudinal redundancy checking c. Checksum checking d. Cyclic redundancy checking 9. Which of the following is also called forward error correction? a. Simplex b. Retransmission c. Detection-error coding d. Error-correction coding 10. The solution to the problem of scalability of the Internet is to break the network down into manageable parts, or domains each called ____________. a. b. c. d. router autonomous system interface bridge

11. For a CSMA/CD network, twice the propagation time between the two most distant stations is called _________________. a. b. slot time transfer time round trip delay time both a and c

c.
d.

12. When a network interface has a failure in its circuitry, it sends a continuous stream of frames causing the Ethernet LAN to enter a Collapse state. This condition is known as __________. a. b. c. d. scattering blocking jabbering refreshing

13. The IEEE 802.3 specification divides the data link layer into two sub-layers: the Logical link control sublayer and the medium access control sub-layer. An example of one implementation of medium access control is _______________. a. b. c. d. TCP protocol CSMA/CD protocol IP protocol UDP protocol

14. In an object-oriented model, when different classes have operations with the same name but different implementation, they are having the property of ___________. a. inheritance b. association c. polymorphism d. aggregation 3

15. Telnet, FTP, SMTP, DNS, HTTP are examples of protocols that are used in ____________________.

a. b. c. d.

application layer of OSI reference model presentation layer of OSI reference model session layer of OSI reference model data link layer of OSI reference model

16. Session control, file and printer are three categories of messages which pass requests and acknowledgements in a client-server platform. They are used by __________________. a. b. c. d. TCP/IP protocol Ethernet protocol CSMA/CD protocol SMB protocol

17. ____________________ is a technique which transforms an analogue telephone circuit into a digital signal, and involves three consecutive processes: sampling, quantization and encoding. a. Frequency Modulation (FM) b. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) c. Amplitude Modulation (AM) d. Phase Modulation (PM) 18. The frame alignment word is a sequence of bits that allows the start of each STM-1 frame to be clearly identified within SDH network. It is contained within _________________. a. b. c. d. Regenerator section overhead Multiplex section overhead Synchronous section overhead Sequence section overhead

19. The Star arrangement in the figure below shows how it is used to distribute the timing source within a telecommunication station in SDH network. This is an example of ___________________.

Intrastation synchronization a. Inter-station synchronization b. Ultra-station synchronization 4

c.

Multi-station synchronization

20.

____________ is the standard defined by the American National Standard Authority, ANSI T1 for synchronous operation used in North America.

a.
b. c. d.

DXC STM-1 ADM SONET

21. The failure density function, f(t) is used to give the probability of failure during an interval of time. It is known as ______________. a.

b.
c.

d.

Probability density distribution Cumulative probability distribution Cumulative density distribution Failure probability distribution

22. _______________ is one of the Telecommunication management network (TMN) functional blocks that will convert TMN information into a format that can be easily understood by the user.

a.
b. c. d. 23.

Operations system function block Workstation function block Reference function block Network element function block

In Telecommunication management Network (TMN) system, the role of the manager is to issue commands and requests to the agent. These commands and requests are known as ________________. notifications feedbacks operations acknowledgements

24. The sequence of the binary digits representing the outcomes of parity checks in Hamming codes is known as _________________. look-up entry Hamming distance radix syndrome 25. Rather than sending the absolute value of each sample, it is possible to achieve a smaller transmission bit-rate by sending the difference between consecutive samples. This is known as _______________. a. b. c. d. delta modulation deltasigma modulation adaptive delta modulation differential PCM

26. The electron beam in the cathode ray tube (CRT) inside the TV set is made to scan the whole visible surface of the screen in a zigzag pattern. This is known as ____________. a. raster 5

b. c. d.

picture line frame broadcast

27. The figure below shows an example of a modulation system used in digital communication. What is that modulation system?

PCM Modulation. a. Delta Modulation. b. Sigma Modulation. c. Differential Modulation. 28. One of the compression techniques in communication uses the fact that in most pictures, there is considerable correlation between neighboring areas that is a high degree of redundancy in the data to compress. This type of compression is known as _____________. a. b. c. d. temporal compression dynamic compression spatial compression random compression

29. Reversible or lossless coding is a type of coding for which the exact data can be recovered after decoding. This type of coding is used by _________________. a. b. c. d. PCM encoding Huffman encoding Run-length encoding Both b and c

30. The error represented by the difference between the original and quantized signals set a fundamental limitation to the performance of PCM systems known as __________________. a. dynamic range b. quantization noise c. detection-error d. correction-error

Part II: Short essay questions (20 marks)


This part consists of 12 questions carrying a WEIGHT OF 2.5 marks each. You must answer only 8 (any) of the following questions by using the space provided below (Suggested Time about 45 minutes). 31. Discuss the reason for the 9.6 s inter-frame gap of network interface card in CSMA/CD. The reason for the 9.6 s inter-frame gap is to allow the station that last transmitted to cycle its circuitry from transmit mode to receive mode. Without the inter-frame gap, such a station might miss a fame that was destined for it because it had not yet cycled back into receive mode. 32. Compare between a Hub and a Switch.

