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AMAZING LIQUID NITROGEN

AN AMAZING DISCOVERY. In 1772, in his attempts to isolates oxygen and carbon dioxide from the air, Daniel Rutherford discovered nitrogen. It was also through his experimentation that Rutherford was successfully able to show the scientific community that the residual air, consisting mainly of nitrogen, was incapable of supporting living organisms. Nitrogen makes up approximately 78% of the volume of the Earths air. Oxygen constitutes approximately 21%. The remaining 1% is made up of fractional percentages of gases such as: Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Neon, Methane, and Water Vapor. A COLD BOILING POINT?? At STP, standard temperature and pressure, nitrogen exists in a gaseous state. At temperatures well below room temperature, at 320 degrees Fahrenheit to be exact, nitrogen changes from a gas to a liquid. This makes liquid nitrogen extremely cold. Remember that the same temperature at which a substance condenses is the same temperature at which it boils. so think about itnitrogen has a cold boiling point. weird right?? Most of us tend to think of the temperature at which something boils to be a high one but not the case with nitrogen! WHY USE LIQUID NITROGEN? In the liquid state, nitrogen is one of the most widely used cryogenic (extremely cold) substances. Because it is much cheaper than dry ice or helium and a much more widely produced cryogenic, it serves as an excellent tool for medicine, research and classroom demonstrations. Liquid nitrogen provides us with the opportunity to observe many different thermodynamic processes that take place when matter is cooled to extremely low temperatures. Well learn more about some of its uses a little later, but for now lets look how liquid nitrogen is made. THE MAKING OF LIQUID NITROGEN:

A common method for the production of liquid nitrogen is the liquefaction of air. Liquefaction is the phase change of a substance from the gas phase to the liquid phase. In liquid nitrogen compressors or generators air is compressed, expanded and cooled via the Joule-Thompson effect www.nd.edu/~ed/Joule_Thomson/joule_thomson.htm. Since nitrogen boils at a different temperature than oxygen, the nitrogen can be distilled out of the liquid air, re-compressed and then re-liquefied. Once liquid nitrogen is removed from the distillation chamber it is stored either in a pressurized tank or a well insulated Dewar Flask. It is then made available for commercial distribution. WHY DOES LIQUID NITROGEN SMOKE? When liquid nitrogen rapidly boils and vaporizes, on a smooth surface with a temperature that is much higher than nitrogens boiling point, a physical phenomenon known as the Leidenfrost Effect is observed. The liquid nitrogen vaporizes quickly and lifts itself above the surface. It hovers, producing little or no friction on the surface. If the surface is irregular, this effect cannot occur and the vaporization is even more rapid. The nitrogen vapor spreads itself out through the air picking up water vapor along the way. Liquid nitrogen smokes because of the presence of water in the air. The amount of water present in the atmosphere is dependent upon the temperature of the air. Warmer air can hold more water vapor than cooler air. Liquid nitrogen cools the air to condense the water out of it. These water droplets scatter light and produce the smoking effect. The ability of liquid nitrogen to do this makes it very popular at parties, magic shows, and in classroom demonstrations.

Figure 1: In 1756 Johann Gottlob Leidenfrost first discovered that a drop of water on a red-hot spoon floats on its own vapor layer. The effect occurs above a critical temperature of 220C. The drop survives for an astonishingly long time (easily exceeding a minute), because the vapor-cushion prevents direct heat transfer from the hot surface to the droplet. The granular version of the Leidenfrost effect can be observed in an experiment with a quasi-2D container filled with glass beads.

