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Computer Fundamentals & IT Concepts What is a Computer?

The term Computer is derived from the word compute, which means to calculate. A computer is anelectronic machine, devised for performing calculations and controlling operations that can express either in logical or numerical terms. In simple words, a computer is an electronic device that performs diverseoperations with the help of instructions to process the information in order to achieve desired results. Characteristics of a Computer 1. Speed: Computers work at very high speed and are much faster than humans. A second is very largetime period time for computer. A computer can perform billions of calculations in a second. The timeused by a computer to perform an operation is called the processing speed. Computer speed is measuredin Mega Hertz (MHz). 2. Storage: A computer can store a large amount of data permanently. User can use this data at any time.We can store any type of data in a computer. Text, graphic, pictures, audio and video files can be storedeasily. The storage capacity of the computer is increasing rapidly. 3. Accuracy In addition to being very fast, computer is also very accurate device. it gives accurate output result provided that the correct input data and set of instructions are given to the computer. It means that outputis totally depended on the given instructions and input data. If input data is in-correct then the resultingoutput will be in-correct. In computer terminology it is known as garbage-in garbage-out. 4. Reliability The electronic components in modern computer have very low failure rate. The modern computer can perform very complicated calculations without creating any problem and produces consistent (reliable)results. In general, computers are very reliable. Many personal computers have never needed a servicecall. Communications are also very reliable and generally available whenever needed. Diligence A computer can continually work for hours without creating any error. It does not get tired while workingafter hours of work it performs the operations with the same accuracy as well as speed as the first one. Versatility Versatile means flexible. Modern computer can perform different kind of tasks one by one of simultaneously. It is the most important feature of computer. At one moment you are playing game oncomputer, the next moment you are composing and sending emails etc. In colleges and universitiescomputers are use to deliver lectures to the students. The talent of computer is dependent on the software.

Computer Generation First Generation - 1940-1956: Vacuum Tubes The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. A magneticdrum, also referred to as drum, is a metal cylinder coated with magnetic ironoxide material on which data and programs can be stored. Magnetic drumswere once used as a primary storage device but have since been implementedas auxiliary storage devices. PIC VACUUM TUBES Second Generation - 1956-1963: Transistors Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the secondgeneration computer. Transistor is a device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or closes acircuit. Invented in 1947 at Bell Labs, transistors have become thekey ingredient of all digital circuits, including computers. Today's latest microprocessorcontains tens of millions of microscopictransistors. PIC TRANSTIR Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machinelanguage to symbolic, or assembly, languages,which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, suchas early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also thefirst computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum tomagnetic core technology. Third Generation - 1964-1971: Integrated Circuits The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of thethird generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drasticallyincreased the speed and efficiency of computers.A chip is a small piece of semi conducting material(usually silicon)on which an integrated circuit is embedded. A typical chip is lessthan -square inches and can contain millions of electroniccomponents(transistors). Computers consist of many chips placedon electronic boards called printed circuit boards. There aredifferent types of chips. For example, CPU chips (also calledmicroprocessors) contain an entire processing unit, whereasmemory chips contain blank memory. Pic of circuits

Fourth Generation - 1971-Present: Microprocessors Pic micro prossers The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits werebuilt onto a single silicon chip. A silicon chip that contains aCPU. In the world of personal computers, the termsmicroprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. At the heartof all personal computers and most workstations sits amicroprocessor. Microprocessors also control the logic of almostall digital devices, from clock radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles. Fifth Generation - Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence Pic of fifth gen. Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence,are still in development, though there are some applications, such asvoice recognition, that are being used today.Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concernedwith making computers behave like humans. The term was coinedin 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Computer Classification Computers are available in different shapes, sizes and weights, due to these different shapes and sizesthey perform different sorts of jobs from one another. Super computer The biggest in size, the most expensive in price than any other is classified and known as super computer.It can process trillions of instructions in seconds. This computer is not used as a PC in a home neither bya student in a college.Governments specially use this type of computer for their different calculations and heavy jobs. Differentindustries also use this huge computer for designing their products.In most of the Hollywood's movies it is used for animation purposes. This kind of computer is alsohelpful for forecasting weather reports worldwide. Mainframes Another giant in computers after the super computer is Mainframe, which can also process millions of instruction per second and capable of accessing billions of data