Hub Operates at Layer 1 The transmission medium is shared Collisions could happen
33. What is the function of the following devices? - Repeater

Switch Operates at Layer 2 The transmission medium is dedicated No collisions

The repeater regenerates the signal in order to reach longer distances. It operates at Layer 1 of the OSI model.
Bridge

The bridge is a device that connects two different or similar LANs and it operates at Layer 2 of the OSI model. The bridge is used to increase the network performance by avoiding collisions happened in one LAN to affect (propagate) the other LAN.

34. Define briefly the expression Nyquist rate.

The minimum sampling rate, which according to the sampling theorem is twice the bandwidth, is known as the Nyquist rate.
35. Compare between TCP and UDP.

TCP Connection Oriented Protocol Suitable for delay insensitive date such as email and file transfer Suitable for non-reliable networks Packets arrive in order

UDP Connection Less Protocol Suitable for delay sensitive date such as real time audio and video Suitable for reliable networks Packets may arrive out of order

36. List the four components that are needed by the network operating system software in order to change a stand-alone PC to a networked PC. The Redirector, Server message block, NetBIOS, TCP/IP protocol stack 37. What are the basic four functional units of an SDH network?

Multiplexer
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Regenerator Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM) Digital Cross Connect (DXC)

38. Plots of hazard rate against time often take the form of a bath-tub curve. Illustrate with diagram.

39. List the five management functions of TMN.

Planning Management Configuration Management Accounting Management Performance Management Security Management Network Element Function (NEF) WorkStation Function (WSF) Operations System Function (OSF) Q Adapter Function (QAF) Mediation Function (MF)

40. List functional blocks used in TMN.

41. Briefly define the following terms: - A state transition diagram represents states by symbols and transitions by directed lines. - A class is a collection of same type objects. For example, a model of a graphical user interface will contain several different window objects. - Different classes have operations with the same name but in another way is called polymorphism. For example, a system may need scaleable windows whose contents shrink or grow when the window is resized. The Scaleable window class would be a subclass of the Window class but the resize operation for the scaleable window would have different implementation. 42. State the four categories of message which SMB peer-to-peer protocol defines for passing requests and acknowledgements. o session control o file o printer o message.

Part III: Numerical problems (36 marks)


This part consists of 10 questions carrying a WEIGHT of 6 marks each. You must answer only 6 (any) of the following questions by using the space provided below (Suggested Time about 60 minutes). 43. What is the minimum frame size necessary to ensure the correct operation of the CSMA/CD protocol at a bit-rate of 1500 Mbit/s in a star topology with a maximum segment length of 200 m and two repeaters? Solution:

The worst-case cable distance between two stations is 2 x 200 m = 400 m. The propagation delay through the cable is: Delay= 400/ (1.77 x108 ) = 2.26 s. So the round-trip delay is 2 x 2.26 = 4.52 s. The total repeater delay is 4 x 0.75 = 3s. Therefore, the total round-trip delay (slot time) is: 4.52 + 3 = 7.52 s. The number of bits that can be transmitted during the slot time is: # of bits =1500 x106 x7.52 x 10-6 = 11280 bits.
44. Two computers A and B are connected through an Ethernet link having a bit-rate of 10 Mbit/s. The Round-Trip Time (RTT) between the two computers is assumed to be 2 milliseconds. Computer A is sending messages containing 250 octets to computer B and waits for an ACK after each message. a- What is the percentage utilization of the channel capacity by computer A in this scenario? b- If a sliding window algorithm with a window width of seven messages is used, what would be then, the percentage utilization? Solution:

a- Channel Capacity= bit-rate x RTT = (10 x 106 ) x (2x 10-3 ) = 2x 104 bits A message of 250 octets transports 8 x 250 = 2000 bits. The percentage utilization of the channel = the ratio between the number of bits sent within an RTT period and the number of bits that could be sent (i.e. the channel capacity) x 100: Percentage utilization= (2000 / (2x 104 )) x 100= 10 % b- Using a sliding window algorithm with a window width of 10 messages, the number of bits that is actually sent is given by: 7 x 2000 = 14000 bits The new Percentage utilization= (14000 / (2x 104 )) x 100= 70 %

