You are on page 1of 6



"Analysis and reporting of the control tests conducted in connection with

commissioning for control system upgrade at Ringhals 2."

Submitted by
Jibran Baladi

Naeem Ullah Khan

Submitted to
Jorge Solis, Phd


Supervisor: ThomasJohansson.VattenfallAB
Supervisor: JonasOlandersson.VattenfallAB
Examiner: JorgeSolis.KarlstadUniversity

Karlstad University, 651 88 Karlstad

Phone: 054-7001000, Fax: 054-7001460
Master Thesis Proposal Naeem Ullah Khan
Jibran Baladi


Vattenfall is a leading European energy company, whose main products are electricity and
heat. Today, Vattenfall supplies energy to several million customers in Scandinavia and
northern Europe. Vattenfall operates its four nuclear reactors at Ringhals and other three at

Ringhals nuclear power plant has one boiling water reactor (R1) and three pressurized water
reactors (R2, R3 and R4). The three pressurized water reactors (R2, R3, R4) were
manufactured by Westinghouse Electric. Ringhals 2 has an installed electrical capacity of
865MW and went commercial in May 1975 [1]. Ringhals 2 nuclear power plant is a
pressurized water reactor (PWR) supplied by Westinghouse. A pressurized water reactor leads
the heated coolant to a heat exchanger (steam generator) where steam is produced for driving
the steam turbine and a generator which in turn generates electrical energy. During the period
May 2009 February 2010, Westinghouse Electric was responsible for major maintenance
efforts for an extensive modernization of control equipment, which included a new control
room equipped with digital technology was installed.


Due to aging factor of system instrumentation in different nuclear power plants, system
reliability and outcome is decreasing with increasing cost of maintenance, testing, component
replacement and spare parts [2]. In this regard the nuclear industry modernizes existing analog
I&C with new digital technology to reduce maintenance costs and efforts and to get more
efficient, reliable and intelligent control systems.

When Westinghouse Electric started the outage commissioning of Ringhals 2 Nuclear power
plant, major overhauling and maintenance efforts were put into for bringing the new digital
control system (DCS) and new instrumentation through site acceptance test (SAT) towards
power generation. SAT is test after equipment assembling and has to demonstrate that system
did not suffer any defects and it is assembled correctly during erection on site, and that all its
functions are available [3].

Fig. 1 Test strategy for digital control system.


Master Thesis Proposal Naeem Ullah Khan
Jibran Baladi

I&C (Instrumentation and control architecture) contains various elements like sensors,
equipment modules, transmitters etc [4]. It can read process variable, set point and valve
position and can sense all kind of other physical parameters. The modernization of the
complete I&C were carried out by Westinghouse. The calibration, testing, conditioning and
aligning of all pressure, flow and level transmitters was done in this modernization. Finally,
after the complete overhauling of Ringhals 2 nuclear power plant Westinghouse documented
all the test procedures in the form of reports for every control loop.

Local optimal control (LOC) approach is suitable for controlling multivariable and SISO
(Single Input and Single Output) systems. This digital PID controller tuning technique is
based on LOC and this can be used to tune digital PID controller parameters using model
parameters and single controller parameter [5]. LOC technique is compared with other
algorithm techniques for tuning digital PID controllers and it shows great effectiveness over
other genetic algorithm techniques in robust performance point of view.

The LOC designed model structure of the system gives very good results even if the real
system is of higher order. The digital PID controller block diagrams shown in fig 2, the
following relationship are obtained [6] where:

R(Z) is the closeu loop system input.
Y(Z) is the closeu loop system output.
E(Z) R(Z) - Y(Z).

Fig. 2 Block diagram for digital PID controller.

0(Z)is the plant input anu K
, K
, K
aie the PIB contiollei paiameteis.

= K
( - Z
+ K
( - Z
) ()

From (1) the following equation can be obtained

A() = () - ( - ) = (K
+ K
+ K
)e(i) - (K
+ K
)e(i - ) + K
e(i - ) ()

order system model u(Z) represented in (3) as:

(Z) =
+ o
Z + o

The following equation is obtained from (3) and represents the system model

() = o
( - ) - o
( - ) + b( - ) ()


Master Thesis Proposal Naeem Ullah Khan
Jibran Baladi

The modified LOC for the system model given in (4) is represented in the block diagram
shown in fig. 3 as:

Fig. 3 LOC designed for 2
order model of the plant.