This computer is commonly used in big hospitals, air line reservations companies, and many other hugecompanies prefer mainframe because of its capability of retrieving data on a huge basis.This is normally too expensive and out of reach from a salary-based person who wants a computer for hishome.This kind of computer can cost up to thousands of dollars. Minicomputer This computer is next in he line but less offers less than mainframe in work and performance. These arethe computers, which are mostly preferred by the small type of business personals, colleges, etc. Personal computers Almost all the computer users are familiar with the personal computers. They normally know what the personal computer is and what its functions are.This is the computer mostly preferred by the home users. These computers are lesser in cost than thecomputers given above and also, small in size; they are also called PCs in short for Personal computers.This computer is small in size and you can easily arrange it to fit in your single bedroom with its allaccommodation. Today this is thought to be the most popular computer in all. Notebook computers Having a small size and low weight the notebook is easy to carry to anywhere. A student can take it withhim/her to his/her school in his/her bag with his/her book.This is easy to carry around and preferred by students and business people to meet their assignments andother necessary tasks.The approach of this computer is also the same as the Personal computer. It can store the same amount of data and having a memory of the same size as that of a personal computer. One can say that it is thereplacement of personal desktop computer. Components of a Computer System There are several computer systems in the market with a wide variety of makes, models, and peripherals.In general a computer system comprises following four components Input Unit: this unit accepts instructions and dataCPU (Central Processing Unit): this unit performs processing of instructions and data inside thecomputer. Storage Unit: this unit stores temporary and final results. Output Unit: this unit communicates the results to the user.

Central processing Unit(CPU): The central processing unit(CPU) is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions. The central processing unit carries out each instruction of the program in sequence, to perform the basic arithmetical,logical, and input/output operations of the systemThe CPU itself has three parts 1. ALU (Arithmetic & Logic Unit)Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations.The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, andeven the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers 2.Control Unit This unit checks the correctness of sequence of operations. It fetches the program instructionfrom the primary storage unit, interprets them, and ensures correct execution of the program. Italso controls the input/output devices and directs the overall functioning of the other units of thecomputer. 3. Memory Unit This unit holds the intermediate results during the course of calculations and provides the data asand when required. The internal storage is also called primary memory or main memory. Thismemory takes the data from an input device and stores it until the computer is ready to process it.It also stores processed data and intermediate results. When the processing is finished, it transfersthe results to an output device. Computer Architecture Pic of alu

Data representation DataThe term data refers to groups of information that represent the qualitative or quantitative attributes of avariable or set of variables. Data (plural of "datum") are typically the results of measurements and can bethe basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest levelof abstraction from which information and knowledge are derived. Raw data refers to a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that collect information to convert physicalquantities into symbols that are unprocessed. Number System: Base or Radix: The total number of digits available in a number system. Decimal Number System: There are 10 digits i.e 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 available in decimal number system. It is known as Base 10system. The value of a digit in a number depends upon its position in the number E.g. The number 546 in this system is represented as (546)10 546 = (5*102) + (4*101) + (6*100) Binary Number System The Binary Number System contains 2 unique digits 0 and 1. it is known as Base 2 system. Thebinary numeral system, or base-2 number system, represents numeric values using two symbols, 0and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Owing to itsstraightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is usedinternally by all modern computers. TABLE OF BINARY