COMMON USES OF LIQUID NITROGEN: Freezing and Preservation of Food

- foods can be packed, sealed and then sprayed with liquid nitrogen - liquid nitrogen evaporates upon contact with many surfaces (including food) - this evaporation process allows for the absorption of heat and energy from the food - as a result the molecules in the food slow down and the food freezes Cryomedicine - liquid nitrogen is widely used in the preservation of medical specimens - it is particularly useful for very long term preservation of cells and tissues - it may be used for the rapid freezing of different tissues such as bone marrow and blood - it is useful in the preservation of animal embryos, bacteria and fungi - because extremely cold temperatures can kill human tissue, liquid nitrogen may be used in standard medical procedures such as wart removal and treatment of certain skin cancers Research Labs - many research labs around the world use liquid nitrogen to aid in research requiring cryogenic conditions (ie. superconductivity labs) Classroom Demonstrations - it should come as no surprise that liquid nitrogen is commonly used in the classroom to demonstrate its amazing chemical properties and to illustrate its cooling effects on other materials HERE ARE JUST SOME OF THE FUN EXPERIMENTS THAT CAN BE DONE WITH LIQUID NITROGEN: BUT WAIT!!.FIRST THINGS FIRST.. SAFETY!! **** SAFETY FIRST **** - liquid nitrogen, like other cryogenic materials, may be harmful if it is not handled properly! - learn some of the common safety procedures for handling liquid nitrogen http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/other/microeng/ln2.html

SHRINKING BALLOONS - observe the condensation of oxygen from the air CRACKING FRUITS AND FLOWERS - observe the breaking of some of your favorite rubber polymers, fruits, vegetables and flowers WETTING PAPER - observe the rapid evaporation of liquid nitrogen on paper and other smooth surfaces NEWTONS 3RD LAW WITH PING PONG BALLS - observe Newtons Law of Action-Reaction using a hollow ball HI-TECH ICE CREAM (ONE OF EVERYONES FAVORITE)

- make creamy ice cream (all sorts of flavors) thats fun to eat in just 15 minutes using liquid nitrogen recipe adapted from Cooking with Chemistry http:// www.polsci.wvu.edu/Henry/Icecream/Icecream.html A MAGNET

LEVITATE

- observe the superconductivity of a material below its critical temperature (Meissner Effect) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Below you will find some useful information to help analyze what you are observing in some of the above experiments: RUBBER/GLASS TRANSITION

Its pretty exciting to observe the effects of liquid nitrogen on the physical

properties of elastomers. Elastomer is another term used to describe a rubbery polymer. Polymers that are elastomers are able to bounce because their chains can be stretched to many times their original length without being permanently deformed. Amorphous polymers that are elastomers have low glass transition temperatures and are soft and pliable at room temperature. Amorphous polymers that are thermoplastics have high glass transition temperatures and are hard and glassy at room temperature. http://www.psrc.usm.edu/acrog/elas.htm Glass transition is an amazing phenomenon in which a polymer, when cooled down below its glass transition temperature (Tg), becomes hard and brittle. Remember for a hard plastic, like polystyrene, room temperature is already well below the polymers Tg so it will be appear hard and glassy without additional cooling. Rubber polymers, like rubber balls, may be easily cooled down below their glass transition temperatures with liquid nitrogen. When this happens, these polymers can easily lose the ability to bounce or even shatter into pieces when struck to a hard surface. In fact a rubber ball cooled below its glass transition temperature becomes rigid like a glass marble and does not bounce at all. Once it warms up, like other polymers cooled below their Tg, it becomes soft and bounces again. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY A superconductor is a substance that conducts electricity, without resistance, when it is cooled below a specific temperature. This temperature is called the critical transition temperature, or Tc. Click here to see a list of critical transition temperatures for certain metals http://www.superconductors.org/Type1.htm. One of the ways that this phenomenon can be observed is by placing a superconducting material in liquid nitrogen to cool it down below its Tc. When this happens, these materials become diamagnetic and are able to completely repel a magnetic field. If a magnet is then placed near the superconducting material, the material will repel the magnetic field and the magnet will begin to levitate. Superconducting material can be purchased (usually in a demonstration kit) from an educational supply company such as Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories. LIQUID NITROGEN ICE CREAM Texture and taste are very important to the average ice cream fan. Most people that eat ice cream desire their ice cream tasty, smooth and creamy. In order for ice cream to possess all of these desired, yummy qualities, the ingredients need to have the right chemistry with each other. Achieving this is no easy task. Ice cream has a very complex physical structure that, even until today, is not fully understood by scientists.