45. The table below gives information on 20000 telephone calls. Calls are classified by distance and duration and the table gives the number of calls of each type. Category X represents calls lasting less than five minutes and Y represents calls lasting five minutes or longer. L represents local calls, and O represents overseas calls. Duration (L (Local-calls (O (Overseas calls (X (<5 11358 3124 (Y( 5 4365 1153

?a- What is the probability that an Overseas call lasts less than 5 minutes ?b- What is the probability that a Local call lasts 5 minutes or more ?c- What is the probability that a call would be a local call Solution:

a- The total number of overseas calls= 3124+1153= 4277 and 3124 of these lasted less than five minutes. So, the probability that an overseas call lasts less than five minutes= 3124/4277=0.73. b- The total number of local calls=11358+4365=15723 and 4365 of these lasted 5 minutes or more. So, the probability that a local call lasts five minutes or more =4365/15723=0.277. C- The total number of local calls=15723 and the total number of calls = 20000 calls. So, the probability that a call would be a local call = 15723/20000=0.786.
46. A network contains eight switches. Each has a probability of 0.85 of being in operation at any given time. ?a- What is the probability of all the switches being in operation ?b- What is the probability of all the switches being out of operation ?c- What is the probability of five of the switches being in operation Solution:

a- The probability of one switch being in operation=0.85. So, the probability of one switch being out of operation is: = 1-0.85=0.15 Therefore, the probability of all switches being in operation is= (0.85) 8 = 0.272 b- The probability of all switches being out of operation is= (0.15) 8 = 2.56x10-7 c-The probability of five of the eight switches being in operation is given by Formula of the binomial distribution:

P(r) = nCr pr (1-p) n-r & nCr = n! / (r! x (n-r)!)


Where r=5; n=8; p=0.85 P( r ) = 8C5 (0.85)5 (0.15) 8-5;
8

C5 =8!/( 5!x3!) = 56

P(r) = 56 x (0.85)5 x (0.15)3 = 56x0.4437x0.003375=0.08386.


47. There are five companies sharing an internet connection through a leased line with an Internet Service provider (ISP). Each company needs to use the internet connectivity for 20% of the time, on the average. 10

a- What is the probability that, at a give time, only one company wants to use the Internet? b- What is that probability that, at a given time, no companies wants to use the Internet? c- What is the probability that, at a given time, more than one company wants to use the Internet?

The probability of a company wants to use the internet link at any given time is 0.2. So, the probability of a company not wanting to use the internet link is: 0.8. a- The probability P (1) that, one company wants to use the Internet link at a given time is given by: P (1) = 5x (0.8)4 x (0.2) = 0.4096 b- The probability P (0) that, no companies wants to use the Internet link at a given time is given by: P (0) = (0.8)5 = 0.32768 c- The probability P (>1) that more than one company wants to use the Internet link at a given time is given by: P (>1) = 1- [P (0) + P (1)] = 1- (0.32768+0.4096) =0.26272.
48. A subsystem of a communication system has the reliability diagram shown in the figure below that shows the individual components reliability. 0.6 0.7

0.6 0.6

0.8

0.8

.Calculate the overall reliability of the system to three significant figures Solution:

There are six components shown in the diagram above three of which are connected in .parallel ;R1=0.7; R2=R3=R4=0.6; R5=0.8; R6=0.8 The reliability for the three components in parallel = [1-(1-0.6)3 ] = 0.936 Therefore, Rp= 0.936 :The reliability for the overall system is given by .RT= R1 x Rp xR5xR6= 0.7x0.936x0.8x0.8=0.419
49. A coding scheme has to transmit five distinct messages, Message A B C D E Probability 0.2 11 0.3 0.25 0.1 0.15 Code 11 101 110 111 10

with probabilities and code words as given in the table below:

a- What is the average length of a code word transmitted using this system? b- What is the entropy of the source? c- What is the efficiency of the code? Solution:

Given the probabilities and the codes, the following table can be constructed: Message (symbol) A B C D E Total: Probability P 0.2 0.3 0.25 0.1 0.15 1.00 Code Word B=? bits 11 B=2 bits 101 B=3 bits 110 B=3 bits 111 B=3 bits 10 B=2 bits Average code word Length L= P x B = 0.2x2 =0.4 = 0.3x3 =0.9 =0.25x3=0.75 =0.1x3 =0.3 =0.15x2=0.3 L= 2.65 (bits) Source entropy H= -p x log2p =-0.2xlog20.2= 0.464 =-0.3x log20.3=0.521 =-0.25x log20.25=0.5 =-0.1x log20.1=0.332 =-0.15x log20.15=0.41 H= 2.227