BIT A bit or binary digit is the basic unit of information in computing and telecommunications; it is theamount of information that can be stored by a digital device or other physical system that can usuallyexist in only two distinct states. These may be the two stable positions of an electrical switch, two distinctvoltage or current levels allowed by a circuit, two distinct levels of light intensity, two directions of magnetization or polarization, etc.In computing, a bit can also be defined as a variable or computed quantity that can have only two possiblevalues. These two values are often interpreted as binary digits and are usually denoted by the Arabicnumerical digits 0 and 1. Indeed, the term "bit" is a contraction of binary d igit BYTE The byte coined from" bite" , but respelled to avoid accidental mutation to" bit " , is a unit of digitalinformation in computing and telecommunications. It is an ordered collection of bits, in which each bitdenotes the binary value of 1 or 0. Historically, a byte was the number of bits (typically 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 16) used to encode a single character of text in a computer and it is for this reason the basic addressableelement in many computer architectures. The size of a byte is typically hardware dependent, but themodern de factostandard is eight bits, as this is a convenient power of two. BITE TABLE

Software Computer software, or just software, is the collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions telling a computer what to do. We can also say software refers to one or morecomputer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to thecomputer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software. The term was coined to contrast tothe old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software is intangible,meaning it "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaningapplication software only. Sometimes the term includes data that has not traditionally been associatedwith computers, such as film, tapes, and records. Classification of Software 1.System software 2.Application software

System software System software provides the basic function for computer usage, which can be divided into operatingsystem and support system. Operating is the most basic software. System helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes a combination of the following: Device drivers Operating systems Servers Utilities Window systemsSystem software is responsible for managing variety of independent hardwares, so that they can work together harmoniously. For the software, computer and other softwares regard the computer as a wholeand need not give concern on how every hardware works. The purpose of systems software is to unburdenthe applications programmer from the often complex details of the particular computer being used,including such accessories as communications devices, printers, device readers, displays and keyboards,and also to partition the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stablemanner. Examples are - Microsoft Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. Application software System software does not aim at a certain application fields. In contrast, different application softwareoffers different function based on users and the area it served. Application is developed for some certain purpose, which either can be a certain program or a collection of some programmes such as a graphic browser or the data base management system. Application software allows end users to accomplish one or more specific (not directly computer development related) tasks. Typical applications include: Industrial automation Business software Video games Quantum chemistry and solid state physics software Telecommunications (i.e., the Internet and everything that flows on it) Databases Educational software Medical software Molecular modeling software Image editing Spreadsheet Simulation software Word processing Decision making software Application software exists for and has impacted a wide variety of topics.

Hardware Hardware is a general term for the physical artifacts of a technology. It may also mean the physicalcomponents of a computer system, in the form of computer hardware. Hardware historically meant the metal parts and fittings that were used to make wooden productsstronger, more functional, longer lasting and easier to fabricate or assemble. Modern hardware stores typically sell equipment such as keys, locks, hinges, latches, corners, handles,wire, chains, plumbing supplies, tools, utensils, cutlery and machine parts, especially when they are made of metal. Computer programming (Often shortened to programming or coding) is the process of designing, writing, testing, debugging /troubleshooting, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. This source code is written in a programming language. The code may be a modification of an existing source or something completelynew. The purpose of programming is to create a program that exhibits a certain desired behavior (customization). The process of writing source code often requires expertise in many different subjects,including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms and formal logic. Quality requirements Whatever the approach to software development may be, the final program must satisfy somefundamental properties. The following properties are among the most relevant: Efficiency/performance: the amount of system resources a program consumes (processor time,memory space, slow devices such as disks, network bandwidth and to some extent even user interaction): the less, the better. This also includes correct disposal of some resources, such ascleaning up temporary files and lack of memory leaks. Reliability: how often the results of a program are correct. This depends on conceptualcorrectness of algorithms, and minimization of programming mistakes, such as mistakes inresource management (e.g., buffer overflows and race conditions) and logic errors (such asdivision by zero or off-by-one errors). Robustness: how well a program anticipates problems not due to programmer error. Thisincludes situations such as incorrect, inappropriate or corrupt data, unavailability of neededresources such as memory, operating system services and network connections, and user error. Usability: the ergonomics of a program: the ease with which a person can use the program for itsintended purpose or in some cases even unanticipated purposes. Such issues can make or break itssuccess even regardless of other issues. This involves a wide range of textual, graphical andsometimes hardware elements that improve the clarity, intuitiveness, cohesiveness andcompleteness of a program's user interface. Portability: the range of computer hardware and operating system platforms on which the sourcecode of a program can be compiled/interpreted and run. This depends on differences in the programming facilities provided by the different platforms, including hardware and operatingsystem resources, expected behaviour of the hardware and operating system, and availability of platform specific compilers (and sometimes libraries) for the language of the source code