One thing that chemists do know is that the smooth and creamy texture of ice cream is greatly affected by the size, distribution, shape and number of ice crystals that form in the ice cream as it freezes. In an attempt to control the ice-crystal growth manufacturers add different types of natural gums and stabilizers. Since ice-crystal growth is only one of the factors affecting the taste and texture of the ice cream, manufacturers must consider the chemical interactions between all of the ingredients when attempting to make delicious ice cream. Click here to read more about the chemistry of ice cream: http://www.foodproductdesign.com/archive/1997/0897AP.html All other factors aside, smaller ice crystal formation in ice cream will give it a smoother texture. One way to obtain smaller ice crystals in the ice cream is to promote rapid crystallization during the cooling process. Liquid nitrogen added to ice cream ingredients (milk, half and half, sugar, and flavoring), because it is extremely cold, causes a quick drop in temperature and rapid crystallization of the mixture. Stirring the ice cream mixture will also help prevent large ice crystals from forming. Since liquid nitrogen easily freezes ice cream one might wonder why the ice cream industry chooses not to use the chemical to manufacture ice cream. While making ice cream with liquid nitrogen is fun and exciting in the classroom, it does not provide a practical method to the ice cream industry. One reason for this is the cost of manufacturing liquid nitrogen. Depending on the purity of liquid nitrogen, it can costs anywhere from two cents to almost three dollars per one hundred cubic feet to manufacture (Scientific American 1994 p.66-71). This can add up to some pretty expensive ice cream. One ingredient added to ice cream, to help it to freeze evenly, is ice cream salt. The large ice cream salt crystals lower the freezing point (colligative property) of the ice cream so that it will need to absorb more energy from the environment to melt. One thing that you will notice when making liquid nitrogen ice cream is that it melts faster than commercial ice cream. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Faculty, Staff and Students in the Garcia MRSEC program http://www.powerlabs.org/ln2demo.htm http://www.dmc.airliquide.com/en/questions.htm http://www.superconductors.org/Type1.htm www.polsci.wvu.edu/Henry/Icecream/Icecream/html www.nd.edu/~ed/Joule_Thomson/joule_thomson.htm http://www.riverdeep.net/current/2001/09/091701_liquidn.jhtml http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/elas.htm http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/tg.htm http://www.phys.uconn.edu/~csteams/liquid_nitrogen_properties.html http://www.chemistry.about.com/library/bln.htm http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/other/microeng/ln2.html

http://www.rsc.org/lap/educatio/eic/2003/clarke_jul03.htm http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/icstructure.html http://www.foodproductdesign.com/archive/1997/0897AP.html

SHRINKI
OBJECTIVE

NG BALL

OONS

Nitrogen makes up approximately 78% of the volume of the Earths air. Oxygen constitutes approximately 21%. The remaining 1% is made up of fractional percentages of gases such as: Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Neon, Methane, and Water Vapor. The objective of this experiment is to observe the cooling effects of liquid nitrogen on different gas components found in the air. You will observe the expansion, contraction and condensation of these different gases. Based on your observations, and the background information/reference charts provided, you will identify the condensed liquid inside of the balloon. You will also discuss the observed differences in behavior of the balloon filled with helium and the balloon blown up by you. MATERIALS Rubber Balloons (clear works best but any will do) Non-porous Gloves Wooden Ruler Liquid Nitrogen (may be obtained from a chemical supply company) Helium (if available) Metal Bowl PROCDEDURE (1) Remember that liquid nitrogen is extremely cold and must be handled properly! (2) Wear non-porous gloves to protect your hands. (3) Fill a rubber balloon with air. Fill a second balloon with helium. (4) With a wooden ruler, measure the approximate diameter of each balloon. (5) Dip each balloon in the liquid nitrogen. (6) Record your observations, such as diameter measurements, liquid formation, or crystal formation. (7) Hold the balloons for a few minutes. Record your observations. ANALYSIS QUESTIONS

(1) When the balloons were placed in liquid nitrogen did they change size? (2) Explain what is happening to the gases inside of each balloon as they are cooled by liquid nitrogen? (3) Using the information below identify the liquid inside of the balloon that was filled with air: TEMPERATURES Water Boils Water Freezes Carbon Dioxide Freezes Oxygen Boils Nitrogen Boils Absolute Zero FAHRENHEIT 212 32 - 189 - 272 - 320 - 459 CELCIUS 100 0 - 123 - 183 - 196 - 273 KELVIN 373 273 150 90 77 0

(4) What is the color of the liquid? (5) Does the condensation of this liquid have practical application?

