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1) Not learned 2) Physiological based


1) Neither purely primary or secondary

2) Not learned and not physiologically based

3) Stimulate tension within a person -Curiosity, manipulation and activity motives -Affection motives


1) Are learned and acquired over time.

- Power motive - Achievement motive - Affiliation motive - Security motive - Status motive

PRIMARY MOTIVES 1) A motive is termed as a primary motive when it satisfies both the criteria - it is not learned, and it is physiologically based. 2) The most common primary motives are hunger, thirst, sleep, sex, avoidance of pain and maternal concern.

GENERAL MOTIVES 1) A motive is considered to be a general motive if it is not learned, but is also not based on physiological needs. 2) General motives stimulate tension within the individual. 3) The motives of curiosity, manipulation, motive to remain active and to display affection are examples of general motives.

1) The curiosity, manipulation and activitymotives

The motives of curiosity, manipulation and activity are very beneficial for a person, as they often result in innovations and better ways of doing things.

2) The affection motive:-for e.g. love sometimes resembles primary motive and sometimes secondary motive.

SECONDARY MOTIVES 1) A secondary motive is a motive that has been learned or acquired over time. 2) Important secondary motives are power, achievement and affiliation. These are commonly referred as nPow, nAch and nAff.

A) The power motive

1) Alfred Adler, a close associate of Sigmund Freud, placed more importance on the future and a persons drive to gain power and prove himself superior to others. 2) A person tries to compensate for the feelings of inferiority and also tries to fulfill his innate need for power, which is then reflected in his lifestyle. B) The achievement motive 1) David C. McClelland, a Harvard psychologist, has conducted extensive research on different aspects of achievement. According to him, the achievement motive is a persons desire to perform excellently or to handle complex or competitive situations successfully

C) The affiliation motive 1) Employees, especially those at the lower levels of the organizational hierarchy, have a strong desire to belong to and be accepted by other employees or the whole group. 2) People with a high need for affiliation exhibit a high degree of concern for social relationships. 3) Managers with strong needs for affiliation tend to create congenial work environments where people enjoy working together.

D) The security motive

1) People try to avoid insecurity rather than attempt to achieve security.

2) The security motive helps individuals safeguarded themselves from various unfavorable developments and avoid situations that would prevent them form reaching their goals.

E) The status motive

1) Status is defined as the rank a person holds relative to others within a group, organization or society.

2) When people are grouped together, a status hierarchy emerges.

3) Status refers to position or ranking of individuals in a group or organization, which may be high or low.

4) Status is influenced by the prevailing cultural values and the importance of different roles in society.