Maintainability: the ease with which a program can be modified by its present or futuredevelopers in order to make improvements or customizations, fix bugs and security holes, or adapt it to new environments. Good practices during initial development make the difference inthis regard. This quality may not be directly apparent to the end user but it can significantly affectthe fate of a program over the long term. Computer programming language is an artificial language designed to express computationsthat can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can beused to create programs that control the behavior of a machine, to express algorithms precisely, or as a mode of human communication. Many programming languages have some form of written specification of their syntax (form) andsemantics (meaning). Some languages are defined by a specification document. For example, theC programming language is specified by an ISO Standard. Other languages, such as Perl, have adominant implementation that is used as a reference. The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer, and were used todirect the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos. Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, with many more beingcreated every year. Most programming languages describe computation in an imperative style,i.e., as a sequence of commands, although some languages, such as those that support functional programming or logic programming, use alternative forms of description. A programming languageis a notation for writing programs, which are specifications of acomputation or algorithm.[1] Some, but not all, authors restrict the term "programming language" to thoselanguages that can express all possible algorithms. Traits often considered important for what constitutesa programming language include:

Funct ion and target:Acomputer programming language is a language used to write computer programs, which involve a computer performing some kind of computation[4] or algorithm and possibly control external devices such as printers, disk drives, robots,[5] and so on. For examplePostScript programs are frequently created by another program to control a computer printer or display. More generally, a programming language may describe computation on some, possiblyabstract, machine. It is generally accepted that a complete specification for a programminglanguage includes a description, possibly idealized, of a machine or processor for that language.In most practical contexts, a programming language involves a computer; consequently programming languages are usually defined and studied this way. Programming languages differ from natural languages in that natural languages are only used for interaction between people,while programming languages also allow humans to communicate instructions to machines. Abstractions:Programming languages usually contain abstractions for defining and manipulatingdata structures or controlling the flow of execution. The practical necessity that a programminglanguage support adequate abstractions is expressed by the abstraction principle; this principle issometimes formulated as recommendation to the programmer to make proper use of suchabstractions. Expressive power: The theory of computation classifies languages by the computations they arecapable of expressing. All Turing complete languages can implement the same set of algorithms.ANSI/ISO SQL and Charity are examples of languages that are not Turing complete, yet oftencalled programming languages.