CRACKING FRUITS AND FLOWERS


OBJECTIVE Glass transition is an amazing phenomenon in which a polymer, when cooled down below its glass transition temperature (Tg), becomes hard and brittle. Remember for a hard plastic, like polystyrene, room temperature is already well below the polymers Tg so it will be appear hard and glassy without additional cooling. Rubber polymers, like rubber balls, may be easily cooled down below their glass transition temperatures with liquid nitrogen. When this happens, these polymers can easily shatter into pieces when struck to a hard surface. Once the polymers warm up they become soft and bounce again. The objective of this experiment is to cool some of your favorite rubber polymers, fruits and vegetables with liquid nitrogen to observe some of the

changes in their physical properties. These properties include their physical appearance as well as their reaction to hard forces.

MATERIALS Liquid Nitrogen (may be obtained from a chemical supply company) Non-porous Gloves Rubber Balls Metal Bowl Fruits and Vegetables of choice (Bananas work great!) Nails Piece of Wood Flowers of choice PROCEDURE (1) Remember that liquid nitrogen is extremely cold and must be handled properly! (2) Wear non-porous gloves to protect your hands. (3) Dip a rubber ball in liquid nitrogen. (4) Observe the properties and characteristics of the ball when you bounce it on the floor. Does it bounce? (5) Drop the ball several times. Does it make the same sound each time as it warms back up to room temperature? (5) Dip a banana (or food of choice) into liquid nitrogen. Attempt to hammer a nail into the piece of wood with it. (6) Dip a flower into the liquid nitrogen. Record any observations (ie. does the flower still have a scent?) (7) Let these objects cool back to room temperature and observe any differences in characteristics. ANALYSIS QUESTIONS (1) What is rubber/glass transition? Explain critical temperature. (2) Why do different substances have different critical temperatures? (3) Does the rubber ball bounce after it is cooled in the liquid nitrogen? Explain the reasons for this behavior/observation. (4) Were you able to hammer a nail with a piece of fruit that has been cooled

with liquid nitrogen? Explain the reasons for this behavior/observation. (5) Discuss what happens to the objects when they are heated back up to room temperature. Do you think that the polymer chains have been permanently changed or affected? Explain. (6) What is happening to the molecules in these substances when they are exposed to liquid nitrogen. You may use diagrams to illustrate this. (7) Can all polymers be cooled to a glass transition state? (8) Discuss some of the practical uses for the freezing effect that liquid nitrogen has on living and non-living objects. (9) Liquid nitrogen has been extremely helpful in the field of medicine (ie. freezing cells, blood, and embryo tissue). Are there limits to what liquid nitrogen can freeze? Explain.

WETTING PAPER
OBJECTIVE If liquid nitrogen is a liquid then there should be no problem wetting paper with it right? Well, when liquid nitrogen touches a smooth surface that is at a much higher temperature than its boiling point it begins to boil rapidly and vaporizes. The liquid nitrogen vaporizes quickly and lifts itself above the surface. It hovers, producing little or no friction on the surface. This physical phenomenon is known as the Leidenfrost Effect. If the surface is irregular, this effect cannot occur and the vaporization is even more rapid. The nitrogen vapor spreads itself out through the air picking up water vapor along the way. As a result, the liquid nitrogen smokes. The objective of this experiment is to observe the Leidenfrost Effect and the dependence of the smoking effect on the temperature of the air and the surface of contact. MATERIALS Liquid Nitrogen (may be obtained from a chemical supply company) Non-porous Gloves Metal Bowl Smooth paper Smooth Surface (Table Top or Floor) Rooms of Different Temperatures (if possible)

PROCEDURE (1) Remember that liquid nitrogen is extremely cold and must be handled properly! (2) Wear non-porous gloves to protect your hands. (3) Dip a smooth piece of paper in liquid nitrogen. Feel the paper for moisture. Record your observations. (4) Pour some of the liquid nitrogen across the smooth surface. Be sure that there are no people and no objects in the way. Record any observations. (5) If possible, repeat the experiment on a surface that is not smooth. (6) If possible, repeat the experiment on a surface of different temperature (ie. in another room). Record any changes in observations made. ANALYSIS QUESTIONS (1) Were you able to wet the paper? Explain the reasons for this observation. (2) What is the Leidenfrost Effect? Were you able to observe this effect? (3) Why does liquid nitrogen smoke? What is the effect of temperature on the amount of smoke observed? (4) What effect does the texture of the surface have on the amount of smoke observed? (5) What other factors can affect the amount of smoke produced by liquid nitrogen? (6) What are some of the practical applications of this smoking effect?

