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Munich Airport Marriott Hotel, 17-19 May 2011

6th EUROPEAN USER GROUP MEETING

A FULL-WAVE ANALYSIS OF HIGH GAIN RADIAL LINE SLOT ANTENNAS USING CST STUDIO SUITE
Simone Ledda, Matteo Cerretelli, Guido Biffi Gentili
Laboratorio di Antenne e Microonde Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni Universit di Firenze

Overview of Presentation Design of an optimized Radial Line Slot Antenna

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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Overview of Presentation Design of an optimized Radial Line Slot Antenna 1 STEP : Development of a Visual Basic Software for designing the 3D layout Exporting the 3D layout of the structure in SAT Format compatible with CST Studio EM Simulation of the first structure created Using various CST capabilities for optimize the structure and obtain the desired antennas performance
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2 STEP :

3 STEP : 4 STEP :

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

Requirements and Difficulties Requirements Frequency: 23.5 GHz RHCP Right Hand Circular Polarization High Gain: > 30 dBi Cross-Polarization Isolation: > 25 dB (Broadside) High Antenna Efficiency: > 75% Difficulties High Complexity of structure: The desired Gain involves a large number of radiating elements estimable in a various hundreds of slots. An extra software is needed for designing the 3D layout.
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STEP 1 - Designing the 3D Layout Design of a Radial Line Slot Antenna [RHCP]
Development of a Visual Basic Software indispensable for design the 3D layout

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 1 - Designing the 3D Layout

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 1 - Designing the 3D Layout

Archimedean Spiral
LHCP (a<0) RHCP (a>0)

r() = a a = / 2
26
18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

34 cm 1000 pairs of slots

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STEP 2 Importing .SAT Model into CST

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 2 Importing .IGS Model into CST [Nickel]


Coaxial Cable Feeder Matching Hole 3,9064 mm

Waveguided Structure [Air] 3,2 mm

Discrete Edge Port [50 ]

0,456 mm RG 316/U [50 ] [Copper]

Thickness 0,1 mm

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 3 Meshing the structure in CST Mesh Level : / 30 Number of MeshCells : over 76 Millions !

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 3 Using the E-Field Probes Use of 13 E-Field Probes for control the E-Fields in the middle of the waveguide structure and between two couples of adjacent slots

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 3 EM Results : Decay of EM Energy Total Time of Decay of EM Energy: 2 ns

Energy Accuracy : -40 dB

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 3 EM Results : Time Signals Total Time of Decay of EM Energy: 2 ns

Reflection over the Edge Port due to mismatch

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STEP 3 EM Results : Arrays Matching Reflection Coefficient

|S11| < -20 dB

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STEP 3 EM Results : E-Field Probes


Perfect Phase of EM Signals for a Broadside contribution

Fast decreasing of E-Field Probes amplitude due to the high EM power radiated by the first turnings of slots

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 3 EM Results : E-Fields

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STEP 3 EM Results : E-Fields Phase

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STEP 3 EM Results : Farfield [23.5 GHz]


Circular Right Polarization

RHCP LHCP

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 3 EM Results : Comments A Full-Wave Time-Domain EM solver software involves some benefits useful for the next optimization of the planar array The E-Field Probes show the outward travelling waves. The E-amplitude values become an index of the power already radiated by the array related to the spatial positions of the slots. The rapid decay of the EM Energy in Time-Domain can be an index of absence of Energy reflections Those information can be easily used for the optimization of the antenna in order to obtain better antennas performance
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STEP 4 Optimization of the structure


The aim we want to obtain is to decrease the radiation of the first slots, so it can increase the EM power that feeds the latest slots This concept can be realized modulating the length values of the slots progressively from a shorter value (internal slots) to an higher (external slots)

Optimum Slot Lenght at 23.5 GHz [mm]

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 4 Optimization EM Results RHCP Gain Improved from 19.7 to over 32 dBi

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 4 Optimization EM Results


RHCP Gain Comparison [w/o Lenght Modulation] LHCP Gain Comparison [w/o Lenght Modulation]

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 4 Optimization EM Results

Higher Amplitude Values of E-Field Probes

Energy Reflection due to the edge discontinuity

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 4 Absorbing Ring Enclosure Outward RHCP Contribute (Desired)

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 4 Absorbing Ring Enclosure Edge Discontinuity

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 4 Absorbing Ring Enclosure Inward LHCP Contribute (Undesired)

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 4 Absorbing Ring Enclosure Possible Solution: Absorbing Material Ring

Pro. Reduction of the cross-polar component without increase the dimensions Cons. Increase of the production costs

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 4 EM Final Results: Time Signals Reduction of the edge reflection and absorbing the residue of energy

Without absorbing Ring

With absorbing Ring

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STEP 4 EM Final Results: 3D FarFields


RHCP Gain Pattern LHCP Gain Pattern

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STEP 4 EM Final Results: Comparison


Cross-polar Left Polarization Comparison (w/o Absorbing Ring Enclosure) Co-polar Right Polarization Comparison (w/o Absorbing Ring Enclosure)

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STEP 4 First prototype of the RLSA


The first prototype is under construction and it will be available in the next few days

18 May 2011 | Author : Simone Ledda

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STEP 4 Conclusions The High-Gain Radial Line Slot Antenna was designed and optimized with a highly improvements of the performances During the optimization the requirements has been meet quickly using various CST Studio Suite capabilities, analyzing the E-Field Probes and the EM Energy in time domain The time-domain information are useful trying to modulate the EM Power radiated by the slots, so every pairs of slots ideally radiate the same EM Power improving the arrays performance as result for further informations: simone.ledda@gmail.com
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