The following input discrete time integer equation can be evaluated from fig.3 as:

() =


() + o
() + (o
- o
)( - ) - o
( - )_ ()

The digital PID controller parameters in term of LOC parameters are obtained from above
equations as:

, K
, K


Problem Definition

In Ringhals 2, Westinghouse electric conducted control tests on several control loops;
these tests were conducted on the basis of stability and performance of the PID controller
using step response test. If the criteria was not fulfilled of stability and performance then
PID controller parameters were retuned until the desired results. So now the concern issue
with Ringhals 2 is; are there any control loop problems and control risk currently on
Ringhals 2 and how is it possible to eliminate the biggest control problem in Ringhals 2?
Therefore, the problem definition of this thesis is to develop a comprehensive debriefing of
all control tests conducted by Westinghouse Electric after modernization and testing of
control system upgrade for DCS (Distributed Control System) type. Literature study of all
conducted tests with the evaluation of which one needs deeper analysis according to the
requirements as per directed by the company. Perform and document in-depth analysis of one
or more control loops with strong and observed suggestions. The final report will provide the
summarize results and assessments of previously conducted tests with the reasons why
chosen test is analyzed in detail [7]. This will be achieved by analyzing the measured data,
the design of existing facility, construction and implementation of the selected control loop(s).
Simulation (possibly in MATLAB/Simulink or any other software recommended by Ringhals2
Nuclear Power Plant) for the suggested model, which will show important problem
images/blocks like sensors, actuators, control, thermal hydraulics etc.


Master Thesis Proposal Naeem Ullah Khan
Jibran Baladi


Firstly; literature review, study and analysis of all the numerous control loops reports
will be carried out at Ringhals nuclear power plant, which was provided by
Westinghouse Electric to Ringhals after upgrading and testing all the control systems.
Simultaneously, these control loops results will be carried out for analysis and
inspection to check whether the performance and stability criteria of the control
loops are fulfilled.

With the observed results of all the control loops, precise selections for a number of
control loop(s) are to be made for modeling, tuning and testing. Model estimation and
controller design will be carried out using suitable method(s) described below or any
other method which will help in improving the performance of the control loops.

Several strategies are available that can be used to improve the model and estimate the
parameters like Recursive least square method, Kalman filter, Augmented extended
Kalman filter, etc. Depending on the control loop model either one of these or any other
strategy can be used in the future which will help in improving the performance of the

Similarly controller design can be based on different principles like Minimum variance
design, Linear quadratic control design, Model predictive control design [8] or any other
approach can be adopted which will suit our requirements in the future.

Modeling, testing and tuning will be carried out using Matlab/Simulink or any other
software recommended by Ringhals AB.

Final summary report with recommendations and suggestions of the selected control loops
will be provided to Ringhals AB.

Expected Results

After in-depth study of control loops reports and making precise selection of control loop(s),
will lead towards controller design and modeling. As discussed in the methodology,
controller design and modeling will be carried out by using any of the above method or any
other suitable strategy depending on the loop. Mainly, the objective is to provide Ringhals 2 a
controller design that will practically save energy, minimize maintenance cost, minimize
valve travel, reduce interference between loops, manage transient, etc. This performance
improvement can cause the process variable to be near to the set-point with less overshoot
and fewer oscillations in the step response test as compared to the reports of Westinghouse
Electric. Subsequent to analyzed modifications, system is to be modeled with suggested new
parameter values; for the future operation of Ringhals 2 nuclear power plant.

Expected conclusion

A comprehensive debriefing to be done for the previously conducted reports provided by
Westinghouse at Ringhals 2 nuclear power plant for each control loop. Moreover, after deeply
analyzing the Westinghouse reports, a recommendation to be forwarded to Ringhals 2 nuclear
power plant on the basis of obtained results and conclusions with strong reasoning. Numerous
number of necessary control loop(s) to be documented and tested with proper and technical
suggestions by observing and analyzing the measured data and models.


Master Thesis Proposal Naeem Ullah Khan
Jibran Baladi

Project Schedule

Thesis work has started from 14th of August 2012 and will take 20 weeks/5 months to
complete. Weekly schedule will be purposed soon after the number of reports selected for
further studies and on the number on control loop to be tested.



[2]. Ornellas, R.P.; Gross, R.S.; , "Strategies for instrumentation and control
upgrades," Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference,
1994., 1994 IEEE Conference Record , vol.3, no., pp.1047-1050 vol.3, 30 Oct-5
Nov 1994

[3]. Petruzela, I.; , "Testing of a Reactor Control System in Closed-Loop," Industrial
Electronics, 2007. ISIE 2007. IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no.,
pp.314-317, 4-7 June2007


[5]. Ashry, M.M; Kamalova, Z.Z; Brreikin, T.V; , Tuning of Digital PID Controller
Parameters using Local Optimal Control, Control and Automation, 2006 16th
Mediterranean Conference on, vol., no., 587-592, 25-27 June2008 URL:

[6]. K. Ogata, Discrete-time control systems, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, 1995.pp. 98-


[8]. Bjorn Sohlberg, Applied Model Based Control, 2008 Edition.