NEWTONS 3RD LAW OF MOTION WITH PING PONG BALLS


OBJECTIVE According to Newtons Third Law of Motion, when two objects collide with one another, both objects experience forces which are equal in magnitude but

opposite in direction. This is commonly referred to as the Law of ActionReaction. While these forces are equal, the acceleration that each object experiences is not if the two objects are of different masses. Consider the collision between a baseball players bat and a ball. When the bat collides with the ball, the force experienced by the ball is equal to the force experienced by the bat. Some would perceive the high speed given to the ball to be a result of a greater force, when in fact it is a result of an unequal acceleration. Remember that the bat is more massive than the ball and according to Newtons Second Law of Motion, the acceleration of an object is determined by the force exerted on the object as well as its mass. The objective of this experiment is to observe Newtons Law of ActionReaction using a ping pong ball and liquid nitrogen. MATERIALS Liquid Nitrogen (may be obtained from a chemical supply company) Non-porous Gloves Metal Bowl Ping Pong Balls (or another hollow plastic ball will work fine) Sharp Object (ie. nail or scissors) to make a hole in the ball Flat Surface (Table or Floor) Rubber Balloons PROCEDURE (1) Remember that liquid nitrogen is extremely cold and must be handled properly! (2) Wear non-porous gloves to protect your hands. (3) Make a hole in the ping pong ball with a nail or scissors. Teachers may want to do this for the students to avoid injury. (4) Hold the ping pong ball in liquid nitrogen over the metal bowl. Leave the ball in the nitrogen for about one minute. (5) Take the ball out of the liquid nitrogen and place in on a flat surface. (6) Record your observations. (7) Blow up a balloon. Hold it in your hand for a few seconds and then let it go. Record your observations. ANALYSIS QUESTIONS (1) Discuss Newtons Three Laws of Motion. Give three examples of each of these laws in our everyday lives. (2) What did you observe when you placed the ping pong ball on the flat

surface? Explain this observation in terms of Newtons 3rd Law. (3) Why was it necessary to poke a hole in the ball at the beginning of the experiment? (4) Will changing the time that the ball is in contact with the liquid nitrogen change the reaction time? You may want to test your hypothesis. (5) What did you observe when you let go of the blown up balloon? Explain this observation in terms of Newtons 3rd Law.

HIGH TECH ICE CREAM


OBJECTIVE Texture and taste are very important to the average ice cream fan. Most people that eat ice cream desire their ice cream tasty, smooth and creamy. In order for ice cream to possess all of these desired, yummy qualities, the ingredients need to have the right chemistry with each other. Achieving this is no easy task. Ice cream has a very complex physical structure that, even until today, is not fully understood by scientists. One thing that chemists do know is that the smooth and creamy texture of ice cream is greatly affected by the size, distribution, shape and number of ice crystals that form in the ice cream as it freezes. Smaller ice crystal formation in ice cream will give it a smoother texture. One way to obtain smaller ice crystals in the ice cream is to promote rapid crystallization during the cooling process. Liquid nitrogen added to ice cream ingredients (milk, half and half, sugar, and flavoring), because it is extremely cold, causes a quick drop in temperature and rapid crystallization of the mixture. The objective of this lab is a yummy one. You will use liquid nitrogen to freeze the ingredients of ice cream together in less than 20 minutes. So gather the ingredients, stir in some liquid nitrogen and ENJOY!! Oh and dont forget your favorite toppings!! MATERIALS Liquid Nitrogen (may be obtained from a chemical supply company) Stainless Steel Mixing Bowl Wooden Mixing Spoon

