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# 4/14/2009

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## The Lossless Divider

Consider the lossless power divider:

P2

P1
Port 1

## Z02 Z01 Z03

P3

Port 2

Port 3

To be ideal, we want S11 = 0 . Thus, when ports 2 and port 3 are terminated in matched loads, the input impedance at port 1 must be equal to Z01. This will only be true if the values Z02 and Z03 are selected such that:

Z 01

1 Z Z 1 = + = 02 03 Z 02 + Z 03 Z 02 Z 03

P1 +
Port 1

Z02 Z03

Z01

Note however that this circuit is not symmetric, thus we find that S22 0 and S33 0 !

Jim Stiles

Dept. of EECS

4/14/2009

## The Lossless Divider.doc

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It is evident that this divider is lossless (no resistive components), so that: P1 + = P2 + P3 where P1 + is the power incident (and absorbed if S11 = 0 ) on port 1, and P2 and P3 is the power absorbed by the matched loads of ports 2 and 3. Unless Z 02 = Z 03 , the power will not be divide equally between

P2 and P3 . With a little microwave circuit analysis, it can be shown that the division ratio is :
P2 Z 03 = = P3 Z 02
Thus, if we desire an ideal ( S11 = 0 ) divider with a specific division ratio , we will find that:

Z 02 = Z 01 1 + 1
and:

Z 03 = Z 01 (1 + )

want the characteristic impedance of all three ports to be equal to the same value (e.g., Z 01 = Z 02 = Z 03 = Z 0 )?

Jim Stiles

Dept. of EECS

4/14/2009

## The Lossless Divider.doc

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A: True ! A more practical way to implement this divider is to use a matching network, such as a quarter wave P2 transformer, on ports 2 and 3: Port 2

P1 +

4
Z 0Z 02

Z0

Z0
Z 0Z 03

Port 3

But beware! Recall that this matching network will work perfectly at only one frequency.

Port 1

Z0
P3

This lossless divider has a scattering matrix (at the design frequency) of this form:
0 S = j 2 j 2
j 2 j

S22 S32

S23 S33
2

where the (non-zero!) values of S22 , S23 , S32 , and S33 depend on the division ratio . Note that if we desire a 3 dB divider (i.e., = 1 ), then:

Z 02 = Z 03 = 2 Z 01

Jim Stiles

Dept. of EECS

4/14/2009

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Port 2

P2 Z0

P1 +

4
Z0 2

Z0
Z0 2

Port 3

Port 1

Z0
P3

0 S = j 2 j 2

j 1 2

j 1 1

2 2

b2
1 2

a1

2 1

b3
2 1 2

a2

b1

a3

Jim Stiles

Dept. of EECS