Markup languages like XML, HTML or troff, which define structured data, are not generally considered programming languages. Programming languages may, however, share the syntax with markup languagesif a computational semantics is defined. XSLT, for example, is a Turing complete XML dialect.Moreover, LaTeX, which is mostly used for structuring documents, also contains a Turing complete subset. The term computer language is sometimes used interchangeably with programming language. However,the usage of both terms varies among authors, including the exact scope of each. One usage describes programming languages as a subset of computer languages. In this vein, languages used in computing thathave a different goal than expressing computer programs are generically designated computer languages.For instance, markup languages are sometimes referred to as computer languages to emphasize that theyare not meant to be used for programming. Another usage regards programming languages as theoreticalconstructs for programming abstract machines, and computer languages as the subset thereof that runs on physical computers, which have finite hardware resources. John C. Reynolds emphasizes that formalspecification languages are just as much programming languages as are the languages intended for execution. He also argues that textual and even graphical input formats that affect the behavior of acomputer are programming languages, despite the fact they are commonly not Turing-complete, andremarks that ignorance of programming language concepts is the reason for many flaws in input formats. Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), Software Development Life Cycle in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering,is the process of creating or altering systems, and the models and methodologies that people use todevelop these systems. The concept generally refers to computer or information systems. In software engineering the SDLC concept underpins many kinds of software developmentmethodologies. These methodologies form the framework for planning and controlling the creation of aninformation system: the software development process. Systems and Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process used by a systems analyst to develop aninformation system, including requirements, validation, training, and user (stakeholder) ownership. AnySDLC should result in a high quality system that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reachescompletion within time and cost estimates, works effectively and efficiently in the current and plannedInformation Technology infrastructure, and is inexpensive to maintain and cost-effective to enhance. Computer systems are complex and often (especially with the recent rise of Service-OrientedArchitecture) link multiple traditional systems potentially supplied by different software vendors. Tomanage this level of complexity, a number of SDLC models have been created: "waterfall"; "fountain";"spiral"; "build and fix"; "rapid prototyping"; "incremental"; and "synchronize and stabilize". SDLC models can be described along a spectrum of agile to iterative to sequential. Agile methodologies,such as XP and Scrum, focus on light-weight processes which allow for rapid changes along thedevelopment cycle. Iterative methodologies, such as Rational Unified Process and Dynamic SystemsDevelopment Method, focus on limited project scopes and expanding or improving products by multipleiterations. Sequential or big-designupfront (BDUF) models, such as Waterfall, focus on complete andcorrect planning to guide large projects and risks to successful and predictable results. Other models, suchas Anamorphic Development, tend to focus on a form of development that is guided by project scope andadaptive iterations of feature development.

In project management a project can be defined both with a project life cycle (PLC) and an SDLC, duringwhich slightly different activities occur. According to Taylor (2004) "the project life cycle encompassesall the activities of the project, while the systems development life cycle focuses on realizing the productrequirements".[3] Systems development phases The System Development Life Cycle framework provides system designers and developers to follow asequence of activities. It consists of a set of steps or phases in which each phase of the SDLC uses theresults of the previous one. A Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) adheres to important phases that are essential for developers,such as planning, analysis, design, and implementation, and are explained in the section below. A number of system development life cycle (SDLC) models have been created: waterfall, fountain, and spiral buildand fix, rapid prototyping, incremental, and synchronize and stabilize. The oldest of these, and the bestknown, is the waterfall model: a sequence of stages in which the output of each stage becomes the inputfor the next. These stages can be characterized and divided up in different ways, including the following Project planning, feasibility study: Establishes a high-level view of the intended project anddetermines its goals. Systems analysis, requirements definition: Refines project goals into defined functions andoperation of the intended application. Analyzes end-user information needs. Systems design: Describes desired features and operations in detail, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code and other documentation. Implementation: The real code is written here. Integration and testing: Brings all the pieces together into a special testing environment, thenchecks for errors, bugs and interoperability. Acceptance, installation, deployment: The final stage of initial development, where thesoftware is put into production and runs actual business. Maintenance: What happens during the rest of the software's life: changes, correction, additions,and moves to a different computing platform and more. This, the least glamorous and perhapsmost important step of all, goes on seemingly forever. In the following example (see picture) these stage of the Systems Development Life Cycle are divided inten steps from definition to creation and modification of IT work products: System analysis The goal of system analysis is to determine where the problem is in an attempt to fix the system. This stepinvolves breaking down the system in different pieces to analyze the situation, analyzing project goals, breaking down what needs to be created and attempting to engage users so that definite requirements can be defined. Requirements analysis sometimes requires individuals/teams from client as well as service provider sides to get detailed and accurate requirements....often there has to be a lot of communication toand from to understand these requirements. Requirement gathering is the most crucial aspect as many times communication gaps arise in this phase and this leads to validation errors and bugs in the software program.

