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Introduction
1

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2

To

1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.4
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2

Statistics

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1.1

data

statistics

1.2

statistika

statisticstate

Cattell

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statistics William Petty1623~1687


statistika
GaltonSir Francis Galton,
1822 1911 PearsonKarl Pearson, 1857 1936

Galton
1899 Galton Nature Inheritance
Pearson
Pearson 1890 Pearson
Gresham College) the Scope
and Concepts of Modern Science

GaltonPearson
FisherRonald Aylmer Fisher, 1890 1962
F F1915

Fisher
Fisher

Fisher
1912 1915
Statistical
Methods for Research Workers Design of Experiments 1925
1935 maximum likelihood
estimation Fisher
Pearson Egon Pearson 1928 Jerzy

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Neyman

Egon Pearson
Fisher

SASSPSSBMDP

1.3

1.3.1

10 7

10 14

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500
15% 45%
0.8 2.9

descriptive statistics
statistic

sample
population

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1.3.2
10
7
10
500
2.9

parameter
estimation

random sample
10 7
parameter

25000
23
2.53
18007

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1.3.3

causalityexperiment
independent variable; IVdependent variable;
DV
subjectparticipant

research hypothesis

treatment

random assignment

statistical hypothesis testing

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chance difference

t analysis of variance

1.3.4

subject variable

-1.00 1.00 correlation


coefcient

?
regression
analysis
8

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1.3.5

18 1000

sampling error

1000 250 400


150
.25.40.15 .20

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1 1
chi-square test

non-parametric test

1.4
theoretical
statisticsapplied statistics

descriptive statistics
inferential statistics

experimental design

Kirk, 1995
univariate
statistics bivariate statistics multivariate
statistics

10

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1.5
1.5.1

variety

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11

1.5.2

12

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SPSS

statistics

theoretical statistics

applied statistics

descriptive statistics

inferential statistics

univariate statistics

bivariate statistics

multivariate statistics

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Introduction
2

2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3

To

2.2.4
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.4
2.4.1
2.4.2
2.4.3
2.5

Statistics

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2.1
Thomas Kuhn
Kuhn, 1970 crossword
puzzle
puzzle-solverpuzzle

APA, 1952

attitudemethod

logicalempirical

self-correcting

2.2
2.2.1

16

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empirical
empirical data
research
method

quantitative research

variable

qualityquantity

2.2.2

operational denition

100 Mandler Kessen1959


stipulated denition

literary denition

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real denition

2.2.3

hypothesis testinghypothesis

assertion

law

2.2.4

theory
18

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2.3
datameasurement

2.3.1

attributeNunnallly & Bernstein, 1994


quantities

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scalingclassication

standardizationobjectivity

2.3.2
variety

attribute

value or quantities

100120125
20

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2.1
independent variable; IVdependent
variable; DV

discrete variable
continuous variable

quantitative
variable
qualitative variablecategorical
variable

2.3.3

scalelevel
Stevens1951

2.3.3.1
nominal scale

21

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2.1

IV
independent variable

DV
dependent variable

( )

discrete scale

( )
( ) ( )

( ) ( )

continuous scale

*
nominal scale

*
ordinal scale


(
<> )
( )

interval scale

0
+-

ratio scale

( )
( ) (IQ)

*
qualitative variable

quantitative variable

22

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categorica1 sca1e

mutually exclusive
exhaustive

classication scheme

2.3.3.2
ordinal scale

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2.3.3.3
interval scale

0 0

2.3.3.4

ratio scale

24

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ISBN 978-957-11-6867-8()
1.
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