Non-porous Gloves Level counter or Sink Cups Plastic Spoons Ice Cream Recipe (recipe adapted from Cooking with Chemistry http://www.polsci.wvu.edu/Henry/Icecream/Icecream.html For approximately 1 Gallon of Ice Cream: 5 gallons of Liquid Nitrogen (for every 1 gallon of ice cream) 1 cup of sugar 1 1/2 quarts of milk 3 quarts of heavy cream 8 tablespoons of vanilla flavoring/toppings PROCEDURE (1) Remember that liquid nitrogen is extremely cold and must be handled properly! (2) Wear non-porous gloves to protect your hands. (3) Pour the milk and cream into the mixing bowl. (4) Stir the sugar into the mixture to dissolve it. (5) Put in vanilla (or other flavoring). (6) Stir in liquid nitrogen, with a wooden spoon, to freeze the mixture. Stop periodically to check for large ice crystals and clumping. The liquid nitrogen smokes so it will be difficult to see. (7) Serve and enjoy!! ANALYSIS QUESTIONS (1) Why is liquid nitrogen safe to eat? (2) What is a cryogenic substance? What precautions should be taken when handling one? (3) Why does liquid nitrogen smoke? What are some of the factors affecting the amount of smoke produced? (4) What are the benefits of using liquid nitrogen for making ice cream? (5) Why do ice cream manufacturers choose not to use liquid nitrogen?

(6) How is ice cream manufactured? What makes it smooth and creamy? (7) Why is ice cream salt used in the production of ice cream? Be sure to explain colligative properties in your answer. (8) Approximately how long does it take for the liquid nitrogen ice cream to melt? Is this melting time different from the melting time of manufactured ice cream? Explain the reason for this observation. (9) What are some of the practical/everyday applications of liquid nitrogen?

SUPERCONDUCTI VITY
OBJECTIVE A superconductor is a substance that conducts electricity, without resistance, when it is cooled below a specific temperature. This temperature is called the critical transition temperature, or Tc. When this happens, these materials become diamagnetic and are able to completely repel a magnetic field. If a magnet is then placed near the superconducting material, the material will repel the magnetic field and the magnet will begin to levitate. The objective of this experiment is to observe the levitation of a magnet by a superconducting material when it is cooled below its Tc with liquid nitrogen. MATERIALS Liquid Nitrogen (may be purchased from a chemical supply company) Superconducting Material (may be purchased as part of a demonstration kit from an educational supply company such as Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories) Non-porous Gloves Metal Bowl

Magnets of different sizes PROCEDURES (1) Remember that liquid nitrogen is extremely cold and must be handled properly! (2) Wear non-porous gloves to protect your hands. (3) If you have purchased a kit follow the instructions included. (4) Place the superconductive material in the liquid nitrogen. (5) Place a magnet on top of the material. Record your observations. (6) Repeat this with a magnet of different size. Record your observations. (7) Take the superconductive material out of the nitrogen and place it on the flat surface. Place the magnets on top of the material. Record your observations.

ANALYSIS QUESTIONS (1) What is superconductivity? Be sure to explain the Meissner effect and critical temperature in your response. (2) Are all materials superconductive? (3) What did you observe when the material was in liquid nitrogen and when it was not. Explain the reasons for these observations. (4) What did you observe when the size of the magnet changed? Explain the reasons for these observations. (5) Discuss some of the benefits of using superconductors in technology and medicine on the macro and micro scales.

S GRAY CAST IRON

Grey iron is an iron alloy which includes carbon and silicon in addition to the iron, in various concentrations, depending on the needs of the manufacturer producing the alloy. This substance is sometimes referred to as cast iron, although cast iron actually includes other iron alloys. Grey iron is very easy and cost effective to make, making it a highly popular iron alloy. Its properties make it highly suitable for a wide range of uses, and examples of this iron alloy can be seen in many locations around the world, including museums which maintain products of historic interest. This iron alloy has properties which can vary slightly, depending on how quickly it cools and the concentration of various elements in the alloy. The key feature of grey iron is that it includes flakes of graphite which develop during the cooling process. These graphite flakes give grey iron a distinctive gray color when it is fractured, and they are also involved in many of the physical properties of this iron alloy. Grey iron is not very malleable or strong. It fractures readily, which makes it unsuitable for applications in which high tensile strength is needed. Grey iron also conducts heat very well, which is one reason it is popular for cast iron pans, and it is electrically resistant. The structure of the iron also allows it to dissipate energy very effectively, making it suitable for applications in which people want to dampen mechanical vibrations.