Design In systems design the design functions and operations are described in detail, including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams and other documentation. The output of this stage will describe the newsystem as a collection of modules or subsystems. The design stage takes as its initial input the requirements identified in the approved requirementsdocument. For each requirement, a set of one or more design elements will be produced as a result of interviews, workshops, and/or prototype efforts. Design elements describe the desired software features in detail, and generally include functionalhierarchy diagrams, screen layout diagrams, tables of business rules, business process diagrams, pseudocode, and a complete entity-relationship diagram with a full data dictionary. These design elements areintended to describe the software in sufficient detail that skilled programmers may develop the softwarewith minimal additional input design. Implementation Modular and subsystem programming code will be accomplished during this stage. Unit testing andmodule testing are done in this stage by the developers. This stage is intermingled with the next in thatindividual modules will need testing before integration to the main project. Testing The code is tested at various levels in software testing. Unit, system and user acceptance testings are often performed. This is a grey area as many different opinions exist as to what the stages of testing are andhow much if any iteration occurs. Iteration is not generally part of the waterfall model, but usually someoccur at this stage.Following are the types of testing: Data set testing. Unit testing System testing Integration testing Black box testing White box testing Regression testing Automation testing User acceptance testing Performance testing Production process that ensures that the program performs the intended task. Operations and maintenance

The deployment of the system includes changes and enhancements before the decommissioning or sunsetof the system. Maintaining the system is an important aspect of SDLC. As key personnel change positionsin the organization, new changes will be implemented, which will require system updates. Office AutomationOffice automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect,store, manipulate, and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic tasks and goals. Raw datastorage, electronic transfer, and the management of electronic business information comprise the basicactivities of an office automation system.[1] Office automation helps in optimizing or automating existingoffice procedures.The backbone of office automation is a LAN, which allows users to transmit data, mail and even voiceacross the network. All office functions, including dictation, typing, filing, copying, fax, Telex, microfilmand records management, telephone and telephone switchboard operations, fall into this category. Officeautomation was a popular term in the 1970s and 1980s as the desktop computer exploded onto the scene. Networking Computer networking or Data communications (Datacom) is the engineering discipline concernedwith the communication between computer systems or devices. A computer network is any set of computers or devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data.[1] Computer networking issometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer science, information technologyand/or computer engineering since it relies heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of thesescientific and engineering disciplines. The three types of networks are: the Internet, the intranet, and theextranet. Examples of different network methods are: Local area network (LAN), which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographicarea. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. Metropolitan area network (MAN), which is used for medium size area. Examples for a city or astate. Wide area network (WAN) that is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN andWAN. All networks are interconnected to allow communication with a variety of different kinds of media,including twisted-pair copper wire cable, coaxial cable, optical fiber, power lines and various wirelesstechnologies. The devices can be separated by a few meters (e.g. via Bluetooth) or nearly unlimiteddistances (e.g. via the interconnections of the Internet). Networking, routers, routing protocols, andnetworking over the public Internet have their specifications defined in documents called RFCs. Local area network (LAN) A local area network is a network that spans a relatively small space and provides services to a smallnumber of people. A peer-to-peer or client-server method of networking may be used. A peer-to-peer network is where eachclient shares their resources with other workstations in the network. Examples of peer-to-peer networks