a- Based on the above table, the average length of the code word, L= 2.65 bits. b- Based on the above table, the source entropy, H=2.227 bits. c- The efficiency of the code E= H/L=2.227/2.65=0.84037 84 %.
50. In tests of a certain type of component, it is found that approximately one-sixth of the surviving components fail each day. The table shown below predicted results for the first two days of a 5-day test of 600 of these components. Day 1 2 3 4 5 Survivors at the start of day 600 500 Failures during day 100 83

a- Complete the missing


fields in the above table (round your answers to the nearest integer). b- Calculate the value of the reliability R (t) at the end of day 4. c- Calculate the value of the failure function Q (t) at the end of the test period. Solution:

a- The completed table is shown below with taking into consideration the rounding to the nearest integer. Day Survivors at the start of day Failures during day 1 2 3 4 5 600 500 417 347 289 100 83 70 58 48

b- The reliability function R(t) at a time t = Ns(t)/No where Ns(t) is the number of components surviving at time t & No is the number of components under test.
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No = 600; the number of surviving components at the end of day 4= Ns (t) = 289. Therefore, reliability R(t) at the end of day 4 = 289/600=0.481 c- The failure function Q(t) at a time t = Nf(t)/No where Nf(t) is the number of components which have failed by time t & No is the number of components under test From the table, the number of components that have survived by the end of day 5 is: 289-48= 241. Then, the total number of components which have failed by the end of day 5 = Nf(t)= 600-241=359. Therefore, the failure function Q(t) at the end of the test period= 359/600=0.598
51. The components in a new communication system are known to have a constant hazard rate. It is a requirement of the system that exactly 4% of the components should fail in the first 2000 hours of operation. What is the MTTF that corresponds to such a system? Solution:

We have: 4% of the components failing during the first 2000 hour. This means that after, 2000 hours R(t)= 0.96. Because components have a constant hazard rate, h, the reliability function R(t) is given by: R(t)= exp(-ht). So, R(2000)=exp(-hx2000)=0.96. To find the value of h, take natural logarithms of both sides, this gives: -hx2000=ln(0.96). This implies: h=-ln (0.96)/ 2000 = 0.0000204. The MTTF for components with a constant hazard rate h is 1/h. so, the corresponding MTTF = 1/h=1/0.0000204= 48993.2 hours.
52. A picture is stored electronically in a space probe as an array 600 by 600 pixels which can each have one of 32 equally probable brightness levels. The picture is sent to earth using a 150 Hz channel with a signal-to-noise ratio of 0.5. Assuming that the information rate for the channel is one-fifth of its ideal capacity, how long will the picture take to transmit? Solution:

Signal-to-noise ratio, S/N=0.5; Bandwidth= 150 Hz. Applying Shannons second theorem, the channel capacity, C, of a channel of Bandwidth W Hz, is given by: C=W log2 (1+S/N) where S/N is the signal-to-noise power ratio. Therefore, ideal channel capacity, C= 150 log2 (1+0.5) =87.74 bit/s The channels actual rate, which is one-fifth of the ideal capacity=17.548 bit/s.
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There are 32 equally probable brightness levels per pixel, so five bits are needed per pixel. The total picture therefore requires: 600x600x5=1800000 bits. The time needed to transmit this data =1800000/17.548 102576 seconds. Part IV: Longer problem (14 marks)
This part consists of 2 questions carrying a WEIGHT of 14 marks. You must answer the following question by using the space provided below (Suggested Time about 30 minutes). 53. a- V.32bis modems can send data at 14400 bit/s. The modems operate on the assumption that the bandwidth of the telephone line is 2400 Hz. Using this bandwidth and a signal-to-noise ratio of 1500, calculate the theoretical channel capacity of the telephone line. What percentage of the theoretical channel capacity is achieved by a V.32bis modem? b- V.34 modems can send data at 28800 bit/s. These modems operate on the initial assumption that the telephone line bandwidth is 3429 Hz. What is the theoretical channel capacity corresponding to this increased bandwidth and the same signal-to-noise ratio 1500? What percentage of the theoretical channel capacity can a V.34 modem achieve? Solution:

a- S/N=1500 ; W=2400; Shannons equation for the theoretical channel capacity, C= W log2 (1+S/N) C=2400 log2 (1+1500) =2400x10.552=25324 bit/s. A modem operating at 14400 bit/s will then, achieve a percentage of the theoretical capacity = 14400/25324 x 100%= 56.86 %. b- Using the new value of 3429 Hz for the bandwidth W gives an increased theoretical capacity: 3429 log2 (1+1500) =3429x10.552=36183 bit/s. A modem operating at 28800 bit/s will achieve a percentage of the theoretical capacity equal to= (28800/36183) x 100%= 79.6 %

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