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Rapid application development (RAD):"RAD" is a software development methodology that uses minimal planning in favor of rapid prototyping.

The "planning" of software developed using RAD is interleaved with writing the software itself. The lack of extensive pre-planning generally allows software to be written much faster, and makes it easier to change requirements. Rapid application development is a software development methodology that involves methods like iterative development and software prototyping. According to Whitten (2004), it is a merger of various structured techniques, especially data-driven Information Engineering, with prototyping techniques to accelerate software systems development. In rapid application development, structured techniques and prototyping are especially used to define users' requirements and to design the final system. The development process starts with the development of preliminary data models and business process models using structured techniques. In the next stage, requirements are verified using prototyping, eventually to refine the data and process models. These stages are repeated iteratively; further development results in "a combined business requirements ]and technical design statement to be used for constructing new systems". RAD approaches may entail compromises in functionality and performance in exchange for enabling faster development and facilitating application maintenance. *Four phases of RAD: 1- Requirements Planning phase combines elements of the system planning and systems analysis phases of the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Users, managers, and IT staff members discuss and agree on business needs, project scope, constraints, and system requirements. It ends when the team agrees on the key issues .and obtains management authorization to continue 2- User design phase during this phase, users interact with systems analysts and develop models and prototypes that represent all system processes, inputs, and outputs. The RAD groups or subgroups typically use a combination of Joint Application Development (JAD) techniques and CASE tools to translate user needs into working models. User Design is a continuous interactive process that allows users to understand, modify, and eventually approve a working model of the system that .meets their needs

3- Construction phase focuses on program and application development task similar to the SDLC. In RAD, however, users continue to participate and can still suggest changes or improvements as actual screens or reports are developed. Its tasks are programming and application development, coding, unit-integration and system .testing 4- Cutover phase resembles the final tasks in the SDLC implementation phase, including data conversion, testing, changeover to the new system, and user training. Compared with traditional methods, the entire process is compressed. As a result, the new system is built, delivered, and placed in operation much sooner. Its tasks are data conversion, full-scale testing, system changeover, user training. Another version of RAD phases:1-Business Modeling: The information flow among business functions is defined by answering questions like what information drives the business process, what information is generated, who generates it, where does the information go, who process it and so on. 2-Data Modeling: The information collected from business modeling is refined into a set of data objects (entities) that are needed to support the business. The attributes (character of each entity) are identified and the relation between these data objects (entities) is defined. 3-Process Modeling: The data objects defined in the data modeling phase are transformed to achieve the information flow necessary to implement a business function. Processing descriptions are created for adding, modifying, deleting or retrieving a data object. 4-Application Generation: Automated tools are used to facilitate construction of the software; even they use the 4th GL techniques. 5-Testing and Turn over: Many of the programming components have already been tested since RAD emphasises reuse. This reduces overall testing time. But new components must be tested and all interfaces must be fully exercised. RAD (rapid application development) is a concept that products can be developed faster and of higher quality through: _Gathering requirements using workshops or focus groups _Prototyping and early, reiterative user testing of designs

_The re-use of software components _A rigidly paced schedule that defers design improvements to the next product version _Less formality in reviews and other team communication

Name :Wassim Jamal Salem ID:120070570