are: Small office networks where resource use is minimal and a home network. A client-server network iswhere every client is connected to the server and each other. Client-server networks use servers indifferent capacities. These can be classified into two types: 1. Single-service servers 2. Print servers The server performs one task such as file server, while other servers can not only perform in the capacityof file servers and print servers, but also can conduct calculations and use them to provide information toclients (Web/Intranet Server). Computers may be connected in many different ways, including Ethernetcables, Wireless networks, or other types of wires such as power lines or phone lines. The ITU-T G.hn standard is an example of a technology that provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) localarea networking over existing home wiring (power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables). Wide area network (WAN) A wide area network is a network where a wide variety of resources are deployed across a large domesticarea or internationally. An example of this is a multinational business that uses a WAN to interconnecttheir offices in different countries. The largest and best example of a WAN is the Internet, which is anetwork composed of many smaller networks. The Internet is considered the largest network in theworld.[6]. The PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) also is an extremely large network that isconverging to use Internet technologies, although not necessarily through the public Internet. A Wide Area Network involves communication through the use of a wide range of different technologies.These technologies include Point-to-Point WANs such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and High-LevelData Link Control (HDLC), Frame Relay, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and Sonet (SynchronousOptical Network). The difference between the WAN technologies is based on the switching capabilitiesthey perform and the speed at which sending and receiving bits of information (data) occur. Wireless networks (WLAN, WWAN) A wireless network is basically the same as a LAN or a WAN but there are no wires between hosts andservers. The data is transferred over sets of radio transceivers. These types of networks are beneficialwhen it is too costly or inconvenient to run the necessary cables. For more information, see Wireless LANand Wireless wide area network. The media access protocols for LANs come from the IEEE. The most common IEEE 802.11 WLANs cover, depending on antennas, ranges from hundreds of metersto a few kilometers. For larger areas, either communications satellites of various types, cellular radio, or wireless local loop (IEEE 802.16) all have advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the type of mobility needed, the relevant standards may come from the IETF or the ITU. Network topology The network topology defines the way in which computers, printers, and other devices are connected, physically and logically. A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions.

Network topology has two types: Physical Logical Commonly used topologies include: Bus Star Tree (hierarchical) Linear Ring Mesh o partially connected o fully connected (sometimes known as fully redundant ) The network topologies mentioned above are only a general representation of the kinds of topologies usedin computer network and are considered basic topologies Internet The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard InternetProtocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networksthat consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, thatare linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vastrange of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the WorldWide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are beingreshaped or redefined by the Internet. Newspaper, book and other print publishing are having to adapt toWeb sites and blogging. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions throughinstant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internetaffect supply chains across entire industries. The origins of the Internet reach back to the 1960s with both private and United States military researchinto robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer networks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led toworldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of manynetworks. The commercialization of what was by then an international network in the mid 1990s resultedin its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2009, anestimated quarter of Earth's population used the services of the Internet. The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for accessand usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System,are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is anactivity of the Internet Engineering

Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliatedinternational participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. Features of Internet 1.Email 2.Search Engine 3.WWW (Word Wide Web) 4.Chat 5.Video Conference 6.E Commerce Intranet An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or network operating system within that organization. The term isused in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within anorganization. Sometimes the term refers only to the organization's internal website, but may be a moreextensive part of the organization's information technology infrastructure. It may host multiple privatewebsites and constitute an important component and focal point of internal communication and collaboration. An intranet is built from the same concepts and technologies used for the Internet, such as clientserver computing and the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). Any of the well known Internet protocols may befound in an intranet, such as HTTP (web services), SMTP (e-mail), and FTP (file transfer). Internettechnologies are often deployed to provide modern interfaces to legacy information systems hostingcorporate data. An intranet can be understood as a private analog of the Internet, or as a private extension of the Internetconfined to an organization. The first intranet websites and home pages began to appear in organizationsin 1990-1991. Although not officially noted, the term intranet first became common-place among earlyadopters, such as universities and technology corporations, in 1992. Intranets are also contrasted with extranets. While intranets are generally restricted to employees of theorganization, extranets may also be accessed by customers, suppliers, or other approved parties.[1] Extranets extend a private network onto the Internet with special provisions for access, authorization, andauthentication (AAA protocol). Intranets may provide a gateway to the Internet by means of a network gateway with a firewall, shieldingthe intranet from unauthorized external access. The gateway often also implements user authentication,encryption of messages, and often virtual private network (VPN) connectivity for off-site employees toaccess company information, computing resources and internal communications.